How to earn money through Website advertising

how to make money advertising on a website and how much money advertising website
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Published Date:03-08-2017
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Making Money by Hosting Advertising If you think about how you live your life, there’s a spectrum of activity levels from sleeping to moving briskly and perhaps even running. Advertising on the Web is struc- tured with a similar activity-level spectrum, although the activities themselves may not be very aerobic. At the briskest, a visitor to your site must click on a merchant’s link. You only get paid when the visitor actually buys something from the merchant. This is affiliate advertis- ing, explained in Chapter 5. CPC—cost per click—advertising is one of the most common ways to make money by accepting ads on your site. With CPC, an advertiser pays a fee when someone clicks its link on your site, and you get a portion of that fee. CPC ads are mostly (although they don’t have to be) text-only. While CPC is most commonly associated with advertising using programs such as AdWords, the concept of CPC is fundamental to both search- based AdWords and content hosted via programs such as Google AdSense. The idea of making ads contextual—that is, relevant to the content of the web page near the ad—is closely bound with CPC advertising. CPC ads that are contextual are much more effective, and generate more revenue for a site owner, than ads that are not contextual. But it is worth bearing in mind that you can have CPC ads that are not contextual, and conversely, contextual ads that pay on some other basis than CPC. Like affiliate advertising, something has to happen with CPC, but not as much—the visitor doesn’t need to actually consummate a purchase, just click on the advertiser’s link. Display ads—also called CPM, for reasons explained later in this chapter—are the passive, television-viewing form of web advertising activity. A visitor to your site doesn’t have to do a thing (except possibly to surf past the display ad on your site with minor irritation). No activity on the part of your site visitor is required, and all you need to do is to serve the ads. This chapter explains how you can profit from CPC and CPM ads, with the emphasis on CPC (as it is generally on the Web). 155Understanding Cost Per Click (CPC) When you first start working with a CPC program as a website publisher, you will encounter some terms that may not be familiar to you. These concepts are actually pretty straightforward, so it makes sense to start a discussion of CPC by looking at the definitions of the most important terms you may not know or may mean something that is slightly different than in normal usage. The point here is to not get thrown by language and terminology. If you were about to begin working with a complicated technology, you would expect to have to learn un- familiar concepts and words. Whether you are implementing a for-profit advertising system yourself, or are working with outside experts, knowing the language is a big step toward success. Google is the 10,000-pound gorilla when it comes to CPC, both for advertising and hosting advertising. Since Google’s CPC ad-hosting program, AdSense, is the primary subject of Part II of this book, in this chapter Google is just treated as “one of the gang,” even though it is hard to avoid the long shadow Google casts. The idea is to show you the general concepts of CPC and give you a sense of the range of the industry. Here are some of the most commonly used terms in the CPC industry: Ad unit A group of ads, often from one to six text-only contextual ads, but sometimes only presenting links to the actual ads. Typically, ad units are served off the site of the advertising agency (for example, Google). This is most often accomplished using a script. You get the code on the agency website, as shown in Figure 6-1. While you can choose a variety of options related to the appearance of the ad unit, typi- cally the choice of ads served is up to the agency. Click A click occurs when a site visitor to your web page clicks on a link in an ad that was served by an ad unit on your site. Not all clicks generate revenue (for example, most clicks on public service ads don’t pay you anything). The click is the basis for all CPC ad programs and an extremely important metric. Click fraud A click made without actual interest in the product or services offered. For example, clicks by a site publisher on the ads on a site or on the ads of a competitor (to jack up advertising costs for the competitor). Click fraud, and click fraud detection, is extremely serious in CPC programs be- cause money is at stake, and direct click fraud detection is virtually impossible. Click fraud detection programs employ primarily statistical methodology. This 156 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting Advertising implies that you need to monitor your clicks and click-through rates for aberra- tional rates and suspicious patterns. Figure 6-1. Once an ad unit is placed on your site, ads are chosen by the ad agency Cost per click (CPC) Online advertising where there’s a cost only when a visitor clicks on the ad; syno- nym for pay per click (PPC). Cost per mille (CPM) Cost per mille (CPM), meaning cost per thousand impressions, is the industry metric used to contract and pay for display ads that are served to visitors. For more on CPM, see “Display and Banner Ads” on page 176. Click-through rate (CTR) The number of clicks an ad unit receives divided by the number of times it is shown, expressed as a percentage. Consider that a direct “snail mail” campaign is considered a huge success with a response rate of .01 percent or .02 percent. The CTR for properly crafted CPC ads should be considerably higher. If your CTR is less than 0.25 percent, you should see if you can troubleshoot the problem, which may have to do with ad placement on your pages, design of the ads and of your pages, your traffic (its interests and where it is coming from), keyword targeting for the ads on your page, and the content of the ads themselves. Effective cost per thousand impressions (eCPM) eCPM is a way to compare revenue from different kinds of advertising. eCPM is calculated by dividing the total earnings from an ad by its impressions in thousands. In other words, a nominal or theoretic cost is calculated on a CPC ad as if it were a CPM ad. You can use this calculation to compare CPC revenue with CPM revenue to see which is a better deal, given your site content and traffic. Understanding Cost Per Click (CPC) 157Impression Short for ad impression; the number of times an ad is displayed. This is advertising industry terminology left over from the days when magazines and newspapers were what advertising was all about, and an impression was a literal impression of ink on a page. Page CTR The click-through rate (CTR) averaged for all the ads served on an individual web page. Page eCPM The eCPM for an individual web page. In other words, take a page with a number of CPC ads, add them, divide by the number of ads, and calculate the nominal revenue if it has been expressed in CPM terms. Page impressions The number of times a single web page is displayed. Pay per click (PPC) Pay per click is another term for CPC. Public service ad (PSA) Public service ads are often served before relevant content has been specifically targeted on a site (the site owner can decide to show the PSA ads in their unit rather than have a blank area of their page or site). Contextual Relevance The holy grail of advertising is to have a prospect interested in your product, and have an ad targeted to that prospect just at the moment he is researching the product. Put another way, suppose you decide you need a new toothbrush. On the way to the drug- store, you hear a radio ad or see a billboard specifically extolling one brand of tooth- brush. This is potentially powerful stuff, and something that the relevance engines behind CPC programs make easy. After all, when you hit a page of information about toothbrushes after searching for them online, Google knows you are interested in toothbrushes and can easily serve appropriate ads. The basis of CPC advertising is having visitors to your website click the links presented to them by ads. People are likely to notice ads, and click on ad links, only if the content of the ad is relevant to their current interests. This leads to the notion of contextually relevant advertising (usually referred to simply as contextual advertising) often being confused with CPC advertising, even though the two are not the same. Contextual advertising, which as I’ve noted need not be CPC, but often is, hopes to target a specific individual visiting a website (or page within a website). More accu- rately, it is the web page itself that is being targeted. A contextual advertising system scans the text of a website for keywords and returns advertisements to the web page based on the website (see Figure 6-2). To some degree, it is possible that the advertising 158 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting Advertising system knows something about this specific visitor, but most likely the analysis is simply based on a general evaluation of the page. Figure 6-2. The program that generates the contextual ads tries to figure out which ads are relevant and then generates the HTML to display them on your web page There are a number of forms that contextual ads can take. Besides text ads with links and banner displays, contextual advertisements may be displayed as pop ups, rollovers, and so on. Note, once again, that contextually relevant ads need not be paid for on a CPC basis, but usually are because of the encouraging CTR. While CPC ads don’t have to be contextually relevant, totally unrelated ads look odd on a web page and are unlikely to be clicked. How often would you interrupt your train of thought to click on an ad for “contact lens cleaner” when you are reading a site about C programming? As a website publisher, you are better off sticking with CPC programs that do, in fact, provide reasonably good contextual placement. For example, if someone is visiting a website that covers digital photography, they are likely to see contextually relevant ads for cameras, memory cards, processing services, and so on. More professional-oriented digital photography sites might have contextual relevance for portfolio reviews and other services aimed at advanced photographers. Contextual Relevance 159 Contextually relevant ads show up on search results pages, not just on web content pages. In fact, these ads have somewhat better CTR on search results pages than they do on content pages—because you know the viewer actively engaged in a search for the term that is used as the basis for contextual relevance. How Good Is the Context? How good is contextual analysis? The short answer is that most of the time it is pretty good, but when it goofs it can be a lulu. It’s completely appropriate to display an ad for a Microsoft developer’s site on a web page devoted to C programming (C is one of Microsoft’s languages for developers). However, sometimes the engine that figures out contextual relevance is just way off base. Most often, the cause is reliance on a keyword that doesn’t really represent the content of a page. Here’s an actual example: in a web page about digital photography, one photograph (of many shown) was captioned to indicate that it showed a child in a bathtub. The Google AdSense contextual ads for the page were for plumbing supplies, claw-foot bathtubs, and so on—all utterly unrelated to the content of the page (and ignoring the real context of the mention of the word bathtub, which was about the photograph, not the tub). Another—and somewhat notorious—example: consider the news media account of a gruesome crime spree along the Pacific Northwest coast that led to severed feet being washed up on beaches. Some news agencies that ran the story also carried contextual banner ads for a moving company, PutUpYourFeet.com. The only connection between the content and the ad were the keywords “foot” and “feet.” From the viewpoint of cost, depending on whether the PutUpYourFeet.com ad was CPM or CPC, this ad placement didn’t cost much (if it was CPC, it wouldn’t have cost anything to the advertiser, or paid anything to the site, because one assumes no one genuine would click through). However, it’s very damaging to the reputation of both the advertisers and the site to run such an inappropriate ad. Technically, the PutUpYourFeet.com ad was an error because it was out of context. But what about an ad that is in context but tasteless—for example, a strident life in- surance ad on a story about a prominent death? (This has actually happened.) The contextual engines may have gotten the life insurance ad on the celebrity obituary technically right—the connection is the keyword “death” and related phrases. But, depending somewhat on the ad, the placement will strike most people as tasteless. Whether or not it leads to clicks through, it is a placement that damages the reputation of the website and the advertiser. 160 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting Advertising The mechanisms for intervention that might stop something like this from going to press in a newspaper are essentially not present when automated ads are served on the Web. Human beings don’t monitor the ad placements and software analysis is not subtle enough to pick up on nuances that form the boundary between effective and offensive to human beings. Premium Google AdSense accounts, meaning those with more than 5 million page views per month, have some mechanisms for controlling ad subject matter, but short of having this kind of clout, the best way to direct the content of ads on your page is to construct your web pages following the guidelines explained in Chapter 4 and to provide a contextually accurate list of alt tags for images and meta tags for pages. In addition, most CPC programs (including AdSense) have a mechanism for filtering out competitive ads (see Chapter 8). You can use a competitive ad filter mechanism to help keep advertising appropriate. But the reality is that if you publish a lot of content, sometimes contextual analysis gets it wrong and there’s not much you can do about it. A related issue comes up when your web pages feature controversial material and ads are placed by opponents of your viewpoint. For example, I wrote a series of blog posts blasting the rhetoric around “intelligent design.” These posts kept drawing ads from antievolutionists; in other words, people and organizations diametrically opposed to my viewpoint. Although, as I mentioned, AdSense and other contextual programs do allow you to block specific web domains from advertising on your site (this is supposed to be used to keep competitors off your site), there’s nothing much you can do about advertisers with ideology you don’t like, except grin about the fact that if anyone clicks, the ad- vertiser is paying for a context that will most likely be counterproductive for its ads. So maybe straying from contextual relevancy is its own best reward after all. Serving Ads How are ads placed on contextually relevant pages? As you can imagine, it isn’t done by a roomful of gnomes scanning web pages and deciding what ads should go on them. There are simply too many websites and web pages, and their content changes too quickly, for this to work (even if you had plenty of gnomes). Even with print media, such as newspapers and magazines, it makes sense to position advertising near contextually relevant editorial mate- rial (although it is not always possible). The manual mechanism that I mock (albeit using humans instead of gnomes) has always been used to try to come up with the best placement of ads, called ad imposition, in traditional print media. Contextual Relevance 161 Obviously, software, not gnomes, is used to automatically analyze the content of a web page to determine its content and which contextually relevant ads should be placed on it. This is fortunate for Google (and other search engine companies) because determining the content of a site for contextual ad relevancy is essentially the same task as determining the content of a site to match with the keywords used in a search. To make it easier for Google’s AdSense and other contextual ad pro- grams to accurately determine the content of your web pages, it’s im- portant that you follow the guidelines for website and page optimization explained in Chapter 4. Here’s how the process of placing a contextually relevant CPC ad on your site works in a little more detail than I previously provided: • A block of code on your web page calls a script on the server provided by the contextual ad program. This code also contains your tracking ID (discussed in Chapter 8) so the ad program knows who to pay when the ads are clicked. • This code is activated when users load your web page in their web browser. • The activated code invokes the script on the server. The content of your page has been analyzed. This process usually involves some time delay the first time; generic ads may appear until the server has had time to look at your web page. Once your page has been analyzed, the server doesn’t have to parse it again (unless the page content changes, in which case there may be a time lag before the contextual ads have caught up with the new content). • The software decides which ads to serve based on its analysis of your web page content. • The designated ads are generated as HTML and served on your page. These logistics behind serving contextual ads were shown earlier in Figure 6-2. There’s a separate piece of this system that these steps don’t describe: how the system on the server determines which ads go with particular pages or sites. Taking Google as an example, Google has a specific web crawler, the MediaBot, which downloads web pages. The job of the software behind the crawler is to analyze the pages and reduce them to prioritized keyword lists. When the ad unit code on a specific page is loaded, the software compares the keyword list associated with the page with a ranked list of ads to serve for those keywords. This scheme is shown in Figure 6-3. 162 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting AdvertisingFigure 6-3. The MediaBot analyzes web content; a keyword match is used to determine which ad from the inventory is served Dollars and Cents The amount of money generated by an individual click on a contextual ad is a highly variable and murky business. In the case of Google and other contextual programs, the amount that is paid for an ad depends on an automated bidding process where adver- tisers bid for keywords. So the amount paid for a contextual ad varies day by day and even hour by hour. Google’s Terms of Service (TOS) forbids the disclosure of any financial information about how much is made off the AdSense contextual ad program except an accurate account of the total paid to a publisher. Essentially, a contextual ad program such as Google is acting as an agent or a broker. In old-fashioned language, the role is an automated advertising agency. Ads are sold by keyword to advertisers, and publishers are paid on the basis of click throughs (see Chapter 7 for the details of Google’s role as a broker). But Google doesn’t say what percentage commission it takes, or what share of the pie it leaves for you, the web publisher. If you sign up for Google’s AdSense, the leading contextual ad program, you just have to take what Google gives you, and trust Google. Furthermore, the percentage of the fee paid by the advertisers isn’t generally disclosed by most contextual ad agencies. It usually ranges between 30 percent and 70 percent. (I know; that’s a pretty big range) Contextual Relevance 163 An individual click on a contextual ad is not going to make you rich. The net value to a web publisher of a click ranges from one or two pennies to a few dollars at the very high end. The average click is probably worth about 0.20. Combine this statistic with the fact that the CTR (the clicks an ad gets divided by the number of times it is served) are in the low single-digit percentages—2 percent is a quite respectable CTR—and you come up with the fact that to make good money from CPC, you need a lot of traffic. A six-figure income from CPC contextual advertising is not unheard of, but it takes monthly page views in the millions. Doing the math, this page-view volume implies either a broad site or some highly trafficked pages (or both). Supposing you have a great deal of content—say 10,000 pages—it’s possible to reach the target volume of more than 100,000 page views per month with an average of 10 page views per page per month—ambitious, in terms of the amount of content, but not impossible, and quite modest in terms of the traffic per page. These 100,000 page views per month might theoretically give you an income of around 400 per month calculated by multiplying 100,000 times the 2 percent CTR, times the 0.20 average fee per click. Of course, most sites are created to fulfill multiple needs and use a variety of mecha- nisms to generate income. But if your only consideration is creating revenue using a contextual CPC model, you should consider whether it makes more sense to get to 100,000 page views and beyond by creating relatively fewer heavily visited pages—the shallow-site approach—or a great many less trafficked pages—the broad-site ap- proach. Putting the same question in a slightly different way: is it better to draw niche traffic, which may be worth more because it is highly targeted, or general traffic, which is likely to be less categorizable and therefore less valuable. The answer may, of course, depend on the niche you target. If you take the broad-site approach, then you’ll need to figure out a low-cost way to generate the content. The calculation that shows a 400 monthly revenue for a 10,000- page site—a broad site that is not heavily trafficked—implies a revenue stream of about 0.50 per page per year. For this to make sense as a business proposition, it can’t cost you very much to generate this content (perhaps because you create it yourself and even because—fates forfend—some of the content generation is automated). Business modeling is only as good as its assumptions. If the hypothetical 10,000-page site averages 100 views per page rather than 10 views per page—not at all unreasonable for a worthwhile site—then the economics shift radically in favor of the site publisher. The site is now probably generating 50,000 or so annually in CPC contextual revenue (each page contributes an average of 5). The point here is to understand the implications of site and advertising metrics on the economics of your site so you can take the steps required to meet your financial goals. Site metrics, CPC advertising, and profitability in the context of Google’s AdSense program are discussed further in Chapter 9. 164 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting AdvertisingCPC Vendors Compared Google’s AdSense program is, of course, the largest of the contextual CPC ad programs, with features aimed at both large and small web publishers. See Part II for a lot more information about AdSense. In this chapter, these programs are considered from the viewpoint of a web publisher wanting to host ads. They could, of course, also be considered from the opposite viewpoint: that is to say, an advertiser wishing to place an ad. If you are a large web publisher, you may wish to investigate the major competitors to Google’s AdSense: DoubleClick and Yahoo Publisher Network. At the time of this writing, DoubleClick is only open to publishers with hundreds of thousands of im- pressions per day, and the Yahoo program is in invitational beta (and also for larger publishers). While Google’s AdSense program works astonishingly well for many smaller publish- ers, there are some reasons publishers might like to investigate working with one of AdSense’s smaller competitors: • You’d like more control over the ads that appear on your site, perhaps even to the extent of approving each ad before it can be served on your web pages. • Your site features content that is not acceptable to Google, such as adult content. • You’d like to understand exactly what advertisers are paying for the ads and exactly how much commission is being deducted; maybe you’d like to approve some ads only if the price is right. • You want to make sure you have a viable alternative to Google in case something goes wrong with your Google account. Some smaller CPC ad program vendors are shown in Table 6-1. Table 6-1. CPC ad programs other than Google and Yahoo Program URL Comments AdBrite http://www.adbrite.com AdBrite is probably the leading alternative to AdSense for smaller sites; its innovative program allows website publishers a great deal of control over the specifics of advertising that will appear on their site. AdToll http://www.adtoll.com Easy-to-manage interface; features innovative ad formats. BidVertiser http://www.bidvertiser.com Provides design tools to allow publishers to customize their ad space; publishers can control approval at the individual ad level. Clicksor http://www.clicksor.com Good contextual analysis technology; flexibility about ad approval for publishers; innovative creative styles, such as full-page ads that “fade” (a good or bad thing depending on your site and viewpoint). CPC Vendors Compared 165Program URL Comments Kanoodle http://www.kanoodle.com Founded by executives who used to run a contextual marketing con- cern that was bought by Google; prefers to work with somewhat larger and more technically sophisticated web publishers. Kontera http://www.kontera.com Sophisticated program that requires a minimum of 150,000 page views per month for publisher participation. LookSmart http://www.looksmart.com An effective and well-designed CPC network aimed at medium to large publishers; offers more flexibility and choices than AdSense; well worth investigating if your page views justify inclusion in the program. Proximic http://www.proximic.com Offers publishers contextual relevance using a pattern matching technology that claims superiority over the standard keyword match- ing used by AdSense and others. ValueClick http://www.valueclick.com ValueClick, the parent company of Commission Junction (see Chap- ter 5), offers effective contextual ad placement for larger publishers. Placing Ad Units on Your Site Publishers need to take the following fairly simple steps to place ad units on your site: • Sign up with a program. • Select the ad format that works best with your site. • Add the code generated by the program to your pages. Bear in mind the suggestion in Chapter 1 that ad unit code be placed within an include architecture, allowing the flexibility to change ads across multiple pages, portions of sites, or entire sites. In addition, placing the ad code within an include means that you can easily switch who you work with. Signing Up Figure 6-4 shows the AdBrite signup form, which is pretty typical of most programs. You’ll also need to provide who you want checks made out to and a tax identification number (either a Social Security number or an employer identification number). Many programs also require that you complete and submit a W-9 tax form. 166 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting AdvertisingFigure 6-4. Simple contact information plus a tax ID number is all you need to enroll in a CPC program In addition, some of the programs (such as Google) will want at least one website URL. They will manually vet the site for compliance with program content policies before accepting you into the program. Choosing the Kinds of Ads Once you’ve been accepted, you can choose the kinds of ads you want to serve. On AdBrite, as shown in Figure 6-5, the choices are banner and text versus text only, full- page in-between ads, and inline ads. Placing Ad Units on Your Site 167Figure 6-5. In the AdBrite program, you choose the format of the ads you want to serve Selecting Ad Formats Once you’ve chosen the kinds of ads you want to serve, you can choose ad formats— meaning the size of the ad unit and number of ads—and colors for your site. Some programs allow you to control adult content by specifying at the beginning whether it is unacceptable (and even what level of explicitness is permissible on your site). This is not an issue with Google’s AdSense, since the AdSense program does not display adult ads at all or accept adult content sites into the program. In addition, some programs allow you to designate initial content areas, which are used until the contex- tual engine completes its job. 168 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting Advertising Most programs provide a number of ad unit sizes to choose from, and also some pre- selected color schemes. Figure 6-6 shows the AdBrite program ad generator. Figure 6-6. Most ad generators, like the ones provided by AdBrite, allow you to select the number of ads in your unit and how they are formatted The design choices you make in relationship to ad format and color are quite important. See Chapter 1 for some discussion of ad placement. In addition, you should consider two possible, but incompatible, strat- egies: making ads seem like they are part of a site’s content and making ads different so they really stick out. You’ll also need to set some ad content options, as well as to specify the default ad that appears when there are no paid ads to display (see Figure 6-7). With the ad content set, you can refine the appearance of your ad unit (Figure 6-8). Placing Ad Units on Your Site 169Figure 6-7. You can set the default text that appears when there are no ads to be served on your site AdBrite is a real two-way marketplace in the sense that advertisers can decide to individually pick sites for placement, and publishers (if the auto-approve checkbox shown in Figure 6-7 is not selected) can decide whether they want to run individual ads on their site. Figure 6-8. Once you pick your ad unit dimensions, you can refine its appearance to match your site 170 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting Advertising You should name your ad zone to describe the position of the ad unit to potential advertisers, assuming you are going to implement multiple ad units on your site. The next step is to describe your site using a description and keywords (Figure 6-9). This is for two reasons: to help AdBrite make a better contextual match, and also to serve as an advertisement of your own to potential advertisers. The keywords and de- scription you include do appear to any advertiser seeking a good host for their ads. Figure 6-9. The description you add about your site is often used by advertisers to determine if there is a good fit Placing Ad Units on Your Site 171 You can use the elevator pitch and keywords that you derived from the material explain in Chapter 2 (and may have used as meta information as explained in Chapter 3) for this form. Next, choose a category for your site from the list, shown in Figure 6-10. Once again, this selection is multipurpose—you are helping AdBrite contextualize your site and also helping potential advertisers find you. Figure 6-10. It’s important to correctly categorize your offering in AdBrite so that advertisers can easily find you Optionally, AdBrite will integrate your existing ad code, such as that from AdSense, into their own unit, asserting that they will serve the highest paying ad from both networks. To take advantage of this, choose Yes to Reserve Pricing in the pricing options interface shown in Figure 6-11. You’ll need to make sure the ad unit that you are integrating with AdBrite’s has the same dimensions, and you’ll have to paste the code from the other ad server into the HTML box shown in Figure 6-11. If you’d rather not integrate ad units, and want to place the AdBrite unit in addition to another unit, choose No to Reserve Pricing. In either case, you can proceed to pick up the code you’ll need to add to your site. 172 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting AdvertisingFigure 6-11. AdBrite allows you to use its interface to work with multiple advertising networks and to flexibly set pricing Adding Code to Your Pages Once you’ve selected your ad format, colors, and entered other options, AdBrite will generate the code for your unit, as you can see in Figure 6-12. Simply copy the code provided into your web pages where you’d like the ad units to appear. It’s important to place ad code in include files, as I explained in Chap- ter 1, so that your ad settings can easily be modified site-wide. Ad unit code consists of settings, which depend on your choice of format and color, and a JavaScript call to the program on the ad server that actually displays the ad on your site (see “Serving Ads” on page 161 for an explanation of this mechanism). Placing Ad Units on Your Site 173Figure 6-12. AdBrite generates the code for its ad units that you use on your site For example, an AdBrite ad unit might look like this in code: Begin: AdBrite, Generated: 2008-12-19 13:56:19 script type="text/javascript" var AdBrite_Title_Color = 'CC0000'; var AdBrite_Text_Color = '000000'; var AdBrite_Background_Color = 'CCCCCC'; var AdBrite_Border_Color = 'CCCCCC'; var AdBrite_URL_Color = '0000FF'; tryvar AdBrite_Iframe=window.top=window.self?2:1;var AdBrite_Referrer=document. referrer==''?document.location:document.referrer;AdBrite_Referrer= encodeURIComponent(AdBrite_Referrer);catch(e)var AdBrite_Iframe='';var AdBrite_Referrer=''; /script script type="text/javascript"document.write(String.fromCharCode(60,83,67,82,73, 80,84));document.write(' src="http://ads.adbrite.com/mb/text_group.php?sid= 967865&zs=3132305f363030&ifr='+AdBrite_Iframe+'&ref='+AdBrite_Referrer+'" type="text/javascript"');document.write(String.fromCharCode(60,47,83,67,82,73,80, 84,62));/script diva target="_top" href="http://www.adbrite.com/mb/commerce/purchase_form.php? opid=967865&afsid=1" style="font-weight:bold;font-family:Arial;font-size:13px;" Your Ad Here/a/div End: AdBrite 174 Chapter 6: Making Money by Hosting Advertising