Network Design guidelines

how to design a network protocol and network design manual and network design questionnaire
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HalfoedGibbs,United Kingdom,Professional
Published Date:02-08-2017
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12 designing networks You Gotta Have a Plan I love it when a plan comes together... When it comes to networks, a good plan means everything. You’ve learned an awful lot about networking since those early days in Chapter 1. You’ve learned how to implement physical cable networks, how wireless access points work, how to make the most of your intelligent network devices, and all sorts of troubleshooting techniques to get you out of the hairiest network dilemmas. It’s now time for you to put everything you’ve learned into practice and see just how far you’ve traveled on your networking journey. We know you can do it 437 A network design includes: Physical layout of wire and network drops Network hardware configuration Logical network design An implementation plan this time it’s from scratch Hey there Are you ready for a new project? We need you to come up with a network design from scratch. Think you’re up to the challenge? Now you have to plan a network from scratch In an earlier chapter, you essentially reran some cables and put in some trays. But the challenge here is to plan all aspects of a network on a building that, at this point, is just a rough floor plan. This is the best possible point to get going with your network design, when there is not even a blueprint yet, just an idea. You can make sure that the network you plan will meet the needs of the building’s occupants and accomodate future growth. The most important thing to do at this early stage is to talk to people. Talk to the future occupants, to the bosses, to the contractors, and to your IT people. Gather as much information as you can. Armed with all this information, you can make informed decisions about your network design. 438 Chapter 12 Download at aDevelop a physical network layout Build It Draw Logical Network Diagram designing networks Action Plan Magnets Let’s hit the ground running and create an action plan. Drag each step for creating a network design into the correct slot. Pay attention to the order of the steps. 1 2 3 4 6 5 you are here4 439 Download at a Develop Network Hardware List Create Implementation Plan Gather Information on Network Needscreate an action plan Action Plan Magnets Solution Let’s hit the ground running and create an action plan. Drag each step for creating a network design into the correct slot. Pay attention to the order of the steps. 1 Gather Information on Network Needs 2 Develop a physical network layout 3 Develop Network Hardware List 4 Draw Logical Network Diagram 6 5 Create Build It Implementation Plan 440 Chapter 12 Download at adesigning networks You have to know what the needs are before you can plan The first thing you need to do is gather requirements for your network. You have to be thinking in terms of network size, type, growth potential, equipment location, logical configuration, etc. This means that you have to be asking a lot of questions. Questions to the people in charge, questions to the users, and questions to the architects. And remember to write it all down Write down at least two questions for each category that you need answered in order to develop a network design. Hint: Use the floor plan above to think about the physical aspect of your design. Building Construction Network Needs Network Configuration Implementation Issues you are here 4 441 Download at awhat questions do you have? Write down at least two questions for each category that you need answered in order to develop a network design. Hint: Use the floor plan above to think about the physical aspect of your design. Building Construction Is there a basement? Can wires run in the walls? Where is the wiring closet to be located? Can we use cable trays in the basement? Network Needs How many network nodes are needed in each room? Do we need fiber or Cat-5e or Cat 6 cable? Network Configuration Does the building need just a switch or does it need a router too? Do we need to put in a firewall? How does it connect to the outside network or Internet? Implementation Issues When does the network need to be ready? What is the budget? Are we responsible for running the cables? 442 Chapter 12 Download at aPhones designing networks So you’ve developed your questions, now what? You’ve got to ask them. First thing is to find out who all the stakeholders in the building are. This could include the people in charge, the users, the architects, and even the contractors. Talk to them all and ask them your questions. And make sure you write it all down Implementation timeline Budget External connections Building construction Wiring closet location Node addressing The Plan 172.10.113.1 Who’s going to do the work? Fiber and/or copper Specific room needs Router or switch, or both? you are here 4 443 Download at a Number of network nodesdraw up the physical network OK, I now have a great big file folder of information. So what’s next? Look at your action plan The next step is to draw up a physical network plan. You can use a floor plan to get started. Your goal is to figure out where your cables are going to run and where your equipment is going to be located. 1 Gather Information on Network Needs 2 Develop a physical network layout 3 Develop Network Hardware List 4 Draw Logical Network Diagram 6 5 Create Build It Implementation Plan 444 Chapter 12 Download at a DONEdesigning networks Use the network requirements to draw up a physical network diagram. Include network drops, switch location, and cable tray location. Physical Network Needs & Information Room 101 is the wiring closet; 110 is the mechanical room. Rooms 102, 103, 113, 112, 111, & 109 have 1 computer and 1 phone each. Room 108 will house a printer and a fax machine. Room 107 will house a tech support area with 5 computers on the wall opposite the door. Room 106, 105 & 104 will house 15 computers each. They will be in rows of 5 in the middle of the rooms. Cat 5e will be used for all the connections. The building just needs switches. It will have a fiber network connection run from the main building under the wiring closet. The building will have an 8’ crawlspace, so trays and wiring can go down there. The CIO wants at least 3 network drops in each office. 103 101 102 113 105 104 112 106 107 108 109 110 you are here 4 445 Download at a Use this symbol to represent a network connection or “drop.”Use this symbol to represent a network connection or “drop.” what’s your network look like? Use the network requirements to draw up a physical network diagram. Include network drops, switch location, and cable tray location. Physical Network Needs & Information Room 101 is the wiring closet; 110 is the mechanical room. Rooms 102, 103, 113, 112, 111, & 109 have 1 computer and 1 phone each. Room 108 will house a printer and a fax machine. Room 107 will house a tech support area with 5 computers on the wall opposite the door. Room 106, 105 & 104 will house 15 computers each. They will be in rows of 5 in the middle of the rooms. Cat 5e will be used for all the connections. The building just needs switches. It will have a fiber network connection run from the main building under the wiring closet. The building will have an 8’ crawlspace, so trays and wiring can go down there. The CIO wants at least 3 network drops in each office. 101 103 102 113 105 104 112 106 107 111 108 109 110 446 Chapter 12 Download at a We need 2 switches because we need more than 48 ports. Patch panelReview blueprints & update physical network layout designing networks So you have a physical layout, what’s next? Well, our action plan is missing a step. There is something we need to do between 2 and 3. When you get your physical network diagram done, you need to compare it to the actual building to make sure everything will fit, but the building does not exist yet. You need to review the building’s blueprints 1 Gather Information on Network Needs 2 Develop a physical network layout 3 Develop Network Hardware List 4 Draw Logical Network Diagram 6 5 Create Build It Implementation Plan you are here4 447 Download at a There’s a missing step in the action plan. Build in excess network capacity now It’s much easier to put in extra wire and network equipment now than to try to retro-fit a building down the road. That ends up being much more expensive. DONE DONEHeat pump you need a blueprint Blueprints show everything in a Be sure you read the building’s design notes for each section A blueprint consists of many pages. They are generally broken down of the blueprint. into sections corresponding to specific areas like framing, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), plumbing, electrical, and Often these are surface covering, such as flooring. The electrical section is where network stuff usually is found. located on the first You need to be familiar with all the pages to see how your design is page of the section. impacted by the different parts of the building. Most of this ductwork will hang via hangers from the floor joists, hanging down about 2’. 448 Chapter 12 Download at a Floor vents Flexible duct 24”x20”duct 12”x10” ductdesigning networks You may have to modify your network design based on what you see in the blueprints Many times, after reviewing blueprints, you will find that aspects of your network design conflict with parts of the building design. Frequently these involve the HVAC and plumbing components. Below are several areas that will be on a blueprint. Write down two things for each area that you need to check on the blueprint to assure that there are no conflicts with your plan. Network Drops Cables and Trays Electrical Power & Lighting you are here 4 449 Download at a When the blueprint changes, your plan may change. As construction of a building progresses, you will frequently find the blueprints have changed. You need to watch for these, and adjust your design accordingly.what should you check? Below are several areas that will be on a blueprint and should match network your design. Write down two things for each area that need to be checked on the blueprint to assure they match your design to could cause your design issues. Network Drops The correct number of network drops All the drops are in the correct location The drops are accessible from below and not blocked by HVAC or plumbing Cables and Trays There is no HVAC ducting or equipment that is in the path of the cable trays and runs There is no plumbing in the path of the cable trays or runs Electrical Power & Lighting There is adequate electrical power in the wiring closet There is good lighting in the basement to facilitate cable tray installation and running the cable 450 Chapter 12 Download at adesigning networks Q: Q: Q: So, if I work for a big company, Aren’t there phones that work on What about network diagrams? there could be a lot of people that are the network? Do I do anything different How do I produce those? going to use the new building. Do I talk with those as far as cabling? to all of them? A: There are a lot of graphics programs A: Yes, you are correct. These are out there, including Microsoft Visio and A: No, but it is important to talk to a called voice over IP phones, or VOIP. They OmniGroup OmniGraffle. These programs good cross section of people. The people use your regular network wiring. The only have the icons and tools to create at the top don’t always know the nitty-gritty caveat is that certain phones require a professional diagrams. Whatever you do, details of how stuff is working. voltage on the network cable to actually run. do NOT try to use Word or some other word You can purchase special Ethernet switches processing program to create diagrams. It that put power out over the network cable will only end in disaster as your diagrams Q: But can’t I rely on the architect for these types of phones. get more complex. and her engineers to design the network? Q: Q: You did not really mention how I What is the difference between a should document my network plan. How floorplan and a blueprint? A: Sure, if you are willing to pay them should I do that? lots of money. Often they have an idea of how things are, but only you and the people A: A floorplan is generally a rough idea working with the network really know. A: Great question. When you are of what a building should be. It is not used The more time an architect and engineer gathering requirements, you will collect for anything except large scope planning, spend interviewing people and gathering information from all sorts of sources, and maybe some space planning. requirements, the more it costs you. including different types of documents such as speadsheets, memos, and emails. A blueprint is the actual guide for the various contractors on how to put the Q: You mentioned phones a couple of When you are collecting the information, it building together. As such, it has to be very times. Do they use the same wire? is best to keep a folder on your computer detailed and specific. Often a blueprint will as well as a paper folder with all your contain a floorplan as well. A: Yes, they do. Usually you terminate information. When you are ready to start all the cables coming into wall boxes into a documenting the plan, use a good word patch panel, regardless of whether a phone processor that can include graphics and or computer gets connected to it. Then at tables so you can document all of your the patch panel end, you connect it to either information nicely and professionally. a phone system or a network switch. you are here4 451 Download at aThis is an air exchanger, and there is no room over the top of it. hvac is a problem Review the HVAC plans below and your physical network diagram to the left. Circle problems areas and write a list of problems that the HVAC system will cause your network design. Don’t forget to think of solutions as well. These are plans of the basement 452 Chapter 12 All the duct work hangs down 18” below the floor.designing networks you are here 4 453This is an air exchanger, and there is no room over the top of it. solve problems Review the HVAC plans below and your physical network diagram to the left. Circle problems areas and write a list of problems that the HVAC system will cause your network design. Don’t forget to think of solutions as well. These are plans of the basement 454 Chapter 12 All the duct work hangs down 18” below the floor.designing networks Problems: All the cable trays appeared to be in the same area as HVAC ducting and equipment. Some of the office network drops may be hard to access from below because of HVAC ducts. The area under the central office area is filled up with an air exchanger, not leaving any room for cable trays. Solutions: The cable tray can be moved to one side or the other and hung down below the HVAC ducts. The call centers on the top of the floor plan could be run straight into the wiring closet. The flex tube from the wall boxes can be run out past the ductwork to ensure access. you are here 4 4552 switches Room number physical then logical 105 104 101 103 102 113 112 106 107 111 108 109 So you’ve got your 1 Gather Information on Network Needs physical network layout, what’s next? 2 Develop a physical network layout The next thing on the list is to develop an equipment list, but we think you can do that on your own. Just look at your physical layout and list the 3 Review blueprints equipment you are going to need. & update physical network layout Let’s move onto the next thing: a logical network diagram. 4 Develop Network Hardware List 5 Draw Logical Network Diagram 7 6 Create Build It Implementation Plan 456 Chapter 12 Call centers Printers Patch panel DONE DONE DONE DONE