How to plan a computer network

how to plan network cabling and how to plan network installation and how to plan network infrastructure
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HartJohnson,United States,Professional
Published Date:02-08-2017
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2 planning network layouts Networking in the Dark Heavens, a CAT-5 in the doghouse. Who would’ve thought... Tired of tripping over wires and getting mauled by your electrical closet? When you build a network without planning, you end up with a big mess—wires running every which way, wires connected to who knows what? In this chapter, you’ll learn how to plan a physical network layout that will save your bacon down the road. You will also learn how to use proper network hardware to contain and help manage all those wires. this is a new chapter 51 Download at a2 motion detector cameras and 1 digital microphone in the hotel staff showers. ghost watch is spooked Ghost Watch needs your help The most popular reality TV show in Networkville is Ghost Watch. Every week the Ghost Watch team goes into an old building and records any strange sights and sounds they encounter using their high-tech equipment. The trouble is, the team’s networking skills keep letting them down, and their footage ends up too distorted to use, or isn’t even recorded. This week the Ghost Watch team is in an old abandoned hotel, and they need you to help them set up their network. They need unobtrusive cabling with a clean signal, and they must be able to adapt quickly to whatever might happen. Here are their requirements: So where should we start? 52 Chapter 2 Download at a 3 motion detector cameras and 1 digital mic setup in the attic. 2 motion detector cameras and 1 digital mic need to be setup in the basement laundry room. All the gear is the latest technology and uses Cat 5e cable to send data over. Ghost Watch HQ is in the lobby. They need 5 laptops, 2 AV editing workstations, a file server, a backup server and a laser printer.planning network layouts Every good network needs a good plan Networking involves much more than stringing cables around haphazardly. Before you start pulling lines all over the place, you need to figure out what you are connecting, where all these things are going to be located, and how best to network them. Let’s start by looking at all the devices that Ghost Watch need for this gig. Write down a list of the devices that are needed, along with where they need to go. Hint: take a look at the page opposite. Devices Physical area 2 motion detector cameras Hotel showers, second floor you are here 4 53 Download at awhat do you need? Write down a list of the devices that are needed, along with where they need to go. Hint: take a look at the page opposite. Devices Physical area 2 motion detector cameras Hotel showers, second floor 1 digital microphone Hotel showers, second floor 5 laptops First floor lobby 2 AFV editing workstations First floor lobby 1 file server First floor lobby 1 backup server First floor lobby 1 laser printer First floor lobby 2 motion detector cameras Basement laundry room 1 digital microphone Basement laundry room 3 motion detector cameras Attic 1 digital microphone Attic So how does the device list help us plan a network? The first step in planning a good network is to work out exactly what devices need to be included, and where they’ll be located. Without it, you’re effectively networking in the dark. So what other steps are needed? What other things do you need to consider when you’re planning a network? Why? 54 Chapter 2 Download at aplanning network layouts How to plan a network layout If you take a step-by-step approach and plan your network layout before running the cable, you’ll save yourself a lot of time and money. Here are the key steps you need to go through: 1 List out the various network devices and where they will be located. Be sure you include what type of cable they need, for example, CAT-5. 2 Adjust your plan for obstacles 3 Make a list of the hardware you will need to run the cable. This includes things like cable trays, J-hooks, wire ties, and so on. 4 Put your wire in Run your cables between the various devices. So far we’ve completed one of these steps. We’ve made a list of all the Ghost Watch devices we need to wire up, along with where each of them needs to go. Let’s move onto the next step. you are here4 55 Download at a We’ve just done this step.This is where hot water heaters and HVAC stuff are located. Stairs Stoves floor plans plan floors Let’s plan the cabling with a floorplan Floorplans give you a way of picturing the floor space of the area in which you need to lay down network cables. They show you information such as floor layout, and also many of the networking obstacles that you need to plan for when you’re laying down cables. Office Kitchen To basement Mechanical Office Dishwashing room machine Restroom Restroom To 2nd floor Elevator Front desk Ghost Watch has gotten hold of floorplans for each floor of the hotel they’re investigating. We can use these to check for obstacles and plan where the network cables should go. 56 Chapter 2 Download at a Windows Stairs SinkSinks Wood stove Kitchen stove 220 volt power line planning network layouts Here are the floorplans for the basement of the hotel. Your task is to identify areas of the building that might pose problems in running cable or could damage the cable. Circle and make notes about five areas that might be problematic when the network cables are installed. Notes: The boiler may create heat and vibrations you are here 4 57 Download at a Water leaks Washer and dryer Concrete block walls Toilets Fluorescent lights Hot water heater Boiler Fluorescent lightsSinks Wood stove Kitchen stove 220 volt power line what are the problems? Here are the floorplans for the basement of the hotel. We’ve drawn in the various recording devices that need to talk to one another. Your task is to identify areas of the building that might pose problems in running cable or could damage the cable. Circle and make notes about five areas that might be problematic when the network cables are installed. The boiler may create heat and vibrations, so might the laundry equipment. There also may be water Notes: around the laundry equipment. The large electrical line needs to be avoided. The hot water heater and wood stove will be hot and need to be avoided. The fluorescent light may cause some interference. 58 Chapter 2 Download at a Water leaks Washer and dryer Concrete block walls Toilets Fluorescent lights Hot water heater Boiler Fluorescent lightsplanning network layouts Obstacles Up Close So what should you do when you encounter obstacles in Networkville? Here’s a quick guided tour. Walls You can run your cables around walls, or drill through them instead. Pay attention to what your walls are made of. You need to be careful when you drill through concrete walls, and it can be hard to attach things to brick and concrete. Up Stairs You can use stairs as a way of getting cable from one floor to another, but make sure that it’s out of the way of people using the stairs by using trays or J-Hooks. Windows You can’t run cables through or across windows. Run your cable above or below instead. Sinks, showers, and all things wet Water and cables don’t mix. Water can corrode your cables or make them spark. Make sure you avoid running your cables near water, and in particular, don’t run cables under sinks or showers. Stoves and all things hot Network cables mustn’t get too hot, so don’t run network cables over or above stoves, or other obstacles that give off heat. Another problem with stoves is that electric stoves are supplied with 220VAC electrical lines, and this will cause noise in network cables that run too close. Equipment with Electric Motors As well as giving off heat, motors also give off vibrations and electromagnetic waves. Vibrations are bad for your network cables, so don’t run cables over motors or similar devices. Electromagnetic waves can cause interference issues. you are here 4 59 Download at anetwork admins plot frequently Ready to plot some network cables? You’ve learned a lot about what obstacles can cause problems for your network layout. Let’s see how you get on with planning the route the network cables should take for Ghost Watch. Q: Q: Q: Why will getting the list of devices Do I need to worry about electrical How do I get through walls? wrong cost money down the road? power for the devices? A: That depends on the type of wall. A: If a few devices are forgotten or A: Good question. If the devices that you You can drill through a typical sheetrock added later in the project, that usually is are dealing with need power, like computers, covered wood or metal wall. These are the not a big deal. But if a large number of printers, or network devices, it would be types of walls found in most homes. You devices are missed or misplaced, this can a good idea to think about power. Often will want to be careful about electrical lines cause you to have to redo all your carefully that is an afterthought. Even more, people inside the wall. Brick and concrete walls planned wiring. Which means you just did tend to try to run too many devices from a can be drilled through, but special drill bits the project twice. particular electrical power source. and hammer-drills are needed. Q: Q: Q: So should I make allowances in my How do I determine when I go Should I talk with the building’s plan for additional devices to be added? through an obstacle versus going owner or manager before running around it? cables? A: Great idea This will save you a tremendous amount of time, energy, and A: Many things impact this decision. A: If the installation of the cables is money down the road when other devices First, is the network cabling being installed going to be permanent, it is very important are added. going to be permanent? If so, then you will to include the people that live and own want to use permanent solutions to get the space that you are running cable in. around obstacles. For example, if there Sharing your plan with them can help you Q: How do I make those allowances? is wall in your way, if the cable is going to too. They may be able to suggest alternate stay in place, then you probably will want routing of cables or other obstacles that you A: First thing to do is to plan to run some to go through the wall. If the cable is only might not be aware of. extra cables. That way they are in place temporary, then you will want to just go when you need them. You may need to run around the wall. several types. Second, add some length to the cables that are being run. That means if you plan calls for a 50’ cable, add 5% to 10% or 2.5’ to 7.5’. On longer runs, add 15%. Doing this will assure that you never come up short on cable. 60 Chapter 2 Download at aplanning network layouts Take a stab at laying out the cables on this floor of the hotel. Draw cables from the cameras and mics to the monitoring desk, noting where you might go through walls. Monitoring desk Kitchen Office To basement Mechanical Office room Dishwashing machine To 2nd floor Restroom Restroom Elevator Front desk you are here 4 61 Download at awhere do the cables go? Take a stab at laying out the cables on this floor of the hotel. Draw cables from the cameras and mics to the monitoring desk, noting where you might go through walls. Monitoring desk Kitchen Office To basement Mechanical Office room Dishwashing machine To 2nd floor Restroom Restroom Elevator Front desk 62 Chapter 2 Download at a Went through wall This is just one possible way to run these cables, so don’t worry if you came up with a different solution.planning network layouts So where have we got to? Let’s take another look at the network planning steps and see how far along we are. 1 List out the various network devices and where they will be located. Be sure you include what type of cable they need, for example, CAT-5. 2 Adjusted your plan for obstacles 3 Make a list of the hardware you will need to run the cable. This includes things like cable trays, J-hooks, wire ties, and so on. 4 Put your wire in Run your cables between the various devices. Let’s move onto the next step. Q: Q: What do I do when there is solid concrete wall in the Should network cable ever run on the floor? way? A: You need to avoid running network cables on the floor. You A: You have a couple of solutions. Of course you could always will see in many places that it is run that way. But it really becomes figure out a way around the wall, but sometimes that is not an a hazard. People can trip on it. It can cause difficulties with option. There are special drill bits and drills that will allow you to wheelchair access. The cable can even be damaged from people drill a hole through concrete. It is best to consult with the building walking on it. So try not to do this. manager before you do something like this. Q: How is network cable run in new buildings? Q: How do I deal with big electrical lines that are near where the network cable needs to go? A: Good question. In new buildings, there are different types of conduits that are put in place when the building it under A: Avoid them But you know that already. The worst thing to do construction. Often it is the electrical contractor that will do this. is run the network cable parallel to the electrical line. If you have This makes it very easy to run the network cables because you just no choice but to run it parallel to an electrical line, then put a foot or pull them through the conduits that the electricians installed. two in between the network line and the electrical line. you are here 4 63 Download at a We’ve done the first two steps now.it’s a hardware game We need to decide on the cable management hardware The next step on the plan is to take a look at the cable management hardware we need for the Ghost Watch network. So what’s that? So far, we’ve looked at all the routes our network cables should take, taking into account any obstacles and problem areas that might be in the way. Cable management hardware refers to all of the items we need to control how the cable goes where we want it to. As an example, suppose we want to run a cable across the top of a doorframe. We can’t just place the cable there; we need to hold it in place so that it stays where we want it to, stays out the way, and doesn’t fall. Similarly, if we wanted to run cables along the side of a wall, we’d need cable management hardware to keep the cables out the way and stop them from straying. I’m not sure we need cable management hardware on this gig; we’re not going to be here for long. I’ve already used your plan to lay the network cables. Even when the network’s only short term, you still need cable management hardware. Leaving stray cables around is dangerous—for people and for equipment. Sometimes poorly places cables are easy for people to trip on, and as we’ve seen, cables mustn’t run through water or across obstacles that could damage the cabling. Even when you’re setting up a temporary network, you still need to properly think it through. So what does the cabling look like without the cable management hardware in place? 64 Chapter 2 Download at aplanning network layouts Uh oh The cabling is a mess Here’s the network that’s been laid out by the network guy. There are cables everywhere, and it’s a hazard. So what can we do? Take a look at the cabling efforts above. What sorts of problems do you see? How would you organize things differently? you are here4 65 Download at abe organized, be, be, be organized Take a look at the cabling efforts above. What sorts of problems do you see? How would you organize things differently? We would use a j-hook to hang the cables coming down the stairs. We would put a cable tray in the back room where all the computers are located. All the cable could go into that tray. We would also use wire ties to bundle all the cables neatly. Ghost Watch needs cable management hardware As you can see, the cabling is hazardous without anything keeping the cables out of harms way. There are cables running from floor to ceiling, down the stairs, and haphazardly across the floor. So what hardware is available to deal with these sorts of problems? 66 Chapter 2 Download at aplanning network layouts Cable Management Hardware Up Close Let’s take a closer look at what sorts of cable management hardware are around. J-Hooks J-hooks are used to hang cable from. These are usually attached to floor joists or beams. Cable protectors Cable Protectors are used to protect cables that have to run on floors. Great caution should be used when implementing these on a floor where there is a lot of traffic. The cable protector is a trip hazard and can create barriers for wheelchairs. Cable trays Cable trays are used to hold large numbers of cables that have to run relatively long distances. These are mostly used in basements, attics, and other hidden spaces because they are very industrial in appearance. Although, rooms that are network or computer specific often have trays running near the ceiling. Cable trays take a good deal of planning to install them correctly and some special tools. Raceways A raceway is often used to run cable to workstations that do not have wall jack access. Often cubicle farms will have some form of raceway installed for phone and network cables. Cable ties Cable ties are a great way to keep cables neat. Just remember not to over tighten them. Overtightening a wire tie on Cat 5 cable can alter its twist and create problems with the cable. Smurf tubes A smurf tube is generally run in new buildings inside the walls. One end attaching to a wall box, the other in some accessible but hidden place such as a basement or attic. you are here 4 67 Download at arats are a problem Things that go bump... The microphones in the basement are picking up some strange noises. We need you to investigate if something is messing with the network cables and causing the noise. Here is a diagram of the cable layout in the basement: 68 Chapter 2 Download at aplanning network layouts Please tell me that you heard that too Noise can come from ghosts or from things messing with your cables. Your cables are carrying electrical signals. Anything that affects the cables mechanically or electrically can create noise. Look at the cabling on the diagram to the left. Write down some things that could affect the cables and cause strange noises to be recorded. you are here 4 69 Download at awhat problems did you find? Look at the cabling on the diagram to the left. Write down some things that could affect the cables and cause strange noises to be recorded. 70 Chapter 2 Download at a