Creating DOM elements with Jquery

how to call jquery function in html and how to create innerhtml and document create element javascript
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Published Date:03-08-2017
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Comment CHAPTER 12 Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes 12.0 Introduction The existing Document Object Models provide a plethora of methods you can use to create new web document elements. Most of the methods I use in this chapter and in the following chapters are from the DOM Levels 1 and 2 and, since most of the examples in this chapter are specific to HTML or XHTML documents, the methods and objects described inherit functionality from both Core and HTML DOM specifications. There is one older property, innerHTML, from the nonstandard DOM Level 0, that I’ll also demonstrate, primarily because it’s so popular, and also because of new support in HTML5. Most of the methods and associated properties are available with all of the modern browsers. I’ll make a note where a method or property isn’t supported by one or more browsers. See Also See the Introduction to Chapter 11, for a more in-depth look at the Document Object Model and the DOM levels. 12.1 Using innerHTML: A Quick and Easy Approach to Adding Content Problem You want to add a couple of paragraphs with text to a div element, and you want to do so quickly and easily. 241 Download from Wow eBook Solution Use the innerHTML property to overwrite an element’s existing contents, with new material: var div = document.getElementById("target"); div.innerHTML = "pThis is a paragraph/ppThis is a second/p"; Discussion The innerHTML property has been around for a very long time, and is part of what is known as DOM Level 0—the first de facto API developed by the browser companies. It can be much faster when you’re making complex additions to the web page, because its processing is handled by the HTML parser, rather than the DOM engine. Because innerHTML was never part of a standard, there are some variations in how it’s implemented. For instance, not all browsers support the use of innerHTML with tables, so you won’t want to use the property for adding table rows. The use of innerHTML isn’t standard with XML formats, such as XHTML, as there’s no way to ensure that what is appended into the page is well formed. In earlier years, the use of innerHTML wasn’t even supported with XHTML documents. Now, though, innerHTML is becoming officially blessed by being defined within the HTML5 effort. In addition, the outerHTML property has also been formally defined in the HTML5 specification. It differs from innerHTML in that outerHTML represents both the element and the element’s contents, while innerHTML only represents the element’s contents. Currently, the HTML5 specification states that the use of innerHTML will abort the current X/HTML parsing process. And not all browsers allow innerHTML to be set until after the page is finished loading. Based on these restrictions, it’s best to not use innerHTML until after the page is com- pletely loaded. 12.2 Inserting Elements Before Existing Page Elements Problem You need to add a new div element to the web page before an existing div element. Solution Use the DOM method createElement to create a new div element. Once created, attach it to the web page before an existing element, using another DOM method, insertBefore: 242 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook // get the existing element var refElement = document.getElementById("sister"); // get the element's parent node var parent = refElement.parentNode; // create new div element var newDiv = document.createElement("div"); // attach to page before sister element parent.insertBefore(newDiv, refElement); Discussion Adding a web page element is uncomplicated, as long as you keep in mind the tree-like structure of the web page. If you’re interested in attaching a web page element before another element, you’ll not only need to access this element, but also the target ele- ment’s parent element, in order to create the actual placement. The reason you need the parent element is that there is no functionality to insert an element before another, given just the target element. Instead, you have to access the target element’s parent element, and use the insertBefore method to insert the new element before the existing one. In Example 12-1, the solution for this recipe is embedded into a web page that originally consists only of one named div element. When this element receives a click event, a new sister div element is created and inserted into the document before the existing element. Example 12-1. Inserting a div element into a web page DOCTYPE html head titleobject detection/title style type="text/css" div width: 50%; height: 20px; padding: 10px; margin: 10px 0; div1 background-color: ffff00; .divclass background-color: ccffcc; 12.2 Inserting Elements Before Existing Page Elements 243 Download from Wow eBook /style script type="text/javascript" window.onload=function() document.getElementById("div1").onclick=addDiv; function addDiv() // get parent var parent = this.parentNode; // create new div var newDiv = document.createElement("div"); newDiv.className = "divclass"; newDiv.innerHTML = "pI'm here, I'm in the page/p"; // add to page parent.insertBefore(newDiv,this); /script /head body div id="div1" pClick me to add new element/p /div /body In the example, since the event is attached to the original div element, a reference to it can be accessed using this within the event function, because the element is the owner of the onclick event handler function. You can then get the element’s parent through the parentNode property. Once you have a reference to both the parent and the existing element, all you need to do is create the new div element and insert it. Use the document.createElement method, passing in the type of element—in this case, div. Since the current document is an HTML document, the createElement method creates a new HTMLElement, which inherits all functionality of the more generic Element class, as well as additional methods and properties. The new element is assigned a CSS style through the className property, which is a standard property for all HTMLEle ment objects. It’s given some content using the innerHTML property. The new div element is then added to the web page with insertBefore. Each successive click of the original div element prepends a new div element to the original, each with the same class and content. Figure 12-1 shows the web page after the original div element has been clicked several times. 244 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook Figure 12-1. Inserting div elements into a web page Namespace Variation Recipe 11.2 included a discussion on namespaces and their impact on some of the DOM methods that allow us to query and add new web page elements in a document that can contain multiple namespaces. If you’re working within an environment where namespaces are supported, such as an XHTML or SVG document, and you create a new element or attribute, it’s automatically added to the document’s default namespace unless you use one of the namespace-specific DOM methods. Generally, the default behavior is sufficient. However, if you want to create an element within a specific namespace, such as creating a title in the Dublin Core namespace rather an XHTML title, use the namespace variation of createElement, createEle mentNS: var dcTitle = document.createElementNS("","title"); The createElementNS takes two parameters: the first is the namespace for the element; the second is the element tag. 12.2 Inserting Elements Before Existing Page Elements 245 Download from Wow eBook The namespace method createElementNS is not supported in HTML currently, as namespaces aren’t supported in HTML. The method is also not currently supported in IE8, but should be in IE9, when Microsoft adds support for XHTML. See Also See Recipe 11.2 for more information about namespaces and the DOM. For a specific description of the HTMLElement, see the related W3C page. 12.3 Appending a New Element to the End of a Page Problem You want to add a new element to a web page, but you want to append it to the end of the page. Solution Access the highest level web page element, the body element, and use the appendChild method to append the new element to the page: var bdy = document.getElementsByTagName("body")0; // body element var newDiv = document.createElement("div"); // append to body bdy.appendChild(newDiv); Discussion Since we’re appending the new element to the end of the page, it makes sense to access the top-level page element (the body element) directly, using the DOM getElementsBy TagName method. Since the method always returns an array (more properly, a nodeList), we get the individual element in the first array index: var bdy = document.getElementsByTagName("body")0; Once we have the parent element, the appendChild method appends the new element to the end of the parent element. The method takes just one parameter: the newly created element. Will a document always have a body element? Typically, yes, if the document is HTML or XHTML. However, if you’re working with other document types, such as SVG or MathML, or are concerned about ensuring that the new element is appended to what- ever is the top-level document element, you can use the approach demonstrated in Recipe 12.0 to get the parent of an existing element that will be a sibling to the new element: var bdy = document.getElementById("div1").parentNode; 246 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook This sibling-parent approach ensures that the new element is appended as a sibling of the existing element, and at the same level in the document tree. 12.4 Triggering Older Versions of IE to Style New Elements Problem You want to use one of the new HTML5 elements, such as article, and have it styled or programmatically accessible in IE7/8. Solution Use document.createElement in order to trigger IE8 (and IE7) into properly handling new HTML5 elements: // add article element document.createElement("article"); Discussion The article element is one of the new HTML5 elements, accessible via the DOM by all of the book’s target browsers except for IE. In order to style or programmatically access article with IE8 or older, you need to apply an HTML5 shim. This shim intro- duces the article and other new elements to the IE DOM tree by using the document.createElement method to create one instance of the element: document.createElement("article"); The element doesn’t have to be assigned to a variable name or inserted into the web page—it just has to be created. Once an instance of the element type is created, IE can recognize the element. This step is essential not only for JavaScript applications, but to ensure the element can be styled with CSS. Entire libraries now exist in order to define all of the HTML5 elements. All you need do is include the library before any other script in the page. The html5-shims page at Google Code maintains a list of HTML5 shims and other resources. The library I use in the book examples is the html5shiv, originally created by John Resig and now main- tained by Remy Sharp, at See Also See Recipes 11.3 and 11.4 for JavaScript applications that are dependent on the HTML5 shim. 12.4 Triggering Older Versions of IE to Style New Elements 247 Download from Wow eBook 12.5 Inserting a New Paragraph Problem You want to insert a new paragraph just before the third paragraph within a div element. Solution Use some method to access the third paragraph, such as getElementsByTagName, to get all of the paragraphs for a div element. Then use the createElement and insertBefore DOM methods to add the new paragraph just before the existing third paragraph: // get the target div var div = document.getElementById("target"); // retrieve a collection of paragraphs var paras = div.getElementsByTagName("p"); // if a third para exists, insert the new element before // otherwise, append the paragraph to the end of the div var newPara = document.createElement("p"); if (paras3) div.insertBefore(newPara, paras3); else div.appendChild(newPara); Discussion The document.createElement method creates any HTML element, which then can be assigned other elements or data and appended or inserted into the page. In the solution, the new paragraph element is inserted before an existing paragraph using the insert Before method. Since we’re interested in inserting the new paragraph before the existing third para- graph, we need to retrieve a collection of the div element’s paragraphs, check to make sure a third paragraph exists, and then use the insertBefore method to insert the new paragraph before the old. If the third paragraph doesn’t exist, we can append the ele- ment to the end of the div element using the appendChild method instead. See Also Chapter 11 demonstrates several techniques for accessing page elements, including getElementsByTagName. If your target browsers support it, you could also use the Selec- tors API to fine-tune the query. The following recipe, Recipe 12.6, contains a complete example demonstrating how to access the div element and the paragraphs, and add a paragraph with text just before the second paragraph. 248 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook 12.6 Adding Text to a New Paragraph Problem You want to create a new paragraph with text and insert it just before the second paragraph within a div element: // use getElementById to access the div element var div = document.getElementById("target"); // use getElementsByTagName and the collection index // to access the second paragraph var oldPara = div.getElementsByTagName("p")1; // zero based index // create a text node var txt = document.createTextNode("The new paragraph will contain this text"); // create a new paragraph var para = document.createElement("p"); // append the text to the paragraph, and insert the new para para.appendChild(txt); div.insertBefore(para, oldPara); Discussion The text within an element is itself an object within the DOM. Its type is a Text node, and it is created using a specialized method, createTextNode. The method takes one parameter: the string containing the text. Example 12-2 shows a web page with a div element containing four paragraphs. The JavaScript that runs after the page loads creates a new paragraph from text provided by the user via a prompt window. The text could just as easily have come from an Ajax application, as we’ll see later in the book. The provided text is used to create a text node, which is then appended as a child node to the new paragraph. The paragraph element is inserted in the web page before the first paragraph. Example 12-2. Demonstrating various methods for adding content to a web page DOCTYPE html html xmlns="" xml:lang="en" lang="en" head titleAdding Paragraphs/title script type="text/javascript" //CDATA window.onload=function() // use getElementById to access the div element 12.6 Adding Text to a New Paragraph 249 Download from Wow eBook var div = document.getElementById("target"); // get paragraph text var txt = prompt("Enter new paragraph text",""); // use getElementsByTagName and the collection index // to access the first paragraph var oldPara = div.getElementsByTagName("p")0; //zero based index // create a text node var txtNode = document.createTextNode(txt); // create a new paragraph var para = document.createElement("p"); // append the text to the paragraph, and insert the new para para.appendChild(txtNode); div.insertBefore(para, oldPara); // /script /head body div id="target" p There is a language 'little known,'br / Lovers claim it as their own. /p p Its symbols smile upon the land, br / Wrought by nature's wondrous hand; /p p And in their silent beauty speak,br / Of life and joy, to those who seek. /p p For Love Divine and sunny hours br / In the language of the flowers. /p /div /body /html Figure 12-2 shows a web page after some text has been added. Inserting user-supplied text directly into a web page without scrubbing the text first is not a good idea. When you leave a door open, all sorts of nasty things can crawl in. Example 12-2 is for demonstration purpo- ses only. 250 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook Figure 12-2. Demonstrating adding paragraphs and text to web page See Also See Chapter 18 for demonstrations of using Ajax to retrieve new page contents. 12.7 Adding Attributes to an Existing Element Problem You want to add one or more attributes to an existing element. Solution You can use the createAttribute method to create an Attr node, set its value using the nodeValue property, and then use setAttribute to add to an element: var someElement = document.getElement("elem"); var newAttr = document.createAttribute("newAttribute"); newAttr.nodeValue = "testvalue"; someElement.setAttribute(newAttr); or you can set the value directly with setAttribute, passing in the attribute name and value: someElement.setAttribute("newAttribute","testvalue"); Discussion You can add any number of attributes to a document element using either createAt tribute and setAttribute, or setAttribute directly. Both approaches are equally effi- cient, so unless there’s a real need, you’ll most likely want to use the simpler approach of setting the attribute name and value directly in setAttribute. 12.7 Adding Attributes to an Existing Element 251 Download from Wow eBook When would you need to use createAttribute? If the attribute value is going to be another entity reference, as is allowable with XML, you’ll need to use the createAttri bute to create an Attr node, as setAttribute will only support simple strings. You can also use setAttribute to modify the value for an existing attribute, such as the id or class attributes: someElement.setAttribute("id", "newId"); Note, though, that some values have a different name when set directly, than when they’re set using setAttribute. One such as is class, which is set directly using className: someElement.className = "new"; someElement.setAttribute("class", "new"); If the attribute already exists, assigning a value to the attribute directly or using setAttribute modifies the attribute’s value. Namespace Variation As discussed in Recipes 11.2 and 12.2, if you use the createAttribute or setAttribute methods in a document where multiple namespaces are supported (such as in an XHTML or SVG document), the engine processing the request sets the attribute without a namespace. If you mix setAttribute and setAttributeNS in the same docu- ment, you can end up with the same attribute in different namespaces. If you’re working in a document that’s using elements and attributes from different namespaces, such as an XHTML document that incorporates SVG and MathML, you’ll need to use the namespace-sensitive variants, createAttributeNS and setAttributeNS: someElement.setAttributeNS("", "class", "somename"); 12.8 Testing for a Boolean Attribute Problem You want to test to see if an element has a Boolean attribute. Solution Use the hasAttribute method to check for the existence of the Boolean or any other attribute: var targetNode = document.getElementById("target"); if (targetNode.hasAttribute("class")) alert(targetNode.getAttribute("class")); 252 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook Discussion Boolean attributes, referred to as attribute minimization in the XHTML specifications, are attributes in HTML where the attribute’s presence signifies a state, and is assigned no value. An example is the use of the Boolean attribute compact with the dl element: dl compact In XHTML, these attributes have to be assigned a value, so they’re assigned a value comparable to the name of the attribute: dl compact="compact" You can check for the Boolean attribute (or any other) using hasAttribute or its name- space variation: var res = div.hasAttributeNS("","attrnm"); A value of true signifies the attribute is present; false that it is not. The hasAttribute method is not supported in IE7. See Also See Recipes 11.2 and 12.2 for more on namespace issues. 12.9 Removing an Attribute Problem You want to remove an attribute from an element. Solution Use the removeAttribute method: if (targetNode.hasAttribute("class")) targetNode.removeAttribute("class"); alert(targetNode.getAttribute("class")); // null Discussion Most of the time, you’re probably interested in changing an attribute’s value, but there may be times when you want to remove an attribute completely. You might be tempted to set the value of the attribute to null to remove it: div.setAttribute("class",null); 12.9 Removing an Attribute 253 Download from Wow eBook However, this is not correct. To remove any attribute, use the removeAttribute method, or its namespace variant, removeAttributeNS: div.removeAttributeNS("","customattr"); You don’t technically have to use hasAttribute to check if the attribute exists first— using removeAttribute on a nonexistent attribute does not throw an exception. Handy, since IE7 does not support hasAttribute. See Also See Recipes 11.2 and 12.2 for more on namespace-specific methods. 12.10 Moving a Paragraph Problem You want to move the last paragraph to before the first. Solution Get a reference to the paragraph you want to move, the first paragraph, and the parent element for the first paragraph, and use insertBefore to insert the last paragraph before the first: var para = document.getElementsByTagName("p"); var parent = para0.parentNode; parent.insertBefore(parapara.length-1, para0); Discussion An element exists only once in the DOM regardless of its location. When you insert or append the element in a new location, it’s automatically removed from its previous position in the page layout. See Also See Recipe 12.2 for a description of insertBefore. 12.11 Replacing Links with Footnote Bullets Problem You want to scan a web page for links, remove the links from the page, and replace them with text-based footnote bullets at the end of the document. 254 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook Solution You’ll have to use a variety of techniques to accomplish this task. Example 12-3 dem- onstrates a full application that moves all of the links contained in a paragraph to a bulleted footnote list at the end of the document—copying the contents of the link to the original link position first, and adding a superscript to reference the new footnote. Example 12-3. Application to pull links out of the web document and append in a list at the end DOCTYPE html head titleMoving Links/title style ul li list-style-type: none; padding-bottom: 5px; /style script type="text/javascript" window.onload=function() var links = document.querySelectorAll("a"); var footnote = document.createElement("ul"); // for all links for (var i = 0; i links.length; i++) // get parent element var parent = linksi.parentNode; // create number index text var num = document.createTextNode(i+1); var sup = document.createElement("sup"); sup.appendChild(num); // process the children var children = linksi.childNodes; for (var j = 0; j children.length; j++) var newChild = childrenj.cloneNode(true); parent.insertBefore(newChild,linksi); // add number subscript var sup2 = sup.cloneNode(true); parent.insertBefore(sup2,linksi); // add a link to footnote var li = document.createElement("li"); li.appendChild(sup); li.appendChild(linksi); footnote.appendChild(li); 12.11 Replacing Links with Footnote Bullets 255 Download from Wow eBook document.getElementsByTagName("body")0.appendChild(footnote); /script /headbody div id="target" pA favorite place of mine to visit in St. Louis is the a href="http://"Missouri Botanical Gardens/a. Great flowers all year round, and one of the finest annual orchid shows. My most visited places, though, are the a href=""St. Louis Zoo/a, the a href=""emGateway Arch/em/a, the new a href=""City Garden/a, and the a href=""Powder Valley Conservation Nature Center/a. /p /div /body Discussion As demonstrated in the solution, you can use querySelectorAll to find all the links in the page, passing in the anchor tag: var links = document.querySelectorAll("a"); You can’t use getElementsByTagName to get the links, and I’ll explain why a little later in the discussion. The solution also creates a new unordered list to contain the links we pull out of the document. Once you have a reference to all the links in the page, it’s time for the fun part. One of the interesting challenges with moving a link is that you typically want to preserve the link’s text in place—especially if the link references meaningful content—beyond the to-be-discouraged “here” or “link”. You can’t assume the link contents are text because a link can contain other elements (though not another link). You could use innerHTML to access and copy the contents, but innerHTML isn’t well supported in XHTML. Another approach is to move all of the child nodes out of the link. Now, you might think a way to move the link contents out of the link is to use something like the following: var children = linksi.childNodes; for (var j = 0; j children.length; j++) parent.insertBefore(childrenj,linksi); The problem with this approach, though, is that childNodes points to a nodeList. In Chapter 11, we learned that nodeLists are live collections, which means changes in the page are reflected immediately in the nodeList in our code. So, if the link is something like the following: a href=""O'Reilly sells embooks/em/a 256 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook The childNodes collection would have a length of 2 for the text node and the em. How- ever, in the first loop iteration, once the first element has been moved (in this case, inserted before the existing link’s location, but it could be moved to the bullet list), the length of the childNodes value is now 1, but the for loop iterator has been incremented to 1—there is now only one child in the collection, and the for loop exits, leaving us with a link with the contents of the em element. This is all really nice functionality, but it works against us sometimes. This is also the reason I didn’t use the getElementsByTagName method to get a list of the anchor tags. The getElementsByTagName also returns a live nodeList, and when we append the links to the in-memory unordered list, the link is removed from the document, and the length of the collection is affected. Luckily, as the solution demonstrates, we have other methods that do what we want, without the interesting side effects. The cloneNode method is used to clone the child elements, which the solution places just before the link. Once the children are taken care of, the entire link element is moved to the bulleted list using appendChild on a newly created list element (li), which is then appended to our unordered list (ul). When using cloneNode, especially in a circumstance such as this, you’ll want to pass a parameter of true when cloning the node: var newElement = oldElement.cloneNode(true); This ensures that all of the node’s children are also cloned in place, in addition to the element. Once all of the links are processed in the document, the last act is to append the unordered list to the end of the document. Figure 12-3 shows the web page after the JavaScript is finished. The application works with all the book’s target browsers. It doesn’t work with IE7, because that browser version does not support the querySelectorAll method. 12.12 Adding Rows to an Existing Table Problem You want to add one or more rows to an HTML table. Solution Adding table rows isn’t complicated, but depending on the size of the table, it can be tedious. For each table cell, you have to create a textNode for the value, append the value to a new td element, append the element to a new tr element, and then append the whole thing to the table: var table = document.getElementById("targettable"); var tr = document.createElement("tr"); var td = document.createElement("td"); 12.12 Adding Rows to an Existing Table 257 Download from Wow eBook var txt = document.createTextNode("some value"); td.appendChild(txt); tr.appendChild(td); table.appendChild(tr); Figure 12-3. Web page after application has pulled all in-page links to a separate bulleted list Discussion Usually, when we’re creating table rows it’s because we’ve received data back from an Ajax function call. Typically, the data is organized in such a way that we can use loops of some form to process the data and simplify the process. Example 12-4 demonstrates how for loops can be used to process data in arrays, and to create all the necessary table elements. Example 12-4. Extracting data from arrays and creating and appending table rows DOCTYPE html head titleSum Table Column/title script window.onload=function() var values = new Array(3); values0 = 123.45, "apple", true; values1 = 65, "banana", false; values2 = 1034.99, "cherry", false; 258 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook var mixed = document.getElementById("mixed"); // IE7 only supports appending rows to tbody var tbody = document.createElement("tbody"); // for each outer array row for (var i = 0 ; i values.length; i++) var tr = document.createElement("tr"); // for each inner array cell // create td then text, append for (var j = 0; j valuesi.length; j++) var td = document.createElement("td"); var txt = document.createTextNode(valuesij); td.appendChild(txt); tr.appendChild(td); // append row to table // IE7 requires append row to tbody, append tbody to table tbody.appendChild(tr); mixed.appendChild(tbody); /script /head body table id="mixed" trthValue One/ththValue two/ththValue three/th/tr /table /body The data for the table is in static arrays, but could easily be XML or JSON returned from an Ajax call. To repeat, the steps to create and add a table row are: 1. Create the table row (tr). 2. For each table cell, create a table cell element (td). 3. For each table cell, create a text node for its data, and set the data. 4. Append the text node to the table cell. 5. Append the table cell to the table row. 6. When all of the table cells have been appended to the table row, append the table row to the tbody element, and the tbody element to the table. The application includes support for creating a tbody element and appending the table rows to this element, which is then appended to the table. IE7 does not allow for direct 12.12 Adding Rows to an Existing Table 259 Download from Wow eBook appending of table rows to the table. IE8 does, though, as do the other supported browsers. See Also Working with XML- and JSON-formatted data is covered in Chapter 19. 12.13 Removing a Paragraph from a div Element Problem You want to remove a paragraph from the web page. Solution You need to find the paragraph’s parent and use the removeChild method to remove the paragraph: var para = document.getElementById("thepara"); para.parentNode.removeChild(para); Discussion The DOM removeChild method removes the element from the display and the DOM tree. The element still remains in memory, though, and you can capture a reference to the element when you make the removeChild call: var oldpara = paraParent.removeChild(child); Example 12-5 demonstrates how to remove paragraphs from the page. When the page is first loaded, all of the paragraphs are accessed via getElementsByTagName and the onclick event handler for each assigned to the pruneParagraph function. The pruneParagraph function references the element that received the click event, finds its parent node, and then removes the paragraph. You can continue to click paragraphs until they’re all gone. After the paragraph is removed, the paragraphs in the page are queried again, and their count printed out. Example 12-5. Removing paragraph elements from the page DOCTYPE html head titleremoveChild/title style p padding: 20px; margin: 10px 0; width: 400px; background-color: eeeeff; 260 Chapter 12: Creating and Removing Elements and Attributes Download from Wow eBook

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