Control systems and simulation lab manual

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Published Date:13-07-2017
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CONTROL SYSTEMS AND SIMULATION LABORATORY MANUAL FOR YEAR 2016-2017 BY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DHULLAPALLY, KOMPALLY SECUNDERABAD-500014St. MARTIN’S ENGINEERING COLLEGE DHULAPALLY, SECUNDERABAD Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering CONTROL SYSTEMS AND SIMULATION LAB LIST OF EXPERIMENTS: S.NO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT 1 TIME RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEM 2 CHARACTERISTC OF SYNCHRO’S 3 PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER-STUDY AND VERIFICATION OF TRUTH TABLES OF LOGIC GATES,SIMPLE BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS ANSD APPLICATION OF SPEED CONTROL OF MOTOR 4 EFEECT OF FEEDBACK ON DC SEVRO MOTOR 5 TRANFER FUNCTION OF DC MOTOR 6 EFFECT OFP,PD,PI,PID CONTROLLER ON A SECOND ORDER SYSTEMS 7 LAG AND LEAD COMPENSATION-MAGNITUDE AND PHASE PLOT 8 TRANSFER FUNCTION OF DC GENERATOR 9 TEMPARATURE CONTROLLER USING PID 10 CHARACTRISTICS OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS11 CHARECTRISTICS OF AC SERVO MOTOR 12 PSPICE SIMULATION OF OP-AMP BASED INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUITS 13 LINER SYSTEM ANALYSIS(TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS,ERROR – ANALYSIS)USING MATLAB 14 STABILITY ANALYSIS(BODE,ROOT LOCUS,NYQUIST)OF LINEAR TIME INVARIANT SYSTEM USING MATLAB 15 STATE SPACE MODEL FOR CLASSICAL TRANSFER FUNCTION USING MATLAB VERIFICATION IN-CHARGE HOD (EEE)EXPERIMENT 1: TIME RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEM 1.1 OBJECTIVE: To compute the Time Response of a second order system (theoretically and practically). 1.2 RESOURCES: 1. Time Response of a second order system Trainer Kit 2. C.R.O. 3. Multi meter. 4. Patch cords. 1.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 1.4 PROCEDURE: 1. Switch ON the Main supply and observe the signal source output by varying potentiometer 2. Apply Square wave or step input by varying amplitude potentiometer. 3. Make sure signal source is connected before the input of the second order system. 4. Now select square wave signal. Draw the input square wave signal. 5. Connect the output of square wave signal source to second order system using RLC. 6. Adjust the resistance value in the RLC circuit for different damping factors. 7. For different values of damping factor, observe second order response. 8. Verify time response specifications theoretically and practically. Note: Use 3 pin grounded main supply to the unit avoid line interference. Use proper CRO probes to see the output wave forms. For all these cases note down the time response specifications and compare them with theoretical values.1.5 OBSERVATION TABLE: C in δ R in L in Sl No Micro (Damping td tr Mp tp ts ess Ohm Henry Farad Factor) 1 500 2 0.32 2 1000 2 0.32 3 1500 2 0.32 4 2000 2 0.32 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10000 2 0.32 Time domain Theoretical Practical specification Rise time (t ) r Peak time (t ) p Delay time (t ) d Setting time (t ) s Peak over shoot (M ) P1.6 MODEL GRAPH: Fig: STEP RESPONSE OF AN UNDERDAMPED STSTEM.CONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR SECOND ORDER SYSTEM USING RLC 1.7 RESULT: 1.8 PRE LAB QUESTIONS: 1. What is Time Response? 2. Define Delay Time, Rise Time, Peak Time, Peak Over Shoot, Settling Time? 3. Define type and order of a system? 4. Distinguish between Type and Order of a system? 1.9 POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. What is Steady State Error? 2. The damping ratio of system is 0.6 and the natural frequency of oscillation is 8 rad/ sec. Determine the rise time. 3. Define Positional Error Constant and Velocity Error Constant?EXPERIMENT 2: CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNCHROS 2.1 OBJECTIVE: To study i) Synchro Transmitter characteristics. ii) Synchro Transmitter – Receiver Characteristics. 2.2 RESOURCES: 1. Synchro Transmitter – Receiver Kit. 2. Patch chords. 2.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM:2.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:2.5 PROCEDURE: Transmitter Characteristics: 1. Connect the mains supply to the system with the help of a cable provided. Do not connect any patch cords to terminals marked S , S and S , R and R . 1 2 3 1 2 2. Switch ON mains of the unit. 3. Initially switch ON Sw1, starting from ZERO position, note down the voltage between stator winding terminals (i.e. V , V and V ) in a sequential S1S2 S2S3 S3S1 manner. 4. Measure these voltages by using AC voltmeter provided in the trainer and note down the readings. 5. Plot a graph of angular position of rotor voltages for all three phases. Transmitter-Receiver Characteristics: 1. Connect the mains supply cable. 2. Connect S , S and S terminals of synchro transmitter to S , S and S of synchro 1 2 3 1 2 3 receiver by patch cords provided respectively. 3. Switch ON mains supply and also S and S on the kit. 1 2 4. Move the pointer i.e. rotor position of synchro transmitter T in steps of 30˚and x observe the new rotor position in synchro receiver. 5. Observe that whenever T rotor is rotated, the T rotor follows if for both the x r directions of rotations and their positions are in good agreement. 6. Note down the input angular position and output angular position and plot the graph.2.6 TABULAR COLUMN: Transmitter Characteristics: Sl. Rotor Position V V V S1S2 S2S3 S3S1 No. Transmitter-Receiver Characteristics: Sl. Angular Position of Transmitter Angular Position of Receiver No. 2.7 MODEL GRAPH: Synchro Transmitter Characteristics: V V S1S2 S2S3 V S3S1 Rotor Position Amplitude (V)Synchro Transmitter-Receiver Characteristics: θ r θ S 2.8 PRE LAB QUESTIONS: 1. Define the term "synchro."? 2. Name the two general classifications of synchros? 3. List the different synchro characteristics and give a brief explanation of each? 4. Explain the operation of a basic synchro transmitter and receiver? 5. Name the two types of synchro identification code? 2.9 LAB ASSIGNMENTS: 1. To draw the characteristics of receiver? 2. How it will works in navy systems? 3. Explain what happens when the rotor leads on Synchro transmitter and synchro receiver are reversed? 4. Draw the five standard schematic symbols for synchro and identify all connections?2.10 POST LAB QUESTIONS: 1. State the difference between a synchro transmitter and a synchro receiver? 2. Explain the operation of a simple synchro transmission system? 3. State the purposes of differential synchros? 4. State the purposes and functions of multispeed synchro systems? 5. List the basic components that compose a torque synchro system? 2.11 RESULT: Hence, the synchro transmitter characteristics and synchro transmitter – Receiver characteristics are studied.EXPERIMENT 3:PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER 3.1 OBJECTIVE: To verify the truth tables of the logic gates using programmable logic controller. 3.2 RESOURCES: (i) PLC (ii) Dox mini – software. 3.3 Theory: The programmable logic controller, PLC is a solid state equipment design to perform the function of logical decision making for industrial control application. 3.4 General specifications: Power supply : 24 V DC Standard I/O configuration : 8 inputs / 6 outputs Frequency : up to 2 kHz 3.5 Addressing: Input: 1000.0 to 1000.7 Output: 0000.0 to 0000.5 Flags: 2000.0 to 2031.F Ramword: 20000 to 20511 Table:40000 to 400993.6 Instructions: 1. - - This is a single normally open. 2. - /- This is a single normally close. 3. – ( ) - This represents the coil of output. It is used for result display. 4. – (/) - This represents the inverter coil of output. 5. –(S) - This represents the latch type of coil. It is set to 1 and latched if the result of ladder programmed prior to it is 1 (true). 6. –(R) - It resets the latched coil if the result of ladder programmed prior to it is 1 (true). 7. - P- This instruction detects a +ve edge of the result just prior to this instruction. The output of this instruction remains ON for one scan period. 8. - N- This instruction detects a –ve edge of the result just prior to this instruction. 9. – (MCR) - Master control relay. 10. – (ME) - Master end. 11. – (LBL) - Label. 12. – (JMP) - Jump. 13. – (FUN) - To select the desired function from function block.3.7 WRITING THE PROGRAM: 1. Dox- mini software works on only Mi-Dos mode. 2. Restart in Dos mode. 3. Open Dox-mini software menu. 4. Press ‘Alt+F’ open the fine menu. Select ‘write to file’ option. Press enter key. 5. Give the file name press enter key. 6. Write the desired program in the blank space by using keys which are shown in window. 7. After writing the program press F to save the program. 5 3.8 Instructions to execute the program: 1. Go to online menu by pressing ‘Alt+O’. 2. Select download PC → PLC options press enter key. 3. It displays ‘Down loading successful, put PLC in run mode”, press yes. 4. Next it displays ‘PLC in RUN mode’ press OK. 5. Execution is ended. 3.9 Precautions: 1. Apply ‘High’ or ‘Low’ to input terminals. 2. Don’t give any external power supply to the unit. 3. Don’t short make any interconnection between high (and24V) and low ground. 3.10 Example programs: 1. AND GATE: 2. OR GATE:3. NOT GATE:: 4. EX – NOR: 5. NAND GATE by using De-Morgan’s law: 6. NOR GATE by using De-Morgan’s law: 7. MULTIPLEXER:In this program 1000.6 and 1000.7 are the selected lines to select the inputs from 1000.0 to 1000.3 we get the display as 0000.0. 8. Half Adder: Note: A (1000.0) & B (1000.1) are inputs Sum is output at 0000.1 carry is 0000.0 3.11 Result: All the truth tables of the logic gates have been verified using programmable logic controller.EXPERIMENT 4: EFFECT OF FEEDBACK ON DC SERVOMOTOR 4.1 OBJECTIVE : To study the performance characteristics of a dc motor angular position control system 4.2 RESOURCES: 1. DC Position control unit 2. Oscilloscope 4.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT: The equipment consists of a DC Motor, connected to a load through gears. The 0 angular position is sensed by a 360 rotation potentiometer attached to it. A calibrated disk mounted on the potentiometer indicates its angular position in degrees. A small tachogenerator is also attached to provide rate feedback. 4.4 RATING OF THE MOTOR: 12V DC, 1.2 amps, 50 rpm Torque: 750 gm-cm The main unit consists of the following systems: COMMAND: Two operating modes are provided. Continuous command is given by the rotation of the potentiometer with a calibrated disc showing the angle. A step 0 command can also be given which is equivalent to about 150 through a switch.ERROR DETECTOR: This is a 4-input, 1-output block. The inputs and outputs are as indicated in figure GAIN BLOCKS: The forward path gain is adjustable from 0 to 10 and the tachogenerator channel has a gain, which can be varied from 0 to 1. DRIVER: The driver circuit is a power amplifier suitable to run the motor in either direction. WAVEFORM CAPTURE UNIT: Since the response of the mechanical system is too slow for an oscilloscope to capture a waveform, capture/display unit is provided to store the wave form and then display it in ordinary oscilloscope. 4.5 PROCEDURE: Procedure for operation of waveform capture /display: 1. Switch on power/press reset. The unit goes into display mode. It displays X and Y axis. 2. Calibrate the time scale of the display. Feed the X-output to Y-input of the CRO and determine its time period and amplitude and find time/voltage. This gives the required calibrations. 3. Press mode switch. The unit goes into capture mode and is ready to record the response. At the end of the capture cycle the mode automatically shifts top display mode and the waveform is displayed on the scope. Position control through continuous command: 1. Step switch should be in off position. 2. Move the command potentiometer in small steps and observe the rotation of the load potentiometer. Record σ Vσ and V for as few values of K . R, R, 02 0 A 3. Calculate the error for different amplifier gains K A Position control through step command:

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