ETS-7000 digital-analog training system lab manual

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ANALOG SYSTEM LAB MANUAL Second EditionANALOG SYSTEM LAB MANUAL Second Edition Learning to Design Analog Systems using Analog System Lab Starter Kit Dr. K.R.K. Rao and Dr. C.P. Ravikumar Texas Instruments, India Bagmane Tech Park CV Raman Nagar Bangalore 560093 IndiaAnalog System Lab Manual Second Edition Learning to Design Analog Systems using Analog System Lab Starter Kit Copyright © 2012 by Texas Instruments All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or scanning without the written permission of Texas Instruments Limits of Liability: While the publisher and the author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, Wiley and the author make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book, and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. There are no warranties which extend beyond the descriptions contained in this paragraph. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The accuracy and completeness of the information provided herein and the opinions stated herein are not guaranteed or warranted to produce any particular results, and the advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every individual. Neither Wiley India nor the author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Disclaimer: The contents of this book have been checked for accuracy. Since deviations cannot be precluded entirely, Wiley or its author cannot guarantee full agreement. As the book is intended for educational purpose, Wiley or its author shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions or damages arising out of the use of the information contained in the book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. Trademarks: All brand names and product names used in this book are trademarks, registered trademarks, or trade names of their respective holders. Wiley is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Other Wiley Editorial Offices: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Pappellaee 3, D-69469 Weinheim, Germany John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, 42 McDougall Street, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 1 Fusionopolis Walk 07-01 Solaris, South Tower, Singapore 138628 John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, M9W 1L1 First Edition: 2011 Second Edition: 2012 ISBN: 978-81-265-3742-6 Printed at: Paras Printers, DelhiForewordtotheSecondEdition The first version of this manual, released in 2011, has been received with great enthusiasmbyteachersandstudents.Wethankeveryoneforthiswarmreception. We are happy to place in your hands the revised version of the Analog System Lab Manual. The Analog System Lab Kit and the associated manual were created to help colleges in India in updating their curriculum for courses related to analog. Ana- log electronics occupies a very special and significant place in modern-day systems. In the past decade,India has seen the emergence of a number of systemdesign com- panies. Manufacturing of electronic products has also received a significant boost. Thesecompanieslookforsystem-leveldesignskillsinbothanaloganddigitaldomains. Unfortunately, analog system design is not emphasized in the conventional way of teachinganalog.Ourattemptistohelpbridgethisgapatanearlystageinundergradu- atecoursework.WebelievethattheASLKcanbeadoptedbybothundergraduateand postgraduatestudents. v TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page v - 1ForewordtotheSecondEdition Since ASLK Starter kit was introduced, close to 100 colleges in India have intro- duced it in their teaching curriculum. We have interacted with hundreds of Indian teachersinthefacultydevelopmentprogramsonAnalogSystemDesignthatwerecon- ductedinthelastyear.Severalcollegeshaveindependentlyconductedsuchhands-on workshopsforteachersaswellasstudents.Weareencouragedbytheacceptanceof the kit as an educational tool that is easy to use. We are grateful to all the comments andfeedbackwehavereceivedfromacademia.Severalteachershavetoldusthatthey havedesignednewexperimentsintheareasofcommunicationsandcontrols.Several companies used ASLK in their in-house training programs. To see the reaction from students, we made it mandatory for participants of TI India Analog Design Contest to carry out a challenging experiment on the ASLK. We could not have expected a more positive response Some students even surprised us by using ASLK for new experi- ments such as motor control and simulation of chaos in oscillators We encourage students and teachers to explore such innovative applications of ASLK. TI has a vast portfolio of analog ICs to select from. Please make use of TI’s "free samples" program tocarryoutadditionalexperimentsonASLK. Basedonthefeedbackwereceived,wehaveintroducedafewchangesinthisver- sionofthemanual.Wearesureyouwillliketheaestheticimprovementstothemanual, including the colored illustrations. A pin diagram of the ASLK is included with the kit to facilitate the connections. We have added several additional exercises in almost all chapters. These additional exercises are marked with a star; we have provided the component values and typical simulation results in these exercises. The starred exercises can be good starting points when one begins to use ASLK. However, we emphasize the importance of the other exercises which involve design. We suggest thatateacherassignsamixofstarredandtheotherexercisesinthelabwork. We are pleased to acknowledge the help from several persons in preparing this manual. Ms Meenakshi Sehrawat of Wiley-India has done a creditable job of editing. We thank Praveen Settigere of Wiley-India for his continued support. Joyan Gratian SanctisofTIIndiahastakentheexcellentpictureoftheASLKincludedinthismanual. WeareindebtedtoSagarJunejaforhisconstanthelpinallaspectsofASLKpromotion. vi TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page vi - 2ForewordtotheSecondEdition We thank Cranes Software for their manufacturing and promotion of ASLK. We thank allourcolleaguesinTIIndiafortheirconstantsupportandencouragement. Asalways,weareeagertoknowyourfeedback K.R.K.Rao C.P.Ravikumar July2012 TexasInstruments,India BagmaneTechPark CVRamanNagar Bangalore560093 India vii TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page vii - 3TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page viii - 4ForewordtotheFirstEdition Although digital signal processing is the most common way to process signals, ana- log signal processing cannot be completely avoided since the real world is analog in nature. The goal of the Analog System Lab is to provide students an exposure to the fascinating world of analog and mixed-signal signal processing. The course can be adaptedforanundergraduateorapostgraduatecurriculum.Aspartofthelabcourse, the student will build analog systems using analog ICs and study their macro models, characteristics and limitations. Our philosophy in designing this lab course has been to focus on system design rather than circuit design. We feel that many Analog Design classes in the colleges focus on the circuit design aspect, ignoring the issues encountered in system design. In the real world, a system designer uses the analog ICs as building blocks. The focus of the system designer is to optimize system-level cost, power and performance. IC manufacturerssuchasTexasInstrumentsofferalargenumberofchoicesofintegrated circuitskeepinginmindthediverserequirementsofsystemdesigners.Adesignermust ix TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page ix - 5ForewordtotheFirstEdition be aware of these diverse offerings of semiconductors and select the right IC for the rightapplication.Wehavetriedtoemphasizethisaspectindesigningtheexperiments inthismanual. We believe that there is a need to make a significant change to the way analog design is taught in the engineering colleges today. The conventional way of starting with device physics and moving on to the design and analysis of analog circuits at the transistor-level needs rethinking. What is proposed is a two-tier approach to teaching analog design – start with analog systems and then move to circuits. Analog systems are part of every electronic system today and we believe they must be taught in the “building block” spirit that has worked well for digital design. There are many system design companies today looking for engineers who can design using analog ICs; they hardlyeverdesignorevenuseacommonemitteramplifieroraWien-bridgeoscillator Thereare10experimentsintheAnalogSystemLab,whichcanbecarriedouteither individually or by groups of two or three students. In the first phase of experiments, two basic analog building blocks are introduced, namely, Operational Amplifiers and Analog Multipliers. In the second phase, we explain how larger analog systems such asintegrators,differentiators,filters,functiongenerators,VCO,PLL,DC-DCconverters and regulators can be constructed using the basic building blocks. The emphasis is on learning by paper design, simulation through SPICE, hardware construction, and analysis of results. With each experiment, we provide brief theoretical background, references to literature (mostly online and easy to access), the specification of the design experiment, measurements to be taken, and the documents to be submitted at theendoftheexperiment.Ateacher’smanualcanbemadeavailableonrequest. This manual is the result of almost a year’s effort. We have received support from a number of individuals when we were working on this manual. It is our pleasure to acknowledge their contribution. We acknowledge the encouragement and sup- port from Syd Coppersmith (WW Manager, TI Analog University Program) throughout this endeavor. A number of colleagues at Texas Instruments, India have helped us and encouraged us at different stages of the development of the kit and the manual. Our sincere thanks are due to all of them. Mr Krishnamurthy Bhat of Basaveshwara x TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page x - 6ForewordtotheFirstEdition Engineering College (Bagalkot, Karnataka, India) spent several months with us, help- ingusrealizethekitasaproduct.HewasablyhelpedbySagarJuneja,thenastudent internatTIIndia.Sagarhasalsoreadvariousdraftsofthismanualandprovidedhelpful comments.UllasTaneja,anotherstudentintern,helpedinrecordingthevideolectures thatprovidemoreinformationontheseexperiments.PulkitJain,alsoanintern,helped usbydrawingmanyofthediagramsinthismanual.Wethankthefacultymemberswho attended the faculty development programs where initial drafts of this manual and the Analog System Lab Kit were used; their feedback has been useful in improving the kit aswellasthemanual. We thank Mr. E.S. Kannan of YEE YES and Mr. Ashfaq Ibrahim of Cranes Software for their support. We thank Mr. Praveen Settigere of Wiley India for his interest in this projectandforallthehelpheprovidedinpublishingthemanual. We hope you and your students will find the Analog Systems Lab Kit and the exper- iments in this manual rewarding. We intend to continue to develop more experiments and learning materials in the future; we will share them on the TI India University Pro- gram website ( We are eager to know your critique of the kit as well as themanual.Dowritetous K.R.K.Rao C.P.Ravikumar November,2010 TexasInstruments,India BagmaneTechPark CVRamanNagar Bangalore560093 India xi TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xi - 7TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xii - 8Contents 0 Introduction 1 0.1 AnalogSystemLab 1 0.2 OrganizationoftheAnalogSystemLabCourse 3 0.3 LabSetup 6 0.3.1 ImportantNotes 6 0.4 SystemLabKitASLKv2010Starter:AnOverview 7 0.4.1 Hardware 7 0.4.2 Software 10 0.5 FamiliarizingwithASLKv2010StarterKit 11 0.6 OrganizationoftheManual 14 xiii TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xiii - 9Contents 1 Experiment 1 Negative Feedback Amplifiers and Instrumentation Amplifier 15 1.1 GoaloftheExperiment 15 1.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 15 1.2.1 UnityGainAmplifier 15 1.3 Specifications 20 1.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 22 1.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 24 1.6 Exercises 25 1.7 OtherRelatedICs 28 1.8 RelatedReading 28 2 Experiment 2 Regenerative Feedback System, Astable and Monostable Multivibrator 29 2.1 GoaloftheExperiment 29 2.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 29 2.2.1 InvertingRegenerativeComparator 29 2.2.2 AstableMultivibrator 32 2.2.3 MonostableMultivibrator(Timer) 32 2.3 Specifications 34 2.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 34 2.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 35 2.6 Exercises 35 xiv TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xiv - 10Contents 3 Experiment 3 Integrators and Differentiators 37 3.1 GoaloftheExperiment 37 3.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 37 3.2.1 Integrators 38 3.2.2 Differentiators 38 3.3 Specifications 39 3.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 39 3.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 40 3.6 Exercise:GroundedCapacitorTopologiesofIntegratorandDifferentiator 43 4 Experiment 4 Analog Filters 45 4.1 GoaloftheExperiment 45 4.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 45 4.2.1 FrequencyResponseofFilters 47 4.3 Specifications 47 4.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 48 4.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 49 4.6 Exercises 50 4.7 RelatedICs 52 5 Experiment 5 Self-tuned Filter 53 5.1 GoaloftheExperiment 53 5.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 53 5.2.1 MultiplierasaPhaseDetector 55 xv TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xv - 11Contents 5.3 Specification 60 5.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 60 5.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 60 5.6 Exercises 61 5.7 RelatedICs 63 6 Experiment 6 Function Generator and Voltage-Controlled Oscillator 65 6.1 GoaloftheExperiment 65 6.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 65 • VCO • FunctionGenerator • FM/FSKGenerator 6.3 Specifications 68 6.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 68 6.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 68 6.6 Exercises 69 7 Experiment 7 Phase Locked Loop 71 7.1 GoaloftheExperiment 71 7.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 71 • PhaseLockLoop 7.3 Specifications 73 7.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 73 7.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 74 7.6 Exercises 75 xvi TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xvi - 12Contents 8 Experiment 8 Automatic Gain Control (AGC)/Automatic Volume Control (AVC) 79 8.1 GoaloftheExperiment 79 8.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 79 • AutomaticGain/VolumeControl 8.3 Specification 81 8.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 81 8.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 81 8.6 Exercises 82 9 Experiment 9 DC–DC Converter 85 9.1 GoaloftheExperiment 85 9.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 85 • DC/DCConverter • Class-DPowerAmplifier 9.3 Specification 86 9.4 WhatShouldyouSubmit 86 9.5 Exercises 89 10 Experiment 10 Low Dropout (LDO)/Linear Regulator 91 10.1 GoaloftheExperiment 91 10.2 BriefTheoryandMotivation 91 • LinearRegulator 10.3 Specifications 92 xvii TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xvii - 13Contents 10.4 MeasurementstobeTaken 94 10.5 WhatShouldyouSubmit 94 10.6 Exercises 95 A ICs used inASLKv2010Starter Kit 97 A.1 TL082:JFET-InputOperationalAmplifier 97 A.1.1 Features 97 A.1.2 Applications 98 A.1.3 Description 98 A.1.4 DownloadDatasheet 98 A.2 MPY634:Wide-BandwidthAnalogPrecisionMultiplier 99 A.2.1 Features 99 A.2.2 Applications 99 A.2.3 Description 100 A.2.4 DownloadDatasheet 100 A.3 DAC7821:12Bit,Parallel,MultiplyingDAC 100 A.3.1 Features 100 A.3.2 Applications 101 A.3.3 Description 102 A.3.4 DownloadDatasheet 102 A.4 TPS40200:Wide-Input,Non-SynchronousBuckDC/DCController 102 A.4.1 Features 102 A.4.2 Applications 104 xviii TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xviii - 14Contents A.4.3 Description 104 A.4.4 TPS40200EVM-002 105 A.4.5 DownloadDatasheet 105 A.5 TLV700xx:200mA,LowIQ,LowDropoutRegulatorforPortables 105 A.5.1 Features 105 A.5.2 Applications 106 A.5.3 Description 106 A.5.4 TLV70018EVM-503EvaluationModule 107 A.5.5 DownloadDatasheet 107 B Introduction to Macromodels 109 B.1 Micromodels 110 B.2 Macromodels 112 C Activity: To Convert your PC/Laptop into an Oscilloscope 113 C.1 Introduction 113 C.2 Limitations 115 D System Lab KitASLKv2010Starter Kit Connection Diagrams 117 Bibliography 125 Index 129 xix TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xix - 15TexasLabManual: “tlm” - 2012/8/14 - 14:55 - page xx - 16

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