Thermodynamics lab manual

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LABORATORY MANUAL MECH 351 Thermodynamics II WRITTEN BY: P. SAKARIS Fall 2009 Edition M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL General Laboratory Safety Rules Follow Relevant Instructions • Before attempting to install, commission or operate equipment, all relevant suppliers’/manufacturers’ instructions and local regulations should be understood and implemented. • It is irresponsible and dangerous to misuse equipment or ignore instructions, regulations or warnings. • Do not exceed specified maximum operating conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure, speed etc.). Installation/Commissioning • Use lifting table where possible to install heavy equipment. Where manual lifting is necessary beware of strained backs and crushed toes. Get help from an assistant if necessary. Wear safety shoes appropriate. • Extreme care should be exercised to avoid damage to the equipment during handling and unpacking. When using slings to lift equipment, ensure that the slings are attached to structural framework and do not foul adjacent pipe work, glassware etc. • Locate heavy equipment at low level. • Equipment involving inflammable or corrosive liquids should be sited in a containment area or bund with a capacity 50% greater that the maximum equipment contents. • Ensure that all services are compatible with equipment and that independent isolators are always provided and labeled. Use reliable connections in all instances, do not improvise. • Ensure that all equipment is reliably grounded and connected to an electrical supply at the correct voltage. • Potential hazards should always be the first consideration when deciding on a suitable location for equipment. Leave sufficient space between equipment and between walls and equipment. • Ensure that equipment is commissioned and checked by a competent member of staff permitting students to operate it. Operation • Ensure the students are fully aware of the potential hazards when operating equipment. • Students should be supervised by a competent member of staff at all times when in the laboratory. No one should operate equipment alone. Do not leave equipment running unattended. vi M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL • Do not allow students to derive their own experimental procedures unless they are competent to do so. Maintenance • Badly maintained equipment is a potential hazard. Ensure that a competent member of staff is responsible for organizing maintenance and repairs on a planned basis. • Do not permit faulty equipment to be operated. Ensure that repairs are carried out competently and checked before students are permitted to operate the equipment. Electricity • Electricity is the most common cause of accidents in the laboratory. Ensure that all members of staff and students respect it. • Ensure that the electrical supply has been disconnected from the equipment before attempting repairs or adjustments. • Water and electricity are not compatible and can cause serious injury if they come into contact. Never operate portable electric appliances adjacent to equipment involving water unless some form of constraint or barrier is incorporated to prevent accidental contact. • Always disconnect equipment from the electrical supply when not in use. Avoiding Fires or Explosion • Ensure that the laboratory is provided with adequate fire extinguishers appropriate to the potential hazards. • Smoking must be forbidden. Notices should be displayed to enforce this. • Beware since fine powders or dust can spontaneously ignite under certain conditions. Empty vessels having contained inflammable liquid can contain vapor and explode if ignited. • Bulk quantities of inflammable liquids should be stored outside the laboratory in accordance with local regulations. • Storage tanks on equipment should not be overfilled. All spillages should be immediately cleaned up, carefully disposing of any contaminated cloths etc. Beware of slippery floors. • When liquids giving off inflammable vapors are handled in the laboratory, the area should be properly ventilated. • Students should not be allowed to prepare mixtures for analysis or other purposes without competent supervision. vii M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL Handling Poisons, Corrosive or Toxic Materials • Certain liquids essential to the operation of equipment, for example, mercury, are poisonous or can give off poisonous vapors. Wear appropriate protective clothing when handling such substances. • Do not allow food to be brought into or consumed in the laboratory. Never use chemical beakers as drinking vessels • Smoking must be forbidden. Notices should be displayed to enforce this. • Poisons and very toxic materials must be kept in a locked cupboard or store and checked regularly. Use of such substances should be supervised. Avoid Cuts and Burns • Take care when handling sharp edged components. Do not exert undue force on glass or fragile items. • Hot surfaces cannot, in most cases, be totally shielded and can produce severe burns even when not visibly hot. Use common sense and think which parts of the equipment are likely to be hot. Eye/Ear Protection • Goggles must be worn whenever there is risk to the eyes. Risk may arise from powders, liquid splashes, vapors or splinters. Beware of debris from fast moving air streams. • Never look directly at a strong source of light such as a laser or Xenon arc lamp. Ensure the equipment using such a source is positioned so that passers-by cannot accidentally view the source or reflected ray. • Facilities for eye irrigation should always be available. • Ear protectors must be worn when operating noisy equipment. Clothing • Suitable clothing should be worn in the laboratory. Loose garments can cause serious injury if caught in rotating machinery. Ties, rings on fingers etc. should be removed in these situations. • Additional protective clothing should be available for all members of staff and students as appropriate. Guards and Safety Devices • Guards and safety devices are installed on equipment to protect the operator. The equipment must not be operated with such devices removed. • Safety valves, cut-outs or other safety devices will have been set to protect the equipment. Interference with these devices may create a potential hazard. viii M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL • It is not possible to guard the operator against all contingencies. Use commons sense at all times when in the laboratory. • Before staring a rotating machine, make sure staff are aware how to stop it in an emergency. • Ensure that speed control devices are always set to zero before starting equipment. First Aid • If an accident does occur in the laboratory it is essential that first aid equipment is available and that the supervisor knows how to use it. • A notice giving details of a proficient first-aider should be prominently displayed. • A short list of the antidotes for the chemicals used in the particular laboratory should be prominently displayed. ix M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL Execution of the Experiments Each experiment presented in this manual is performed on a bi-weekly basis. The order of performance of each experiment is followed unless specified otherwise by the laboratory instructor. In order that the laboratory session is conducted in the most meaningful manner possible, it is imperative that each student read, study, and understand the experiment to be conducted prior to coming to the class. The student should also read and understand the laboratory safety guidelines for undergraduate laboratories. Failure to follow safety guidelines will result in expulsion from the lab. Students are divided into groups of four to perform the experiment. Each group is required to work together throughout the semester. In other words, no switching groups in mid-stream. Students must come to the laboratory at their registered section. Consult the calendar at the beginning of this manual. Since the laboratory represents a significant portion of the student's practical training, it is imperative that the students perform all the experiments. An attendance sheet is circulated and it is the responsibility of the student to sign it at each lab session. The lab instructor is not expected to remember if the student attended and later forgot to sign the attendance sheet. After missing an experiment for any reason, students should report to their lab instructor as soon as possible (not waiting until the next regular meeting of the class) and arrange to make up the work with another laboratory section if possible provided an authenticated valid note is given, otherwise a zero grade will be assessed. If it is not possible to make up the lab due to schedule issues, the students will receive a final lab grade based on the labs performed only. Any student who arrives late (at the discretion of the instructor) to the laboratory will be deducted 25% on the laboratory report. Students arriving 30 minutes after the start of the experiment is considered as a missed lab and not a valid reason to repeat at a later date. At the end of each lab, the laboratory instructor must sign the completed data sheet provided in this manual. This signed sheet must be incorporated at the end of the laboratory report to be submitted by the group. Students should always have on hand paper, pencil, eraser, calculator and a 3½″ floppy disk or USB flash drive to copy data files if needed. Office hours are given at the discretion of the laboratory instructor and are announced in the first lab session. x M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL Laboratory Report General Each group will submit a complete written report covering each experiment performed. The report is to be the groups own work. The report will be written in the third person, past tense (for procedures executed, data taken, and results obtained), and should be self-sufficient. In other words, the reader should not need to consult the references in order to understand the report. Correct English and spelling should be used. The reports are practice for writing technical reports similar to those, which are required by engineers engaged in industry and engineering practice. The report must be typed using a word processor and stapled only (i.e. no paper clips). All pages, equations, figures, graphs and tables must be numbered. Figures, tables, graphs, etc., must have titles and be introduced in a sentence in the text of the report. Figures must have axis labels that name the variable as well as giving its symbol and units if appropriate. Figures, graphs, and tables must be neat and clear. Figures and graphs should be generated on the computer through drawing and plotting software (SigmaPlot or Excel are examples). Choose scales that are appropriate to the range of data and that can be easily read. Leave room on the paper for scales, labels, and titles. Specifications In order to observe the accepted rules of good writing form, the following specifications for the general makeup of the report are suggested: 1. Use 8 ½ x 11 inch white paper. 2. Write the report with a word processor. 3. Consistent fonts and presentation for every section of the report. 4. Use one side of the paper only. 5. Create all drawings and figures using computer drawing and plotting programs. Scanned images are allowed where appropriate. 6. Use the same font style on drawings and graphs as used in the text. Graphs axes should be clearly labeled, including units where appropriate. 7. Discrete experimental data that are plotted on appropriate graphs should be designated with small symbols, such as circles, to distinguish these data from those represented by curves fitted through them either intuitively or statistically or by mathematical model. If more that one dependent variable (ordinate) is presented on a graph, each variable should have a different symbol. xi M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL 8. When mathematically fitting curves to experimental data, use appropriate judgment. Just because a 6th order polynomial can fit exactly to 7 points does not mean that it is the appropriate curve for this experimental data (i.e. the distribution may actually be linear or quadratic). Instead look at the trend of the data and avoid the pitfall of many students in letting the computer chose the best curve fit. As a general rule, the lower the complexity of the curve fit that represents the data trends, the better. Report Outline The following report outline is required for content and order of presentation: 1. Title Page: - Must include lab title, date performed, student names with corresponding identification numbers and lab section. 2. Originality Form: Each student from the group must print their name, sign and date. Students who do not fully print, sign and date will be assessed a zero grade for the lab report. Forms are available at 3. Objective: State the objective clearly in a concise manner in your own words. 4. Introduction: Background information preparing the reader as to what is done during the experiment. Do not copy what is written in the manual. Any theory mentioned or relevant information must be referenced. 5. Procedure: A general description of the procedure should be given. This description should be comprehensive, but brief. It should include a generic list of equipment used and a sketch to show how the equipment items are related. The enumeration and detailed description of multitudinous mechanical operations or sequence of such operations such as closing switches, reading instruments, turning knobs and so forth, should in general be avoided. However, when a specific method of mechanical operation or sequence of such operations is necessary in order to insure the validity or accuracy of the test data, it is important that the essential details be included in the description. Note that it is unacceptable to simply use or copy the procedural instructions from the manual. 6. Results: Answer all the questions posed in the laboratory manual. All observed and calculated data should be tabulated when possible. Headings and subheadings (titles) identifying items of data or sets of data should be used. a) Sample Calculations: Show a sample of a complete calculation of each type involved in the determination of calculated data and the solution of problems. These sample calculations should be first shown in symbolic form with all symbols properly defined. Then numerical data should be used with units shown in the actual calculations. b) Curves: All curves sheets should conform to the following specifications. A sample curve is shown in Figure 1. • Use a good quality plotting program like Excel or SigmaPlot. The graph should be plotted on 8 ½ x 11 inch paper. xii M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL • Include scales, axis labels and figure titles on the graph. • Choose scales that are easy to use and that do not allow points to be plotted to a greater accuracy than justified by the accuracy of the data. • Indicate the points plotted from data by small circles or other symbols. • Draw, plot or calculate a smooth average curve through the plotted points, except in cases in which discontinuities are known to exist. The average curve does not necessarily pass through every datum. If during the performance of the experiment, there was strong evidence that an equipment malfunction or a procedural error affected a datum, it is appropriate to disregard that point when drawing the curve. Such appoint should be consistently disregarded in all results affected by it. • Place a title containing all pertinent information on each curve sheet. • Draw or plot only related curves on the same sheet. Keep in mind that when curves truly are related it is frequently helpful to interpretation to present them on the same sheet. For example, for a gasoline engine torque, power, and specific fuel consumption are all functions of speed; and the engine performance is more easily interpreted if they are all on the same graph with separate ordinate scales for each variable. Sample Graph xiii M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL This illustrates an acceptable method of showing two curves on one graph. Note that these curves are closely related in theory. Note that the figure has a title in words. The axes are plainly marked. The scales chosen are easy to use. Each axis has a label, in words, and units given. Symbols and line codes are defined. Symbols are used around discrete data points and the curves pass smoothly near, but not necessarily through, the data points. To achieve this smoothness a mathematical curve fit procedure was used (quadratic curve). 7. Discussion: Most important section of the entire report. It should be a complete discussion of the results obtained. Part of this discussion should deal with the accuracy or reliability of the results. It is suggested that this section consist, when applicable, of a careful treatment of the effect upon the results of the following: a) Errors resulting from the necessity of neglecting certain factors because of physical limitations in the performance of the test b) Errors in manipulation c) Errors in observation d) Errors in instruments e) Comparison of the results obtained with those that would reasonably have been expected from a consideration of the theory involved in the problem. Whenever the theory is apparently contradicted, the probable reasons should be discussed. When results are given in graphical form as curves, the shape of each curve should be carefully explained. Such an explanation should state the causes or the particular shape the curve may have. It is not sufficient simply to state that a particular curve has positive slope, the reason for such a slope should be given. If the slope is not constant, that is, if the curve is not a straight line, its nonlinearity should also be explained. Any original conclusions drawn as a consequence of the laboratory procedure and a study of the results obtained should be given in this section and should be justified by the discussion. Constructive criticism of any phase of the experiment that may seem pertinent may also be included here. 8. Conclusions: In this section the conclusions which were supported and drawn in the Discussion are succinctly restated, usually as a numbered list. No new information should appear in this section. All justification of conclusions should have occurred in prior sections. 9. References: Publication or other authorities which help explain the experiment, calculate results, explain errors, draw conclusions etc., should be acknowledged. References to original sources for cited material should be listed together at the end of the paper; footnotes should not be used for this purpose. References should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the last name of the author, or the last name of the first-named author for papers with more xiv M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL than one author. Each reference should include the last name of each author followed by his initials. a) Reference to journal articles, papers in conference proceedings or any other collection of works by numerous authors should include: • Year of publication • Full title of cited article • Full name of the publication in which it appeared • Volume number (if any) • Inclusive page numbers of the cited article b) Reference to textbooks, monographs, theses and technical reports should include: • Year of publication • Full title of the publication • Publisher • City of publication • Inclusive page numbers of the work being cited c) Reference to web sites should include: • Complete web site address including subdirectories • Date when accessed In all cases, titles of books, periodicals and conference proceedings should be in italics. 10. Appendices: Materials that support the report but are not essential to the reader’s understanding of it are included here. The laboratory data sheet should be an appendix. Submission Students must submit their report to the laboratory instructor at the following laboratory session (i.e. exactly 2 weeks from the performance date of the experiment). Students submitting late reports are not accepted resulting in a zero grade for the experiment. The corrected reports will be returned to the students in the next laboratory session or can be picked up at the laboratory instructor’s office at least 2 weeks after submission. Each laboratory report will be graded out of ten. xv M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL Table of Contents LAB 1 - STEAM TURBINE MODULE Introduction 1 Apparatus 2 Theory 9 Experimental Capabilities and Procedure 12 Results 15 Data 17 LAB 2 – CYCLEP AD Introduction 21 Analyzing Our Design 22 Problems 26 LAB 3 – JET EN GINE – B RAYTON CYCLE Theory 27 Apparatus 33 Procedure 35 Results 36 Data 36 LAB 4 - WATER CHILLER Introduction 37 Apparatus 40 Theory 42 Procedure 49 Results 51 Nomenclature 52 Data 53 LAB 5 - STIRLING ENGINE Introduction 54 Apparatus 58 Procedure 60 Results 62 Data 63 xvi M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL LAB 6- SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE PERFOR M ANCE T EST Introduction 64 Theory 76 Engine 92 Procedure 95 Results 95 Data 97 REFER E N C ES 98 xvii M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL Lab 1 Steam Turbine Module Introduction Turbines are machines which develop torque and shaft power as a result of momentum changes in the fluid which flows through them. The fluid may be a vapour, gas or liquid. For the fluid to achieve the high velocity required to provide worthwhile momentum changes, there must be a significant pressure difference between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine. Sources of pressurized gas include previously compressed (and possibly heated) gas as in a gas turbine or in the turbo-charger for an internal combustion engine. Steam generated in high pressure nuclear of fossil fueled boilers is extensively used in turbine driven alternators for the electrical power industry. Steam may also be generated from the waste heat from industrial processes of an internal combustion engine exhaust and in a few cases geothermal steam is employed. There are several types of turbine from the elementary dental drill to the large multistage turbines used in generating stations which may develop as much as 100 MW. The turbine used in this experiment is classified as a simple, single stage, axial flow, impulse turbine and is known as a De Laval turbine after its inventor. Simple indicates an elementary turbine without complications such as velocity compounding. Single stage means that the expansion of the fluid from the turbine inlet pressure to the exhaust pressure takes place within one stator and its corresponding rotor. Axial flow indicates that the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at the same radius and without significant radial components in its velocity. Finally impulse means that the fluid pressure drop (and consequent increase of velocity) takes place in the stator, i.e. in the nozzle. The fluid therefore passes through the rotor at an almost constant pressure having only its velocity changed. The nozzle discharge velocity, theoretical vector diagrams and calculations of the theoretical power and theoretical efficiency of a simple impulse turbine are fully described in most standard thermodynamic text books and will not be described here. 1 M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL Apparatus Description Steam from Concordia University’s boiler located on the top floor of the Hall Building enters the Hilton™ S210 Steam Turbine Module through the left hand end face and passes through a solenoid valve and throttle valve before entering the turbine nozzle as shown in Figure 1.1. Figure 1.1: Schematic of Hilton™ S210 Steam Module 2 M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL The turbine shaft is mounted vertically and runs in sealed ball bearings. It is fitted with a gland to reduce the ingress of air when the turbine is exhausting below atmospheric pressure. The turbine rotor is positioned at the lower end of the shaft and the brake is at the upper end. The turbine is of the single stage, axial flow impulse (De Laval) type and has a single convergent divergent nozzle to expand the steam (see Figure 1.2). After passing through the rotor blades the steam flows directly into a glass wall water cooled condenser. Figure 1.2: Detail Drawing of Turbine and Convergent-Divergent Nozzle in Hilton™ S210 Steam Module 3 M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL At the bottom of the condenser is a diverter valve which has two positions. In one position, both air and condensate from the turbine condenser are dumped to drain. In the other position, air only is extracted and the condensate is retained in the turbine condenser. In this way the steam consumption of the turbine may be measured directly by volume. The brake drum at the upper end of the shaft runs against a belt which is tensioned by a pulley moved by the load adjuster to vary the frictional resistance. The frictional force is measured by a load cell and is displayed by a digital meter on the panel. Water for cooling the brake drum is supplied to a fitting at the top of the shaft and is later collected and drained away as it leaves the periphery of the drum. An optical sensor senses the rotational speed of the turbine and this is displayed by a digital tachometer on the panel. Safety Devices Turbine Overspeed Protection This turbine is not fitted with a governor and at certain operating conditions with a small load the turbine may reach an unacceptable rotational speed. To prevent this, an overspeed trip or protector is fitted. The tachometer which displays the rotational speed of the turbine is programmed to operate a main relay when the displayed speed exceeds 40,000 RPM. This de- energizes and closes the solenoid valve in the steam main, shutting off the supply of the steam to the turbine. When the speed has fallen, the solenoid valve may reopened by pressing the reset button which is located below the mains switch on the panel. It should be noted that the overspeed protection will be inoperative if the tachometer is not functioning correctly or the program has been interfered with. Turbine Guard Ring The turbine rotor revolves in a thick walled chamber designed to contain fragments in the unlikely event of failure. Brake Shield A transparent polycarbonate screen covers the brake to prevent access to the brake drum when the turbine is running. If the screen is removed the solenoid valve will close stopping the supply of steam. The screen must be replaced before the valve will reopen. Condenser Overpressure Switch If the condenser pressure exceeds a preset value (for example, due to the failure of cooling water), the solenoid valve will close, stopping the supply of steam. The solenoid valve must be manually reset. Condenser Relief Valve This is a spring loaded valve to relieve pressure in the condenser in the event of failure of the overpressure switch 4 M E CH 351 THERM O DYN A M I CS II LABORATORY M A N U AL Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) The On/Off Switch on the front of the panel is an MCB and will cut out in the event of an overload caused by a short circuit. If this should cut out, the unit should be disconnected from the supply and the cause of the overload determined. Residual Circuit Breaker (RCCB) This is situated inside the panel and will isolate the unit when the incoming and outgoing currents differ by more than 30 mA as in a leakage to earth situation. Specifications Turbine • Nozzle: Throat diameter 1.38 mm (nominal) Exit Diameter 3 mm Discharge Angle 20° • Rotor: Blade Pitch Circle Diameter 45 mm Number of Blades 45 Blade Inlet Angle 40° Blade Outlet Angle 40° • Brake: Pulley Diameter 40 mm Effective Radius (to centerline of belt) 23 mm Turbine may be used for any inlet condition up to 8 bar, 220°C and exhaust to vacuum. Maximum speed 40,000 RPM. Power 100 W approx. (according to conditions). Brake is water cooled mounted at upper end of turbine shaft with brake band tensioned by manually adjusted pulley. Friction force is measured by load cell Condenser 2 • Heat Transfer Area 0.132 m • Specific Heat Capacity (C) of Water 4.18 kJ/kg-K p Condenser is made of strong glass walled chamber with water cooling coil. Fitted with two-way diverter valve and calibrated for condensate measurement. Rotating Parts -6 3 • Moment of Inertia (I) 49.7 (10 ) kg-m 5

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