Thermal engineering lab 1 manual pdf

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1 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB LAB MANUAL Subject Code: A 50383 Regulations: R13 – JNTUH Class: III Year I Semester (MECH.) Mr.S.V.DURGA PRASAD Mrs.N.SANTHI SREE Asst.Professor(Mech) Asst. Professor (Mech.) Department of Mechanical Engineering INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal – 500 043, Hyderabad INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 2 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad - 500 043 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Program Outcomes PO1 Capability to apply the knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering in the field of mechanical engineering. PO2 An ability to analyze complex engineering problems to arrive at relevant conclusion using knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering. PO3 Competence to design a system, component or process to meet societal needs within realistic constraints. PO4 To design and conduct research oriented experiments as well as to analyze and implement data using research methodologies. PO5 An ability to formulate solve complex engineering problem using modern engineering and information Technology tools. PO6 To utilize the engineering practices, techniques, skills to meet needs of the health, safety, legal, cultural and societal issues. PO7 To understand impact of engineering solutions in the societal context and demonstrate the knowledge for sustainable development. PO8 An understanding and implementation of professional and ethical responsibilities. PO9 To function as an effective individual and as a member or leader in multi disciplinary environment and adopt in diverse teams. PO10 An ability to assimilate, comprehend, communicate, give & receive instructions to present effectively with engineering community and society. PO11 An ability to provide leadership in managing complex engineering projects at multidisciplinary environment and to become a Technocrat. PO12 Recognition of the need and an ability to engage in lifelong learning to keep abreast with technological changes. Program Specific Outcomes PSO1 To produce engineering professional capable of synthesizing and analyzing mechanical systems including allied engineering streams. PSO2 An ability to adopt and integrate current technologies in the design and manufacturing domain to enhance the employability. PSO3 To build the nation, by imparting technological inputs and managerial skills to become technocrats. INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 3 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB SYLLABUS Exp. Experiment Page No. 1 6 VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM 2 10 PORT TIMING DIAGRAM 3 14 IC ENGINE PERFORMANCE TEST FOR 4 STROKE S I ENGINE 4 20 IC ENGINEPERFORMANCE TEST FOR 2 STROKE S I ENGINE 5 25 IC ENGINE MORSE REATRDATION MOTORING TESTS 6 32 I C ENGINE HEAT BALANCE –S I ENGINE 7 38 I C ENGINE ECONOMICAL SPEED TESTONS I ENGINE 8 44 HEAT BALANCE TEST ON DIESEL ENGINE 9 51 HEAT BALANCE TEST ON DIESEL ENGINE 10 56 PERFORMANCE TEST ON VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO ENGINE 11 63 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY OF A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR 12 69 ASSEMBLYING AND DIS ASSEMBLYING IC ENGINE 13 74 STUDY OF BOILERS Content Beyond Syllabi 1 STUDY OF TURBO JET 2 PERFORMANCE OF CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 4 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL ATTAINMENT OF PROGRAM OUTCOMES & PROGRAM SPECIFIC OUTCOMES Program Program Exp. Specific Experiment Outcomes No. Outcomes Attained Attained 1 1 PO1, PO2, PO3, VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM PSO1, PSO2 PO5 2 PO1, PO2, PO3, PORT TIMING DIAGRAM PSO1, PSO2 PO5 3 PO1, PO2, PO3, IC ENGINE PERFORMANCE TEST FOR PO5 PSO1, PSO2 4 STROKE S I ENGINE 4 PO1, PO2, PO3, IC ENGINEPERFORMANCE TEST FOR PO5 PSO1, PSO2 2 STROKE S I ENGINE 5 PO1, PO2, PO3, IC ENGINE MORSE REATRDATION PSO1, PSO2 PO5 MOTORING TESTS 6 PO1, PO2, PO3, I C ENGINE HEAT BALANCE –S I ENGINE PSO1, PSO2 PO5 7 PO1, PO2, PO3, I C ENGINE ECONOMICAL SPEED TESTONS I PSO1, PSO2 PO5 ENGINE 8 PO1, PO2, PO3, HEAT BALANCE TEST ON DIESEL ENGINE PSO1, PSO2 PO5 9 PO1, PO2, PO3, HEAT BALANCE TEST ON DIESEL ENGINE PSO1, PSO2 PO5 10 PO1, PO2, PO3, PERFORMANCE TEST ON VARIABLE PO5 PSO1, PSO2 COMPRESSION RATIO ENGINE 11 PO1, PO2, PO3, VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY OF PO5 PSO1, PSO2 A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR 12 PO1, PO2, PO3, ASSEMBLYING AND DIS ASSEMBLYING IC PSO1, PSO2 PO5 ENGINE 13 PO1, PO2, PO3, STUDY OF BOILERS PSO1, PSO2 PO5 Content Beyond Syllabi 1 PO1, PO2, PO3, STUDY OF TURBO JET PSO1, PSO2 PO5 2 PERFORMANCE OF CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 5 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB OBJECTIVE: In this laboratory, students will have the opportunity to study the working principle of IC engines (both SI and CI engines), performance and characteristics in terms of heat balancing, economical speed variations, air fuel ratio influence on the engine to reinforce classroom theory by having the student perform required tests, analyze subsequent data, and present the results in a professionally prepared report. The machines and equipment used to determine experimental data include cut models of 4stroke diesel engine, 2stroke petrol engine, 4stroke and two stroke petrol engines with required specifications, Multi cylinder SI engine, Single cylinder Diesel engine for performance and speed test which is suitable to tests on variable compression ratios. OUTCOMES: Upon the completion of Mechanicsl of Solids practical course, the student will be able to: 1. Determine the valve timing diagram of SI engine & CI engine. 2. Analyze the influence of variations in TDC and BDC operations 3. Calculate the IP,BP, brake thermal efficiency. 4. Calculate & Compare the performance characteristics. 5. Experiment on IC engine load variations with Air fuel ratio. 6. Apply the concept of Morse test on SI engine.(multi cylinder). 7. Analyse the efficiency of reciprocating air compressor 8. Determine the principle of various parameters in boilers. INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 6 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO: 1 VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 7 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL AIM: The experiment is conducted to  Determine the actual valve timing for a 4-stroke diesel engine and hence draw the diagram. DATA:ENGINE- 4stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, and watercooled vertical diesel engine, 5BHP, and 1500rpm. THEORY: In a four stroke engine opening and closing of valves and fuel injection do not take place exactly at the end of dead center positions. The valves open slightly earlier and close after that respective dead center position. The injection (ignition) also occurs prior to the full compression and the piston reaches the dead Centre position. All the valves operated at some degree on either side in terms of crank angles from dead center position. INLET VALVE: During the suction stroke the inlet valve must be open to admit charge into the cylinder, the inlet valve opens slightly before the piston starts downward on the suction stroke. The reason that the inlet valve is open before the start of suction stroke is that the valve is necessary to permit this valve to be open and close slowly to provide quite operations under high speed condition. INLET VALVE OPENS (IVO): 0 It is done at 10to 25 in advance of TDC position. INLET VALVE CLOSES (IVC): 0 It is done at 25 to 50 after BDC position. EXHAUST VALVE: As the piston is forced out on the outstroke by the expanding gases, it has been found necessary to open the exhaust valve before the piston reaches the end of the stroke. By opening the exhaust valve before the piston reaches the end of its own power stroke, the gases have an outlet for expansion and begin to rush out of their own accord. This removes the greater part of the burnt gases reducing the amount of work to be done by the piston on its return stroke. INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 8 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL EXHAUST VALVE OPENS (EVO): 0 It is done at 30 to 50 in advance of BDC position. EXHAUST VALVE CLOSES (EVC): 0 It is done at 10 to 15 after the TDC position. PROCEDURE: 1. Keep the decompression lever in vertical position. 2. Bring the TDC mark to the pointer level closed. 3. Rotate the flywheel till the inlet valves moves down i.e., opened. 4. Draw a line on the flywheel in front of the pointer and take the reading. 5. Continue to rotate the flywheel till the inlet valve goes down and comes to horizontal position and take reading. 6. Continue to rotate the flywheel till the outlet valve opens, take the reading. 7. Continue to rotate the flywheel till the exhaust valve gets closed and take the reading. INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 9 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL 4 Stroke Diesel Engine OBSERVATIONS: Arc Length, S Sl. No. Valve Position Angle ‘θ’indegrees cm Mm TDC – Inlet Valveopen 1 BDC – Inlet ValveClose 2 3 TDC – ExhaustValve Open 4 BDC – ExhaustValve Close CALCULATIONS: 1. Diameter of the flywheel, D 2. D = 2. Angle ‘θ’ in degrees, θ = Where, S = Arc length, mm RESULT: Valve Timing diagram is drawn PRE LAB QUESTIONS 1. Differentiate valve and port? 2. Define valve timing?. 3. Explain the importance of valve timing? 4. Define mechanism of valve operation? 5. Define the cam mechanism in IC engine? 6. Define crank mechanism? 1.17 POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. What are the position of inlet vale opening and closing? 2. What are the exhaust valve opening and closing positions? 3. Indicate the ignition period in the diagram? INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 10 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO: 2 PORT TIMING DIAGRAM INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 11 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL AIM: The experiment is conducted to  Determine the actual PORT timing for a 2-stroke Petrol engine and hence draw the diagram. DATA:Engine: 2stroke single cylinder, constant speed, water cooled, vertical diesel engine, 5 BHP, 1500rpm. THEORY: Here in this type of engine ports which take charges and remove exhaust are in the cylinder itself. By virtue of piston when the piston moves inside the cylinder it closes and opens ports. Here in this type of engine (two strokes) one revolution of crank shaft complete one cycle. INLET PORT: 0 1. It is uncovered 45 to 50 in advance of TDC. 0 2. It is covered 40 to 45 after BDC. EXHAUST PORT: 0 1. It is uncovered 40 to 45 in advance of BDC. 0 2. It is covered 40 to 55 after the TDC. TRANSFER PORT: 0 1. It is uncovered 35 to 45 in advance of BDC. 0 2. It is covered 35 to 45 after the BDC. 3. PROCEDURE: 1. Identify the ports. 2. Find out the direction of rotation of the crank shaft. 3. Mark the TDC and BDC positions on the flywheel. 4. Mark the openings and closings of the inlet exhaust and transverse ports. 5. Using a rope or thread and scale, find out the circumference of the flywheel. 6. Find out the arc lengths of the events IPO, IPC, EPO, EPC, TPO and TPC. 7. Let the arc length be Xcm. Then angle q= 360×X/2πR Where R is the radius of the flywheel. 8. Draw the flywheel diagram with the help of four angles calculated from lengths. INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 12 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL Port Timing Diagram OBSERVATIONS: Sl. Position of Arc distance from nearest Angle Event No the crank dead center(cm) degree 1 IPO BTDC 2 IPC ATDC 3 TPO BBDC 4 TPC ABDC 5 EPO BBDC 6 EPC ABDC Circumference of the fly wheel= 53cm INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 13 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL RESULT: Position of Arc distance from nearest Angle Sl.no Event the crank dead center (cm) degree 1 IPO BTDC 2 IPC ATDC 3 TPO BBDC 4 TPC ABDC 5 EPO BBDC 6 EPC ABDC PRE LAB QUESTIONS 1.Differentiate valve and port? 2.Define port timing?. 3.Explain the importance of port timing? 4.Define mechanism of port operation? 5.Define the air fuel mixing process in IC engine? 6.Define crank mechanism? 1.17 POST LAB QUESTIONS 1 .What are the position of inlet port opening and closing? 2.What are the transfer port opening and closing positions? 3Indicate the exhaust port opening and closing position? INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 14 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO: 3 PERFORMANCE TEST FOR 4 STROKE S I ENGINE INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 15 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL INTRODUCTION: The Test Rig is multicylinder petrol engine coupled to a hydraulic brake and complete with all measurement systems, auto electrical panel , self- starter assembly, Morse test setup,battery etc., Engine is with 4 cylinder water cooled radiator is provided. Engine cooling is done by through continuous flowing water. SPECIFICATIONS: 1 Engine coupled to hydraulic brake 2.Clutch arrangement 3.Morse test setup 4.Stand,Panel with all measurements 5.Air tank, fuel tank 6.Auto electrical with battery DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS: Engine: Either PREMIERE / AMBASSODAR four cylinder four stroke water cooled automotive (reclaim) spark ignited with all accessories. Make: PREMIERE Speed: max 5000rpm Power: 23 HP at max speed No of cylinders: FOUR Firing order: 1-3-4-2 Cylinder bore: 73mm Stroke length: 70mm Spark plug gap: 0.64mm Other components include battery, starter motor, alternator/DC dynamo,ignition switch, solenoid, cables, accelerator assembly, radiator, valves etc. HYDRAULIC BRAKE: It is a reaction type hydraulic dynamometer; a stator body can swing in its axis, depending upon the torque on the shaft. The shaft is extended at both ends and supported between two bearings. Rotor is coupled at one end to the engine shaft. Water is allowed inside through stator and flows inside pockets of rotor and comes out of rotor. Any closure of valve or any restriction of INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 16 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL flowing water, created breaking effect on the shaft, and which is reflected inopposition force of stator. Stator while reacting to proportional force pulls a spring balance, which is calibrated in kgs. Controlling all three valves enables to increase or decrease the load on the engine. CLUTCH ARRANGEMENT: A long lever with locking facility is provided. It helps to either couple engine to hydraulic brake or decouple both. Initially for no load do not couple these two and after increasing engine speed slowly engage same. Do not allow any water to dynamometer when engine is started. This is no load reading. OBSERVATIONS: 1. Orifice diameter d =25mm 0 3 2. Density of water ρ =1000kg/m w 3 3. Density of air ρ =1.2kg/m a 4. Density of Petrol ρ =0.7kg/lit f 2 5. Acceleration due to gravity g =9.81m/sec 6. Torque on length R =0.3mt 7. Calorific value of Petrol C =43,210kJ/kg v 8. Cd of orifice = 0.62 9. Cylinder bore D =73mm 10. Stroke length L =70mm AIM: The experiment is conducted to a. To study and understand the performance characteristics of the engine. b. To draw Performance curves and compare with standards. PROCEDURE: 1. Check the lubricating oil level. 2. Check the fuel level. 3. Check and Release the load on the dynamometer if loaded. 4. Check the necessary electrical connections and switch on thePanel. 5. Provide the Battery Connections. 6. Open water valve for engine cooling and adjust flow rate , say 4to 6 LPM CONSTANT SPEED TEST: 1. After engine picks up speed slowly, engage clutch, now engine is coupled with hydraulic dynamometer. INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 17 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL 2. With the help of accelerator, increase engine to say 1500rpm. 3. Note down the time required for 10litres of water flow, time required for 10cc of fuel, manometer reading, spring balance reading, all temperatures. 4. For next load allow more water into dynamometer and also adjust throttle valve such that engine is loaded but with same RPM, 1500rpm. 5. Note down all readings. 6. Repeat experiment for next higher load, max 8kw. OPERATING DYNAMOMETER: 1. Inlet water Valveno1 (V1)-If knob is rotated clockwise LOAD is reduced, that means water entry is reduced. 2. If this V1 if rotated anticlock wise LOAD increased, here water is allowed into dynamometer-MORE the water into dynamometer MORE is LOAD. 3. Drain V2 if opened completely then load is reduced, if closed by rotating clockwise then LOAD is increased. 4. Overflow valve No.3(V3)-if closed then Load is increased, If opened then LOAD is reduced. 5. In this manner load has to be increased or decreased. I C Engines Performance Test For 4 Stroke S I Engine INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 18 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL TABULAR COLUMN: Spring Manometer Reading Sl. Speed, Time for 10 cc of fuel balance No. rpm collected,t sec Wkg h cm h cm H =(h1h2) 1 2 w CALCULATIONS: 2 1. Area of Orifice A =( π/4) d sq.cm (d is orifice diameter = 0 0 0 25mm=0.025m) 3 2. Head of Air H = in mts; ρ =1000kg/cm a w 3 ρ =1.2kg/ cm , h and h in mts a 1 2 3. Mass flow rate of Air Ma in kg/hr Ma= A x C x3600 x ρ x kg/hr 0 d a 4. Total fuel consumption TFC : in kg/hr TFC = 5. Brake Power BP in Kw a. With hydraulic brake dynamometer ( reaction type) b. BP= 2 x π x 9.81 x N x W x R/60,000 kW i. Where R= Load arm length = 0.3mts ii. W= load shown on spring balance,kg iii. N= speed in rpm 6. Specific fuel consumption: SFC in Kg/Kw-hr 1. SFC = TFC/BP 7. Air Fuel ratio : A/F A/F = M /TFC a INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 19 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL 8. Brake Thermal efficiency 9. η = BP/TFC x CV x 100%, bth 10. Indicated Thermal efficiency 11. η = IP/TFC x CV x 100%, ith GRAPHS: Plot curves of BP vs. TFC, SFC, and A/F. PRE LAB QUESTIONS: 1.What are the 4strokes of SI engines? 2.What is the working cycle of SI Engine? 3.List out the performance parameters? 4.Indicate the different types of loads? 5.Differentiate SFC and TFC? 6.Concept of mass flow rate of air? POST LAB QUESTIONS: 1.Dfifferentiate brake power and indicated power? 2.Define brake thermal efficiency? 3.Indicate mechanical efficiency in terms of BP and IP? INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 20 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO:4 IC ENGINES PERFORMANCE TEST FOR 2 STROKE S I ENGINE INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

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