Analog system lab kit pro experiments

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Analog Analog System Lab Kit PRO System MANUAL Lab Kit PRO Authors K.R.K. Rao and C.P. Ravikumar Editor in Chief MANUAL Zoran Ristić Assistant Editor Miodrag Veljković Cover Design Danijela Krajnović Graphic Design/DTP Aleksandar Nikolić Special Thanks to Harmanpreet Singh for his help in performing the additional experiments (Experiments 11-14) included in the new release of ASLK Pro. Publisher MikroElektronika Ltd. Analog System Lab Kit PRO Manual ver. 1.03b www.mikroe.com June 2012. 0 100000 019382 Analog System Lab Kit PROMANUALTable of contents 2.1.1 Inverting Regenerative Comparator 24 Introduction 9 2.1.2 Astable Multivibrator 24 2.1.3 Monostable Multivibrator (Timer) 25 Analog System Lab 10 2.2 Exercise Set 2 26 Organization of the Analog System Lab Course 11 Lab Setup 12 System Lab Kit ASLK PRO - An overview 13 Hardware 13 Experiment 3: 27 Software 13 Study the characteristics of integrators and differentiator circuits Getting to know ASLK PRO 14 Organization of the Manual 16 3.1 Brief theory and motivation 28 3.1.1 Integrators 28 Experiment 1: 17 3.1.2 Differentiators 28 Study the characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers and 3.2 Specifications 28 design of an instrumentation amplifier 3.3 Measurements to be taken 28 3.4 What should you submit 29 1.1 Brief theory and motivation 18 3.5 Exercise Set 3 - Grounded Capacitor Topologies 1.1.1 Unity Gain Amplifier 18 of Integrator and Differentiator 30 1.1.2 Non-inverting Amplifier 19 1.1.3 Inverting Amplifier 19 1.2 Exercise Set 1 20 Experiment 4: 31 1.3 Measurements to be taken 20 Design of Analog Filters 1.4 What should you submit 21 1.5 Other related ICs 21 4.1 Brief theory and motivation 32 4.2 Specification 33 4.3 Measurements to be taken 33 Experiment 2: 23 4.4 What should you submit 33 Study the characteristics of regenerative feedback system with 4.5 Exercise Set 4 34 extension to design an astable and monostable multivibrator 2.1 Brief theory and motivation 24 Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 3Table of contents Experiment 5: 35 Experiment 8: 47 Design of a self-tuned filter Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Automatic Volume Control (AVC) 5.1 Brief theory and motivation 36 8.1 Brief theory and motivation 48 5.1.1 Multiplier as a Phase Detector 36 8.2 Specifications 48 5.2 Specification 37 8.3 Measurements to be taken 48 5.3 Measurements to be taken 37 8.4 What should you submit 48 5.3.1 Transient response 37 8.5 Exercise Set 8 49 5.4 What should you submit 37 5.4.1 Exercise Set 5 38 Experiment 9: 51 DC-DC Converter Experiment 6: 39 9.1 Brief theory and motivation 52 Design a function generator and convert it to Voltage-Controlled 9.2 Specification 52 Oscillator/FM Generator 9.3 Measurements to be taken 52 6.1 Brief theory and motivation 40 9.3.1 Time response 52 6.2 Specifications 40 9.3.2 Transfer function 52 6.3 Measurements to be taken 40 9.4 What should you submit 53 6.4 What should you submit 41 9.5 Exercise Set 9 53 6.5 Exercise Set 6 41 Experiment 10: 55 Experiment 7: 43 Design of a Phase Lock Loop (PLL) Design a Low Dropout (LDO) regulator 7.1 Brief theory and motivation 44 10.1 Brief theory and motivation 56 7.2 Specifications 4410.2 Specifications 56 7.3 Measurements to be taken 45 10.3 Measurements to be taken 56 7.4 What should you submit 45 10.4 What should you submit 57 7.5 Exercise Set 7 45 10.5 Exercise Set 10 57 page 4 Analog System Lab Kit PROTable of contents Experiment 11: 5914.2 Specifications 72 14.3 Measurements to be taken 72 To study the parameters of an LDO integrated circuit 14.4 What should you submit 72 11.1 Brief theory and motivation 60 14.5 Exercise Set 14 73 11.2 Specifications 60 11.3 Measurements to be taken 60 11.4 What should you submit 61 A ICs used in ASLK PRO 75 Experiment 12: 63 A.1 TL082: JFET-Input Operational Amplifier 76 To study the parameters of a DC-DC Converter using on-board A.1.1 Features 76 Evaluation module A.1.2 Applications 76 A.1.3 Description 76 12.1 Brief theory and motivation 64 A.1.4 Download Datasheet 76 12.2 Specifications 65 A.2 MPY634: Wide Bandwidth Analog Precision Multiplier 77 12.3 Measurements to be taken 65 A.2.1 Features 77 12.4 What should you submit 65 A.2.2 Applications 77 A.2.3 Description 77 Experiment 13: 67 A.2.4 Download Datasheet 77 Design of a Digitally Controlled Gain Stage Amplifier A.3 DAC 7821: 12 Bit, Parallel, Multiplying DAC 78 A.3.1 Features 78 13.1 Brief theory and motivation 68 A.3.2 Applications 78 13.2 Specifications 68 A.3.3 Description 78 13.3 Measurements to be taken 68 A.3.4 Download Datasheet 78 13.4 What should you submit 68 A.4 TPS40200: Wide-Input, Non-S ynchronous Buck 13.5 Exercise Set 13 69 DC/DC Controller 79 Experiment 14: 71 A.4.1 Features 79 A.4.2 Applications 79 Design of a Digitally Programmable Square and Triangular wave generator/oscillator A.4.3 Description 79 14.1 Brief theory and motivation 72 A.4.4 Download Datasheet 79 Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 5Table of contentsList of figures A.5 TLV7250: Micropower Low-Dropout Voltage Regulator 80 Signal Chain in an Electronic System 10 A.5.1 Features 80 Analog System Lab Kit PRO 13 A.5.2 Applications 80 Picture of ASLK PRO 15 A.5.3 Description 80 1.1 An ideal Dual-Input, Single-Output OP-Amp and its I-O A.5.4 Download Datasheet 80 characteristic 18 A.6 Transistors: 2N3906, 2N3904, BS250 81 1.2 A Unity Gain System 18 A.6.1 2N3906 Features, A.6.2 Download Datasheet 81 1.3 Magnitude and Phase response of a Unity Gain System 19 A.6.3 2N3904 Features, A.6.4 Download Datasheet 81 1.4 Time Response of an Amplifier for A.6.5 BS250 Features, A.6.6 Download Datasheet 81 a step input of size Vp 19 A.7 Diode: 1N4448 Small Signal Diode 82 1.5 (a) Non-inverting amplifier of gain 2, A.7.1 Features 82 (b) Inverting amplifier of gain 2 19 A.7.2 Download Datasheet 82 1.6 Negative Feedback Amplifiers 19 1.7 Frequency Response of Negative Feedback Amplifiers 20 1.8 Outputs VF1 , VF2 and VF3 o f Negative Feedback B Introduction to Macromodels 83 Amplifiers of Figure 2.6 for Square-wave Input VG1 20 1.9 Ins trumentation Amplifiers with (a) three and (b) two B.1 Micromodels 84 operational amplifiers 20 B.2 Macromodels 84 2.1 Inverting Schmitt-Trigger and its Hysteresis Characteristic 24 C Activity - Convert your 2.2 Symbol for an Inverting Schmitt Trigger 24 PC/laptop into an Oscilloscope 87 2.3 Non-in verting Schmitt Trigger and its Hysteresis Curve 24 C.1 Introduction 88 2.4 Astable Multivibrator and its characteristics 25 C.2 Limitations 88 2.5 Trigger waveform 25 2.6 Monostable Multivibrator and its outputs 25 D A nalog System Lab Kit PRO 3.1 Integrator 28 Connection Diagrams 89 3.2 Differentiator 28 3.3 Frequency Response of integrator and differentiator 29 3.4 Outputs of integrator and differentiator for Bibliography 99 square-wave and triangular-wave inputs 30 page 6 Analog System Lab Kit PROList of figures 3.5 Circuits for Exercise 3 30 12.2 Simulation waveforms - TP3 is the PWM waveform 4.1 A Second-order Universal Active Filter 32 and TP4 is the switching waveform 65 4.2 Magnitude and Phase Response of 13.1 Circuit for Digital Controlled Gain Stage Amplifier 68 LPF, BPF, BSF, and HPF filters 32 13.2 Equivalent Circuit for simulation 69 5.1 Analog Multiplier 36 13.3 Simulation output of digitally controlled Oscillator when 5.2 A Self-T uned Filter based on a Voltage Controlled the input pattern for the DAC 69 Filter or Voltage Controlled Phase Generator 36 was selected to be 0x800 5.3 Output o f the Self-Tuned Filter 14.1 Circuit for Digital Controlled Oscillator 72 based on simulation 37 14.2 Circuit for Simulation 73 6.1 Function Generator 40 14.3 Simulation Results 73 6.2 Function Generator Output 40A.1 TL082 - JFET-Input Operational Amplifier 76 6.3 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) 41 A.2 MPY634 - Analog Multiplier 77 7.1 Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and its characterisitics 44 A.3 DAC 7821 - Digital to Analog Converter 78 7.2 Sample output waveform for A.4 TPS40200 - DC/DC Controller 79 the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) Experiment 44 A.5 TPS7250 -Micr opower Low-Dropout Voltage Regulator 80 7.3 Block Diagram of Frequency Optimizer 45A.6 2N3906 PNP General Purpose Amplifier 81 8.1 A utomatic Gain Control (AGC)/ A.7 2N3906 NPN General Purpose Amplifier 81 Automatic Volume Control (AVC) 48 A.8 BS250 P-Channel Enh. Mode Vertical DMOS FET 81 8.2 Input-Output Characteristics of AGC/AVC 48 A.9 1N4448 Small Signal Diode 82 8.3 AGC circuit and its output 49C.1 Buff er circuit needed to interface an Analog Signal to 9.1 DC-DC Converter and PWM waveform 52 Oscilloscope 88 9.2 (a) SMPS Circuit (b) Ouptut Waveforms 53D.1 OP-Amp 1A connected in Inverting Configuration 90 10.1 Low Dropout Regulator (LDO) 56D.2 OP-Amp 1B connected in inverting configuration 90 10.2 A regulator circuit and its simulated outputs - line D.3 OP-Amp 2A can be used in both inverting regulation and load regulation 56and non-inverting configuration 91 11.1 Schematic diagram of on-board evaluation module 60 D.4 OP-Amp 2B can be used in both inverting 11.2(a) Line regulation 61and non-inverting configuration 91 11.2(b) Load regulation 61D.5 OP-Amp 3A can be used in unity gain configuration 12.1 Schematic of the on-board EVM 64or any other custom configuration 92 Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 7th N th th N N2 2 N th N2 2 N N N2 2 N N2 2 N 1 N - 2 N 1 - N N-1 N 2 2 N 1 - 2 N N 2 1 RC 0= 2 2 N 0=1 RC H0 0=1 RC 2 H 1 RC 0 0= V03 +H0 H0 = 2 V i s s V03 +H0 H0 1 V H b+ + l 03 + 0 2 = 0Q 2 = 0 2 Vi s s Vi s s 1 2 b+ + l V03 +H0 2 b1+ + l s 2 Q = 0 0 0Q 02 bH0 l 2 V i s s 2 V 0 01 1 2 b+ + l s 2 s = 0Q bH0 l 2 0 H V 2 b 0 i l s s 2 0 V01 02 1+ + V01 b l 2 s= 0Q 2 0 = V 2 bH0 i l s s 2 Vi s s 1 V 0 b+ + l 01 s 2 b1+ + l 2 Q = 0H 0 Q a- 0 k 0 02 V i sV02s 0 s 1+ += b l s 2 2 a-H0 k 0QVi 0 s s a-H0 k V 02 1 0 V b+ + l 02 0 2 = s Q 2 = 0 0 Vi 2 H s s V a- 0 k i s s 2 b1+ + l V02 0 2 1 b+ + l s 2 = 0Q 0 0Q 02 b1+ l H0 2 Vi s s 2 0 V04 1 2 b+ + l s 2 s = Q 1 H 2 0 0b + l 0 1 V H 2 b + il 0 s s 2 0 V04 2 1 V 0 b+ + l 04 2 s = 0Q 2 = 0 2 b1+ Vi l H0 s s 2 Vi s s 1 0 b+ + l V04 2 b1+ + l 1 2 Q = 0 0 0Q 102 0 - V 2 i s s 2Q 1 b+ + l1 2 1 0Q 0 1- 0 2 0 1- HQ 0 2 2Q 2Q 1 List of figures 1 1 0 - H0Q 2 H0Q 1 - 2Q 2 4Q 1 1 HQ 1 0 - 2 1- dz 2 4Q 4Q 1 d 1 dz - 2 dz 4Q =0 d d dz 3.1 Plot of Magnitude and Phase w.r.t. Input Frequency = 0 29 -2Q D.6 OP-Amp 3B can be used in unity gain configuration =0 d 0 -2Q =0 3.2 Plot of Magnitude and Phase w.r.t. Input Fr 2Q equency 29 - or any other custom configuration 92 0 0 0 -2Q 3.3 V ariation of Peak to Peak value of output D.7 Connections for analog multiplier MPY634 - SET I 92 0 HQ 0 0 0 w.r.t. Peak value of Input 29 HQ D.8 Connections for analog multiplier MPY634 - SET II 93 0 0 0= 1kHz H0Q 4.1 Transfer Functions of Active Filters 0= 1kHz 32 HQ Q 1 D.9 Connections for analog multiplier MPY634 - SET III 93 0 1kHz = 0= , Q = 1 33 4.2 Frequency Response of a BPF with 0= 1kHz 0= 10kHz Q = 1 D.10 C onnections for A/D converter DAC7821 - DAC I 94 10kHz Q 1 0= 4.3 Frequency Response of a BSF with = kHz , Q = 10 33 0= 10 D.11 C onnections for A/D converter DAC7821 - DAC II 95 Q = 10 0= 10kHz f 1kHz Q 10 = 5.1 Variation of output amplitude with input fr = equency 37 D.12 C onnections for TPS40200 Evaluation f 1kHz = Q = 10 f = 10kHz f = 1kHz 6.1 Change in frequency as a function of Control Voltage 41 step-down DC/DC converter 96 f 10kHz f 1kHz =4 V f =10kHz p = 7.1 Output Phase as a function of Input Frequency 45 D.13 Connections for TP7250 low-dropout linear voltage reg. 97 rH0Q 4 Vp f = 10kHz 4 Vp 7.2 Control Voltage as a function of Input FrequencyV 45 p rH0Q D.14 MOSFET socket 97 rHQ 0 4 V p 4 V p 0=2 r 10 rad/s Vp 8.1 Transfer characteristic of the AGC circuit 48 rH0Q D.15 Bipolar Junction Transistor socket 97 4 4 02 r 10 rad/s V H= 10 p2 r 10 rad 0=/s 0= 9.1 V ariation of output voltage with reference voltage D.16 Diode sockets 98 4 H0= 10 0=2 r 10 rad/s H0= 10y_ti sin_100rti0.1sin_200rti = + in a DC-DC converter 53 D.17 Trimmer-potentiometers 98 H 10y_ti sin_100rti0.1sin_200rti 0= = + y_ti= sin_100rti+0.1sin_200rti 9.2 V ariation of duty cycle with reference voltage D.18 Main power supply 98 y_ti sin_100rti0.1sin_200rti = + in a DC-DC converter 53 D.19 General purpose area (2.54mm / 100mills pad spacing) 98 10.1 Variation of Load Regulation with Load Current in an LDO 56 10.2 Variation of Line Regulation with Input Voltage in an LDO 57 List of tables 11.1 Line regulation 61 11.2 Load regulation 61 12.1 Variation of the duty cycle of PWM waveform 1.1 Plot of Peak to Peak amplitude of output with input voltage 66 Vpp w.r.t. Input Frequency 21 12.2 Line regulation 66 1.2 Plot of Magnitude and Phase variation 12.3 Load regulation 66 w.r.t. Input Frequency 21 13.1 Variation in output amplitude with bit pattern 68 1.3 Plot of DC output voltage and phase variation 14.1 Varying the bit pattern input to the DAC 72 w.r.t. DC input voltage 21 B.1 Operational Amplifiers available from Texas Instruments 85 2.1 Plot of Hysteresis w.r.t. Regenerative Feedback 25 page 8 Analog System Lab Kit PRO introductionIntroduction What you need to know before you get started Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 9Analog System Lab Although digital signal processing is the most common form of processing signals, analog signal processing cannot be completely avoided since the real world is analog in nature. Consider a typical signal chain (Figure below). Typical signal chain A sensor converts the real-world signal into an analog electrical signal. 1 This analog signal is often weak and noisy. Amplifiers are needed to strengthen the signal. Analog filtering may be 2 necessary to remove noise from the signal. This “front end” processing improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Three of the most important building blocks used in this stage are (a) Operational Amplifiers, (b) Analog multipliers and (c) Analog Comparators. An analog-to-digital converter transforms the analog signal into a 3 stream of 0s and 1s. T he digital data is processed by a CPU, such as a DSP, a microprocessor, 4 or a microcontroller. The choice of the processor depends on how intensive the computation is. A DSP may be necessary when real- time signal processing is needed and the computations are complex. Microprocessors and microcontrollers may suffice in other applications. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) is necessary to convert the stream of 5 0s and 1s back into analog form. Figure: Signal Chain in an Electronic System The output of the DAC has to be amplified before the analog signal can 6 drive an external actuator. It is evident that analog circuits play a for an undergraduate or a postgraduate in the colleges focus on the circuit of choices of integrated circuits keeping crucial role in the implementation of an curriculum. As part of the lab course, design aspect, ignoring the issues in mind the diverse requirements electronic system. the student will build analog systems encountered in system design. In the of system designers. As a student, using analog ICs and study their macro real world, a system designer uses you must be aware of these diverse The goal of the Analog System Lab models, characteristics and limitations. the analog ICs as building blocks. The oeringsff of semiconductors and select Course is to provide students an Our philosophy in designing this lab focus of the system designer are to the right IC for the right application. We exposure to the fascinating world course has been to focus on system optimize system-level cost, power, and have tried to emphasize this aspect of analog and mixed-signal signal design rather than circuit design. We performance. IC manufacturers such as in designing the experiments in this processing. The course can be adapted feel that many Analog Design classes Texas Instruments oerff a large number manual. page 10 Analog System Lab Kit PRO introductionOrganization of the Course In designing the lab course, we have assumed that there are about 12 during a semester. We have designed 14 experiments which can be carried out either individually or by groups of two students. The experiments in Analog System Lab can be categorized as follows. Part I - Learning the basics Part II - Building analog systems In the first part, the student will be exposed to the Part-II concentrates on building analog systems using the blocks mentioned above. operation of the basic building blocks of analog systems. Most of the experiments in the Analog First, we introduce integrators and differentiators which are essential for implementing filters that can band- System Lab Course are centered around the following limit a signal prior to the sampling process to avoid aliasing errors. two components. We then introduce the analog comparator, which is a mixed-mode device - its input is analog and output is digital. The OP-amp TL082, a general purpose JFET-In a comparator, the rise time, fall time, and delay time are important apart from input offset. input operational amplifier, made by Texas A function generator is also a mixed-mode system that uses an integrator and a regenerative comparator as Instruments. building blocks. The function generator is capable of producing a triangular waveform and square waveform as outputs. It is also useful in Pulse Width Modulation in DC-to-DC converters, switched-mode power supplies, and Wide-bandwidth, precision analog multiplier Class-D power amplifiers. MPY634 from Texas Instruments. The analog multiplier, which is a voltage or current controlled amplifier, finds applications in communication Using these components, the student will build circuits in the form of mixer, modulator, demodulator and phase detector. We use the multiplier in building Voltage gain stages, buffers, instrumentation amplifiers and Controlled Oscillators, Frequency Modulated waveform generators, or Frequency Shift Key waveform generators voltage regulators. These experiments bring out in modems, Automatic Gain Controllers, Amplitude Stabilized Oscillators, Self-tuned Filters and Frequency Locked several important issues, such as measurement of Loop using voltage controlled phase generators and VCOs and multiplier as phase detector are built and their lock gain- bandwidth product, slew-rate, and saturation range and capture range. limits of the operational amplifiers. In the Analog System Lab, the frequency range of all applications has been restricted to 1-10 kHz, with the following in mind - (a) The macromodels for the ideal device can be used in simulation, (b) A PC can be used in place of an oscilloscope. We have also included an experiment that can help the student use a PC as an oscilloscope. We also suggest an experiment on the development of macromodels for an OP-Amp. What is our goal? At the end of Analog System Lab, we believe you will have the following know- 2. You will learn how to develop a macromodel for an IC based on its terminal how about analog system design. characteristics, I/O characteristics, DC-transfer characteristics, frequency response, stability characteristic and sensitivity characteristic. 1. You will learn about the characteristics and specification of analog ICs used in 3. You will be able to make the right choice for an IC for a given application. electronic systems. 4. You will be able to perform basic fault diagnosis of an electronic system. Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 11 introductionLab Setup The setup for the Analog System Lab is very simple and requires the following. In all the experiments of Analog System Lab, please note the following. ASLK PRO and the associated Lab Manual from Texas Instruments India - the When we do not explicitly mention the magnitude and frequency of the input 1 1 lab kit comes with required connectors. Refer to Chapter 1.4 for an overview of waveform, please use 0 to 1V as the amplitude of the input and 1 kHz as the the kit. frequency. Oscilloscope. We provide an experiment that helps you build a circuit to directly Always use sinusoidal input when you plot the frequency response and use 2 2 interface analog outputs to an oscilloscope (See Chapter C). square wave input when you plot the transient response. Dual power supply with the operating voltages of ±10V. Precaution Please note that TL082 is a dual OP-Amp. This means that the IC 3 3 has two OP-Amp circuits. If your experiment requires only one of the two ICs, do Function generators which can operate in the range on 1 to 10 MHz and capable not leave the inputs and output of the other OP- Amp open; instead, place the 4 of generating sine, square and triangular waves. second OP-Amp in unity-gain mode and ground the inputs. A computer with installed circuit simulation software. Advisory to Students and Instructors. We strongly advise that the student 5 4 performs the simulation experiments outside the lab hours. The student must bring a copy of the simulation results to the class and show it to the instructor at the beginning of the class. The lab hours must be utilized only for the hardware experiment and comparing the actual outputs with simulation results. page 12 Analog System Lab Kit PRO introductionSystem Lab Kit overview Hardware ASLK PRO has been developed at Texas Instruments India. This kit is designed for The kit has a provision to connect ±10V DC power supply. The kit comes with the undergraduate engineering students to perform analog lab experiments. The main necessary short and long connectors. idea behind ASLK PRO is to provide a cost efficient platform or test bed for students to realize almost any analog system using general purpose ICs such as OP-Amps and This comprehensive user manual included with the kit gives complete insight of how analog multipliers. to use ASLK PRO. The manual covers exercises of analog system design along with brief theory and simulation results. Refer to Appendix A for the details of the integrated circuits that are included in ASLK PRO. Refer to Appendix D for additional details of ASLK PRO. Software The following software is necessary to carry out the experiments suggested in this manual. 1. TINA or PSpice or any powerful simulator based on the SPICE Simulation Engine 2. FilterPro - A so ftwar e pr ogr am f or designing analog filters 3. SwitcherPro - A software program for designing power supplies Analog System Lab Kit PRO We will assume that you are familiar with the concept of simulation and are able to simulate a given circuit. A SLK PR O c omes with thr ee gener al-purpose oper a tional amplifiers (TL082) and three wide-bandwidth precision analog multipliers (MPY634) from Texas Instruments. We FilterPro is a pr ogr am f or designing activ e filters. A t the time o f writing this manual, have also included two 12-bit parallel-input multiplying digital-to-analog converters FilterPro Version 3.1 is the latest. It supports the design of dieffrent types of lfiters, DAC7821, a wide-input non-synchronous buck-type DC/DC controller TPS40200, and namely Bessel, Butterworth, Chebychev, Gaussian, and linear-phase filters. The a low dropout regulator TPS7250 from Texas Instruments. A portion of ASLK PRO is software can be used to design low-pass lfiters, high-pass lfiters, band-stop lfiters, left for general-purpose prototyping which can be used for carrying out mini-projects. and band-pass filters with up t o 10 poles. The so ftwar e can be do wnloaded fr om 9. Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 13 introductionGetting to know ASLK PRO The Analog System Lab kit ASLK PRO is divided into many sections. Refer to the photo of ASLK PRO when you read the following description. There are three TL082 OP-Amp ICs labelled 1, 2, 3 on ASLK PRO. Each of these LDO or DC/DC converter located on the board. Using Tri-state switches you 1 ICs has tw o amplifiers, which ar e labelled A and B. Thus 1A and 1B ar e the tw o can set 12-bits of input data for each DAC to desired value. Click the Latch OP-AMps on OP-AMP IC 1, etc. The six OP-amps are categorized as below. Data button to trigger Digital-to-analog conversion. W e have included a wide-input non-synchronous DC/DC buck 4 converter TPS40200 from Texas Instruments on ASLK PRO. The OP-Amp Type Purpose converter provides an output of 3.3V over a wide input range 1A TYPE IInverting Configuration only of 5.5-15V at output currents ranging from 0.125A to 2.5A. Using Vout SEL jumper you can select output voltage to be either 5V or 1B TYPE IInverting Configuration only 3.3V. Another jumper allows you to select whether input voltage is provided 2A TYPE IIFull Configuration from the board (+10V), or externally using screw terminals. 2B TYPE IIFull Configuration W e have included two transistor sockets on the board, which are needed in 5 3A TYPE IIIBasic Configuration designing an LDO regulator (Experiment 10), or custom experiments. 3B TYPE IIIBasic Configuration A specialized LDO regulator IC (TPS7250) has been included on the 6 board, which can provide a constant output voltage for input voltage ranging from 5.5V to 11V. Ground connection is internally provided to the IC. Using Thus, the OP-amps are marked TYPE I, TYPE II and TYPE III on the board. The ON/OFF jumper you can enable or disable LDO IC. Another jumper allows OP-Amps marked TYPE I can be connected in the inverting congfiuration only. you to select whether input voltage is provided from the board (+10V), or With the help of connectors, either resistors or capacitors can be used in the externally using screw terminals. f eedback loop o f the amplifier . Ther e ar e tw o such TYPE I amplifiers. Ther e ar e tw o TYPE II amplifiers which can be c on figur ed t o act as in v erting or non- There are two 1kX trimmers (potentiometer) in the kit to enable the designer 7 in v erting. Finally , w e ha v e tw o TYPE III amplifiers which can be used as v oltage to obtain a variable voltage if needed for a circuit. The potentiometers are bueffrs. labeled P1 and P2. These operate respectively in the range 0V to +10V, and -10V to 0V. Three analog multipliers are included in the kit. These are wide-bandwidth 2 precision analog multipliers from Texas Instruments (MPY634). Each The kit has a screw terminals to connect ±10V power supply. All the 8 multiplier is a 14-pin IC and operates on internally provided ±10V supply. ICs on the board are internally connected to power supply. Please refer to Appendix D for schematics of ASLK PRO. Ther e are two digital-to-analog converters (DAC) provided in the 3 kit, labeled DAC I and DAC II. Both the DACs are DAC7821 from Texas W e have included two diode sockets on the board, which can be used as 9 Instruments. They are 12-bit, parallel-input multiplying DACs which can be rectifiers in custom laboratory experiments. used in place of analog multipliers in circuits like AGC/AVC. Ground and power supplies are provided internally to the DAC. DAC Logic Supply Jumper can 10 The top right portion of the kit is a general-purpose area which can be be used to connect logic power supplies of both DAC I and DAC II to either used as a proto-board. ± 10V points and GND are provided for this area. page 14 Analog System Lab Kit PRO introduction4 5 6 10 9 7 8 3 2 Photo of ASLK PRO 1 1 1 Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 15 introductionOrganization of the Manual There are 14 experiments in this manual and the next 14 chapters are devoted are asked to use the simulation software. For each of the experiments, we have to them, We recommend that in the first cycle of experiments, the instructor clarified the goal of the experiment and provided the theoretical background. introduces the ASLK PRO and ensure that all the students are familiar with a The Analog System Lab can be conducted parallel to a theory course on Analog simulation software. A warm-up exercise can be included, where the students Design or as a separate lab that follows a theory course. The student should have the following skills to pursue Analog System Lab: 1. Basic unders tanding of electronic circuits 2. Basic c omputer skills required to run the simulation tools 3. Ability to use the oscilloscope 4. C oncepts of gain, bandwidth, transfer function, filters, r egula t ors and wa v e shaping page 16 Analog System Lab Kit PRO introductionChapter 1 Experiment 1 Study the characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers and design of an instrumentation amplifier Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 17(1.1) VV0=AA0 ((VV1-VV2)) 0=0 1-2 Goal of the experiment V V00 (1.2) VV1-VV2= 1-2= The goal of this experiment is two-fold. In the first part, we will understand A A00 the application of negative feedback in designing amplifiers. In the second V0=A0 (V1-V2) V A V00 A00 In the above equations, A is the open-loop gain; for real amplifiers, A is in the part, we will build an instrumentation amplifier. V A (V V) 0 0=0 1-2 0 = = 5 6 range 10 to 10 and hence VV V c V . A 1unity A feedback circuit is shown in the Figure ss 1+ +A00 1 2 V0=AV00=(VA10- (VV21)-V2) V 0 V 1.2. It is easy to see that, V V 0 1-2= V V0 V0 V 1-2= V0 V0 A 0 "1as A"3 V1-VV21- =V2= "1as A00"3 A0 A0 A0 V Vs s V A 0 0 V V A A 1.1 Brief theory and mo 0 0 0 tiv 0 ation V A (1.3) 0 0 = = = A A0 Vs V1s A1 A 0 + 0+ 0 = Vs 1 A + 0 A A = = V s 1+A0 V0 V0 "1as"A1as"A3"3 _11ssd1i_11ssd2i 0 0 _++d1i_++d2i V 0 Vs Vs 1.1.1 Unity Gain Amplifier V 0"1as A"3 0 A A (1.4) 0 0 "1as A0"3 V s 11 A A = = V Ts T= _1+_s1+d1si_1+d1i_s1+d2sid2i = An OP-Amp 8 can be used in negative feedback mode to build unity gain amplifiers, 11+11 A A A V A (V V+) 0 0=0 1-2 1 1 A0 A= T T = = non-inverting amplifiers and inverting amplifiers. While an ideal OP-Amp is assumed In OP-amps, closed loop gaA in A is frequency = 1+11A+1 A 1 _1+sd1i_1+sd2i1 V_1si_1si = 0+d1+d2 to have infinite open-loop gain and infinite bandwidth, real OP-Amps have finite dependent, as shown in the equa= tion below, where 1 1 22 = = V V 1-2= 2 2 __11+11AA0+ssAA0 d1+ssAA0d2+ss A A0d1 d2ii + 0+ 0d1+ 0d2+ 0 d1 d2 _1 1 _1A 1AsA sA sAsAs As Ai i 1 numbers for these parameters. Therefore, it is importan++0+ t t0o +0undersd1+0d tand 1+0dsome 2+0d2+0 d1 and 0d2d1d2 are called the dominant poles of the OP- A0 1 T VO = V0=A0 (V1-V2) 1 1 T= limitations of real OP-Amps, such as finite Gain-Bandwidth Product (GB). Similarly, amp. This transfer function is typical OP-Amp that VS 1+1 A 11 = = V A 0 V0=A 00 (V1-V2) 2 2 1 1 A + = = `1+`_1s+G_Bs+GsB+A0sd2A+0sd2+ GBs GBd2ij d2ij the slew rate and saturation limits of an operational amplifier are equally important. has internal frequency =compensation. Please view 22 V 1 V s 1+A0 0 `11+_ss GGBB ssAA0d2+ss GB GB d2ij `+_ + + 0d2+ d2ij GB GB A A Given an OP-amp, how do we measure these parame = ters? 0=d10 d1 the recorded lecture 17 to get to know more about 1 V V = Figure 1.2: 1-2= V 0 2 = V V A 1-2= 0 1 1A sA sA s A V _+ 0+ 0d1+ 0d2+ 2 0 d1 d2i frequency compensa 0 tion. GB GB A Unity Gain System GB _1AA 1A sA sA s A i GB= A+ 00d10+ 0d1+ 0d2+ 0 d1 d2 "1as A0="30 d1 V A V 0 0 s 1 1 1 T T = = = V A 2 22 2 0 0 1 1 1 = +s+0sQ+0sQ+s 00 GB GB Vs 1 A = + 0 = A0 2 Vs 1 A +VSS 1 1 A +`1+ 0 _s GB+sA0d2+s2 GB d2ij = Q Q (1.5) = = 1 _s GB sA s GB i `+ + 0d2+ d2 j V 0 1 GB 1 GB _1si_1si V2 d2 d2 +d1+d2 1 1 + + "1as A"3 0 V0 Vo= Ao V1-V2 GB GB A A GB TT= A d2 d2 V0=A0 (V1-V2) == 0 d1 V "1as A"3 2 2 s 0 2 2 GB A V1 = 0 d1 1 sQ s 1 1++s00Q++s00 V s GB GB 0=0= d2 d2 V 0 T= -VSS V1-V2= A 0 GB Q Q A01 1 A 1 + 1 A= A GB 0 We can now write the transfer function T for a unity-gain amplifier as, Q Q= = A V0 A0 = _1+sd1i_1+sd2i 1 1 = 1 GB dd22 1 1GB p p = = Vs 1+A0 _1+sd1i_11+sd2i 2Q 2Q + = +1 T = 2 1 2 2 V0 GB A T GB A dd22 = _1 1A sA sA s A i 0 0 "1as A0"3+ 10+s0Qd1+s202d2+ 0 d1 d2 + 0+ 0 T = 1 Vs 1 sQ s + 0+ 0 (1.6) T 1 1 A = + Figure 1.1: An ideal Dual-Input, Single-Output OP-Amp and its I-O characteristic 0 0 A00 GB GB d2 0= = 1 d2 1 1+1 A A = 1 Q = = 1s 1s _+d1i_+d2i V V 1 p p Q = 2 1 GB d2 = Q Q 1 1 _s GB sA s GB i `+ + 0d2+ d2 j 1 d2 1 GB 2 + Vp GVBp1 GB1 T = = 1 1A sA sA s A Since the frequency and transient response of an amplifier are impacted by these _+ 0+ 0d1+ 0d2+ 0 d1 d2i + GB A 2 1+1 A d2 _1+1A GB0+sA0d1+sA0d2+s A0d1d2i A d2 1 1 GB A 11 parameters, we can measure the parameters if we have the frequency and transient = 0 d1 1 Q2Q2 p 1 = p= = 2 2 0= GB 2 d2 response of the amplifier; you can obtain these response characteristics by applying _1+1A0+sA0d1+sA0d2+s A0d1d1 2i = 22Q Q (1.7) GB 0= d2 p11p11 2 GB = sinusoidal and square wave inputs respectively. We invite the reader to view the `1+_s GB+s 1A0d2+s GB d2ij 2 Q = 0 0 `1+_s GB+sA0d2+s GB d2ij 0 0 2 Q 1 sGB sAs GB recorded lecture 16. `+_ + 0d2+ d2ij 2 2 1 _1 1 _14Q1i4Q i - - GB A = 0 d1 The term GB AT , also known as the gain bandwidth product of the operational = 0 d=1 1 GB A =000 d1 2 2 dV0 dV0 1 p 1 s =Q s + 0+ 0 An OP-Amp can be considered as a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) with amplifier, is one of the most important parameters in OP-Amp negative feedback p GB = dt dt 2Q GB 2Q V the voltage gain tending towards infinity. For finite output voltage, the input circuit. The above transfGB er function can be r Vp ewritten as V V p 1 p p 1 Q 0 T= = 2 2 voltage is practically zero. This is the basic theory of OP-Amp in the negative 1sQ s0 + 1 0+ 0 d2 1 GB T = VVp GGB B111 p feedback configuration. Figure 1.1 shows a differential-input, single-ended-output 1 2 + 2 T Q = 1 =sQ s 0 + 0+ GB 0 A d2 2 2 1 GB 0 d2 OP-Amp which uses dual supply Vss for biasing. 1 sQ s + 0+ 0 + 11 GB A d2 1 Q2 GB V Q2 0= p d2 Q 1 = GB Vp 0= d2 22 Q = 1 GB d2 page 18 Analog System Lab Kit PRO Q Q+ 1 GB d2 V GB1 p pp1111 GB A + V d2GB1 p 1 GB A d2 p = 1 2Q 1 0= GB d2 00 p = 1 Q2 0 0= GB d2 2Q Q2 2 2 2 1 1 4Q __1-1 4Q ii -2 Q 0 Q 0 p11 pdV11 Vp dV0 0 1 p = 0 dt1 Vp GB1 dt 0 p 2Q = 0 2 1 2Q V Vpp 1 1 4Q Q2 _ - 2i Vp 0 2 _1 1 4Q i - 0 p11 dV 0 V GB1dV0 p 0 0 dt 0 2 dt _1-1 4Q i 1 V p V p dV0 Q2 V Vp p 2 dt V GB1 p Vp p1V1 GB p 1 1 Q2 0 1 Q2 2 2 2 _1 1 4Q i - p11 p11 dV0 0 dt 0 2 _1 1 4Q i - 2 Vp 1 1 4Q _ - i dV 0 dV 0 dt dt V p V p experiment 1V0=A0 (V1-V2) V 0 V V 1-2= A 0 V A 0 0 = Vs 1 A + 0 V0 "1as A"3 0 V s A 0 A = _1+sd1i_1+sd2i 1 T = 1+1 A 1 = 2 _V1+A1 A(0V+sVA)0d1+sA0d2+s A0d1d2i 0=0 1-2 1 V 0 = V V 1-2= 2 A `1+_s GB0+sA0d2+s GB d2ij V A 0 0 GB A = 0 d1 = V 1 A s + 0 GB V 0 "1as A"3 0 V s 1 V A (V V) 0=0 1-2 T = 2 2 A0 where 1 sQ s called slew rate. It can therefore be determined by applying a square wave of Vp at + 0+ 0 V V A (V VV0)=A0 0(V1-V2) 0=0 1-2 A V V V0=A0= (V1-V2) 1-2= V A (V V) 0=0 1-2 A 0 V A (V V) V A (V V) certain high frequency and increasing the magnitude of the input. 0=0 1-2 0=0 1-2 _1si_1si V A (V V+1) d1+ V0d2 V0 0=0 1-2 V 0 V V VV1-AV2= 1-2= 0 0 V0=A0 (V1-V2) V Q 0 =V1-V2= A = A0 V0 V0 0 V V 1-2= A0 V V1 V2 V1 V2 V0 s 1+A0 - = - = A 1 GB 0 d2 1 V V A0 1-A02= V A V0 A0 V0 0 0 2R R V0 A0 A + T=V1-V 02= = V = 0 V0 A0 = V "Vs1as1A" A3 V A V A A0 s 1+A0 + 0 0 0 0 0 0 GB A = d2 Vs 1+A10 1 A V A + V = = 0 0 s Vs 1+A0 V 1 A V 1 = A s + 0 s + 0 V A V V0 0 0 0 V 1 A R V0 s + 0 "1as A"3"1as A0A"3 R = 0 0 V 0 "1as A0"3 V 1 A V A=Vs 1 V0 V 00= GB s +d2 0 s VI "1as A0"3 Vs "1as A"3 "1Vas A"3 0 0 0 _1Vsi_1si +sd1+d2 = VO "1as A"3 VO Vs Vs 0 A A0 V0 0 2 V A0 A s "1as A"3 A= = 0 VI _1 1A sA sA A0s A i A + 0+ 0d1+1 0d2+ 0 d1 d2 Q = A VsA 0 0 _1+sd1i_1A_+1=+ssd2id1i_1+sd2i T= A A 1s A1s = =_+d1i_ 0+d2i 1 1 A_1si_1si + +d1+d2 A= A _1+sd1i_1+sd_2i1+sd1i_1+sd2i 0 1 1 A _1+=sd1i_1+sd2i 1 1 T T= = 1 1 T =1_1+sd1i_1+sd2i 1 1 = 1 1 A 1+1 A + = T= 2 1+11A T= Tp= = 121 A _1+1A0++sA0d1+sA0d2+s A0d1d2i T= 1 1 A 1 1 A 1 + + `1 _s GB sA s GB 1 ij1 + + 0d2+ d2 2Q 1 T1 A 1 += = = 1 1 2 2 = Figure 1.5: (a) Non-inverting amplifier of gain 2, (b) Inverting amplifier of gain 2 1+1 A 1 1 _1 1A sA sAs A i _1+1A 20+sA =+0d1+0s+A0d02+d1s+ A00d1d2d+ 2i 0 d1d2 = = = _1+1A0+sA0d1+s1A0d2+s A0d1d2i 2 2 2 2 _1+1A0+sA0d1+sA0d2+s A0d1d2i 0 = `1+_sGB+sA0d2+s GB d2ij _1 1A sA _1sGBA1A ssAA0A d1s iAs 1A i +0+0d1++0d02=++00d1d+1d20d2+ 0d21d2 1 1 1 =1A sA sAs A _+0+0d1+0d2+ 0d1d2i 1 = = 2 1 = _1 1A sA sAs A i 2 +0+0d1+0d2+ 0d1d22 1 1 GB= A0d1 1= sGB sA s GB 2 `1+_sGB+`s+A0_d2+s+GB 0dd22ij+d2ij 1 = = 1 sGB sAs GB 2 `+_ + 0d2+ d2ij 0 2 2 `1 _sGB sAs GB ij GB = + + 0d2+ d2 1 `1+_sGB+sA0d`21++s_sGBGB +d2sijA0d2+s GB d2ij 2 GB GB A = GB= A0d1 = 0 d1 `1+_sGB+sA0d2+s GB d2ij GB A 2 = 0 d1 GB= A0d1 `1+_sGB+sA0d2+s GB d2ij GB A GB A = 0 d1 = 0 d1 11.1.2 Non-inverting Amplifier V GB GB p GB= A0d1 1 T GB = GB A 2 2 = 0 d1 GB T 1+s0Q+s0 GB GB = 2 2 GB 1 1 1 sQ s + 1 0 T+ 0T= = GB 1 1 2 2 V GB 2 2 p T= 1 1sQ s 1 1 2 2 1+sQ= 0Q+s+0 0+ 0 T= 1sQ sA2 non-in 2verting amplifier with a gain of 2 is shown in Figure 1.5 (a). T T + 0 1+ 0 = = 2 2 2 2 d2 1 1sGB 0Q s0 + + T = 1+s0Q+s0 1+s0Q+s0 11 1 + 1 2 2 1+ Ts10Q+s0 Q Figure 1.3: Magnitude and Phase r = esponse oQ f a Unity Gain S = =GB ystemA d2 Q 2 2 = 1 Q =1 1 1 1+s0Q+s0 1 GB d2 1 QGB = d2 Q Q 11 GB = Q=2 d2 1 GB + + d2 0= GB d2d2 1 GB Q= + GB A 1 GB 1 GB 1 GB A d2 d2 d2 d2 + 2 GB A d+ 2 Q + += d2 1 GB GB A1.1.3 d2 Inverting Amplifier and GB GB +GB Q A d2 A d2 1 AGB d2 d2 GB 0= GB d20= d2 GB A d2 GB + 0= d2 0= GB d2 p11 GB A d2 GB GB 0= d20= d2 Q1 Q 0= GB d2 Q p= GB 0= d2 Q GB 0= d2 2Q An in v erting amplifier with a gain o f 2 is sho wn in Figur e 1.5 (b). Q Q 1 Q 1 1 0 p p= 0 = Q 1 p = 2Q 1 1 Q 2Q p= 2Q 1 2 p= p= 2Q 2Q 1 2Qp1= 4Q 0 Q is the quality factor _ and - is i the 1 damping fact 0 or, and 0 is the natural 0 2Qp = 0 2Q 0 0 1 frequency of the system. When the frequency response is plotted V with magnitude p 0 0 0 dV 0 p0= 0 0 vs 0 and phase vs 0, it appears as shown in Figure 1.3. 2Q Unity gain Non-inverting amp Inverting amplifier V GB1 V p Vp 0 p dtVp 0 Vp R2 R4 V V p p 1 V V GB1 Vp GB1 p 0 p Q2 Vp GB1 V V V GB1 If one applies a step of peak p voltage p t o the unity gain amplifier , and if p slew 2 Vp GB1 Vp GB1 1 V GB1 1 R1 R3 p 1 Q2 p1Q12 rate, then the output appears as shown in Figure 2.4 if or . Vp GB1 1 Q2 0 2 2 1 1 Q2 2 Q2 Q2 1 VF1 VF2 VF3 2 Q2 0 VG1 2 2 p11 p11 1 p112 Q2 p1 2 1 Q is pappr 11oximately equal p t1 o the 1 V toptal number 2 of visible peaks in the _1- step 1 4 rQ esponse i and U1 U2 U3 p11 0 0 + 0 p11 dV 2 20 the frequency of ringing is . 0 0 0 1 1 4Q _1 1 4Q i 2 _ - i - _1-140Q i 2 dt 2 V2 GB1 _1-1 4Q i p _1 1 4Q i _1 1 4Q i 0 - - 2 dV dV0 0 1 1 4Q _ - i dV0 V 2 p dV 0 _1 1 4Q i - dt dt Slew-r dV0ate is known as the dV0maximum rate dt dV 0 dt 1 dt dt V Vp dV0 p at which the output of the OP-Amps is VpdtQ2 Vp Figure 1.6: Negative Feedback Amplifiers V V dt p p 2 V capable of rising; in other wor p ds, slew V p rate is the maximum value thap t dV1o/dt 1 can attain. In this experiment, as we go 0 on increasing the amplitude of the step 2 input, at some amplitude the rate at Figur e 1.6 sho ws all the thr ee nega tiv e f eedback amplifier c on figur a tions. Figur e _1-1 4Q i which the output starts rising remains 1.7 illus tr a tes the fr equency r esponse (magnitude and phase) o f the thr ee diff er en t dV0 constant and no longer increases with Figure 1.4: Time Response of an nega tiv e f eedback amplifier t opologies. Figur e 1.8 sho ws the output o f the thr ee types dt the peak voltage of input; this rate is Amplifier for a step input of size Vp o f amplifiers f or a squar e-wa v e input, illus tr a ting the limita tions due t o sle w-r a te. Vp Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 19 experiment 11.2 Exercise Set 1 1.3 Measurements to be taken Design the following amplifiers - (a) a unity gain amplifier, (b) a non-inverting Transient response - Apply a square wave of fixed magnitude and study the 1 1 amplifier with a gain of 2 (Figure 1.5(a)) and an inverting amplifier with the eectff of slew rate on unity gain, inverting and non-inverting amplifiers. gain of 2.2 (Figure 1.5(b)). Frequency Response - Obtain the gain bandwidth product of the unity gain 2 Design an instrumentation amplifier using three OP-Amps with a controllable amplifier, the inverting amplifier and the non-inverting amplifier from the 2 differential-mode gain of 3. Refer to Figure 1.9(a) for the circuit diagram. frequency response. Assume that the resistors have 1% tolerance and determine the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of the setup and estimate its bandwidth. We 3 DC Transfer Characteristics - Study the saturation limits for an OP-Amp. invite the reader to view the recorded lecture 18. Design an instrumentation amplifier using two OP-Amps with a controllable 3 differential-mode gain of 5. Refer to Figure 1.9 for the circuit diagrams of the instrumentation amplifiers and determine the values of the resistors. Assume that the resistors have 1% tolerance and determine the CMRR of the setup and estimate its bandwidth. Figure 1.8: Outputs VF1, VF2 and VF3 of Negative Feedback Amplifiers of Figure 1.6 for Square-wave Input VG1 Determine the second pole of an OP-Amp and develop the macromodel for the 4 given OP-Amp IC TL082. See Appendix B for an introduction to the topic of analog macromodels. Figure 1.7: Frequency Response of Negative Feedback Amplifiers page 20 Analog System Lab Kit PRO experiment 1

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