Legal Research Report sample

how to write legal research methodology and legal research report writing and legal research report example
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™ LexisNexis Academic User Guide Learn how to use LexisNexis Academic to retrieve News, Business, Legal, Medical, and Reference InformationFREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Content Q Will content continue to build or will back files be deleted as new material is added? A Content on the service will continue to accumulate over time. Occasionally, in instances dictated by licensing restrictions, material is taken off the service. For monthly summaries of the additions and deletions, visit our LexisNexis Academic “Content Lists” page at http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/1univ/acad/ContentInformation.htm. In addition to the summaries of additions and deletions, you’ll find a downloadable list of all of the titles within the service and other useful reports. Q Are Congressional hearings included and where? A Yes, Congressional hearing transcripts from several other information providers are included in LexisNexis Academic within the News section. Go to the Guided News search form and select News Transcripts/Political Transcripts. However, LexisNexis Congressional offers the most effective access to the entire body of Congressional information. If your institution subscribes to LexisNexis Congressional, a link to the service (that simply says Congressional) will appear under Search for Other Information on the left navigation bar. If your institution does not subscribe to LexisNexis Congressional and the political transcripts within LexisNexis Academic do not meet your needs, ask your librarian for help. Q Will public records or real estate records be added to LexisNexis Academic? A No. Cost and privacy concerns preclude inclusion of these records in LexisNexis Academic. Administrative offices in colleges and universities can gain access to this type of information by subscribing to LexisNexis for Development Professionals, a separate service. Q. Can I search across all files in LexisNexis Academic at once or combine files to search those of most interest to me? A There is one search form within LexisNexis Academic that allows you to search across a number of files: the Quick News Search form available on the Home page. Quick News searches across the last two years worth of documents from all full-text English language news sources available within LexisNexis. Read more about this type of search on pp. 6-7. This functionality is not available within other areas of LexisNexis Academic. Why? In order to keep our costs low to continue to be able to offer this product at a competitive price, as well as to return a manageable answer set to users, we limited the functionality of the product, precluding the ability to search across all files or to combine files dynamically. Q Are all the sources full text? What do you mean by full text? A The vast majority of the sources are full text. The source list identifies those that are not full text by inclusion of the word “abstract” in the publication description. However, some full text sources omit photographs, tables, charts, and other illustrations. Still others offer selected full text. In other words, not every article from every issue is available on LexisNexis Academic. LexisNexis Academic inherits the form of a document, i.e. full text, selected full text, or abstract, from the full LexisNexis service and provides in full what it receives from the master database. A very small percentage of the publications in LexisNexis Academic are abstracts only. Q Are sources duplicated from one form to another? A Yes. In order to ensure that users are searching the appropriate materials, certain sources are duplicated between search forms. This is meant to be an aid to the user since much content in the product is logically accessible from more than one search form. For example, The Boston Globe is accessible from several categories found on the Guided News Search form: General News/Major Papers, U.S. News/Northeast Regional Sources, and U.S. News/Massachusetts. Its entertainment news is accessible from Arts & Sports News/Entertainment News. There are other categories and forms from which The Boston Globe is accessible, but in the interest of space all are not included here. 2 LexisNexis Academic User Guide Indexing Q Who does the indexing for LexisNexis Academic and what criteria are applied? A LexisNexis provides topical and proper name indexing on news content, through a proprietary process known as SmartIndexing Technology. Proper name indexing (for people, companies and other organizations) as well as topical or subject indexing is done on materials we obtain from the LexisNexis warehouse. Legal materials are also indexed via separate criteria. In order to view index terms in news content, use the KWIC™ display option. To read more about SmartIndexing, visit http://www.lexis-nexis.com/infopro/products/index/ Q If a source is taken out of LexisNexis Academic, can you leave its indexing in the product? A No, this is not possible. LexisNexis does not maintain separate indexes (beyond those described above) to aid document retrieval. When a search is submitted, it runs against the text of the actual documents. Here’s how it works: LexisNexis Academic uses the LexisNexis search engine to retrieve results, allowing the user to perform a Boolean search through a combination of entering keywords and selecting search criteria from the search forms. Based on the source being searched, the user is able to query either the full text of the document or against selected segments (such as title/lead paragraph/etc.) within the document. Once documents are removed from the service, no indexing is left behind to maintain. We no longer have access to bibliographic data (title, date, author, etc.) about those documents. Q In the Business, Legal, and Medical Areas, I notice that some search forms offer a Basic and a Guided Search version. What is the difference between using the Basic search form and the Guided Search form to do the search? A When using the Basic search form and entering a term or terms in the required field, the search is limited to articles with required term(s) appearing in the headline, lead paragraph or indexing terms fields. As a result, users are not searching the full text of the document when using this form. Users of the Guided Search form, however, are not limited to searching in required fields and are able to conduct full text searches if they so desire. Guided Search forms offer users greater flexibility and control when constructing a search. Q How can I locate a federal or state legal opinion for which I only know the parties’ names and not the court that heard the case? A On the Home page or under Legal Research, choose the Get a Case form and enter the parties’ names in the boxes provided. LexisNexis Academic will retrieve the case without data about the court in which the case was heard. Technical Issues Q Some of the error messages are misleading. How can I find more information about them? A The LexisNexis Academic Knowledge Base, available at http://support.lexis- nexis.com/academic/default.asp and linked to from the help text in LexisNexis Academic, contains a page that lists and explains all error messages. When users receive the following message, “The system is unable to process your request …,” users should attempt the request again. If the message repeats, the librarian at the subscribing institution should contact Customer Service. Q Can off-campus users access the service? A Remote access is available to academic institutions that can authenticate their users. For more details, refer to http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/nr/ Q Are printing, e-mail, and downloading capabilities included? A Yes, LexisNexis Academic offers users the ability to mark and print (or save) several citations at a time. Citations can be saved in either the Document List or Expanded List formats. As for documents in KWIC™ and Full formats, users will be able to print (or save) only one of these at a time. They may also e-mail document citations or a single document’s text to themselves, provided that the institution has not disabled this function in their browser software. Instructions for e- mailing, printing and/or tagging documents are covered on pages 18-19. LexisNexis Academic User Guide 3Q Can my institution include a school logo or message within LexisNexis Academic? A Yes. LexisNexis Academic—or any other products that you subscribe to—can include a home page link to an image, such as your school logo, that you provide. Your students and faculty will know exactly who is making the service possible For technical specifications and a sign-up form, visit http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/sr/SchoolBranding.htm Support Q Can librarians (and faculty) at my institution receive training on LexisNexis Academic? A Yes. Our Information Professional Consultants (IPCs) are available to provide you with convenient, personalized, customized training on-site or through web conferencing. Site visits require a minimum level of attendance, while web conferences do not have minimum attendance requirements and can be attended from diverse locations. To read more about these options and fill out an online training request form, visit http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/1univ/training/ Q Whom do we call with product content and technical support questions? A For product customer support, librarians and technical staff may call the Dayton Customer Service phone number that was provided with their activation notice. Callers will be asked for their bill group or account number. Please note that students are not authorized to call, and will be referred back to their librarians. Students may, however, access the LexisNexis Academic Knowledge Base, which consists of questions frequently asked of the Customer Service staff in Dayton and may very well contain the exact question or problem or concern in question. To reach it, click on the Help link at the top of the page from anywhere within LexisNexis Academic, then click on LexisNexis Academic Knowledge Base. Q Can I get information that I can use to announce the availability of LexisNexis Academic to my institution’s users? A Yes. Please feel free to download promotional materials such as a Sample Press release, a Sample Memo to Faculty, and a general description of the service available from our LexisNexis Academic Subscriber Resources page. The page is online at http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/1univ/acad/SubscriberResources.htm Q Can I reproduce this fact book and other materials I find on your Web site? May I link to your logo and/or any of these materials? A Yes, please do. We only ask that you give credit where credit is due, so the following sentence or some facsimile of it should appear alongside the reproductions or links, “Reproduced with the permission LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.” Q How can I stay alert to changes in the service or take advantage of other librarians’ knowledge about LexisNexis Academic? A Two excellent ways to do this are by subscribing to our monthly e-mail newsletter or by joining the LexisNexis Academic listserv. Information on how to join each of these is on the LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions website (www.lexisnexis.com/academic) at http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/newsletter/subscription.htm and at http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/trial_requests/listservsignup.asp respectively. Q How can I found out about usage of LexisNexis Academic at my institution? A Monthly usage reports (as well as a 36-month Trend report) showing search activity are available online to registered librarians or technical staff. To register, visit our Usage Reports page online at http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/1univ/usage/default.htm 4 LexisNexis Academic User Guide TM Getting to Know LexisNexis Academic This guide highlights the most important features of LexisNexis Academic. It includes tips that will help you understand the content and functionality available on the service and enable you to take maximum advantage of it. In addition, there are sample searches that you can modify for your own purposes. HOME PAGE The LexisNexis Academic Home Page is divided into several distinct areas. They are: the upper navigation bar, the left navigation area, and commonly requested search forms. Figure 1: LexisNexis Academic Home Page The Upper Navigation Bar The upper navigation bar runs across the top of the page and provides product-specific information. It remains constant throughout the product and provides the following options: Home Sources How Do I? Site Map What’s New Help Clicking Home will return you to the screen shown in Figure 1 from anywhere within the database. The Sources link takes you to a searchable and browseable list of publications that are included within the database. This “Source List” provides information about the publications, including their coverage, frequency, publisher, online availability, description, ISSN (where available), and the format of the data (ex. full-text, selected full-text, or abstracts). A Search This Title link is included for each title that directs you to the appropriate search form. The How Do I? page offers specific search help on some of the most frequently asked questions at reference desks. For instance, “How do I find out more about a specific case, such as Brown v. Board of Education?” Each question features a descriptive answer and links to the appropriate search form within the service that can be used to conduct the query in question. LexisNexis Academic User Guide 5 The Site Map is an at-a-glance navigational tool that shows—and links to—all of the search forms within the product as well as to help text. The What’s New page provides late-breaking news on content additions and removals, technical issues, and other relevant news, such as the availability of training materials. We intend to update this page biweekly or on an as-needed basis. Finally, Help links to information on how to construct searches within LexisNexis Academic, how to cite electronic resources, troubleshooting tips, and much more. The Left Navigation Area The left navigation area has two components: links to research categories within LexisNexis Academic are listed under Academic Search Forms and are broken up into five categories: News, Business, Legal Research, Medical, and Reference. These category names are based on how researchers might think about their information needs. We’ll go into more detail about each of these categories later. Links to other LexisNexis services that your institution subscribes to are listed under Search for Other Information. If LexisNexis Academic is the only service that your college or university subscribes to, you will not see Search for Other Information. Commonly Requested Search Forms The third and last component of the Home Page is the central part of the screen and consists of our most commonly requested search forms. There, you’ll see Quick News Search, Get a Case, and Company Information. Quick News Search Figure 2: Quick News Search Form The Quick News Search offers the ability to search across all English-language news files within LexisNexis Academic for the previous 2 years with a "one-box" search interface. Unlike many other LexisNexis research tools, Quick News Search does not search the full text of documents for your terms. Instead, it searches a specific collection of document segments chosen to bring you the most relevant results. They include the TERMS segment (index terms assigned to that document by the LexisNexis SmartIndexing Technology™ process) and the HLEAD segment (the first few paragraphs in news articles). All news sources accessed by the Quick News Search form undergo the indexing process. They are analyzed for subjects discussed, company names found, people mentioned, organization names encountered, and geographical locations identified. When a known term or variation of it is found, the standardized index term for it is placed in a special TERMS segment of the document. This indexing process, which is a combination of software analytical programs and human editor intervention, provides a highly accurate profile of each document. When you submit your search, any document containing your search terms in one of the searched document segments (TERMS or HLEAD) will become a candidate. Those candidate documents are then relevance ranked. Relevance ranking is determined by: • where your terms appear within the document (search terms appearing as LexisNexis SmartIndexing Technology terms or in the TERMS or HLEAD segment make the document more relevant), • how many of your search terms appear in the document, and • how often those search terms appear throughout the document. 6 LexisNexis Academic User Guide Then, the most relevant of those documents (up to 1,000) will be retrieved and made available to you for browsing. To help you analyze those retrieved documents, your search terms will be highlighted when the document's text is displayed. Your document list will be sorted by relevancy, but you can resort the list in reverse chronological order by clicking on the Sort by Date link on the results list. How Do You Conduct A Quick News Search? The concept of keyword/index term searching is to specify a few words or phrases that describe your topic of interest. Please note the following: • Quick Search assumes an OR relationship between your search terms. That is, documents may contain one or more of your search terms to become a candidate for retrieval. Documents that contain both search terms will be retrieved at the beginning of the document list. Do not attempt to alter this relationship by entering any special commands (AND, OR, W/n, etc.). • Do not use wildcard characters ( and ) to replace characters within a search term. • If you want to link two or more words together so that they are treated as a phrase, enclose them in quotation marks. You can use Quick News to search up to the most recent two years of news sources. To help you obtain more targeted results, the Date dropdown list lets you select a narrower timeframe for your search. If you would like to use advanced searching techniques, or want to find articles that are more than two years old, please use our Guided News Search form. See page 11 for more information on conducting a Guided News search. Get a Case The Get a Case search form (see Figure 3) searches federal and state case law by citation or party name. Figure 3: Get a Case Search Form To search by: Party Name Enter the name(s) of the parties involved in the case. (You only need to enter one party name to retrieve cases.) If you are not sure of the correct spelling, you can enter variations separated with ORs. Example: Roe OR Row Citation Enter the citation to the case. Example: 438 U.S. 265 Note: this search form allows home page access to a search form that is found within the product by following the path: Legal Research/Get a Case. The Get a Case search form in the Legal Research area is identical to the one on the home page, but it includes a link to samples of citation formats and search tips. Company Information Looking for a company’s contact information, key executives, number of employees, or financial statements? This is a good place to start. To retrieve company information, type the name of a company into the Name field (see Figure 4). LexisNexis Academic User Guide 7Figure 4: Company Information The default for the search is US Public Companies, but a Search Form dropdown offers the following choices: • All U.S. Companies • US Public Companies • US Private Companies • International Company Reports A date dropdown is set to default at Previous six months, but can be changed to preselected dates, ranging from Today to All available dates. Note: this search form allows home page access to a search form that is found within the product by following the path: Business/Company Information/Company Financial. Although the Company Information search form on the home page is similar to the Company Financial search form in the Business section, the search form in the Business section offers additional sources. BASIC INFORMATION ON NAVIGATING, CONNECTORS, WILDCARDS, AND NOISE WORDS Now that you’re familiar with the product’s home page, it’s almost time to explore the five major research categories within LexisNexis Academic: News, Business, Legal Research, Medical, and Reference. But first let’s review some basics about navigating, connectors, wildcards, and noise words. Navigation/Please Use Our Tools It’s important that you remember to use our tools and buttons whenever possible (Home, Help, Sources, Edit Search, left navigation panel, etc.), instead of your browser’s Back button. This is because many browser “back” buttons take the user back to a previous screen in the database but not to the top of that screen. Users may find themselves “sitting” in the middle of a search form or other screen and be confused as to where they are within the service. Please take advantage of the user-friendly interface that our designers have incorporated into the product. It will make your searching easier. Connectors Connectors (also known as Boolean operators) join search terms and establish a logical relationship between them. A variety of connectors may be used in one search request. LexisNexis Academic does not search for the connectors as words in the documents — just for the actual search terms. Connectors and examples of how to use them are explained below. OR finds either or both search words or phrases in the same document. Use it to connect synonyms, antonyms, acronyms and abbreviations. Adding OR to a search generally increases the number of records retrieved. Examples: doctor or physician regulate or deregulate atm or automated teller machine (Retrieves documents that include either word.) W/N finds words or phrases in the same document in any order; N specifies the maximum word count between the two words/phrases, which can be any number up to 255. Examples: george w/3 bush 8 LexisNexis Academic User Guide victim w/5 rights (First example retrieves documents that have the word george within three words of bush; second example retrieves documents that have word victim within five words of rights.) AND locates both search words anywhere in the document and does not specify word order. Adding AND to a search generally reduces the number of records retrieved. Examples: affirmative action and California bank and deregulate W/S finds documents in which specified words or phrases appear within the same sentence. Example: sanction w/s frivolous W/P ensures that retrieved documents contain the specified words or phrases within the same paragraph. Example: rule w/p sanction PRE/N finds both words or phrases in the same document. The first word/phrase must be in front of the second word/phrase. N specifies the maximum word count between the two words/phrases, which can be any number up to 255. Example: cable PRE/2 television OR tv OR t.v. (Retrieves documents discussing cable television and not television cables.) NOT W/N requires the first search word to appear in the document. The second word may also appear; however, it cannot be within N words of the first word. Example: Rico NOT W/5 Puerto NOT W/S provides that both words or phrases may appear in the same document. However, they cannot be in the same sentence. Example: market not w/s share NOT W/P provides that both words or phrases may appear in the same document. However, they cannot be in the same paragraph. Example: cable not w/p tv AND NOT is used to exclude words or phrases from the answer set. Example: Jordan w/10 Syria and not Michael w/3 Jordan (This search will locate documents containing the word Jordan (the country) within 10 words of the word Syria and will not pull up references to Michael Jordan, the basketball player.) When using the and not connector, please place it last in the search string syntax, as demonstrated above. Otherwise you may accidentally exclude other terms which follow the and not connector, without intending to create this result. LexisNexis Academic User Guide 9 ATLEASTN is used to determine the minimum number of times a search term should appear in a document. This will help you find more in-depth articles on a topic. The N represents a number between 1 and 255. Example: atleast5 (budget). (This search requires the word budget to appear within documents at least five times.) You can use more than one ATLEAST command in a search. Example: ATLEAST5 (budget) and ATLEAST5 (defense). Using Parentheses to Alter Connector Order Connectors have an order of priority. They operate in the following order: 1. OR 2. W/N 3. PRE/N 4. NOT W/N 5. W/S 6. NOT W/S 7. W/P 8. NOT W/P 9. AND 10. AND NOT Sometimes the hierarchy of the connectors impacts your search in a negative way and totally changes your search from what you intended. In these instances, use parentheses to rectify the situation: Example: If you enter the search statement: drug w/5 kingpin OR drug w/5 dealer AND death penalty LexisNexis Academic will look first for kingpin OR drug because the OR connector is processed first. This was not the intention of the search. You should enter the search statement like this: (drug w/5 kingpin) OR (drug w/5 dealer) AND death penalty The use of parentheses forces the phrases to stay together as one search entity. Wildcards or Universal Characters Universal characters work as placeholders for letters in words for which you may have difficulty searching. There are two universal characters—the asterisk and the exclamation mark—and each has a different function. Asterisk () — This replaces one character, can appear more than once in a word, and can be used anywhere EXCEPT as the first character. Example: If you enter the term, womn, the search results will include both the terms woman and women. Exclamation Mark () — This replaces one or more characters at the end of a word. Example: Use negligen to search for negligent, negligently, or negligence. Note: Words that work best are those that are unique in their truncated form. Example: If you search for fir (thinking that you want to find fired, firing, or fires), your results will also include first, firm, and so on. 10 LexisNexis Academic User Guide Noise Words Certain common words cannot be searched by the LexisNexis services. These terms are called noise words. Replace the noise word with a space when you enter your search. (For example, to search for the articles containing the phrase black and white, enter black white.) While we cannot provide a list of all noise words, here are the most common ones: the and of his my when there is are so or it And and or cannot be used because LexisNexis reads them as connectors within the search. Note: the word in and the letter a are very common, but they are not noise words. To search for a phrase containing in or a, enter the entire phrase as your search request. For example, you can search for the phrase one in a million. Now that we have reviewed the building blocks for constructing searches, we’re ready to explore the five major areas of LexisNexis Academic, beginning with the News section. NEWS We’ve already reviewed the home page, where you’ll find the Quick News search form. While the Quick News search is a great place to do topical searches (see page 6 for more information on using the Quick News search form), sometimes you need to be able to conduct a more precise search. In those cases, the Guided News Search form is the place to be. How to Use the Guided News Search Form To reach the Guided News search form, click the Home or Figure 5: Link to the Guided News News link. From there, select the gray Guided News Search Search form from the Home Page tab at the top of the page. (See Figure 5.) The Guided News form provides access to a range of news sources, including major newspapers (such as the New York Times or Washington Post), television and radio program transcripts, college campus newspapers, and foreign language newspapers, among others. These sources are broken up into research categories, which are further divided by type of source material. Sources are divided this way both to enable users to tailor their search to their needs and to help ensure that searches return manageable answer sets. For an overview of the sources available through the Guided News Search form, refer to the chart on pp. 12-13. LexisNexis Academic User Guide 11News Sources Available through the Guided News Search Form on LexisNexis Academic Category News Source Description General Major Papers More than 50 leading newspapers from the U.S. and around the world, including The New York News Times and The Washington Post. Magazines & Journals More than 300 magazines and journals; both general and special interest. Newsletters More than 650 newsletters covering legal, corporate, and governmental issues Abstracts Abstracts from more than 200 news, business, and financial publications Policy Papers Over 400 policy papers with carefully considered perspectives on timely issues. Time Incorporated Publications Two-year rolling archive of Time publications, including Fortune and Time Magazine. Tribune Newspapers Six-month rolling archive of The Los Angeles Times, Baltimore Sun, Hartford Courant, Morning Call, and Newsday (New York, NY) Today's News Today's Selected News Sources Provides same day news for over 70 daily, English language news sources. U.S. News Midwest Regional Sources Regional or local publications from or covering Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota & Wisconsin. Northeast Regional Sources Regional or local publications from or covering Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island & Vermont. Southeast Regional Sources Regional or local publications from or covering Alabama, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia & West Virginia. Western Regional Sources Regional or local publications from or covering these states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington & Wyoming. Alabama News Sources News sources originating from the state of Alabama. Alaska News Sources News sources originating from the state of Alaska. Arizona News Sources News sources originating from the state of Arizona. Arkansas News Sources News sources originating from the state of Arkansas. California News Sources News sources originating from the state of California. Colorado News Sources News sources originating from the state of Colorado. Connecticut News Sources News sources originating from the state of Connecticut. Delaware News Sources News sources originating from the state of Delaware. District of Columbia News Sources News sources originating from the District of Columbia Florida News Sources News sources originating from the state of Florida. Georgia News Sources News sources originating from the state of Georgia. Hawaii News Sources News sources originating from the state of Hawaii. Idaho News Sources News sources originating from the state of Idaho. Illinois News Sources News sources originating from the state of Illinois. Indiana News Sources News sources originating from the state of Indiana. Iowa News Sources News sources originating from the state of Iowa. Kansas News Sources News sources originating from the state of Kansas. Kentucky News Sources News sources originating from the state of Kentucky. Louisiana News Sources News sources originating from the state of Louisiana. Maine News Sources News sources originating from the state of Maine. Maryland News Sources News sources originating from the state of Maryland. Massachusetts News Sources News sources originating from the state of Massachusetts. Michigan News Sources News sources originating from the state of Michigan. Minnesota News Sources News sources originating from the state of Minnesota. Mississippi News Sources News sources originating from the state of Mississippi. Missouri News Sources News sources originating from the state of Missouri. Montana News Sources News sources originating from the state of Montana. Nebraska News Sources News sources originating from the state of Nebraska. Nevada News Sources News sources originating from the state of Nevada. New Hampshire News Sources News sources originating from the state of New Hampshire. New Jersey News Sources News sources originating from the state of New Jersey. New Mexico News Sources News sources originating from the state of New Mexico. New York News Sources News sources originating from the state of New York. North Carolina News Sources News sources originating from the state of North Carolina. North Dakota News Sources News sources originating from the state of North Dakota. Ohio News Sources News sources originating from the state of Ohio. Oklahoma News Sources News sources originating from the state of Oklahoma. Oregon News Sources News sources originating from the state of Oregon. Pennsylvania News Sources News sources originating from the state of Pennsylvania. Rhode Island News Sources News sources originating from the state of Rhode Island. South Carolina News Sources News sources originating from the state of South Carolina. South Dakota News Sources News sources originating from the state of South Dakota. Tennessee News Sources News sources originating from the state of Tennessee. Texas News Sources News sources originating from the state of Texas. Utah News Sources News sources originating from the state of Utah. Vermont News Sources News sources originating from the state of Vermont. Virginia News Sources News sources originating from the state of Virginia. LexisNexis Academic User Guide Category News Source Description U.S. News Washington News Sources News sources originating from the state of Washington. (cont.) West Virginia News Sources News sources originating from the state of West Virginia. Wisconsin News Sources News sources originating from the state of Wisconsin. Wyoming News Sources News sources originating from the state of Wyoming. World News North/South America News Cover to cover news sources where more than 60% of the stories from the sources pertain to Sources Canada or Central or South America as well as selected stories about Canada or Central or South America from other news sources. European News Sources Cover to cover news sources where more than 60% of the stories from the sources pertain to Europe as well as selected stories about Europe from other news sources. Asia/Pacific News Sources Cover to cover news sources where more than 60% of the stories from the sources pertain to Asia or the Pacific Rim as well as selected stories about this region from other news sources. Middle East/Africa News Sources Cover to cover news sources where more than 60% of the stories from the sources pertain to the Middle East or Africa as well as selected stories about the Middle East or Africa from other news sources. News Wires All available wire reports Wire services, updated many times daily, including the Associated Press News All Transcripts Broadcast transcripts from major television and radio networks. Transcripts ABC News Transcripts Transcripts from ABC news programs, including "20/20," "World News Tonight," and "Good Morning America." Burrelle's Transcripts (transcribed by Burrelle's Information Services) of a number of nationally syndicated programs, including "Rush Limbaugh" and "The Oprah Winfrey Show." CBS News Transcripts Transcripts of CBS news programs, including "60 Minutes," "48 Hours," and "CBS Evening News." CNBC News Transcripts from selected CNBC programs, including "Tim Russert" and "Hardball with Chris Matthews." CNBC/Dow Jones Business Video Selected transcripts of market-changing business and financial news, breaking national and international events affecting the U.S. economy & CEO interviews. CNN Transcripts Transcripts from feature programs, interviews, and live reports on CNN. CNNFn Transcripts Transcripts from the CNN Financial Network. Fox News Network Transcripts Transcripts from Fox News shows, including "The Drudge Report" and "The O'Reilly Factor." National Public Radio Transcripts Transcripts of NPR news programs: All Things Considered, Morning Edition, Talk of the Nation, and Weekend Edition. NBC News Transcripts Transcripts from NBC news programs, including "Dateline NBC," "Meet the Press," "NBC Nightly News," and "Today." Newshour with Jim Lehrer Transcripts of "The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer," a one-hour newscast distributed by the Public Broadcasting Company to 268 affiliate stations in 48 states. Nightly Business Report Transcripts of the Nightly Business Report, a long-running, nationally televised source of business information. Official Kremlin Intnl News Same day, English translations of verbatim transcripts of Russian television newscasts as well as Broadcasts press conferences and speeches by Russian leaders. Political Transcripts Includes transcripts of selected Congressional committee hearings and press briefings from the White House, State, Justice, and Defense departments. Arts & Sports Book, Movie, Music & Play Book, movie, music, and play reviews selected from a number of sources, including Daily Variety, Reviews Kirkus Reviews, and salon.com Entertainment News News stories pertaining to the entertainment industry from over 100 publications. Sports News Sports related news sources and selected sports stories from other news sources. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Selected full-text articles from more than 100 newspapers and magazines throughout the US from two of the most prestigious media companies in the country—Knight Ridder, Inc. and Tribune Co. Non-English Dutch Language News More than 30 Dutch-language news sources. Language French Language News More than 35 French-language news sources. News German Language News More than 30 German-language news sources. Italian Language News Italian-language news sources, including La Stampa, one of the most authoritative sources of news and events in Italy. Spanish Language News More than 65 Spanish-language news sources. Business Business & Finance Business and finance news sources and selected business and finance stories from major News newspapers. Industry News A variety of industry and trade sources on over fifty industries. Mergers & Acquisitions Selected stories from major US and international newspapers, business journals and business wires on corporate mergers and acquisitions. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Selected full-text articles from more than 100 newspapers and magazines throughout the US from two of the most prestigious media companies in the country—Knight Ridder, Inc. and Tribune Co. Legal News Legal News More than 300 legal newspapers, magazines, and newsletters. University Chronicle of Higher Education Weekly newspaper that is a leading source of news for the academic world. News University Wire Collection of more than 400 college newspapers from across the U.S. LexisNexis Academic User Guide 13When using the Guided News Search form, the key to finding the source that will be most appropriate for your search is following the step-by-step instructions. (See Figure 6.) Figure 6: The Guided News Search form Step One: Select a news category. Select the news category in which you want to search. There are eleven news categories from which you can select. Example: Select General News Step Two: Select a news source Based on the news category selected in step one, this dropdown will display the available choices. (Refer to the chart on pages 12-13 for an at-a-glance view of the various news categories and sources available within each category.) Example: Select Major Papers Step Three: Enter search terms Input your search terms into the boxes provided. You do not need to enclose phrases within quotation marks. Combine the term(s) you are searching with the field of the document where you want the term(s) to appear. Use the drop-down list of connectors if you enter terms in more than one box. (For more information on the different connectors, see page 8.) Example: fast food in Headline And lawsuit or legal in Headline and Lead Paragraph(s) If your search includes the name of a person, you can enter a full name or last name only. If you are having difficulty retrieving articles searching for a full name, use a w/3 connector between the first name and last name. The w/3 connector can help take into account the presence of a middle initial. Example: George w/3 Will Step Four: Narrow to a specific Date range (optional) You can narrow your search to documents published on a specific day or within the date range you specify. You may either select a predefined date range from the drop-down list or enter your own custom date range. Most date formats are supported. Examples: 07/24/97, Jul 24, 1997, 07/97, July, 1997, 1997 LexisNexis Academic User Guide To specify a specific day, select the custom date range option and enter the same date in both the From and To fields. Example: From: Aug 3, 1997 To: 08/03/97 To search all documents published on or after a specific date, enter that date in the From field and leave the To field blank. Example: From: July 5, 1996 To: searches all documents published on or after July 5, 1996. And, to search all documents published on or before a specific date, enter that date in the To field and leave the From field blank. Example: From: To: 9/15/96 searches all documents published on or before September 15, 1996. Note: If you do not enter a specific day or month, the first day of the month/year you entered is assumed when placed in the From field and the last day of the month/year is assumed when placed in the To field. Example: From: 1995 To: 8/96 searches documents published on or between January 1, 1995 and August 31, 1996. Step Five: Search this publication title(s) (optional) You can limit your search to documents from a specific publication. Example: New York Times Figure 7: Guided News Search Example Use the Source List link for a listing of (Fast Food/Lawsuit Search) sources available for each category. Or click on the Sources link at the top of the page. From there, you will be able to search or browse for titles, then select and “paste” them back to the search form. If you aren’t sure what the exact name of the publication title is, using the Source List will help ensure accuracy. (See page 19 for more information on using the Source List.) If you’ve been following the example provided above, Figure 7 shows what the search would look like (with the date set as Previous year in Step Four and no particular source selected in Step Five). Click Search to execute the search. After you click search, you will be presented with a set of results on a document list unless one of two things occurs: 1. If there are no documents available that meet your search criteria you will receive a message saying “No documents were found for your search.” You will be directed to return to the search form where you can check the spelling of your terms or broaden your search by searching a larger date range, using fewer search terms, or using an OR connector instead of AND. 2. On the other hand, if your search is too broad, the search engine halts the search and returns a message saying, “This search has been interrupted because it will return more than 1,000 documents.” In that case, you can return to the search form and narrow your search by adding more search terms or narrowing the date range. LexisNexis Academic User Guide 15Let’s assume your search yielded a list of results. We will now look at the various options you have for viewing those results. Viewing Search Results LexisNexis Academic provides four display options for search results: 1. Document List 2. Full 3. KWIC™ (Key Word In Context) 4. Expanded List A series of tabs near the top of the results page indicates the current display option and allows easy navigation between the other three options. To switch between the four diplays, click on the appropriate tab at the top of the list (or document). The tab of the display option currently selected will be white with red letters, while the three other options will be gray with white letters. 1. Document List Search results are automatically returned in the Document List format (see Figure 8). Each document on the list includes the name of the source publication, the publication section Figure 8: Document List View in which it appeared, the date published, the article length, and it’s dateline, headline, and byline. (Note: the information displayed on the document list depends on the sources that were searched. You may notice a slight difference, for example, in the citations between documents from newspapers and those from transcripts.) Documents are displayed sorted by default, which for most news materials is reverse chronological order. The Document List also can be sorted by relevancy. When Sort by Relevance is selected, LexisNexis Academic: 1. Analyzes the content of your search results. 2. Creates a formula to rank documents according to greatest frequency and relevancy of terms. 3. Displays most relevant documents first. To change the sort order from date to relevance, click on the red hyperlink that says Relevance above the list of documents. Sorted by Relevance will then appear below the Document List tab, and Sort by Date will appear to the right. Click on the Date hyperlink to return to the original Figure 9: Full View chronological sort order. 2. Full View Click on the red hyperlink included with any numbered document from within the Document List to bring up the selected document in Full View. (See Figure 9.) Full displays the complete text of the document retrieved and bolds your search terms to help you hone in on the information you want. From there, you can view subsequent (or previous) documents in Full View (use the previous and next links at the top or bottom of each document) or return to the Document List to select another document. 16 LexisNexis Academic User Guide Figure 10: KWIC View 3. KWIC (Key Word in Context) View To determine if a particular document is relevant to your needs without reading the full text, you can choose to view documents in KWIC format by clicking on the KWIC tab. (See Figure 10.) Instead of reading through every word of a particular document to determine where the search terms are located (and implicitly, whether this is a useful document for your research), KWIC displays the keyword and any additional terms searched, along with approximately 15-25 words of text on each side of each search term(s). As in the Full View, you can navigate from one document to the next in KWIC using next/previous links above and below each document. 4. Expanded List The final display option is the Expanded List (see Figure 11). A combination of the Document List and the KWIC formats, the Expanded List offers the same data displayed on Figure 11: Expanded List View the Document List along with three to five words of text both before and after the key word(s) searched. It enables you to scroll through many documents quickly while getting a feel for the context of the search terms. Once you have had a chance to review your results, you may decide that you need to refine or change your search. The next section shows how to do just that. Modifying a Search If you decide that your search yielded too many results, not enough results, or the documents that you retrieved don’t have the kind of information you are looking for, you will want to modify your search. There are two ways to modify a search: 1. Edit Search 2. FOCUS Search To use Edit Search, simply click on the Edit Search link displayed on the upper right-hand side of the search results screen (above the Print/Email buttons). Your current search has been saved there. You can erase everything you previously typed by hitting the Clear Form button or you can change your query by adding or removing keywords, changing the date range, or selecting a different source. Once your edits are complete, click on the Search button to run your new query. When you are performing a Guided News search, you can use the Edit Search link to run the same search against different news categories and/or sources by changing the sources in Steps One and Two. NOTE: if you change the source to or from Business News, Non-English Language News, or News Transcripts, the segment(s) you originally specified in Step Three (i.e., Full Text or Headline and Paragraph(s)) will revert to the Headline default even though your keywords will remain. This happens because of a technical constraint—these three categories of news sources search different fields than the other categories. LexisNexis Academic User Guide 17In addition to changing a search by using the Edit Search link, you can narrow an existing search with FOCUS. The FOCUS feature lets you spotlight words within your search results even if those words were not part of your original search request. While looking at your results using any of our display methods (Document List, Expanded, KWIC, or Full), you will see a box above the display tabs that is labeled FOCUS. Enter words or phrases in the FOCUS text box that you want to apply to your search results. You can include your original search terms, so they appear in bold in your search results, or enter new terms. Click on the Search Within Results button to retrieve the new results page. To return to your original document list, click the hyperlinked search terms above the FOCUS box. (See Figure 12.) Figure 12: Use the FOCUS feature to narrow a search; return to the original document list if desired. Original search terms; click Search term hyperlink to return to original added with document list. FOCUS search. Tagging, Printing and E-Mailing Capabilities Tagging Documents After conducting a successful search, you may want to print or e-mail document references. Tagging documents allows you to pick and choose amongst the most valuable search hits and to signal the system which citations are to be printed or e-mailed. Do this by clicking on the check box next to specific documents on the search results screens. You can later choose to have the citations of all checked documents recreated on a single page to be automatically e-mailed to the address you choose; to be downloaded to your system; or to be displayed through your browser. Note: The document tagging feature will not work with Netscape browsers below version 4.x. All versions of Internet Explorer will support this feature. E-mailing Documents LexisNexis Academic offers the option of having the documents you select from the current search results e-mailed to the address you choose. Of course, there are contractual restrictions, including the prohibition to disseminate or redistribute documents via electronic bulletin boards, e-mail, intranets, the Internet or similar electronic media. The e-mail option is very useful if you would like to email a list of search results to yourself or e-mail the full text of a single document to save or print later at your convenience. To use this feature simply click the Email button (found in each of the results views; upper right-hand side) and fill in the requested information. If you click the Email button from the KWIC or Full views, you will only be able to email an individual document. If you click the Email button from the Document List or Expanded List, you can email citations for all documents in your current search results, all documents you previously tagged, a range of documents, or individual documents. For the range and individual document selections, use the number assigned to each document to identify the ones you want, (e.g. 1, 5, 9-11). See Figure 13. 18 LexisNexis Academic User Guide Figure 13: E-mailing Citations You will be asked to specify a valid e-mail address so we can deliver the citations or individual documents. In addition, you are given the option of adding a short note (e.g. “Good case to use in my paper; this case supports the proposition that corporate directors are liable for negligence”) on the e-mail if you’d like. We recommend that you fill this in so that when the search results appear in your e-mail, they will be meaningful to you. Printing Documents LexisNexis Academic can also provide clean hard copy of the documents you choose. These printouts are handy to mark up with your highlighter, attach to a report, or simply take home and read later. You will use your browser’s print feature to print the document. However, we will gather the citations of the documents you select, assemble them on a single Web page, and display them in a full screen format that is suitable for printing. Please note that you will only be able to output one document at a time using the FULL or KWIC™ formats. All citations for a particular search can also be printed. To use this feature, click the Print button (adjacent to the Email button on the right side of the screen) and follow the directions provided, depending upon whether you want to print a complete document or just citations. Saving or Downloading Documents Saving or downloading documents is also done via the browser software. When prompted to save in one of two formats, plain text (.txt) or html, users should save as .txt. Searching for articles from a particular publication If you want to locate articles from a particular publication, click on the Sources link on the top navigation bar. When you click on Sources, LexisNexis Academic displays a directory of all the publications that are included within the service. You can search for an individual title by entering a name in the box and clicking the Find Title button. Or, you can browse the alphabetical list by clicking the link for the letter that corresponds to the source title you want to find. When you find the source you want, click About This Title to view the coverage information, or click Search This Title to go to the appropriate search form and begin your research. Figure 14: Results of source list search for Here’s an example of a situation in which you might Consumer Reports want to use the Sources link: You’re getting ready to purchase a digital camera and would like to know which models have been recommended in Consumer Reports magazine. Click on the Sources link on the top navigation bar, enter consumer reports in the box, then click the Find Title button. The results of the search are displayed in Figure 14. To learn more about Consumer Reports’ coverage within LexisNexis Academic, click on About This Title. See Figure 15. LexisNexis Academic User Guide 19 Figure 15: Source List Entry for Consumer Information provided in each About this Title description Reports Magazine includes: • ISSN (when available; ISSN is a unique identifier) • Coverage (how far back the archive extends) • Frequency of the publication (i.e. Daily or Monthly) • Online availability (how quickly new issues are posted online in LexisNexis Academic) • Publisher • Description • Data format (for instance, Full-text, Selected Full-text, or Abstracts) After reviewing the description, click Search This Title on the top right of the screen, under Source Links, to go to the appropriate search form, or select Return to Source List to return to the Source List. Figure 16 shows the search form reached from the Consumer Reports Search This Title link. Note that in this case, Search This Title links to the Guided News Search form, with Steps One (General News), Two (Magazines and Figure 16. Consumer Reports’ Search Form Journals), and Five (“Consumer Reports”) prepopulated. To execute a search, simply fill in search terms (Step Three) and change the date, if desired (Step Four). Click the Search button to retrieve results. Alternate Method: If you already know which search form to use to search a particular title, you can go to that search form and enter the title in the specified space (only in those cases where the search form offers a Search this publication box). For instance, if you were using the Guided News Search form, you would enter the title in Step Five. You can also use the Source List link on the search form to see which publications that form searches. For Figure 17: Source list for General News/Magazines example, if you are using the Guided News Search form and Journals and have selected General News/Magazines and Journals in the first two steps, you could click Source List (next to the pull-down list in Step Two) and retrieve the list of titles shown in Figure 17. If you want to specify a particular title or titles for your search, click the checkboxes to the left of each desired title (select up to five), then click Paste to Search. Note: If you choose to type the publication name yourself, any mistakes in data entry may affect your ability to retrieve articles. For that reason, we recommend using the Source List’s “Paste to Search” functionality. 20 LexisNexis Academic User Guide

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