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D e v e l o p i n g W r i t i n g : W R I T I N G S K I L L S P R A C T I E B O O K F O R E F L P E T E R S O N P a t r i c i a   W i l c o x   P e t e r s o n Writing   Skills   Practice   Book   for   EFL   Beginning/Intermediate   Level Developing  Writing   Writing   Skills   Practice   Book   for   EFL   PAT R I C I A W I L C O X P E T E R S O N Each   of   the   twenty   chapters   in   Developing   Writing is   introduced by   a   topical   reading   selection   incorporating   the   lesson’s   model structures,   mechanics,   and   grammar   points.   Following   each reading   are   activities   designed   for   students   to   study   composi­ tion,   vocabulary,   and   spelling.   The   goal   of   this   book   is   to   take the   student   from   the   mechanics   of   basic   sentence   writing   to   the ability   to   construct   a   simple   paragraph.   Appendices   include   an irregular   verb   list,   grammar   rule   index,   and   answer   keys.   Developing Developing riting riting W W UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE Office   of   English   Language   Programs ★ ★★ ★ ★★★ ★ 4155 "PTR ON SQURE DNCING Hello.  I  am  Ernie   Anderson.  I am  a  truck  driver.  I  am  from  the United   States. Here   is   a   picture  of   my   wife   and me.   We   are   with   our   friends.   We are   square   dancers.   Dancing   is not   our   work.   It   is   our   hobby. The  square  dance  is  an  old  American  dance  for  four  couples.  A  cou­ ple  is  one  man  and  one  woman.  Three  other  couples  are  in  our  square. Their  names  are  Bob  and  Marsha,  Doug  and  Cathy,  and  Henry  and Eileen. My   wife’s  name   is   Hazel.  Her   dress   is  short   and  full.  It   is   a  square­ dance  dress.  We  are  in  the  front  on  the  left.  The  music  is  very  fast  right now. 1 I. Mechanics Capital letters at the beginning of sentences and for names. Periods at the end of sentences. Each new sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period (.) This is a good sentence, this is not correct Names begin with capital letters, too: Ernie Anderson Bob and Marsha Kovacik Copy the sentences, and make all the corrections that are necessary. 1. i am ernie anderson 2. i am from the united states 3. we are square dancers 4. dancing is our hobby 5. it is an american dance 6. bob and marsha are our friends 7. henry and eileen are another couple 8. a couple is a man and a woman 9. hazel is my wife 10. we are in the front of the picture II. Grammar Subject pronouns Study the pronouns below. Then rewrite each sentence and substi- tute the appropriate pronoun for each name. I (the speaker) we (the speaker and others) you (the second person) you (plural) he (masculine) they (plural for men, women, things, or animals) she (feminine) it (things and animals) 2Ernie Bob Doug Henry Eileen Cathy Marsha Hazel  1. Bob is  a  dancer. 7. Hazel is  Ernie’s  wife. He  is  a  dancer. 8. Hazel is  a  square  dancer. 2. Ernie is  a  truck  driver. 9. Dancing is  not  work.  3. Doug is  from  America. 10. The  music is   very   fast. 4. Doug,  Ernie,  and  Bob  are  friends. 11. The  dresses are  short  and  full. 5. Hazel  and  Eileen are  friends. 12. The  picture is  from  last  year. 6. Cathy  and  Marsha are  in   the  picture. III.  Grammar The   verb   to   be Study   the   forms   for   the   verb   to   be.  Then  copy   the  paragraph  below,   writing  in  the  correct  form. l  am we   are you   are you   are he she   is they   are it Square   dancing_____fun.   The  music_____fast,   and  the   people _____friendly.  Ernie_____at  the   danc e eve ry wee   k. Hazel_____with  him. She_____a   good  dancer.   Six   friends_____with   them  in     a square. They_____happy   to  be   there. 3 IV. Controlled Composition Dicto-comp Your teacher will read the paragraph above three times. Listen care - fully, but do not take notes. After the third reading, write the paragraph as well as you can from memory. V. Sentence Construction Sentence patterns with be The verb to be connects the subject of a sentence to another word that tells us something about the subject. This second word or phrase after the verb may be another noun, an adjective, or an adverb. In this way, we can see three different basic sentence patterns with the verb to be. 1. Sentence patterns with noun phrases. The word or phrase af- ter the verb may tell us what or who the subject is: The square dance is an old American dance. Noun phrase + be + Noun phrase On the left is a list of subjects. On the right is a list of noun phrases, tell ing what or who. Choose a subject and a verb and match them with a noun phrase on the right to make a sentence. Write as many sen- tences as you can. Example: Ernie is a truck driver. Noun phrase + be + Noun phrase Ernie is a truck driver Hazel are his wife They square dancers Bob and Marsha Ernie’s friends Dancing fun Doug and Cathy not work a hobby another couple 2. Sentence patterns with adjectives The word or phrase after the verb may tell us how the subject is, or what it is like: The music is very fast. Noun phrase + be + Adjective 4On the left is a list of subjects. On the right is a list of adjectives telling how. Choose a subject and a verb and match them with an adjective on the right to make a sentence. Write as many sentences as you can. Noun phrase + be + Adjective I am happy You are welcome The dresses is short and full The music fast The dance American 3. Sentence patterns with adverb phrases. The word or phrase after the verb may tell us where the subject is, or where it is from: Ernie is from the United States. Noun phrase + be + Adverb phrase On the left is a list of subjects. On the right is a list of adverb phrases. Choose a subject and a verb and match them with an adverb phrase on the right to make a sentence. Write as many sentences as you can. Noun phrase + be + Adverb phrase Four couples is from the United States We are in a square They am on the right Ernie and Hazel in the front Bob in the picture I with my wife VI. Sentence Construction Concentration This is a game you can play with another person. Cut squares of paper to fit over each box below. Cover each box with a square of paper. Have a pencil and paper ready to write sentences. The first player turns over two squares. He reads the words in the boxes. If they make a good sentence, he writes the sentence on his paper. He leaves the boxes uncovered. If the words do not go together in a sentence, he covers them again. (Remember what is under each square of paper) The second player takes his turn. Continue playing 5until all the squares are uncovered.  The player with the most sentences on his paper is the winner. Dancing is The dresses one  man and A couple is are one  woman. The music  very fast. a good welcome  to is dancer. dance. our friends. l am our hobby. You are short and full. a truck They are My wife is driver. VII.  Controlled Composition Changing from first person to third Ernie Anderson wrote the paragraph below. He used the first­person pronouns  I and  we. Rewrite the paragraph and tell about Ernie. Make all the necessary changes in pronouns: fi he my fi his we fi they our fi their I am Ernie Anderson. I am a truck driver. I am from the United States. This  is   m y wif e. M   y wif  e’s na   m   e is H  aze  l. Her  d  ress   is s hort  a   nd full. It is a  squared ­ ance   dress . W e ar   e squa  re dance   rs.   We  are  wit  h our friends. Three  other   couple s ar   e  in o   ur squa   re. Dan  ci ng  is n  ot ou r   w  ork. It is our hobby. 6 VIII. Vocabulary and Spelling Puzzle In the puzzle below there are 20 words from this chapter. They may be located horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. See how many of the words in the list you can find. he hobby she work it couple we happy is square are friend am wife driver picture dancing full dress short music 7CHAPTER TWO THE WEEKEND COOK My dad works in a bank. He works there from Monday to Friday. He helps people. He counts money, and he uses the computer. His job is important. He is an important man at the bank. Dad also works at home. On weekends he cooks dinner. Usually he fixes Italian food. On Saturdays he makes spaghetti. On Sundays he makes pizza. Sometimes he fries chicken or fixes Chinese food. My mother watches and helps. She cuts the vegetables. She tosses the salad. I wash the dishes. Some people say it is strange for a man to cook. My dad enjoys his hobby. Cooking relaxes him. His father was a weekend cook, too. 8I.  Mechanics Capital letters for nationalities and for the days of the week Names of nationalities begin with capital letters: Italian Chinese Venezuelan American  The days of the week begin with capital letters, too. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Copy the sentences, and make all the corrections that are necessary. 1. my father is a weekend cook 2. he works at a bank on monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday, and friday 3. he cooks on saturday and sunday 4. usually he cooks Italian spaghetti 5. pizza is italian food 6. dad makes spaghetti on saturdays 7. my dad likes to cook chinese food 8. my mother and i help my dad 9. it is good for my dad to cook 10. his hobby relaxes him II.  Grammar Third person s ­ forms. Spelling of present tense verbs Notice that verbs in the present tense take an ending with  he,  she, and  it. The spelling of this ending may be s ­ or es ­ . I help  we help you help you help he helps she helps it helps they help 1. Almost  all  verbs  add  ­s in  the  third  person  singular.  Write  the forms below with the correct spelling. He works. (work, know, count, make, use)  She cuts. (cut, help, cook, dance) 9 2. A few verbs add -es in the third person singular. They are verbs that end in s, z, sh, ch, or x. Write the forms below with the correct spelling. He fixes, (fix, finish, relax, rush) She watches, (watch, toss, wash, teach) 3. If a verb ends in a consonant and -y, change the y to i before adding -es. If the verb ends in a vowel and -y, simply add s; Write the forms below with the correct spelling. He tries, (try, fry, study, hurry, carry, marry) She says, (say, enjoy, play, stay, buy, pay) 4. The verb have is irregular. The third person singular form is has. He has a cookbook. III. Grammar Subject-verb agreement Rewrite the sentences below, adding the correct form of the verb. Remember that he, she, and it take -s forms. 1. Most women cook the dinners at home. (cook) 2. My mother cooks most of the time. (cook) 3. She ________ dinner on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays. (make) 4. My father ________ Italian food on the weekends. (fix) 5. My brother and I ________ the dishes. (wash) 6. We ________ the salad, too. (help with) 7. I ________ to cook already. (know how) 8. Cooking ________ my father. (relax) 9. Important people ________ and ________ all day. (rush, hurry) 10. Often they _________ a hobby after work. (enjoy) IV. Grammar Object pronouns These are the forms of pronouns when they are the object of a verb or a preposition. Ifime wefius youfiyou youfiyou hefihim theyfithem shefiher itfiit 10Rewrite each sentence and substitute an object pronoun for each noun. Follow the example. 1. My father helps people. My father helps them. 2. My father uses the computer. 3. My mother washes the vegetables. 4. I cut the vegetables. 5. My dad enjoys cooking. 6. He enjoys helping my mother. 7. Cooking relaxes my father. 8. My mother teaches my father to cook. 9. My dad teaches (his son.) 10. My mother helps my dad and me. V. Sentence Construction Sentence patterns with verbs other than be In chapter one you learned three sentence patterns with the verb to be: Noun phrase + be + Noun phrase Noun phrase + be + Adjective Noun phrase + be + Adverb phrase Other verbs can also be put in groups, according to the kinds of words that come after them. A verb that takes an object after it is a transitive verb (Verb ). Transitive verbs occur in this pattern: T My father cooks dinner. Noun phrase + Verb + Noun phrase T On the left is a list of subjects. On the right is a list of noun phrases that can be used as objects. Choose a subject and a verb and match them with an object to make a sentence. You may need to add -s or -es to the verb. Make as many sentences as you can. Noun phrase + Verb + Noun phrase My father cook dinner Cooking relax him He enjoy his hobby My mother help his wife She wash the vegetables I fix the salad We eat the dishes pizza and spaghetti 11Verbs that cannot take an object are intransitive (Verb ). Intransi - I tive verbs occur in two patterns: My mother works. My father works in a bank. Noun phrase + Verb Noun phrase + Verb + Adverb phrase I I On the left is a list of subjects. On the right is a list of adverb phrases that can be used with intransitive verbs. Choose a subject and a verb and match them with an adverb phrase to make a sentence. You may need to add -s or -es to the verb. Make as many sentences as you can. Noun phrase + Verb + Noun phrase My father work very hard My mother cook in a bank He on the weekend She relax in the kitchen We after work I together VI. Grammar Adverbs of frequency with the be verb. Adverbs of frequency tell how often something happens. These words come after a form of the verb to be; Father is never late. Mother is usually busy. Junior is always hungry. Below is a schedule that tells where each person in the family is during the week. Look at the schedule, and then write all the sentences with ad - verbs of frequency in the correct position. Use this scale as a guide: 7 days a week = always; 5 or 6 = usually; 4 = often; 2 or 3 = sometimes; 1 = rarely; and 0 = never. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Dad at home at the at the at the at the at the at home bank bank bank bank bank Mother at home at work at home at work at home at work at home Junior at home at at at at at at home school school school school school 121. Dad   is   ________  at  the  bank. 2. Junior  is  ________  at  school. 3. Mother  is   ________  at  home. 4. She   is   ________at  work. 5. They  are  ________  at  home  on  the  weekends. 6. They   are   ________   at   home   on   Mondays. Adverbs   of   frequency   with   other   main   verbs The  adverbs   of  frequency   come   before   other  main  verbs   besides to   be. Junior   always helps   at   home.   Father   sometimes cooks   dinner.   Mother   often works   in   the   kitchen. Look   at   the   schedule   below.   It   is   a   work   plan   for   a   family.   Write   all   the sentences   below   with   adverbs   of   frequency,   telling   how   often   each person     works. Sun .— Mon .— Tues .— Wed .— Thurs .— Fri .— Sat .— Cook   dinner .—. Dad .— Mother .— Mother .— Mother .— Mother .— Mother .— Dad .— Cut   vegetables .—. Mother .—Junior.— Junior .— Junior .— Junior.— Dad .— Mother .­ Toss   the   salad .—. Mother .—Mother .—Mother .—Mother .—Mother .— Dad .— Mother ., Wash   the   dishes .,. Junior .— Junior .— Junior .— Junior .— Junior .— Junior .— Junior .— 1. Junior  ________  washes  the  dishes. 2. Mother   and   Dad   ________   wash   the   dishes. 3. Mother   ________   tosses   the   salad. 4. Junior   ________   tosses   the   salad. 5. Mother   ________   cooks   dinner. 6. Dad   ________   cooks   dinner. 7. Dad   ________   cuts   vegetables. 8. Junior   ________   cuts   vegetables. 9. Mother   ________   cuts   vegetables. 10. These   people   ________   work   together. 13 VII.  Grammar Adverbs  of   time    at the   beginning     of  the sentence Sometimes  adverbs   o   f tim   e c an co me   a t the begin   n in  g of a sentence. Rewrite   these  sentence s an  d pla ce t  he adv  erb   or ph  ra se at the beginning. 1. Nobody  is  at  home  on  Mondays.  On  Mondays  nobody  is  at  home. 2. Dad   works   at  the  bank  from   Monday   to   Friday. 3. Mom  teaches  at  a  school  on  Mondays,  Wednesdays,  and  Fridays. 4. Junior   is   usually at   school. 5. Everybody   is   at   home   on   weekends. 6. Dad   often cooks   spaghetti   or   pizza. 7. Mother   sometimes goes   out   to   work. 8. She   usually rushes   home   to   fix   dinner. 9. Mother   works   very   hard   on   Fridays.   10. Dad   usually helps   her   with   the   salad   on   Fridays. VIII.   ontrolled omposition Responding   to  questions   Make   a  chart   to   show   where     the people     in  your   family   are   each day. Name Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Find   a  partner    in the   class   and   discuss     your   chart   with   him.   Ask him questions  about   his   time   chart,   too.   Then   write     a paragraph     to answer these  questions:   Where    is everyone     on week   days?   Where     is everyone on  weekends?  Where   is   your   mother,   usually?   Where     is   your father, usually?  Where   are   you? IX.  Free omposition Write  a   paragraph   and   tell   who   does     the  work   in   your family. 14 CHAPTER THREE THAT’S NOT MY IOB A  customer   comes   into   the   Westside   Pharmacy.   He’s     very sick. Clerk: May   I  help   you? Customer: Yes,   please.   I   have   a   pain   in   my   side,   an   ache   in   my stomach,     and  a  headache.   I   need  a  pill,  an   aspirin,   or   a painkiller…     something   fast. Clerk: I’m   sorry,   but   that’s   not   my   job.   That’s   Mr.   Brown’s   job. He’s   the   head   pharmacist. Customer: May   I   see   Mr.   Brown,   please. Clerk: I’m   sorry.   Mr.   Brown   is   busy.   He’s   on   the   phone. Customer: Then   his   helper. Clerk: She’s   busy,   too.   Please   wait. Customer: Oh,   no. Clerk: Oh,   here’s   Mr.   Brown. Mr.   Brown: Yes?   May   I   help   you? Customer: I   have   a   pain   in   my   side,   an   ache   in   my   stomach,   and   a headache.   Please   give   me   a   pill. Mr.   Brown: That   isn’t   my   job.   I’m   not   a   doctor.   I’m   a   pharmacist.   Dr. Saunders   has   an   office   next   to   us.   His   address   is   215 Grand   Avenue.   Come   back   with   a   prescription.   We   can help   you   then. 15 I.  Grammar Contractions:  subject   pronouns   and   be,  be and   not In   informal  English,  we  can   combine  a  pronoun   and   a   verb  in   the   fol­  lowing  ways: I  +   am  =   I’m he  +   is     = he’s we  +   are     = we’re   you  +   are     = you’re she  +   is     = she’s they  +   are     = they’re   that  +   is     = that’s it  +   is     = it’s Rewrite  the   sentences   below   and   use   contractions. 1. He  is  the  head  pharmacist. 6. It  is  his  office. 2. She  is  his  helper.  7. We  are  busy. 3. That   is   my   job. 8. They  are  here. 4. I   am   a   pharmacist. 9. You  are  sick. 5. He  is  a   doctor. 10. That  is  an  aspirin. We  can   also   combine   the   verb   with     the  word not: is   +  not     = isn’t are   +  not     = aren’t   Rewrite   the  sentences   below   and   use   contractions   with  not. 1. That   is   not   my   job. 4. We   are   not   busy   today. 2. He   is   not   a   doctor. 5. They   are   not   in   the   office. 3. She   is   not   here. 6. It   is   not   time   for   lunch. II.  Grammar Spelling   noun  plurals Noun   plurals   follow  the   sam   e spelli ng ru les   as   the ­ s forms   of  present tense   verbs.  Add   ­ s for   most  nouns   ; ad   d ­ es if   the  noun   end   s  in s,   z,   sh, ch,   or  x   . Noun   s th   at e   n d  in a conso   nan   t and y change   the  y to    i and   add ­ es.   Write  the   plur al for   m   for e ach n   oun below. 1. Add   ­s to:   pain,   ache,   pill,   aspirin,   job,   problem,   office,   doctor,   phar­   macist,   helper,   prescription 2. Add   ­es to:   lunch,   dish,   box,   dress,   tax                       3. Change the y to i and add ­es: family, pharmacy, country, city, hobby III.  Grammar Possessive   ’s with   people To   show  possession,   use  an   apostrophe   (’)  after   the   person’s   name and   add  ­s .   Write  the   forms   below. 1. Mr.   Brown  has     a helper. Mr.   Brown’s  helper 16 2. Mr.  Brown has a job . 3. The doctor has an office . 4. The customer has a prescription . 5. The helper has a job . 6. My dad has a hobby . 7. Ernie has a wife . 8. Hazel has a dress . If the person’s name ends with ­s, then simply add the apostrophe: Dr. Saunders has an office. Dr. Saunders’ office For plural nouns, the apostrophe comes after the  ­s ending. Write the forms below. 1. The Browns have a pharmacy . the Browns’ pharmacy 2. The customers have problems . 3. Bankers have short work hours . 4. Square dancers have short skirts . 5. Truck drivers have schedules . IV.  Mechanics Review of capitalization and punctuation Copy the paragraph below, and make all the corrections that are nec­ essary. Use apostrophes for contractions and possessives. ruth bennet works in mr browns pharmacy she is mr browns helper sometimes a customer wants a prescription that isnt ruths job shes a pharmacists helper she isnt a doctor sometimes an aspirin will help the customers headache its ruths job to give out aspirin V.  Grammar Articles: choosing  a or  an To choose between  a or  an, listen to the beginning sound (not the spelling) of a word. If the word begins with a vowel sound, use  an; If it begins with a consonant sound, use  a; Write the lists below with an arti­   cle before each word. Vowel sounds ___aspirin ___address ___idea ___ache ___office ___Italian ___American 17 Consonant sounds ___pill ___problem ___pain ___doctor ___pharmacy ___dance ___headache ___hobby ___job ___cook ___helper ___bank VI.  Controlled Composition Dicto­comp Your teacher will read the dialog below three times. Listen carefully, but do not take notes. After the third reading, write the dialog as well as you can from memory. Listen carefully for the articles  a and  an. Customer: I have a pain in my side, an ache in my stomach, and a headache Give me a pill Mr. Brown: That isn’t my job. I’m not a doctor. I’m a pharmacist. Dr. Saunders  has  an  office  next  to  us.  Get  a  prescription from him and come back. We can help you then. VII.  Grammar Subject­verb agreement Write the sentences below and change all the singular nouns to plu­ ral nouns. You will not need an article before the plural noun. You will also need to change the verb forms from singular to plural. 1. A banker works with money. Bankers work with money . 2. A pharmacist works with prescriptions. 3. A doctor eats a quick lunch. 4. A banker eats a long, slow lunch. 5. A pharmacist’s helper works in a pharmacy. 6. A good boy helps his family. 7. A mother usually washes dishes. 8. A square dancer usually wears a short dress. 9. I always have a headache on a busy day. 10. A doctor writes a prescription for a painkiller. 18 VIII.  Sentence Construction Sentence  patterns  with  present  tense verbs Review the sentence patterns we have learned so far. Noun phrase + be + Noun phrase  Noun phrase + be + Adjective  Noun phrase + be + Adverb phrase Noun phrase + Verb Noun phrase T Noun phrase + Verb I Noun phrase + Verb + Adverb phrase I Make as many good sentences as you can by choosing verbs from the lists  below.  Remember  that  each  sentence  in  the  present  tense  can take only one verb. Noun phrase + Verb + Noun phrase The customer be an aspirin He have (Verb ) a headache T An aspirin need (Verb ) a painkiller T Mr. Brown work (Verb ) a pharmacist I Mr. Brown’s helper an office Mr. Saunders Adjective very sick  busy Adverb phrase out to lunch  in the pharmacy  here next to us  on the phone 19