How are speeches and Essays similar

how to prepare for speech presentation and how to prepare for speech competition and how to make speeches interesting
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Published Date:08-07-2017
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4-H Club Motto “To make the best better” 4-H Club Pledge I pledge my head to clearer thinking, my heart to greater loyalty, my hands to larger service, and my health to better living, for my club, my community, my country, and my world. 4-H Club Colors Green and White Visit Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences on the Web: www.cas.psu.edu Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work, Acts of Congress May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Pennsylvania Legislature. T. R. Alter, Director of Cooperative Extension, The Pennsylvania State University. A Guide This publication is available in alternative media on request. The Pennsylvania State University is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal to Preparing and access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, performance, or qualifications as determined by University policy or by state or federal authorities. It is the policy of the University to maintain an academic Presenting Speeches and work environment free of discrimination, including harassment. The Pennsylvania State University prohibits discrimination and harassment against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, or veteran status. and Demonstrations Discrimination or harassment against faculty, staff, or students will not be tolerated at The Pennsylvania State University. Direct all inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action Director, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Willard Building, University Park, PA 16802-2801, Tel 814-865-4700/V, 814-863-1150/TTY. © The Pennsylvania State University 2003 Produced by Information and Communication Technologies in the College of Agricultural Sciences CATS6004 3M103ps College of Agricultural Sciences • Cooperative Extension 4-H Public 4-H Public Speaker’s Speaker’s Handbook4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook ost adults are terrified of getting up in front of a bunch of people to give a speech. M Now you can be the envy of all of them. They’ll admire your poise and marvel at your confidence and be inspired and impressed by the things you have to say. They’ll wonder how you learned to be such a dynamic speaker. And they’ll wish they, too, could have learned the secrets to your success—secrets you’ll discover by taking the time to use the information in this handbook Contents Selecting a topic _______________________________________ 2 Suggestions, suggestions, suggestions _____________________ 4 Beginning to plan your speech _____________________________ 5 Organizing the body of your speech _________________________ 7 Writing the introduction and the conclusion __________________ 9 Speech Planning Worksheet ____________________________ 10 Getting ready to deliver your speech _______________________ 14 Practicing your speech __________________________________ 17 Making speech anxiety work for you ________________________ 18 Coping with criticism ____________________________________ 21 Assessing your communication skills: Score sheets ________ 22, 24 Information for adult helpers ____________________________ 26 Plan _______________________________________________ 27 Prepare ____________________________________________ 29 Practice ___________________________________________30 Feedback Form_______________________________________ 3 1 Provide support______________________________________ 32 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 1iving a speech starts long before you stand up in front of an audience. The first step is deciding what Selecting Gto use as a topic. a topic Write down your ideas. Make a list of the things that interest you. It helps to see things in writing. Sometimes it’s fun to take each of the things you’ve listed and see what other kinds of things they remind you of. Before you know it you’ll have listed all sorts of possibilities for a speech. Brainstorm ideas with other people. Talk with a friend or family member about your hobbies, beliefs, experiences, and ideas. Be sure to have a pencil and paper handy to jot down what you and your partner come up with. Visit the library. The reference room at your public library is a gold mine for speech topics. Some of the best places to look are encyclopedias and indexes. Browse through a volume of World Book Encyclopedia and see if anything grabs your attention. Or try the New York Times index. Be sure to have your pen and paper handy for listing ideas. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 2 Begin with yourself What are some interesting things you already know something about? Think about an unusual experience you’ve had, a special hobby or interest that fascinates you, or an exciting place you’ve visited. Curious about something you’d like to find out a little more about? Learn more about it by using it as the topic for your speech What’s hot? Visit the Internet. If you have a computer handy at home or school, the World Wide Web will open up all kinds of possibilities for speech topics. Subject-based search engines like Yahoo present listings of major topics for you to click onto to get a display of all sorts of subcategories. Any one of them could end up becoming your topicCheck it out Still not sure what to use for your topic? Take some time to watch what’s “hot” when you turn on TV, pick up a newspaper, or talk to friends and family members. Use this survey to see if you can uncover a “hot” topic. 1. Things we’ve been talking about at home: 2. Things people at school have been talking about (in the cafeteria, parking lot, gym, etc.): 3. Newspaper or magazine headlines that grabbed my attention: 4. Ads, TV commercials, or billboards that caught my eye: 5. The most popular movies that people are attending: 6. What’s hot on TV: 7. What kinds of things people are listening to on the radio talk shows: Still can’t think of a presentation idea? Turn the page for suggestions. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 3How to plant a tree seedling What’ in a sewing box Suggestions, suggestions, suggestions Accessorizing your outfit Choosing a pet First response: Treating accidents while hiking Grooming a dog, cat, sheep, etc. Healthy breakfasts Horse anatomy How a rabbit is judged How to fletch an arrow How to grade eggs How to make a rope halter How to plant a tree seedling How to prune a tree or shrub How to remove honey How to take a soil sample Making a dish garden Mounting insects Photography Planning your home landscape Preventing splash erosion Re-wiring a table lamp Safety is a babysitter's watch word Selecting a Pattern Setting a table Simple bike repairs keep you on the go The food pyramid The nutritional benefits of eating Using technology in your 4-H project What’s in a sewing box Woodworking 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 4 How to take a soil sample Setting a table Safety is a babysitter’s watchword Horse anatomynce you’ve selected a topic for your speech, you can start having fun putting it together. Start Beginning Owith these questions. to plan Questions about yourself your speech Am I really interested in this topic? If the topic doesn’t interest you, you probably won’t want to spend much time putting together a speech about it. It pays to be honest with yourself from the very beginning so that you’ll get off ? to a good start. Am I comfortable talking about this topic? Being interested in something is one thing, but actually speaking about it in public is another. For example, say you want to give a speech about building a herd of cattle. Could you talk about sexual organs and describe the reproductive process without getting ? embarrassed? Do I really have time to put together a good speech on this topic? Think about what your schedule is going to be like for the next few weeks. How much homework do you need to do each day? And what about other things like soccer, basketball practice, band and choral rehearsals, concerts, play practice, church or synagogue activities, ? family responsibilities and chores, etc.? Will you have time for all these things and still be able to write a good speech? ? 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 5 ?? Questions about your audience Will people be interested in the topic? If the topic doesn’t interest people, they probably won’t want to pay much attention to what you have to say about it. You might want to see what your family and friends think about your idea before going much further. ? What can I do to make the speech meaningful for people? As you plan your speech, imagine the audience sitting there saying, “So what?” You’ll need to make the topic interesting. A good way to do that is by sharing personal experiences or examples that will remind people of their own lives. ? Will people understand the topic? Some speeches get so complicated that people stop trying to pay attention. That doesn’t mean you should avoid a topic that is unfamiliar or complex. It just means you’ll need to work extra hard to make it interesting and understandable. Be sure to define unfamiliar ? terms and repeat important ideas. Using visual aids might also help. Will people be comfortable with the topic? If you think your topic may be a tough one for the audience, you may want to say so at the beginning. For example, you might say, “I know this subject may be uncomfortable for some people. Still, I think it’s an important issue for all of us.” ? Questions about the situation Is the topic appropriate for the occasion? If it’s a formal setting, people’s expectations will probably be different than if it’s a more informal gathering where you can talk about just about anything. ? How much time will I have? It’s frustrating to run out of time before you can finish delivering your speech. Trying to fit a long speech into a short time period is like trying to fit your foot into a shoe that is too small—you might be able to do it, but you’ll feel uncomfortable about it. ? 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 6he goal is to make sure your listeners will be able Organizing to easily follow the main ideas of your presentation. TProfessional speakers usually organize the body of the body of a speech before writing the introduction and conclusion. your speech Here are five ways to organize main points in a speech: Start to Finish (Chronological Order) Presentations that are arranged this way follow a pattern or describe a sequence of events. They may begin at a certain time or date, or describe the steps in a process and then move forward 1 or backward from that point. Example: “I’m going to tell you about the major steps involved in preparing for a successful speech presentation.” Directional Pattern (Spatial Order) These presentations flow naturally from one thing to the next according to a pattern that moves from one direction to another. The speech might describe something that happens from top to 2 bottom, inside to outside, front to back, or some other route. Example: “Here’s how snowmobilers can make sure they’re dressed warmly from the bottoms of their feet right on up to the tops of their heads.” Cause and Effect This kind of presentation is organized around two main points. The first deals with the cause of an event. The second describes its effects. 3 Example: “I want to describe some of the reasons speakers get nervous and what can happen as a result.” 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 7 ip T As the speech progresses, it helps to remind the audience of the major points being presented. Before moving on to the next point, repeat the one that has just been made. “I’ve just told you what to avoid when you’re eating at a fast-food restaurant. Now I’m going to tell you what to look for instead.”Problem and Solution This is another way of organizing a speech around two main points. The first part describes the situation and why it is a problem. The 4 second part explains what should be done about it. Example: “Homelessness is a serious problem in the United States. I am going to suggest some things that can be done by the government and individual citizens in order to solve it.” Piece by Piece (Topical Order) Some presentations don’t fit into any of the arrangements listed 5 above. These kinds of speeches can often be divided into subtopics that fit together like the pieces of a puzzle. Each of the pieces (or subtopics) is an important part of the main subject. Example: “Here are five tips to keep in mind if you want to improve your speech performance.” 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 8he first few minutes and the last few minutes of a speech are very important. Here are some tips for Writing the Tsuccess. introduction The Introduction (Approximately 15 percent of the speech) and the The speaker needs to “sell” the idea to the audience so they’ll want conclusion to listen. • Capture attention. Begin with a brief story or example that relates directly to the speech. Or mention a startling statement, statistic, or fact. Or start with a question, quotation, or familiar saying that has to do with the topic of the speech. (“Someone once said that ‘service is the outstanding characteristic of the soul.’”) • Relate the topic to the audience. People pay attention to things that concern them. You might refer to a common experience, fear, or situation with which everyone is familiar. Or, challenge the audience with a question, invitation, or “quiz.” (How often do you take time to help others in your community?”) • Preview the main points of the speech. Simply list them in the order they’ll be presented. (“I’m going to share three reasons you too should get involved in a community service project.”) Conclusion (Approximately 5 percent of the speech) The speaker wraps up everything by summarizing the major points the audience needs to keep in mind. Just as first impressions are important, the same is true of final ones • Signal the close of the speech. A simple transition sentence that says “In conclusion…” or “To end…” lets the audience know the speech is nearly finished. (“In conclusion, I’d like to summarize what I’ve said about the importance of community service projects.”) • Reinforce the main points. Remind the audience about the most important things they’ve just heard. (“Remember, there are three things to keep in mind about community service…”) • End strongly Use a brief story, example, or quotation. Or, encourage the audience to do something to follow up what they’ve just heard. Sometimes it’s helpful to mention where additional information can be obtained. (“So when it comes to creating strong communities, each one of us has an important role to play.”) Finally, some speakers end by thanking the audience for their attention. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 9 ip T Humorous stories, jokes, and anecdotes can add a lot to a speech—but unless they relate to the speaker, the topic of the speech, the audience, or the occasion, they can backfire. And there’s nothing worse than to tell a joke and get no response.Speech Planning Worksheet Introduction (approximately 15 percent) Attention getter: _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ State the topic: ________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Relate to audience: _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Preview main points: _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Body (approximately 80 percent) Major point: ___________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Major point: ___________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Major point: ___________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion (approximately 5 percent) Signal close: ___________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Reinforce major ideas: ___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ End strongly: __________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 104-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 11 Tips Using Language Remember, the audience needs to immediately be able to understand everything you say, so the words you use are important. Here are some things to keep in mind about choosing words that will help make your speech sparkle: • Use ordinary words that people are familiar hearing. In general, shorter rather than longer words are best. •Avoid long, complicated sentences. You can vary the length of the sentences, but in general, try to keep them short and to the point. • It’s okay to use contractions (“can’t” instead of “cannot”) as long as you don’t over do it. • Use words that will help your listeners hear, see, feel, or even smell what you’re describing. •Try to avoid using slang. Never use words that will offend or insult your audience. It’s never acceptable to use language to degrade or make fun of people. • Use personal pronouns (I, me, mine, you, I, and our) when you want your speech to sound more personal.Tips Using Props and Equipment Sometimes you will be giving an illustrated talk or demonstration instead of a public speech. You will need to follow all of the planning and presenting information in this book and also think about your props and equipment. • You are demonstrating your topic while talking about it. Be sure to talk along with the action. This is the time to share interesting facts you learned. Long pauses are uncomfortable for the audience and you may lose their attention • Using posters is a good way to convey ideas and points in your presentation. Posters need to be readable and easily seen by the audience, even from the back of the room Each poster should convey one main idea. Some easy-to-see colors for posters are: Black on yellow Black on orange Yellow-orange on navy blue Scarlet-red on white Black or navy blue on white • From 10 feet away, your letter size needs to be at least 1/2 inch. From 20 feet away, you need 3/4 inch lettering. And if you have audience members who will be 50 feet away, your letters need to be at least 2 inches high. • If you are using a PowerPoint presentation, be sure that the room can be made dark enough for everyone to see your slides. • Models, stuffed animals, or other replicas are a great way to demonstrate an idea or show how to do something. • If you use food and equipment for foods presentations, use see-through containers, have all of your ingredients and equipment within reach, use shallow trays to group your items, and make sure you clear an area in your work space to display your final product. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 12Tips Using Notes You’ll probably want to prepare a set of notes for your presentation. It’s a good idea to do this well in advance so you’ll have a chance to practice. That way you’ll know when to look down at your notes and back up again at the audience. Here are some secrets to using notes well: • Use only one side of each card. • Use a separate card for the introduction and the conclusion. •Try to limit each main point in your speech to one card. • Number your cards so you can straighten them out again if they get mixed up. •Print largely and neatly so the cards will be readable at a glance. •Don’t use a pencil or a messy pen for copying out your notes. Consider using highlighters or different colors of ink to help you remember to emphasize certain points. • Use a separate color ink to jot down short hints you want to remember when delivering the speech. That way you can remind yourself to do certain things—like making eye contact with the audience, or slowing down. A few words A few words to the wise: to the wise • Unless you’re copying a direct quote or statistic, try to jot down key words and ideas instead of transferring the entire speech word for word onto cards. • Beware of reading your note cards to your audience • Remember the purpose of a lectern or podium is not for you to lean on or hide behind It’s there to hold your speaking notes so your hands will be free to gesture. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 13nce you stand up to speak, everything you do Getting ready and say can help you get your message across. O to deliver your speech Volume Make sure to speak loud enough so that every single person in the audience will hear. If you speak too softly, some people will get frustrated trying so hard to hear you. If you speak too loudly, people will wish you’d lower Vocal Delivery your voice a little Tip Here’s how to tell whether you’re speaking too loudly or too softly: Simply glance at the people in the back of the room. You’ll usually be able to tell if people are having a hard time hearing you because they’ll be leaning forward or else they’ll have puzzled expressions on their faces. Rate If you race through your speech, people will have a hard time keeping up with you. If you go too slowly, they might become bored. A good way to check your tempo is to practice with a tape recorder. That way you can hear for yourself and decide whether you need to go a bit slower or speed things up. Tip Try writing “slow down” reminders on your note cards if you have a tendency to rush. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 14 Variety A flat voice that never changes can put people to sleep But if you speak with enthusiasm and confidence it will be reflected in the way you sound. Tip Keep your voice lively and varied so your audience will be more interested in listening to what you have to say.Enunciation (speaking clearly) Get into the habit of enunciating words crisply and distinctly. It will make a positive impression on your audience and help them understand what you’re trying to say. Tip Always make sure you pronounce the ds, ts, and ings at the end of words. Avoid saying: Say this instead: wanna want to dint didn’t hafta have to gonna going to woont wouldn’t Pronunciation Mispronounced words jump right out at the audience and distract them from what you’re saying. So it’s a good idea to always check the dictionary to find out how to pronounce words you’re not used to using. Tip When you find yourself stumbling over a word that is hard to pronounce, try to replace it with something that’s easier to say. If you can’t find a substitute word, be sure to practice the new word until you’ve got it. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 15Facial expression Listeners usually focus on the speaker’s face to get messages about his or her emotions and attitudes. Your expression should match what you say. Look serious when the speech calls for it, and be sure to smile when your message is more light-hearted Gestures Rest your hands comfortably on the top of the podium or at your sides. Always use your hands as naturally as possible—using hand gestures the way you normally would when you talk to someone. Don’t put your hands in your pockets, clasp them in front or behind you, or fidget with your notes. Try not to drum your fingers or play with rings or other jewelry. Nonverbal Communication Personal appearance People will see you before they hear you. Their first impression will be based on how you look. So, you’ll want to look your best. Be neat and clean. You may want to dress in a special outfit for your topic. For example, you might dress in a fishing vest for a demonstration of fly fishing, or a lab coat is appropriate for a cooking demonstration. Tip If there’s a podium in the front of the room, don’t lean on it because that can give the audience the impression you’re Posture and movement bored or tired or not prepared to speak. As you walk to the front of the room, remember that people will be watching you. Stand up straight and tall, and move with confidence and poise (even if you’re nervous). You don’t have to stand in the same place for your entire speech. You can move about—as long as you’re careful. (If you pace back and forth the audience will get distracted.) 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 16 Eye contact Making eye contact communicates that you’re sincere and confident about what you’re saying. It tells the audience you care about their reaction to your speech. When you look at people you’ll be able to tell if they’re bored, interested, confused, amused or inspired by what you say.racticing will help you get comfortable with the way Practicing your speech sounds and how it feels to say it out Ploud. The more you practice, the better you’ll get. your speech That’s why waiting until the last minute is almost as worthless as not practicing at all •Practice in front of a mirror so you can watch yourself as you go along. Decide how well your notes are working for you. Do you need to make some more? Or did you feel like you used too many? • Since you’ll be delivering your speech standing up, it makes sense to practice it that way, too. And be sure to use any visual aids you’ll be including in your speech. • Time yourself so you’ll know if your speech is too long or too short. •Try recording your speech with a tape recorder or video camera. To memorize Play back what you’ve recorded so you can check the rough spots or not to and decide what needs to be done about them. memorize? •Practice in front of friends or family members. Have them pay special attention to eye contact and whether you’re speaking too fast or Some speakers feel more slowly. Don’t get discouraged if they give you a lot of suggestions comfortable speaking for how to improve your speech. from memory. Others feel it makes the speech •Pay special attention to practicing the introduction of your speech. sound “canned” and prefer People are usually the most nervous during the beginning moments relying on note cards of their speeches. From then on things get easier. instead. It’s really up to you to decide what you want to do. You might consider memorizing only those parts of the speech where it is absolutely necessary that you say it exactly as you wrote it—for example, the introduction and the conclusion. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 17henever people have to speak in public, they get Making nervous. It’s a normal reaction and it happens Wto even the best speakers. The secret is to speech control your nervousness and make it work for you rather anxiety work against you. for you Loose Neck Let your head fall back as far as it will go by pretending you’re looking for footprints on the ceiling. Slowly bring your head forward again until your chin rests on your chest. Slowly lift your head and turn it to the right so you can glance over your shoulder. Then bring it around slowly to the left so you can look over your other shoulder. Repeat this as often as desired until your neck muscles feel relaxed. Hand Shakes Let your arms hang loosely at your sides. Tighten your hands into fists and tense your arm muscles as you count slowly to five. Then relax and s-l-o-w-l-y begin to open your fists, letting your fingers stretch out as far as possible. Shake your hands and arms loosely and vigorously. Repeat this several times. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 18 Calm Breathing This is a great exercise to do in your place while waiting for your turn to speak. Place your hands on your stomach and feel it expand as you inhale deeply while counting slowly to 10. Exhale slowly for another count of 10 while feeling your stomach contract. After taking a few breaths this way, continue at the same rate but as you inhale think to yourself “I feel…,” and as you exhale “very calm.”Shoulder Stretch Raise your shoulders as high as they will go and then let them fall back down again. Round your back by folding your shoulders toward your chest (like you do when it’s Think positively cold outside). Push your Picture yourself as a successful speaker standing in shoulders back as if you’re front of an admiring audience. Look at how relaxed trying to rub your shoulder and poised you are. Notice yourself making eye blades together. Repeat contact, smiling confidently at your audience, using this several times. gestures, standing tall, and moving purposefully. Hear your voice coming across clearly and assertively. Watch how your listeners are becoming more and more involved in what you’re saying. Imagine the fun you’re having as you move into your conclusion and end your speech. Listen to that applause and the smiles and nods from your friends and family in the audience. Think about your audience. Your audience isn’t there to criticize or make fun of you. They’re there because they want to listen to what you have to say. Expect them to be helpful and attentive. They’re on your side. They want you to succeed. 4-H Public Speaker’s Handbook 19 Be rested. It’s important that you feel at your best for your speech. Public speaking takes a lot of energy, so make sure you’ve got it by getting a good night’s sleep the night before.

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