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what does process of writing mean and how to teach the process of writing and process of writing literature review
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Published Date:04-07-2017
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A beginning Curriculum for High School Writing Developed by: Razell Ward & Nancy L. AllenUnit 1 Prewriting ProcessMaine Adult Education Unit Design Essential Understandings Theme or Topic Knowledge and Skills Conventions of Grammer Ability to produce: Process of writing Parts of speech A topic sentence Basic punctuation A paragraph What a sentence is Understand good writing habits What a paragraph is th Identify purpose for writing and Ability to read at 8 grade level audience Awareness of Learning Style Essential Question Acquire skills to plan, draft, Computer Skills revise and edit writing How does an adult effectively and comfortably learn to communicate in writing? Increased Knowledge Tools and Resources Assessments Venn Diagram Ability to apply Dictionary colored chalk Prior Knowledge: Plan Outlines lined paper TABE- Language Draft Thesaurus highlighters Writing Course Survey Revise Brainstorming junk mail Pre-course writing skills Edit Web Writing forms car manual assessment Magazines Learning Style Survey Ability to use in appropriate setting: Journals Topic Box Ongoing: Venn Diagram Writing prompts Topic prompts Journaling Outlines Internet Peer Editing Web Writing Divided paragraphs Conferencing Brainstorming Incorrect paragraphs Writing Prompts Journaling Self Scoring Writing Rubric Writing Rubric Final: Portfolio MAINE ADULT EDUCATION LESSON PLAN NRS LEVEL: 5-6 MAINE LEARNING RESULT ELA;E THEME/ TOPIC: PROCESS OF WRITING LESSON PLAN TITLE: PREWRITING TOOLS AND SKILLS ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS (OUTCOMES): Student will acquire skills to plan for writing. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. The student will be able to use, create, interpret, and apply the following prewriting skills techniques 90% of the time: Venn diagram, outline, brainstorming, and web writing. 2. Student will be able to identify the appropriate prewriting tools up to 80% of the time. EFF TOOLS: Convey in Writing LEARNING ACTIVITIES: Students will use brainstorming techniques to develop ideas on how to improve prewriting skills. TOOLS/ RESOURCES: Blackboard, paper, colored chalk, topic box container with slips of paper containing topics for writing. ASSESSMENT: PRIOR-TABE, learning styles assessment POST-Teacher observation, student demonstration, homework assignment below. CLOSURE: Review all types of prewriting. Have the students create an outline using the ideas created from the Venn diagram exercises. Can also assign an outline using the Web design method. Journaling: Explain in writing how two of the prewriting tasks discussed today can assist a writer. FOLLOW UP LESSONS: Teachers Discretion PREWRITING LESSON PLAN STEP BY STEP PROCUDURE 1. Brainstorming: Ask the students what tools or techniques people use for writing or getting started writing. 2. Have students write ideas on the board. 3. Have students put answers in their journals. 4. Teacher adds any additional tools such as the dictionary, thesaurus, etc. 5. Review the list and have students write any additional ideas in their journals. 6. Explain to the student that they have just used brainstorming to find answers to the question asked them. 7. Have each student pick a topic from the topic box. Have them write the topic on the top of a piece of paper. Have the students write an idea about this topic below the topic. Have the students switch papers and have each student write another idea on the paper. Switch papers until everyone gets a chance at all the topics. 8. Share the ideas with the class. This should help increase the student’s ability to brainstorm on unrelated topics. (You might want to do this technique several times over several classes to help student develop the ability to think up ideas quickly. It will help them prepare for the GED essay test.) 9. Discuss with the students when the brainstorming technique should be used: Don’t know a lot about a topic, searching for an opinion, or to help the creative juices to start flowing. 10. Venn Diagram: Used to separate ideas on a subject. This works best with a compare and contrast subject. 11. Draw two big interconnected circles on the board. (You can also give students use the Venn diagram example attached). Above the first circle write the word “Like”. Where the circles share the same space write “Same’. On the last part of the circle write ‘Different. Have students place ideas on the topic in each section. Have them write this in their journals. 12. Give each student one of the brainstorming papers and have them create their own Venn diagram with the entire class’s ideas. You may have to have additional ideas available. 13. Some students will have better subjects to divide than others. This will demonstrate that a Venn diagram is not effective for all subjects. 14. If students have tried with their subject and it does not work have them create their own topic that can be divided and have them produce a Venn diagram with the new topic. 15. Share the ideas with the class. 16. Web design-Used to put ideas together on a subject 17. Put a topic on the board. Have each student create their own list of ideas on the subject. 18. Draw a circle around the word on the board. Have the students share their ideas. For each idea, write the word outside the word circle. Connect the idea with the topic word with a line. Your end product will look like a circle with lines extending out of it with other words attached to the lines. (You can also use the web design graphic organizer attached) 19. Have the students study the ideas. Are there any that fit together? Are there any with similar subject or concept? Using colored chalk, circle the similar ideas with the same color. You should have several colors on the board. An idea might have more than one color. 20. OUTLINE- Rewrite the ideas from Web design in columns on another part of the board based on their color. All the green ideas together, all the red ideas together, etc. 21. Have student come up with titles for each of the colored categories. 22. Have the students number the ideas in each category by importance, with one being the most important. 23. Have students fold a piece of paper into fourths. Have them unfold it and see the boxes they have created. Have the students write what they think is the most important title in the first box. Label it number “one”. The second most important title in the second box, and continue until all the titles are used. Make sure each box is label by a number. 24. Now have the students copy their ideas under each title by importance. Have the students then put an ‘a’ by the first idea in every box: a ‘b’ by the second: and a ‘c’ by the third. The students have just created their outlines. 25. Have the students share their results. They will see that the ideas can be arranged in different orders based on the person writing. SAVE THE OUTLINES. 26. Demonstrate to student any shortcuts after they have created at least one entire web design to outline for you. For homework have the students create an outline with their Venn diagram information. 27. Journaling Exercise: Student will take last 10 minutes of class time to discuss in writing two of the prewriting tasks, and how they can help assist a writer. COMPARE / CONTRAST VENN DIAGRAMS Name___________________________________________________________ Date ______________ A B Unique to A Unique to B Similarities OUTLINE DESIGN GRAPHIC ORGANIZER 1. ___________________________________________________________ A. B. C. 2. ______________________________________________________________ A. B. C. 3. __________________________________________________________________ A. B. C MAINE ADULT EDUCATION LESSON PLAN NRS LEVEL: MAINE LEARNING RESULT: English E THEME/ TOPIC: Process of Writing LESSON PLAN TITLE: Topic Sentence ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS (OUTCOMES): The student will learn to identify and write topic sentences. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After this class the student will be able to produce a topic sentence on demand 90% of the time. EFF TOOLS: Convey Ideas in Writing LEARNING ACTIVITIES: 1. Take divided paragraph strips and have students put the paragraph in order. 2. Use authentic materials and have students identify the topic sentences. 3. Have students write topic sentences. 4. Students edit partner’s sentences. TOOLS/ RESOURCES: Divided paragraph strips, authentic materials: junk mail, personal letters, car manual needed to be provided by the teacher. ASSESSMENT: PRIOR- TABE, Learning styles assessment. POST- Quiz, teacher observation, turn and talk. CLOSURE: Review main points of topic sentences. Journaling regarding today’s lesson-How will this lesson help you with your writing? FOLLOW UP LESSONS: Write additional paragraphs. Find three articles and identify topic sentences in each paragraph. Family Fishing When I was a child, my family used to visit my aunt and uncle in Tarpey. We had to travel over a mountain ridge tog et there, and there was a trout farm near the top of the ridge. My younger brother and I always begged my dad to let us stop there and fish on the way home, and sometimes he’d give in. It was a big thrill for us because it was the only fishing we ever did. However, there was one stop at the trout farm I regretted. The farm had four small ponds filled with hundreds of rainbow trout. We’d take these long bamboo poles with lines and hooks and put some gummy orange stuff on the hooks. Then we’d drop our hooks into the water and instantly a whole school of trout would dart towards the bait. I‘d feel a tug on my pole and in one big jerk, I’d pull the fish from the water and onto the concrete beach. My brother would pull one out at about the same time, and Dad would have a couple of nine- or ten-inch trout to pay for. On that particular day I threw my line into the water first and immediately pulled out an eight-incher. I stood proudly by my flopping fish and watched my brother put in his line about two feet from the shore. The big schools of fish in the middle of the pond didn’t notice the bait, so it just sank in the water. Then, my brother let out a whoop as his pole bent in two. A big trout had come up off the bottom and taken the hook. There was no way my brother could jerk the fish out of the water, so he walked backwards with his pole and dragged the biggest fish I’d ever seen onto the beach. Jeremy was yelling with joy, and I was standing by my eight inch-trout feeling miserable. DIVIDED PARAGRAPHS My junior year of high school I was on the varsity football team. I was tall, thin, and awkward, so I spent most of the season on the bench. We had a good team and I was glad to be on it, but like everyone else, I wanted to get out on the field and show the coach what I could do. I got my chance one game in the middle of the season when I was sent in on the punting team. I’m still trying to live down that one play. When Coach Clawson yelled, “ Johnson, get in for Jewell on the punting team,” I jumped off the bench and raced onto the field to join the huddle. As an end, I had an important job. While the other players blocked for the punter, the other end and I were to run down field and cover the punt, hopefully tackling the runner for no gain. As I lined up and waited for the signals to be called, I was determined to make the tackle. When the punter yelled ”hike,” I sprinted down the field, my eyes fixed on the punt returner. I heard the thud of the ball making contact with the kicker’s foot and then saw it soaring high in the air toward the punt returner. I tried to keep my eye on the ball, on the returner, and my course of direction. Finally, I just focused on the punt returner and raced straight at him. The ball reached him just before I did, and as soon as he caught it, I knocked him down with a flying tackle. The ball sprinted out of his hands and I scrambled after it. As I fell on the ball, I realized I had not only made a great open-field tackle, I had also recovered the ball deep in the other team’s territory. I leaped to my feet and ran triumphantly off the field. As I neared the sidelines, I didn’t hear any cheers or see any players waiting to mob me. I saw the coach throw down his headphones angrily, and I knew something was wrong. As it turned out, I had paid too much attention to the ball and not enough to the punt returner, for he had signaled for a fair catch moments before I crashed into him. Instead of making a great tackle and recovering a fumble, I had committed a fifteen-yard penalty and given the other team an automatic first down. The coach pulled me over and said a few choice words, but I was too humiliated to even care. I had made a fool out of myself. At the beginning of the year, I’d go off campus with my friends to eat lunch. We’d rush downtown, grab a hamburger and a Coke, and rush back to campus for our one o’clock class. Then one day I decided to stay on campus and eat because I had to study for a test. To my surprise, I enjoyed my lunch in the cafeteria. Now my friends still go off campus to eat most of the time, but I stay and eat in the cafeteria. I actually prefer eating lunch in the cafeteria to going off campus. First, I can get a good meal in the cafeteria. When I ate down town at a sandwich shop, I’d always get a greasy hamburgers and French fries. At the cafeteria, I get better balanced lunches: salad, vegetables, chicken or fish, milk and occasionally yogurt. I’m not eating as much junk food or consuming as many calories, and that’s good for me. I can get a more nutritious meal in the cafeteria. Secondly, I save a lot of time eating on campus. Instead of wasting twenty minutes going downtown and returning, I have twenty more minutes to study or relax before class. I even save more time because in the cafeteria, there’s no waiting for the food. SO I take my time, eat slowly, and still have twenty to thirty minutes before class. I don’t ever feel rushed anymore. Third, I have met new friends eating in the cafeteria. Since my old high school friends eat downtown, I started eating with different people I’d met in class. Many of the people who eat in the cafeteria at lunchtime and sit down with two or three different groups of students and feel comfortable. I’ve gotten to know some really nice people that I wouldn’t have known otherwise. MAINE ADULT EDUCATION LESSON PLAN NRS LEVEL: MAINE LEARNING RESULT: THEME/ TOPIC: Process of Writing LESSON PLAN TITLE: Build a Paragraph ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS (OUTCOMES): Use planning, drafting and revising to produce a well developed paragraph. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: The student will be able to produce, on demand, a well developed 5-7 sentence paragraph. EFF TOOLS: Convey Ideas In Writing LEARNING ACTIVITIES: 1.Incorrect Paragraph handouts, students will highlight sentences that are not part of the paragraph. 2. Group discussion re: selections. 3. Introduction of self scoring rubric. 4. Score Paragraph handouts 5. A: use topic sentence from previous exercise to generate paragraph. B: Choose topic sentence from Topic Box to generate paragraph. TOOLS/ RESOURCES: Topic Box, Self Scoring rubric, Incorrect Paragraphs, and highlighters. ASSESSMENT: PRIOR- Ability to write an effective topic sentence ONGOING- Teacher / student conferencing, student demonstration CLOSURE: Recap key concepts of “Elements of a Standard Paragraph” Journaling regarding today’s lesson: What did you learn? How can you use this in your life? FOLLOW UP LESSONS: Paragraph Structure Handout. Write additional paragraphs. BUILD A PARAGRAPH STEP BY STEP PLAN 1. Discuss with students the elements of a good paragraph. (It includes a topic sentence and five to seven sentences that support the topic sentence. The sentences should remain on the subject and use proper grammer) 2. Divide students into small groups. Hand each student in the group the same paragraph that has an incorrect sentence in it. Have students pick out the sentence that does not fit with the rest of the paragraph. For additional practice have the students identify the topic sentence. 3. Switch paragraphs between groups. Have the groups discuss the results of their findings. 4. Hand each student the scoring rubric. Discuss the rubric. 5. Have each group take one paragraph they have just reviewed and score it based on the rubric. If necessary, have each group score each paragraph and then compare answers. 6. Review the results with the students.Clarify any questions. 7. Hand out topic sentence work from previous class. Have students write a paragraph using the topic sentence they created previously. Have the student self- score the paragraph based on the rubric. Review with the teacher and rewrite. 8. Have students choose a topic from the topic box and write another paragraph. Paragraphs with extra sentences 1. Thanksgiving is my favorite holiday. It does not have the tension of Christmas or the Halloween. Instead it is family and friends getting together to share a meal. This meal might take hours and hours to cook, but it ultimately symbolizes what is great about this country. That symbolism is found in what is served at the table. Most homes have turkey, but from that point on anything can be set down on the table. I like to go to football games on Turkey day. If you are a traditionalist it might be stuffing, yams and mashed potatoes. If you are of Italian heritage the meal might include lasagna. If you are of Scandinavian heritage the meal might include loganberries in lieu of cranberry sauce. Everyone is an American, but we all bring to the great nation the best of our past. 2. Many people do not understand how Mainers survive the cold winters. The constant snow, harsh winds, and freezing temperatures make most ‘Southerners’ cringe. It is too bad they never get to experience the crystal blue-sky with puffy white clouds after several days of snow. They never get to see the entire world blanketed with snow from the top of a mountain. Boating on open water is fun. Nor do they experience the camaraderie of a neighborhood when everyone is shoveling out from two feet of snow. As Mainers we will keep these secrets to ourselves and smile when someone asks us how we survive. 3. Writing on the chalkboard used to scare me. I hated the entire experience. The dusty feeling of the stick in my hand. The dust created when I wrote on the board would make me cough. The scraping of the utensil across the slate would send shivers down my spine. The loud noise of the slate cracking underneath the pressure. However the worst part was that no matter how many times you checked your work, it still looked wrong. There is something about those symbols large and luminous staring down in front of you that make them look wrong, even if they are correct. Luckily, most schools have switched to dry erase boards so that now the only thing a student has to worry about is the incorrect work, not the horrible chalk. ANSWERS 1. I like to go to football games on Turkey day. 2. Boating on open water is fun. 3. The loud noise of the slate cracking underneath the pressure. Paragraph Structure From Melissa Kelly about.com Writing Paragraphs Although the following structure is considered ideal it is not always used. Nevertheless, it will serve you well, particularly when the paragraph will stand alone. 1. Topic sentence contains the main idea of the paragraph. When answering a question, don’t restate the whole question, but do use some of the key words in the question. The topic sentence is usually the first, second, or last sentence in a paragraph. It is easiest to make it the first sentence. 2. Explain the topic sentence. 3. Prove your ideas are true or important with interesting, specific details. 4. End with a closing sentence that refers to the main idea n the topic sentence. Don’t write the same sentence. Use transitions to show how each sentence is related to the preceding sentence. (Standard transitional words, pronouns, and repetition of words or ideas) Note the italicized transitions below) Question: Why do teens adopt a particular style of dressing? Teens choose a style of dressing to feel accepted. By wearing a style associated with a particular group, many teenagers feel they belong to that group. For example, when I was so shy I didn’t have a clue about how to make friends. I did, however, know how to sew well. Thus, I would be among the first to wear the latest style, whether it was a straight skirt with little flounces at the bottom or a full skirt with yards of fabric gathered at the waist. I would wear popular styles even if it caused arguments with my mother. In fact, I still remember her yelling at me to loosen my belt before school. In spite of her scolding, once I was a block from home, I would tighten my belt back to nineteen inches causing painful, vertical marks around my waist by the end of the day. I didn’t mind the discomfort though, for even the most popular girls remarked about my tiny waist, and, although they didn’t know my name, their compliments made me feel accepted. CLOSE NOT ENOUGH Reader has some difficulty ON TRACK GREAT WORK Reader cannot understand or understanding or following Reader understands writer's Reader understands and easily follow writer's ideas writer's ideas ideas follows writer's ideas Total Did you answer the Tries to answer the prompt, Answers the prompt and keeps question/prompt/ but does not keep on the Answers the prompt, but then the main idea throughout the Answers the prompt, uses it as topic? subject shifts into another topic(s) writing the main idea Uses the beginning, middle Does it have order? and end to organize thoughts A beginning, middle Ideas are not organized. No Has some organization but Has a beginning, middle and to establish ideas to support and end? connection between ideas jumps around end the topic Lacks examples or details. Lacks specific details. Limits Has some specific details but Descriptions and Information does not match information to lists, repetition, not consistent throughout Has specific and meaningful details topic or generalization piece details and examples Little or no sentence structure. Has some sentence structure. Demonstrates proper sentence Few, if any, mistakes with Grammar Spelling, No punctuation, Inconsistent punctuation, structure, grammer,spelling, grammar, spelling or Sentence Structure capitalization, grammar. capitalization, or grammar punctuation most of the time punctuation Uses the beginning, middle and end to organize thoughts Correct Words Weak word choice. Uses Small range of words, not to establish ideas to support words inaccurately using word correctly Uses words correctly the topic Used? Total 1234 Mastery = 16+TOPIC BOX IDEAS FAVORITE PET FAVORITE VACATION FAVORITE FOOD WORST FOOD TO EAT WORST BOOK TO EVER READ BEST MOVIE WORST MOVIE CHILDHOOD MEMORY BEST RIDE AT THE AMUSEMENT PARK BEST TV SHOW FAVORITE PIECE OF FURNITURE WORST TV SHOW WORST PIECE OF FURNITURE BEST BOOK FAVORITE SCENT FAVORITE CHARITY BEST BASEBALL TEAM BEST FOOTBALL TEAM BEST SPORT TO PLAY FAVORITE CAR BEST SPORT TO WATCH FAVORITE HOBBY BEST JOB WORST JOB