How to Study writing skills

directed writing study tips to improve students academic performance and How to Improve your Writing Study skills
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General Guide to Writing and Study Skills CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 1 of 165 Contents INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 4 ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................................................................. 6 WHY ASSESSMENT OCCURS ........................................................................................................................ 7 GETTING GRADES .......................................................................................................................................... 8 TOPIC ANALYSIS .......................................................................................................................................... 11 LAYOUT AND APPEARANCE ........................................................................................................................ 15 INTRODUCTION TO REFERENCING AND PLAGIARISM ............................................................................. 23 HOW TO RESEARCH .................................................................................................................................... 25 CRITICAL THINKING ...................................................................................................................................... 27 ESSAYS ......................................................................................................................................................... 30 REPORTS ...................................................................................................................................................... 36 ORAL PRESENTATIONS ............................................................................................................................... 46 WORKING WITH OTHERS ............................................................................................................................. 49 LITERATURE REVIEWS ................................................................................................................................ 51 REFLECTIVE JOURNALS .............................................................................................................................. 54 ePORTFOLIOS ............................................................................................................................................... 55 EXAMS ........................................................................................................................................................... 56 WRITING AS A SKILL .................................................................................................................................... 60 APPLYING WHAT YOU KNOW ...................................................................................................................... 61 ACADEMIC LANGUAGE ................................................................................................................................ 63 ACADEMIC TERMS & PHRASES .................................................................................................................. 72 WRITING CONSTRUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 79 PUNCTUATION .............................................................................................................................................. 92 EDITING AND PROOFREADING ................................................................................................................... 98 TIPS IF ENGLISH IS YOUR OTHER LANGUAGE ........................................................................................ 105 LIBRARY ...................................................................................................................................................... 107 THE MODERN LIBRARY .............................................................................................................................. 108 UNDERSTANDING ONLINE SYSTEMS ...................................................................................................... 109 THE BASICS OF ONLINE LEARNING.......................................................................................................... 110 MANAGING YOUR STUDY .......................................................................................................................... 112 TIME MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................................... 113 PROCRASTINATION .................................................................................................................................... 119 CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 2 of 165 THE STUDY ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................................................... 121 NOTE-TAKING ............................................................................................................................................. 123 READING EFFECTIVELY ............................................................................................................................. 126 OVERCOMING ACADEMIC CULTURE SHOCK ......................................................................................... 131 UNDERSTANDING ACADEMIC SPEAK ...................................................................................................... 132 YOUR OWN LEARNING STYLE .................................................................................................................. 135 GETTING STARTED .................................................................................................................................... 139 LOOKING AFTER YOURSELF ..................................................................................................................... 142 DON’T GIVE UP ........................................................................................................................................... 144 PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY AND MOTIVATION ..................................................................................... 145 ACCESSING HELP ...................................................................................................................................... 146 WANT MORE INFORMATION? ................................................................................................................... 147 ANSWERS to General Guide Activities ..................................................................................................... 148 REFERENCE LIST and additional resources ............................................................................................ 154 EXPANDED TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 156 CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 3 of 165 INTRODUCTION Commencing study at university can be daunting, particularly if you are the first in your family to do so. You may find it to be not only an unfamiliar environment, but also a challenging culture to enter. This response is normal, and nothing to be concerned about. The aim of this document is to help you gain an understanding of university culture, and acquire the academic language skills and critical thinking processes necessary to be successful in your study. When submitting work for assessment, you will not just be assessed on what you say, but also how you say it, and what your work looks like. This guide provides general advice on the presentation of academic work at Federation University Australia, focusing on the key areas of: assessment format and appearance; writing skills; academic language and culture; managing your study; and citation. Follow the advice in this book if no specific presentation requirements have been provided in your course for an individual piece of work. If you are unclear about any submission requirements, consult your lecturer, tutor or teacher for clarification. Strive to apply this advice to each assessment task to help you achieve an acceptable academic standard in your undergraduate study. You will also find examples and activities to encourage you to apply the principles as you read about them. You are not expected to master these skills at the first attempt; even postgraduate students are still developing their research and writing skills. Rather than attempting to read this guide from beginning to end, use the links from the table of contents to jump directly to the information you need, when you need it. There’s an expanded table of contents at the back if you want to see more detail. The key topic areas in this book are: Assessment format and appearance Assessment tasks come in many shapes. This guide contains advice relating to essays, reports, presentations, group work, literature reviews, reflective journals, ePortfolios and exams. It also contains practical advice on topic and question analysis, critical thinking and researching. Improving the appearance of your written work is a skill you can master early with this advice on formatting and layout. Academic language and culture Understanding a new language is like reading a map: it’s easier if you know some road rules. This guide offers an entry point into academic language and culture by discussing aspects such as accessibility, generalisations, authoritative and objective writing and getting a feel for academic language. Writing and researching skills Academic work should be written in clear and concise English, using your own words but acknowledging other sources where appropriate. Try the practical activities in this guide to improve the construction of your writing, from sentence to paragraph level. Care should be taken with punctuation, spelling, style and word choice to achieve a suitable academic voice. CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 4 of 165 Managing your study This guide provides useful tips on how to manage your time and study load effectively. These include: how to set up an environment conducive to study, time management, procrastination and effective note- taking and reading. Introduction to referencing and plagiarism Your work should demonstrate an understanding of the practice and principles of citation. Also known as citation, referencing is the process of acknowledging that you have used another person’s words, ideas, or data in your work. If you don’t acknowledge sources, you may be guilty of plagiarism. For detailed examples and advice on referencing, refer to The General Guide to Referencing, which is also available in campus bookstores. This guide will soon be available as an eBook. The General Guide to Writing and Study Skills was produced with support from the Dual Sector Partnership Project, under funding from the Australian Government’s Structural Adjustment Fund. CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 5 of 165 ASSESSMENT CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 6 of 165 WHY ASSESSMENT OCCURS or The reason you have those annoying assignments The primary (broad) purpose of assessment is for you to demonstrate your knowledge and capabilities to your lecturer or tutor according to a set of criteria. It’s a way of showing that you are developing the abilities necessary for your field of study. Remember that the degree you are studying is designed around employment in a specific field. Your lecturers need a means of checking that you are able to work in that field, so that’s what assessment is about. But that’s only the broadest sense. Different forms and different types of assessment measure a variety of skills or knowledge. Most courses include summative and formative assessment types. • Formative assessments usually have low or minimal marks and can be in the form of short quizzes in Moodle, or an essay outline. They are learning activities and allow for the lecturer to give you feedback on how you are progressing. Some formative assessments will contain a summative element, e.g. ‘completion of all online quizzes is 5% of your total mark’. • Summative assessments usually relate to the learning outcomes and carry most of your marks. These types of assessment are a tool for measuring what you have learned and can be a written assignment, an exam, group work or a presentation. In any course, your abilities are demonstrated in different ways through: • Essays, which evaluate your writing skills and also your ability to engage with the theory. • Practical tasks, which evaluate your physical capabilities in an area, i.e. in a chemistry experiment or a nursing pharmacology lab. • Presentations, which evaluate your speaking ability and how well you communicate information to a group. In every assessment, you are expected to: • Demonstrate your understanding of the material and theory. • Demonstrate meaningful interaction with the subject matter. • Develop your own opinions and understanding of the topic, and your own voice. • Practise discussion of a topic in a professional context. Importantly, assessment is not there for you to simply regurgitate information. Your interaction with your reading and lecture content is of most interest, whether that’s putting it into practice, critiquing or analysing it, or presenting on it. By doing this, you’re showing that you not only understand the material, but you can use that information for another purpose, be it drawing a new conclusion or developing a new procedure. So, when given the chance, demonstrate your understanding of a theory or practice, and not simply that you remember it. Back to table of contents CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 7 of 165 GETTING GRADES or How do I get a great mark? To know how to do well in assignments, it helps to understand what you will be marked on. You may receive specific marking criteria on some occasions and, on others, the guidelines will be more general. But, there are general things that your lecturers will be looking for. To start with, let’s look at how you can interpret your results. What your results mean Depending on what you’re studying, different marks will be used to grade your work. Higher Education The most common grades in higher education are as follows: Grades for assessment tasks and overall course results Grade Description Specific range/interpretation HD High 80% and above Distinction D Distinction 70% – 79% C Credit 60% – 69% P Pass 50% – 59% MF Marginal 40% – 49% Fail F Fail 39% and below XF Non- You did not hand in any work for a assessed course fail S Ungraded Assessments with S/U grades are pass usually ‘hurdle’ tasks U Ungraded fail CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 8 of 165 Other possible grades for overall course results W Withdrew You withdrew from a course before the census date and don’t get marked for it LW Late You withdrew from a course after Withdrawal the census date and are therefore still marked for it See other Higher Education grade descriptors. VET There are various grading categories in VET courses depending on your level of study, so it is best to ask a teacher within your course to clarify. Grade Description Grading category CD Competent with 1 Distinction CM Competent with Merit 1 CY Competent 1 & 2 CN Not yet Competent 1 & 2 See other VET grade descriptors. How you will be assessed There are multiple ways your lecturers and tutors will assess you, depending on the type of assessment task and its purpose. However, your result will have four key influencing factors: Content This refers to what you have written or created. To do well here, examine the assignment criteria closely and respond to the given topic and any other requirements. Ask your lecturer or tutor what they’re looking for in assignments; they may give some pointers. This is where the larger portion of your marks will be awarded. Academic This refers to your use of academic language in your writing. To do well here language you need to use formal language and write clearly and concisely. You can read more about how to use academic language in the Writing Skills section of this book. Referencing If applicable to your particular assessment task, your use of the required referencing style can have a large impact upon your grade. Lecturers are looking to see how well you incorporate the ideas and research of others into CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 9 of 165 your argument. Don’t leave this to chance. Get a copy of The General Guide to Referencing, as it is loaded with examples to make your life easier. Layout and This refers to how the document looks and how it has been formatted. It won’t appearance play a big part in your mark (unless it’s a visual assignment), but an assignment that has coffee stains and is illegible reflects poorly on your professionalism and dedication, which may subsequently result in a loss of marks. If you adhere to any formatting requirements and present the assignment neatly, you’ll get all the marks you need here. Rubrics Rubrics are just one type of marking guide that could be used to determine your final mark. They include a formula that breaks down marks into areas, and they look something like this: As you can see, a rubric shows where you will get marks and the weighting of those areas. Whenever you receive a rubric or another marking guide, have it with you when you work on that assignment. This allows you to include the elements that your marker is hoping to see, and the weighting gives you a clear idea of the time you need to spend on certain areas. For instance, you might receive five marks for addressing pancake size, but detailing how delicious they are will give you twenty marks. Clearly you need to spend more time writing about pancakes’ taste than their size. In this way, a rubric is a handy guide on how to complete your assignment. Back to table of contents CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 10 of 165 TOPIC ANALYSIS or What am I meant to be writing about again? Topic analysis is a skill that can change a Fail into a High Distinction. Why? Understanding the topic is key to doing well in an assignment. If you misunderstand the question then you may fail because you won’t have answered the question. It’s important you know how to interpret the topic given to you. What is topic analysis? Topic analysis refers to the act of breaking down an essay question or research topic so that you understand it in detail. The aim is to have a clear idea of what you are meant to be writing before you start your research. That way you don’t write about cake for a project on noble gases. It’s common for students to lose marks because they ‘didn’t properly understand the essay question.’ So try this step-by- step process to avoid that possibility. How to analyse a topic Steps: • Check meanings of words/re-write topic or quote • Circle instructional words • Underline the key words • Bracket the limiting words • Divide the topic into sections 1. Check meanings of words/re-write topic or quote Do you understand every word in the topic question? Grab a dictionary for any words you are unsure about. This applies to phrases as well. For instance, you might understand what the words ‘noble’ and ‘gas’ mean separately, but do you understand the phrase ‘noble gas’? After you’ve checked the meanings, it may help to rewrite the topic in a way that you better understand it, especially if you’ve been asked to respond to a given quote. This not only helps you to cement your understanding of what the question and/or quote is asking, but it can also provide you with a version of the topic that’s clearer to you, to which you can refer later. Quantum mechanical tunnelling is the basic mechanism underlying several important technologies. Using clearly labeled diagrams, describe the operation of one technology that utilises tunnelling. A detailed quantum mechanical analysis is not required. Some words and phrases are not commonly known in this topic. The big ones are ‘quantum mechanical tunnelling’ and ‘quantum mechanical analysis’. There are more, but those are the major phrases that may need defining. Such phrases won’t be found in a common dictionary, so you may need to review lecture notes or consult a text book. CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 11 of 165 2. Circle the instructional words Instructional words tell you ‘how’ to respond to a topic. These are words like ‘discuss’, ‘outline’ and ‘debate’. Below is a list of the most commonly used instructional words and their definitions: • Analyse – methodically examine in detail to explain, interpret and discuss • Assess – evaluate and decide how important something is and give your reasons • Compare/Contrast – describe, measure or note the similarities / how things differ • Define – provide a clear, concise description of the nature, scope or meaning • Describe – give a detailed account to illustrate the topic; explain in sequence or order • Discuss – give both sides of an argument (plus evidence) and then your own opinion • Evaluate – look at reasons for and against, draw conclusions, form an idea of the value of something • Justify – show or prove a decision or viewpoint to be right or reasonable • Review – re-examine and comment briefly on the major points Sometimes your lecturer will expect you to present your own opinion, or suggest that one outcome is better, but other topics will require you to remain impartial and focus only on defining and providing evidence. This is why identifying the instructional words is important. Let’s look at the same example again: Quantum mechanical tunnelling is the basic mechanism underlying several important technologies. Using clearly labeled diagrams, describe the operation of one technology that utilises tunnelling. A detailed quantum mechanical analysis is not required. In the second sentence, the word ‘describe’ means that you need to write about a single technology in detail without forming an opinion on it or criticising it. You can also see the word ‘using’, which is an instructional word that tells you to include whatever follows. In this case, it is referring to the fact that you need to include diagrams. Finally, the phrase ‘not required’ is instructional in that it tells you what not to do. This is equally as important, as it prevents you from spending time on a task that’s not necessary. 3. Underline the key words Here you need to identify all words that are important in the essay question. This highlights every aspect that you’ll need to address in the paper. Let’s find the key words in our example: Quantum mechanical tunnelling is the basic mechanism underlying several important technologies. Using clearly labeled diagrams, describe the operation of one technology that utilises tunnelling. A detailed quantum mechanical analysis is not required. Many words have been identified as key words here. Let’s have a look at why: • Quantum mechanical tunnelling tells us the major focus. This is the theory we’re focusing on. • basic mechanism underlying…technologies tells us the basic assumption that underpins this question. We know that quantum tunnelling is a core principle behind many things in our world. • clearly labeled diagrams need to be included. CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 12 of 165 • operation is highlighted because this is the aspect of the technology we’re concerned with. • one technology that utilises tunnelling has been highlighted as a reminder that an example of technology using quantum tunnelling should be included. As you can see, there can be quite a bit to include, especially when you have a complex topic or question. This strategy keeps your focus on what to include and how to examine it. 4. Bracket the limiting words These words can also be viewed as key words, but limiting words have a specific focus. Limiting words relate to: • Population (who?) • Place (where?) • Time (when?) Not all topics include limiting words (such as the engineering topic above), but many disciplines require that you research a particular group of people in a specific location. For example: Compare the health needs of adolescents living in rural Australia in the 1960s with those of today. Discuss these changes in the context of community health nurses. If we bracket the limiting words: Compare the health needs of adolescents living in rural Australia in the 1960s with those of today. Discuss these changes in the context of the work of community health nurses. By identifying limiting words, you can pick up the specific focus of this essay that requires you to limit your research to Australian publications only. Highlighting limiting words helps to clarify further where your attention should be, and ensures that you don’t research or focus on irrelevant areas. 5. Break into sections This last step helps to identify how you might organise your ideas in your work. ‘Break your topic into sections’ means that you should divide the question into smaller segments, making it easier to understand and respond to. This process can also help you to sort out the content of your main paragraphs so that the structure of your assignment is clearer. Let’s look at our example topic again. It could be broken into sections in various ways. We might break it up like this: Describe the operation of one technology that Utilises quantum tunnelling with A clearly labelled diagram CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 13 of 165 This is just one way to outline the areas that will need attention; there is no one right way to do this. Dividing a topic into portions makes it easier for you to identify what you need to concentrate on and in which order you could address each area. You should do this in whatever way works best for you. Once you’ve completed these five steps, you can then jump onto the Library website and start your search for relevant sources using your key and limiting words. Now, have a go at applying these steps of topic analysis to your own assignment questions. Otherwise, apply the method to the essay topic below. Activity: Topic analysis Explore the nature of Australian society and its values in the 1970s. Use a character analysis format to demonstrate your understanding of how the characters in “Don’s Party” embody or react against the prevailing values of the 1970s. Check your answer Back to table of contents CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 14 of 165 LAYOUT AND APPEARANCE or How to look good These are general guidelines for formatting and submitting your work. Please use these guidelines where you have not received specific instructions on formatting from your lecturer. Advice includes formatting specifications such as type, font and alignment, figures and tables, footnotes and endnotes, and submission of work. Formatting specifications All written work should be typed on a computer. Feel free to hand-write your notes, but not the final masterpiece. If you don’t have access to a computer at home, there are many on campus, in the libraries and numerous computer labs. It is critical that your lecturer can read your work. What your document should look like Appearance Word processed, not hand written. Paper size A4 & printed on both sides where possible. Margins 2.5cm Page Every page, beginning at 1. numbering Borders None. And no other fancy Clipart is required. Type, alignment, spacing and paragraphs Fonts, text alignment and spacing can be changed in your word-processing program. If no font type is specified then the standard choice is 12pt Times New Roman, with text left-aligned. What the contents of your document should look like Font type Times New Roman or Arial Font size 11 or 12 pt Headings Depends on the type of assignment, e.g. reports may need numbered headings. Bold and left-aligned is acceptable. Aim for readability. Use the ‘Header’ function for a heading to appear on every page. CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 15 of 165 Header The standard option is to include the page number and a and Footer shortened title at the top left of your Header, and your name top right. Shorten the title to ensure there is space for your name. Alignment Be consistent and apply only one style to your text. Use: of text either left-aligned – the text lines up straight against the left margin or fully justified – the left and right edges of the text line up straight against the left and right margins. Spacing Leave one space between sentences. Use double line spacing within paragraphs. Between paragraphs, spacing depends on whether they are blocked or indented. See example following. Blocked/Indented paragraphs The general preference is to use block paragraphs, but check with your lecturer if you are unsure. Be consistent, whichever you use. Blocked paragraphs have an extra space between them. Do not indent. Blocked paragraphs are separated from each other by an additional blank line space. Do not indent the first line of a paragraph when using this style. Blocked paragraphs are separated from each other by an additional blank line space. Do not indent the first line of a paragraph when using this style. Indented paragraphs follow on from each other with no extra space. The first line is indented from the left margin. Indent the first line of the new paragraph from the left margin. Indented paragraphs follow on from each other with no additional line space between. Indent the first line of the new paragraph from the left margin. Indented paragraphs follow on from each other with no additional line space between. Indent the first line of the new paragraph from the left margin. Indented paragraphs follow on from each other with no additional line space between. Indent the first line of the new paragraph from the left margin. Indented paragraphs follow on from each other with no additional line space between. CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 16 of 165 Figures and tables If you need to include figures (i.e. graphs, pictures, charts, maps or diagrams) and/or tables in your work but have not received specific instructions, use the following guidelines. You can place them within the text itself, or at the end as an appendix. Check your chosen referencing style for more detailed instructions. Consider whether the figures and/or tables are necessary for clarity. Include them in the body of the document if their presence directly illustrates your point. If, for example, a whole paragraph refers to a particular graph, then it would be most effective to place it directly below the paragraph. Naming, numbering and noting Number each figure and table consecutively and give each a descriptive title. Figures may need a ‘legend’ to identify things such as scale, direction of view or orientation. Example: Place the name of the figure below the figure Cite author(s), date of publication and page number. Example: Place the name of the table above the table CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 17 of 165 Some figures or tables may need notes to provide one or more of the following: • Specific information on a particular item in the figure/table • General information on the figure/table as a whole • Source information (if copied/adapted from another source) Place any notes directly below the relevant figure or table. Appearance Whatever your reason for including figures or tables, aim for readability. • Mark all axes clearly on graphs. • Use descriptive column headings on tables. • Type size is generally smaller than the text in the paragraph, but no smaller than 8 pt, or larger than 14 pt. • Place them close to the paragraph where they are first mentioned. • Do not extend them outside the page margins. • Do not split a table over two pages (unless it is large); leave a small gap at the bottom of the page and carry it over to the next page. • Alignment of data within table columns depends on the type of data and other specific requirements, but generally the following applies: o Whole numbers to be right-aligned. o Decimals to be aligned to decimal points. o Text in columns to be left-aligned. Appendices - a final word If the figure and/or table provides further evidence but is not critical to illustrate your argument, then include it as an appendix and refer to it in your text, like this: “As can be seen in Appendix 1, the elephant population is in rapid decline.” Footnotes and endnotes Academic writing sometimes requires notes to the main text. These notes may contain information to supplement or explain the main text, and/or information about your sources. The notes may be displayed as footnotes (at the bottom of the page) or endnotes (at the end of the work). Notes are numbered in a single sequence throughout a piece of work and normally set one or two points smaller than the general text. Most word-processing software has a footnote/endnote function that inserts numbers and formats notes automatically. Reference list / Bibliography Your reference list should come at the end of the assignment. Depending on your chosen referencing/citation style, it might also be called a Bibliography. It should have the heading ‘References’ CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 18 of 165 or ‘Bibliography’ and each source should have its own line. The formatting of the citations themselves should adhere to your chosen referencing style. Refer to The General Guide to Referencing for the glorious details about how to properly acknowledge sources in academic writing. Submission of work Title page or cover sheet The Title page contains some or all of these details for identification. You could include a header and footer on this page, to ensure nothing goes astray. • Name and student number (if group work, list all members’ information) • Course ID • Title of work being submitted • Lecturer and/or tutor/teacher name • Date submitted A separate cover sheet and/or submission slip may also be required. Attach this to the front of your work. Some courses will provide one for you. Online submission When asked to submit your assignment online through Moodle, there are a couple of considerations: the size of the file; and its name. File size Saving your assignment at the right size is important because large files (over 10MB) can be difficult or impossible to upload. Reducing PDF file size PDF files are supported by most platforms – Windows, Linux, Mac OS – and the size of the file will depend upon what is in it; word documents with just text tend to be smaller than those that include images and graphical information. Aim to keep the size of your file below 10MB, unless you have been advised otherwise. There are many ways of compressing them to make them smaller. Here are just a few. Adobe Acrobat 1. Open your PDF Document in Adobe Acrobat Pro 2. Go to “File” “Save As Other” 3. Click on “Reduced Size PDF” 4. Choose a version from the “Acrobat Version Compatibility” dropdown. After you’ve saved it, check that the file size is more appropriate 5. Click “OK” 6. Add a new file name for your document and choose a location to save the document 7. Click “Save” CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 19 of 165 PDF Squeezer is a PDF compression tool for Mac OS that is available as an App from the internet. A PDF Squeezer alternative is available for all platforms, and the tool reduces the file size of large PDF documents. Reducing image size in Word documents If you have inserted images into your document, then the file size is likely to be larger than normal. This generally makes your file slow to open and up- or download. By simply compressing the images, you can reduce the overall file size. This is done via the Format tab. 1. First click on the image you want to resize 2. Click on the “Format” / “Picture tools” tab 3. Click on “Compress Pictures” 4. Select the options you require 5. Click “Save” Keep in mind that reducing the size of the image will also reduce quality. If it is critical to maintain the quality of images (for example, if you are a visual art student submitting images of your work), then your lecturer, teacher or tutor will have good advice: ask them. File name Giving your file a particular name not only identifies your file from other students, but will also help you keep track of your assignments because they will be in a consistent format. In general: Find out well before the due date whether your lecturer, teacher or tutor has a preference for file size or name. Use the following standards in the absence of specific instructions from your lecturer, teacher or tutor. Their advice may appear in the course description or be provided through a student forum. If in doubt, ask them first. Naming your files Having a system, or standard method, of naming your digital files gives you a good chance of finding them again. It also helps with the submission of your work. Again, your lecturer, teacher or tutor may have a preference so ask them for advice. In the absence of specific instructions from your lecturer, teacher or tutor, use the following standard format every time you submit your work online (see following for a description of its elements): coursecode_assessmentnumber_yourname_studentID.doc In this format, the elements are: 1. coursecode This is a set of letters and numbers that is unique for each course you study. Example: LITCI1006 CRICOS Provider No. 00103D Page 20 of 165

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