Health and safety document control procedure

health and safety document example and How to write a Health and Safety document
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GOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES Writing health and safety documents for your workplace JUNE 2015TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 INTRODUCTION 3 1.1 Using documents to build understanding 4 1.2 Common types of health and safety documents 5 1.3 Encourage workers to get involved 8 02 WRITING THE DOCUMENT 9 2.1 Stage 1: What is the document for? 10 2.2 Stage 2: Who will read the document? 10 2.3 Stage 3: What are your main messages? 11 03 REVIEWING THE DOCUMENT 15 3.1 Stage 4: Does the document work? 16 04 SHARING THE DOCUMENT 18 4.1 Stage 5: How will you share and use the document? 19 05 WHERE CAN YOU FIND MORE INFORMATION? 20 06 APPENDICES 22 6.1 Guidelines for instruction documents 23 6.2 Other formats for workers not able to read regular print 23 6.3 Simple ways to say things 25 6.4 Plain English explanations of key health and safety terms 30 6.5 Examples of ‘before’ and ‘after’ documents 32 6.6 How to check workers understand your document 38 6.7 Checklist for health and safety documents 3901/ INTRODUCTION IN THIS SECTION: 1.1 Using documents to build understanding 1.2 Common types of health and safety documents 1.3 Encourage workers t o get involved 3 3GOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES // WRITING HEALTH AND SAFETY DOCUMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE These guidelines will help you to write health and safety documents for your workplace. Health and safety documents include forms, You can use documents to build plans, policies, checklists, posters, signs and understanding by: other material explaining to workers: involving workers in document how to work safely and protect their health development and review how to manage workplace risks and hazards encouraging workers to tell you when changes need to be made to documents what to do if something goes wrong. explaining unfamiliar language and Documents that everyone at your workplace procedures can read and understand will be: referring to the relevant document when written using words that make sense talking to workers about something they to your workers do – or do not do – at work easy to use. Explain to workers why it is important to keep The information should: a written record of workplace discussions (such as the minutes of a team meeting). encourage workers to use safe practices show that health and safety is important Everyone in your workplace needs to know be clear about the risks and hazards at what is in the documents that affect them. your workplace Tell workers about the type of documents used in your workplace and show them explain how to control and manage these examples. Explain what each part of a risks and hazards. document is saying. 1.1 USING DOCUMENTS TO Review and revise your documents regularly BUILD UNDERSTANDING to make sure that information is clear and up to date. Health and safety documents help everybody Your workplace has written documents so that to understand how your workplace should workers do not have to rely on their memory. run. As well as providing information, they can explain who is responsible for doing what, when and why – and how to avoid accidents and exposure to health risks. 4 4SECTION 1.0 // INTRODUCTION 1.2 COMMON TYPES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY DOCUMENTS TYPE OF DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES TABLE ABOVE GROUND TANK DRUMS Displays information Checklist, Petrol at least 20 m from any area of regular at least 15 m from any area of regular so that it is easy to action list habitation or high intensity land use habitation or high intensity land use read and compare. kept outside kept outside or in a well-ventilated building Usually laid out in Diesel at least 20 m from any area of regular at least 15 m from any area of regular rows and columns. habitation or high intensity land use habitation or high intensity land use 6 m from farm sheds 6 m from farm sheds kept outside kept outside or in a well-ventilated building on-farms FLOWCHART Diagram or other Flowchart to Is the mining operation wholly on or under the seabed AM I A MINING START on the seaward side of the mean high-water mark? illustration showing identify the OPERATION? the decisions and right guard N Y activities involved for your Is the mining operation carried out above ground and associated with: the extraction of gold from river Alluvial mining Y deposits of sand or gravel; or the extraction of operation ironsand from sand or gravel? as a process is machine N worked through. Steps and sequences Is the activity carried out above ground for the purpose of: extracting any material, other than any coal or any mineral, from the earth; or processing any material, other than any coal or any mineral, at the place where the Y material is extracted? Or is the place a place where the above activity is carried out? (Whether or not the material is to be processed for commercial gain and whether or not explosives are used are not relevant.) are shown. Quarrying operation N Is the place a place where material extracted or processed in a quarry is crushed or screened? N Is the activity of the operation only exploring for minerals? N Is the operation one in which: a. not more than 2 mine workers ordinarily work underground at the operation at any one time; and Does the operation involve Not a extraction of fill with the purpose b. explosives are not used underground at the operation; and Y mining of creating a tunnel or shaft or Y c. the operation relates to a tunnel or shaft that is, or is intended to be, operation enlarging or extending any tunnel not more than 15 metres long; and or shaft? Or is the place a place d. the concentration of methane is not likely to be more than 0.25% of the where this operation is carried out? general body of air in any working area at the operation? N N Opencast Opencast coal mining metalliferous operation mining operation Does the operation have the Tourist mining Tunneling www purpose of mine educa .busines tion or Y operation operation mine research or mine tourism? Y N am-i-a-mining-operation Is the operation associated with the extraction of coal? N N Does the operation include exploring for coal or MINING Do any persons work underground? POLICY Y is the place a place where this is carried out? OPERATION Y Y N Statement that sets Health and An underground mining operation is any mining operation, other than a tunnelling operation, where any person works underground out an organisation’s safety policy Does the operation include: The extraction of coal or minerals; or approach and Mining for coal or minerals; or Is the operation associated Y N with the extraction of coal? Processing coal or minerals associated with a mine; or Producing or maintaining tailings, spoil heaps, or waste intentions. Guides dumps associated with the extraction of coal or minerals? And the place where these activities are carried out? N Underground coal Underground metalliferous workplace actions mining operation mining operation Coal means Peat means Mineral means a by stating what anthracite, combustible, soft, naturally occurring bituminous coal, porous, or compressed inorganic substance A mining operation includes: sub-bituminous coal, sedimentary deposit beneath or at the is to be done, who and lignite, and— of plant origin with surface of the earth, The excavation, removal, handling, transport, and storage of coal, minerals, substances, contaminants, and wastes at the place where the extraction, exploring, (a) includes every a high water content. and— (a) includes mining and processing are carried out; and other substance metallic minerals, is to do it, and how worked or normally non-metallic minerals, The construction, operation, maintenance, and removal of plant and buildings at the worked with coal; but and precious stones; place where the extraction, exploring, mining or processing are carried out; and (b) does not include but (b) does not Preparatory, maintenance, and repair activities associated with the extraction, it is to be done. coal in the form include clay, coal, exploring, mining and processing. of peat. gravel, limestone, At the place where the mining operation activities are carried out. sand, or stone. 5 Y YGOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES // WRITING HEALTH AND SAFETY DOCUMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE TYPE OF DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES PROCEDURE Series of steps Evacuation that must be done procedure, in order. Each emergency step starts with a procedure Emergency procedures command/action Stop, think, act word. For example, The first priority in the event of an emergency is for the safety of all people present ‘leave’, ‘walk’, ‘sound’. Raise the alarm Turn to the relevant page to confirm what to do Often have a map or Emergency phone numbers images – for example, Dial 111 for Fire/Police/Ambulance a map showing an 1. Call from a safe place 2. Use a cordless or mobile phone if practical assembly area. 3. Tell the operator which emergency service you want 4. Wait until that service answers 5. Give the following address (manager to complete): (Street number) : (Street name) : (Suburb) : (Nearest City/Town) : (Region) : 6. Do not hang up until told to do so by the emergency service 7. Make sure someone is available to direct the emergency service to the scene Immediately after calling 111, activate the emergency procedure Use an alternative phone if emergency services ask you to keep the line available To be effective, this chart must be read and understood by all staff until it becomes second nature w Em w erw gen .busines cy procedur s. es emergency-procedures-template-pdf/view INFORMATION SHEET Describes or provides Safety information about data sheet, something. information sheet about personal INFORMA TION SHEET 7 protective NON-FRIABLE ASBESTOS equipment to use when Non-friable asbestos may be removed by a competent contractor, working i.e. someone who has the experience and knowledge of working with asbestos without risk to their own or others’ lives even if they do not with have a certificate of competence for restricted work with asbestos. asbestos WHAT IS NON-FRIABLE ASBESTOS? or other Non-friable asbestos is asbestos that under ordinary circumstances hazardous cannot easily be crumbled. materials Non-friable asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) are generally materials where asbestos fibres are bonded in a cement, bituminous or resin matrix. The following photos show examples of ACM-containing products in a non-friable condition. Note: non-friable asbestos, including those shown in the photos, becomes friable. If there is any doubt, treat the asbestos as friable. Non-friable asbestos – corrugated roofing Non-friable asbestos – ceiling tiles friable-asbestos 0800 030 040 6 6 WSNZ_00015.2_MAY 14SECTION 1.0 // INTRODUCTION TYPE OF DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES GRAPH Diagram that uses Graph WORKPLACE FATALITIES BY YEAR (2010-2015) lines, curves or bars showing 100 to share information – injury rates 90 such as trends or serious 77 80 or changes harm 70 57 60 over time. notifications 48 48 47 50 over a five- 40 year period 30 20 10 10 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 (YEAR-TO-DATE) Calendar Year FORM A document that asks Accident for information – the or incident FORM OF REGISTER OR NOTIFICATION OF CIRCUMSTANCES OF ACCIDENT information is written report form, OR SERIOUS HARM in blank spaces on accident Required for section 25(1), (1A), (1B), and (3)(b) of the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. For non-injury accident, complete questions 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15 as applicable. the form. investigation 1. Particulars of employer, self-employed person or principal: form, (business name, postal address and telephone number) 8. Treatment of injury: safe work  none   first aid only   doctor but no hospitalisation   hospitalisation method 9. Time and date of accident/serious harm: statement 2. The person reporting is: Time: (am/pm) (SWMS)  an employer   a principal   a self-employed person Date:  DD  /  MM  /  YEAR Shift:   day   afternoon   night 3. Location of place of work: (shop, shed, unit nos., floor, building, street nos. and names, locality/sub- urb, or details of vehicle, ship or aircraft) Hours worked since arrival at work: (employees and self-employed persons only) 10. Mechanism of accident/ serious harm:  fall, trip or slip   heat, radiation or energy   hitting objects with part of the body  4. Personal data of injured person:  biological factors   sound or pressure Name:  chemicals or other substances   mental stress Residential address:  being hit by moving objects   body stressing 11. Agency of accident/ serious harm:  machinery or (mainly) fixed plant Date of birth:  DD  /  MM  /  YEAR Sex: (M/F)  mobile plant or transport  powered equipment, tool, or appliance 5. Occupation or job title of injured person: (employees and self-employed persons only)  non-powered handtool, appliance, or equipment  chemical or chemical product 6. The injured person is:  material or substance  an employer   a contractor (self-employed person)  environmental exposure (eg dust, gas)  self   other  animal, human or biological agency  (other than bacteria or virus) 7. Period of employment of injured person: (employees only)  bacteria or virus  1st week   1st month   1-6 months  6 months-1 year   1-5 years   over 5 years  non-employee Serious%20Harm%20Notification.pdf WORKSAFE NEW ZEALAND Email: Fax: 09 984 4115 Phone: 0800 030 040 Post: The Registrar, WorkSafe NZ, PO Box 105-146, Auckland 1143 7 WSNZ_00002.6_FEB 14 FatalitiesGOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES // WRITING HEALTH AND SAFETY DOCUMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE TYPE OF DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES SIGN Provides information Danger sign, and instructions. emergency Often has words exit sign, and graphics. warning sign DANGER Flammable gas. Keep flames and heat away. 1.3 ENCOURAGE WORKERS TO GET INVOLVED Everyone at your workplace can help to make sure that your workplace is healthy and safe. Engage with workers by: encouraging them to share their ideas involving them in the development of health and safety documents. Talk with workers about what they would like to see included in your health and safety documents. Listen to their ideas about how health and safety issues affect how they organise, manage and carry out their work. Their suggestions will lead to better and safer ways of working. 8 802/ WRITING THE DOCUMENT IN THIS SECTION: 2.1 Stage 1: What is the document for? 2.2 Stage 2: Who will r ead the document? 2.3 Stage 3: What are y our main messages? 9 9GOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES // WRITING HEALTH AND SAFETY DOCUMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE Every document needs a clear purpose. Ask yourself what the document is for. 2.1 STAGE 1: WHAT IS THE Things to consider when you are planning DOCUMENT FOR? your document: How will you share the document with Most workplace health and safety documents your workers? will be an information document, an instruction document, or a form. Where will the document be used? What is the best way to get your TYPE OF PURPOSE EXAMPLE message across? DOCUMENT What sort of document would work best Information Tells about a Document in your workplace? document specific topic. explaining Explains how quad bike something features, 2.2 STAGE 2: WHO WILL READ works, special operating THE DOCUMENT? features, instructions parts or and Think about the workers who will read your components. potential document – write the document for them. hazards Instruction Outlines Procedure Some people at your workplace will find document steps or for cleaning reading easy, others will not. Workers may actions to a piece of have trouble reading and understanding a be followed. equipment The steps or document that uses words they do not know. actions are Encourage workers to tell you what they usually done think the document should cover and how in a specific it should look. order. Form Asks for Incident Consider your workers’ needs and abilities: specific report form What do they already know about this information. topic? Some health and safety documents are How often and when will they use the both information and instruction documents. document? They tell you about something and what to do. Is English their first language? For example, Standard Operating Procedures: How well can they read? tell you about the health and safety Can they read numbers? hazards and risks when operating a piece What everyday words can you use? of equipment, and What other formats can you use for tell you what to do to manage those workers who have difficulty reading regular hazards and risks. print? (See Appendix 6.2) Appendix 6.1 has guidelines for instruction Are there other ways to get your message documents. across? (See Stage 3) 10 10SECTION 2.0 // WRITING THE DOCUMENT Photographs to show: 2.3 STAGE 3: WHAT ARE YOUR equipment MAIN MESSAGES? worksites. Before you create a document you must be clear what it will cover. Tables, charts, graphs to explain: statistics What do workers need to know? production data What do workers need to do? figures. What activities and tasks need to be included? Maps to explain: What are the risks and hazards involved? emergency procedures What is the best way to let people know? locations area layouts. OTHER WAYS TO GET YOUR MESSAGE ACROSS WHERE CAN YOU GET INFORMATION As well as (or instead of) words, consider TO PUT INTO YOUR DOCUMENTS? using other ways to get your message across. There are many places that you can get Flow charts to explain: information to put into your documents. For example, you can: instructions read existing health and safety documents procedures talk to workers about the messages that processes you want to get across production goals. walk around your workplace and watch Diagrams, illustrations, line drawings what is happening to explain: ask workers to explain what they are doing technology and why procedures. talk to workplace ‘experts’ talk with people who work in a similar workplace look at guidance and standards documents for your industry look at guidance and standards documents prepared by WorkSafe. WorkSafe information and guidance PUTTING A WRITTEN DOCUMENT TOGETHER Most documents will need to have: an introduction explaining: – why the document has been written – its purpose – who it has been written for 11 11GOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES // WRITING HEALTH AND SAFETY DOCUMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE key messages – the main points your If you need to introduce a new industry term, readers must understand, act on and or if there is no simple alternative word, remember explain the concept first in plain English. Then give the new term. instructions. Example: WRITING IN PLAIN ENGLISH You must remove (eliminate) the hazard. Write the document in ‘plain English’ (plain language) to make it easy for 3. WRITE WORDS IN FULL workers to understand. Write words in full to send a stronger message. Writing in plain English means that you: have a clear message Use …. Instead of …. use short, simple sentences do not don’t use everyday words that workers will understand 4. AVOID UNNECESSARY ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS explain technical and legal language An acronym is a word formed from the initials lay out and format information so that of words in a phrase or title. For example, PPE it is easy to read. stands for personal protective equipment. HOW TO WRITE IN PLAIN ENGLISH An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word 1. KEEP SENTENCES SHORT AND CLEAR or phrase. For example, ‘mg’ means milligram. Long and complex sentences are hard to If you use an acronym or abbreviation, explain read. A sentence should contain only one it the first time you use it in the document. or two ideas. Example: 2. USE EVERYDAY WORDS Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) Use everyday words to make your documents recommends that … easy to understand. Workers, especially if English is not their first language, may not Try not to use an acronym or abbreviation know common health and safety terms. unless you know that your workers already use and understand it. Use …. Instead of …. make sure ensure 5. WORDS AND NUMBERS so accordingly Use the words one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten for numbers up immediately without further delay to ten. For numbers over ten, use figures now at this point in time (11, 12, 13 …) Appendix 6.3 has a list of everyday words that Example: you can use instead of more complex words We use four methods to identify hazards … and phrases. At least 14 days before you visit the site … Appendix 6.4 has plain English explanations of key health and safety terms. 12 12SECTION 2.0 // WRITING THE DOCUMENT 6. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE If you decide to get a document translated use a qualified translator. Although another worker Try to use active rather than passive voice. may speak the same language, this does not Active voice is more personal and direct mean they are able to translate important and says who must do something. health and safety documents. – For example: Workers must wear Languages, including te reo Māori, can vary protective gloves. from region to region. This means that words Passive voice sounds more formal and uses with the same meaning may be spelled more words. People often use passive voice and pronounced in different ways. Before a to write about something that is to be done translator works with your document, check by someone. which dialects (regional variations) your – For example: Protective gloves are workers speak and read. to be worn by workers. LAYOUT AND FORMAT 7. VERBS AND NOUNS Plan the layout of the document. Try not to turn verbs into nouns. This makes Here are some questions to think about: words longer and uses passive voice. The document will seem formal and be harder How long will the document be? to read. The shorter, the better. How will you use headings and Use ... Instead of ... subheadings to organise the information? Talk to supervisors Utilisation of backhoes How will the information be displayed? before using backhoes on construction sites on construction sites. must only be done Will you need photographs, images, or in consultation with diagrams to explain key points? supervisors. Your document will be easier to read if it has: plenty of white space SHOULD YOU TRANSLATE A DOCUMENT INTO OTHER LANGUAGES? headings and subheadings to: – break up large chunks of information Translating health and safety documents into other languages is not always easy. Some – help the reader to find information languages do not have technical words or more easily workplace terms that match the words used important headings in a large font, rather in New Zealand workplaces. than underlined Workers who do not have English as their first short paragraphs with one main message language may not be able to read in their first left hand justification (text aligned to the language. Perhaps you could share information left margin) using a document written in plain English with a plain easy-to-read font such as Arial, photos and illustrations that also explain the Calibri or Verdana key messages. Ask a trainer or supervisor to the same font throughout the document go over the document with workers who do the same layout throughout the document not have English as their first language. 13 13GOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES // WRITING HEALTH AND SAFETY DOCUMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE photos or illustrations that: The law requires you to keep some long documents at your workplace, such as safety – are relevant data sheets. – are easy to understand Consider putting the most important – show images that your workers can information from long documents onto one relate to. page to make it easier for workers to read As an example, here is an illustration from and understand. WorkSafe’s Good Practice Guidelines for Use diagrams and symbols as well as words. Safe Use of Machinery (2014). Attach the one-page summary to the front of the longer document. Revolving shaft Vee belt & enclosed The WorkSafe website has health and safety pulley drive fully enclosed templates that you can use as a guide. Shaft end closed For example, if a worker has been given First Aid, you can use WorkSafe’s First Aid Register form to note who was injured, when, what happened and what treatment was given. WorkSafe health and safety templates Chain & sprocket drive fully enclosed Your document will be harder to read if it has: Coloured text. – It is harder to read than black and white – It may not show up well if the document is printed or photocopied in black and white Lots of capital letters. Capital letters are okay for headings, but try not to use them in other places as they can LOOK LIKE SHOUTING. Too many words in bold and italics – use bold and italics only to highlight information. In Appendix 6.5, we have rewritten examples of several health and safety documents in plain English to show you what is possible. 14 1403/ REVIEWING THE DOCUMENT IN THIS SECTION: 3.1 Stage 4: Does the document work? 15 15GOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES // WRITING HEALTH AND SAFETY DOCUMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE TEST THE DOCUMENT 3.1 STAGE 4: DOES THE DOCUMENT WORK? To find out how well the document works, you could: FIRST DRAFT 1. ask people to read the document, and When you have written the first draft, ask 2. w atch workers as they follow the process for feedback. Invite workers to look at the or procedure the document describes, and document. Ask them to tell you how the 3. talk about whether or not the document draft can be improved. worked well for them. Here are questions you might ask about Appendix 6 suggests how to check whether the document: workers understand your document. Does it have the information you need? Appendix 7 is a checklist you can use to make – Is the information easy to find? sure that your document is clear and does – Is anything missing? what it is designed to do. – Is there anything you do not need? You could test the document with: Can you understand the document? frontline workers – If not, which parts are hard to supervisors understand? health and safety representatives – Why are these parts hard to understand? union representatives. Is the document useful? Add the names of people who gave you – Why? feedback if this will make workers more likely to trust the document. Ask permission to use – Why not? their names. What are the main points in this document? – What would you know how to do after Example: reading the document? Written by Huia Johnson, with information from Sam Nightingale and Bill Asiata. Is the information in a logical order? – If not, ho w could it be improved? FINAL DRAFT Does the document make you want to read it? Decide on the final layout, design and graphics. Use the feedback to write another draft. Ask someone who has not seen the SECOND DRAFT document to look for spelling mistakes and other errors. Tell workers how and where you have used the feedback they gave you. You may need Use the suggestions in Appendix 6.6 and to explain why some information has been Appendix 6.7 to check the document. included and other information has not. Make changes based on the feedback that you get. If you have added new information, Follow your workplace’s processes for explain why. For example, you might have quality assurance, document checking, received more up-to-date information from version control and document approval. manufacturers and suppliers. 16 16SECTION 3.0 // REVIEWING THE DOCUMENT HOW WILL YOU KNOW WHETHER THE If you are updating an existing document, NEW DOCUMENT IS EFFECTIVE? first review it using the questions above. Find out about any changes that the updated You need to know whether the document document should mention. For example: is understood, being used and achieving changes to your health and safety system – its purpose. such as new hazards, controls or practices Work out how you will know and record changes to the law whether the new document is effective. changes to equipment or products For example, “Supervisors and managers have seen all workers using the new procedure”. Note the date that changes were made, or the version number – or both. Look over the document with workers as part of your annual health and safety For example: policy reviews. Chainsaw Safety Policy, Version 3 Updated February 5, 2015 You could: watch workers as they read the document and do what the document tells them to do then talk about whether or not the document worked well for them. QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN REVIEWING THE DOCUMENT Has the document been shared with all workers? Have workers been trained in the new policy, process or procedure? Is the document being used the way that we expected it to be? – How is it being used? – If it is not being used, why not? How have workers reacted to the document? What effect has the document had on workers’ behaviour? 17 170 03/ 4/ SHARING THE REVIEWING THE DOCUMENT DOCUMENT IN THIS SECTION: 4.1 Stage 5: How will you share and use the document? 18 18SECTION 4.0 // SHARING THE DOCUMENT Think about how you will share and use the document at your workplace. 4.1 STAGE 5: HOW WILL YOU WILL YOU PRINT THE DOCUMENT? SHARE AND USE THE DOCUMENT? You could: WHO WILL YOU ASK TO INTRODUCE add it to health and safety manuals AND TALK ABOUT A NEW DOCUMENT and handbooks TO WORKERS? display the document on notice-boards Consider: at your workplace supervisors leave a copy of the document in your tea-room. managers trainers WILL YOU SHARE IT ON YOUR INTRANET? other staff. KEEP THE DOCUMENT UPDATED HOW AND WHEN WILL THE DOCUMENT Make sure that the document is kept up BE USED? to date. Decide how often you will review For example: it – for example, every three or six months? Once a year? on the job during meetings and briefings during training as part of the induction package for new workers. 19 1905/ WHERE CAN YOU FIND MORE INFORMATION? 20