How to introduce Persuasive writing

how to persuasive writing example and how to teach persuasive writing to third graders
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JassicaMadision,Switzerland,Researcher
Published Date:04-07-2017
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2013 Writing Genre – A Structured Approach 1 Writing Genres Definitions and activities to support classroom implementation. nd Please note that these activities are adapted from First Steps Writing 2 Edition, 2005. Narrative Writing Narratives entertain and engage the reader in an imaginative experience. Narrative texts are organised according to setting, event leading to a problem and solution. The main features of narrative writing are: defined characters, descriptive language, past tense. 1. Tired Words/Boring Sentences • Children chose overused words from their own and other people’s writing and they brainstorm alternatives • Read sentence carefully • Brainstorm alternative words for each word in the sentence / list • Create a new sentence using some words from the alternative list. • Compare original sentence and new sentence 2. Connecting Words • Scan the first few pages of texts to find ‘connecting’ words- for example, and, but, when • Write each word on a card and display • Use sentences to give children opportunity to see the words in use, for example, “Complete the following…..” • I went to the hospital……….. and/but/because 3. Pass-it-on • Sitting in small groups, children each write first sentence of story- set the scene and name two characters (one male & one female) • Children then fold back the section on which they have written so that it cannot be seen and pass the paper to the next person who writes a sentence beginning with ‘Suddenly’ • Repeat the procedure- folding, passing and adding sentences. • She said….. After that….. In the end... • Group then unfolds paper and read narrative to group 4. Building Character Profiles • Children receive a picture of a character and build a simple profile based on a number of characteristics (I look like, I wear etc.) 3 • More complicated characteristics for more senior children (Aspirations etc.) • Can develop it to focus just on one feature (e.g. Eyes, colour, shape, look) Samples of Narrative Writing Narrative sample for Junior classes Little Red Riding Hood Once upon a time there was a little girl who lived at the edge of a large dark forest. She always wore a red coat so everyone called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day, her mother gave her a basket of food and told her to take it to her grandmother. On the way, Little Red Riding Hood met a wolf. “Where are you going?” he asked. “I’m going to my grandmother’s house”, Red Riding Hood said. The greedy wolf took a short cut to the grandmother’s house and put on her clothes. When Red Riding Hood got there, she did not know her grandmother. “What big teeth you have” she said. “All the better to eat you” said the wolf. Red Riding Hood shouted “Help someone Help” A woodcutter came and chased the wolf away. Little Red Riding Hood’s granny got out of the press where she was hiding and they had a lovely tea. Narrative sample for Senior Classes Na Trí Mhuicíní Lá amháin thóg na trí mhuicín a dtithe. Rinne muicín amháin teach as tuí. Rinne muicín eile teach as adhmad agus rinne an triú mhuicín a theach as brící. Chnag an mac tíre ar doras an tí a bhí déanta as tuí. “Lig isteach mé. Lig isteach mé” arsa an mac tíre. “Ní ligfidh mé isteach thú” arsa an chéad mhuicín. “Téigh abhaile” “Bhuel, séidfidh mé is leagfaidh mé do theach tuí” Ansin shéid sé agus shéid sé agus leag sé an teach tuí Chnag an mac tíre ar dhoras an tí adhmaid. “Lig isteach mé. Lig isteach mé” arsa an mac tíre. “Ní ligfidh mé isteach thú” arsa an dara muicín . “Téigh abhaile” “Bhuel, séidfidh mé is leagfaidh mé do theach adhmaid” Ansin shéid sé agus shéid sé agus leag sé an teach adhmaid Chnag an mac tíre ar dhoras an tí a bhí déanta as brící. “Lig isteach mé. Lig isteach mé” arsa an mac tíre. “Ní ligfidh mé isteach thú” arsa an tríú mhuicín. “Téigh abhaile” “Bhuel, séidfidh mé is leagfaidh mé do theach brící” Ansin shéid sé agus shéid sé ach níorbh fhéidir leis an teach leis na bhricí a leagadh Ansin chuaigh an mac tíre suas ar an díon – síos an simléar leis agus... PLOP Isteach san uisce leis an mac tíre. Thosaigh na trí mhuicín ag gáire 4 Connectives/ Conjunctions/ Joining Words And or but yet Even though while Although like as after Before since when for If unless in case also Whereas both…and despite Because now that provided that Such as for example however Furthermore similarly On the other hand 5 Recount Writing Recount tells the reader what happened and this may involve the author’s personal interpretation of events. There are different types of recounts which including personal (my trip to the farm), factual (retelling an accident) and imaginative recounts (a day in the life of a puppy). Recount writing is organised by setting, events in chronological order and a concluding statement. The main features of recount writing are specific participants, action verbs and past tense. 1. Tell your news In pairs, small groups and whole class use the clown poster to guide you 2. Create shared experiences that can then be re-told or written by children In pairs, small groups or recorded on tape (e.g. blowing bubbles, PE, a school trip). Teacher can scribe for children during shared writing and then use the subsequent text for reading activities 3. Class diary Teacher may act as a scribe and record some class news in the form of a recount each day for a week. Display each days recount on a wall then collate and put into the class library. Re read entries every day that week. Older children may wish to keep their own weekly diary 4. Set up a daily news broadcast Where children use props (e.g. microphone and hat) and prepare and deliver a short news story to the class 5. Living charts Jointly create and display charts of terms used by the children in their oral and written recounts under the following headings: who, where, when, feelings (e.g. WHO: cousin, sister, best friend, WHERE: park, school, cinema, WHEN: yesterday, weekend, after school, FEELINGS: bored, ecstatic, surprised, delighted etc.) Add to these charts whenever a new term arises and add terms that are commonly used in the children’s free writing. Model using words from these charts when modelling writing to the children 6. Use simple templates to organise recounts 7. Class Writing Bag Send home the writing bag and encourage students to recount personal experiences 8. Sequence Events Have students recall an experience shared by the class, in small groups write each event on a sentence strip, then have another group sequence the strips 9. Use www.xtimeline.com to create a pictorial or written timeline of an experience. Recount Sample for Junior Classes 8 At the Beach My friend and I went to the beach on Saturday. While we were at the beach we had a cool swim. After our swim we built sandcastles. Later it began to rain, so we packed up and went home. We were tired from our day at the beach, so we went to bed early Recount Sample for Middle Classes A Trip to the Zoo Yesterday my family went to the zoo to see the elephant. When we got to the zoo, we went to the shop to buy some food to give to the animals. After getting the food we went to the nocturnal house where we saw birds and reptiles which only come out at night. Before lunch we went for a ride on the elephant. It was a thrill to ride it. Dad nearly fell off when he let go of the rope. During lunch we fed some birds in the park. In the afternoon we saw the animals being fed. When we returned home we were tired but happy because we had so much fun. 9 Recount Sample for Senior Classes Sunday, 14 June, 1942 On Friday, June 12th, I woke up at six o’clock and no wonder, it was my birthday. But of course I was not allowed to get up at that hour, so I had to control my curiosity until a quarter to seven. Then I could bear it no longer, and went to the dining room, where I received a warm welcome from Moortje (the cat). Soon after seven I went to Mummy and Daddy and then to the sitting room to undo my presents. The first to greet me was you, possibly the nicest of all. Then on the table there were a bunch of roses, a plant, and some peonies, and more arrived during the day. I got masses of things from Mummy and Daddy, and was thoroughly spoiled by various friends. Among other things I was given Camera Obscura, a party game, lots of sweets, chocolates, a puzzle, a brooch, Tales and Legends of the Netherlands by Joseph Cohen, Daisy’s Mountain Holiday (a terrific book) and some money. Now I can by The Myths of Greece and Rome – grand Then Lies called for me and we went to school. During recess I treated everyone to sweet biscuits, and then we had to go back to our lessons. Now I must stop. Bye-bye, we’re going to be great pals Source: ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’, Anne Frank, Bantam Publishers 10 Procedural Writing Procedures are written to explain how something is done, in a series of sequenced steps. They are organised by goal, material, method and evaluation. Features of procedural writing include: detailed factual description, reader referred to in a general way (draw a line), linking words to do with time, tense is timeless. 1. Headings. Discuss the different parts of a procedure 1. Read a procedure  Discuss the content and the headings  Label the parts 2. Simon Says. Flip chart the “bossy” verbs for living charts 3. Tell me about Oral retell of everyday tasks 4. Class Recipe Do a simple procedure and record the steps involved 5. Sequence pictures. Order the steps involved in a simple task 6. Match picture and caption. Discuss what is happening in each picture and find the matching sentence 7. Role-play interview. Children choose a ‘job’ card and in pairs conduct an interview 8. Make a game. Place a selection of resources / equipment on floor, children pick 3 items and come up with a game to play 9. Lost Instructions. Hand out board games; explain that the instructions are missing. Children must tell the group how the game is played 11 Procedural Writing for Junior Classes How to Make Jelly Ingredients: What we need: • Jelly • Kettle • Water • Water • Litre Jug • Spoon • Bowl Method: 1. Fill the kettle with water and bring to the boil. 2. Break up the jelly into small pieces. 3. Put the jelly pieces into the jug. 4. Pour the boiling water over the jelly in the jug. 5. Stir well until all the jelly has dissolved. 6. Pour into the bowl. 7. Leave in a cold place to set. 8. Put in a dish. Add cream or ice-cream. Taste. Procedural Writing for Middle Classes How to Play Hurling Hurling is a national sport in Ireland. It has been played here for thousands of years. Hurley Shin Guards Shorts Requirements: Sliotar Ash Guard Helmet Socks 12 Jersey Boots Method: 1. Hold the hurley with your strong hand above your other hand. 2. Scoop or roll the sliotar onto the hurley. 3. Flick the sliotar into your hand. 4. Throw the sliotar in the air and strike it with the hurley. 5. Shoot the ball past the goalie to score a goal. (1 goal = 3 points) 6. Hit it between the uprights to score a point. Procedural Writing for Seniors How to Make Pancakes Ingredients: • 1 cup flour • 1 tablespoon sugar • 2 teaspoons baking powder • 1/4 teaspoon salt • 1 egg, beaten • 1 cup milk • 2 tablespoons vegetable oil Method: 1. Mix the flour, sugar, salt and baking powder in a bowl. If you have a whisk, use it, and make sure the batter it is well mixed. 2. In another bowl, beat the egg then add the milk and oil. Mix until it is thoroughly combined. 3. Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients and whisk them together for about a minute. The mixture should be a bit lumpy. 4. Heat a blob of butter in a large frying pan. 13 5. Pour about a third of a cup of batter into the pan. If you want larger pancakes, pour more. For smaller pancakes pour less batter. 6. It will take about two minutes to cook the first side. You will know it is cooked when bubbles that will form on the top. 7. Flip it over and let it cook for a minute more. When the pancakes are golden brown, put them on a plate and enjoy. Report Writing Reports are written to describe or classify the way things are or seem to be. They organise and record information. Reports are organised by; classification, description and summarising comment. The features of report writing are; generalised participants, impersonal objective language, timeless present tense and subject specific vocabulary. Model and share writing reports Show and Tell Ask children to bring in something interesting from home to show their classmates. Encourage the child to give an oral report about the object and encourage other children to ask questions Create displays and label items e.g. Irish animals, mini beasts, our favourite toys Who We Are During shared writing sessions, create a class book describing each student in turn Children can then illustrate the page describing them. Re-read the book to the class and share with parents and other classes Create mind maps and reports for a given topic using www.mindmeister.com Oral Activities: Oral activities such as Barrier Games encourage children to use descriptive language. Children sit side by side with a barrier between them and describe/instruct simple sequences or patterns e.g. stringing beads, drawing a clothes line, colour parts of same picture, simple construction e.g. Lego, locate items on a picture board, grids – position shapes or objects on a grid, route finding – describe how to get from one point to another on a map, spot the difference pictures which are commercially available 14 Report Writing for Junior Classes Bicycles Bicycles are a mode of transport. They bring people from place to place. They have two wheels attached to a frame, with a seat and handle bars for steering. They also have brakes. Bicycles are made in factories and then sold in shops. People use bicycles to get to work and for pleasure. Cycling is good exercise. Report Writing for Middle Classes Antarctica Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, highest and driest continent in the world. It is situated at and around the South Pole. Most of Antarctica is covered in very thick ice and snow. In fact, the ice covering Antarctica makes up nearly 70% of the world’s fresh water. The average rainfall on Antarctica is lower than in many desert areas in the world. By that standard, it could be said that Antarctica is the largest desert in the world. For obvious reasons, Antarctica is mostly uninhabited, apart from staff working at research stations. No land vertebrates live on Antarctica, but a handful of insects and worms have been found. Penguins, seabirds, seals, whales and dolphins inhabit the waters and shores. Antarctica is like no other continent in the world. Its extremes make it one of the most spectacular and beautiful places on Earth. 15 Report Writing for Senior Classes Hang out with BATS Although bats have wings and can fly like birds, they are mammals. This means that, unlike birds, they feed their young with milk produced by the mother. The scientific name for bats is Chiroptera, which means ‘winged hand’. There are over 950 different types of bat in the world. Bats can be found in all parts of the world, on all continents except Antarctica, although most types of bat live in warm countries. They roost in caves, hollow trees and buildings – anywhere where it is dark and warm. Sometimes they even live underneath bridges. Bats are nocturnal animals; they sleep during the day and forage for food during the night. When they sleep, they hang upside down, using their feet to grasp onto a twig or ledge. The different types of bat in the world eat a wide variety of foods. Sometimes it is easy to tell what a bat eats just by its name, e.g. Fruit Bat and Fishing Bat. However, insects are the most common bat food. A single bat can catch 600 mosquitoes in just one hour. Bats which hunt for live food do so at night. They cannot see their prey in the darkness, so they use a technique called echolocation. By making high-pitched clicking and squeaking sounds, they can judge how close things are by how quickly the sound bounces back to them. If there is no echo, then they know that there is nothing to eat nearby. Many bats hibernate during the winter. When they wake in the spring, the females give birth to babies called pups. Normally a bat mother will have only one baby at a time, like a human mother, but sometimes they have twins. When they are born, the pups are hairless and tiny, but they have strong claws so that they can hang on to the ledge while their mothers are hunting. They grow quickly, and some types of bat can fly and hunt for themselves when they are just one month old. Although they are very useful animals, due to the way they control insects and help to reseed plants, many bats are in danger of extinction. Of the fourteen species of bats which live in Britain today, two are endangered and nine others are threatened. 16 Explanation Writing Explanations are written to explain how something works or the process involved in actions, events or behaviour. E.g. How does a rainbow occur? Explanation texts are organised by: a definition or statement, and a sequenced explanation. The features of explanation writing are: non-human participants, cause and effect relationships, passives and timeless present tense. 1. Headings. Discuss the different parts of an explanation text 2. Read an explanation Discuss the content and the headings Label the parts 3. Informal Explanations 4. Oral Explanations (Using topic cards explain how/why something works etc.) 5. Explanation Jig-saw Children reconstruct an explanation text using their knowledge of the explanation framework 6. Tell from the diagram (Say/write explanations to go with illustrations) 7. Independent Construction (Using a written plan to record main points of their text) Explanation Writing for Juniors Making your own music It is easy to understand how a drum makes a sound- you can see the drum skin vibrating. You can also see the strings on a guitar vibrating back and forth when they are plucked. All wind instruments, like a tin whistle or a saxophone, also make their sounds using vibrations. All wind instruments have a tube. The musician blows air through this tube. The air vibrates against the tube as it travels down. All this bouncing air 17 produces notes. The length and width of the tube effects the notes that we hear. Explanation Writing for Middle Classes How is Food Digested? The food we eat is broken down and used by our bodies. This breaking down of food is called digestion. You may have heard your stomach gurgling after you have eaten. The stomach, teeth, tongue and intestines all help to digest food. When you chew your food, digestion begins. The food is pushed by the tongue to the trapdoor at the back of the mouth called the oesophagus. It then moves to the stomach where the digestive juices make it smaller. In the small intestine, the goodness is ‘soaked up’. Finally, water is taken out in the large intestines. The goodness that is left can now be carried around the body by the blood to be used for energy, repair and growth 18 Explanation sample for seniors The bee sucks nectar with its In gardens or farms, beekeepers keep In the country, some bees make their nests in mouth, which is shaped like a bees in beehives like this one so they places like the trunk of a tree. tube. can collect honey. About fifty thousand Bees make honeycombs with wax from their bees live in one beehive. Bees fly hundreds of times own bodies. The gaps in the honeycomb are between flowers and their where the honey is stored. honey combs. The beekeeper collects the honey from the beehive. He takes out the Honey is used in lots of different honeycomb which is full of recipes. It is delicious when it is honey. spread onto bread. He is dressed in special clothes so that he doesn’t get stung. Persuasive Writing Persuasive texts are written to argue or persuade. They promote the writers point of view. Persuasive texts are organised with: Proposition to be argued, arguments in logical order, reiteration. The features of persuasive writing are: generalised participants, passives to help text structure, linking words associated with reasoning, nominalisation (actions become things) e.g. To pollute becomes pollution. 1. Pass argument around the group Topic for debate is introduced to each group Pass it around the circle – each person has to think of an argument for Pass it the other way – each person has to think of an argument against 2. Four Corners Topic for debate Agree, Disagree, Strongly Agree, Strongly Disagree – justify their position 3. Informal & Formal Debate “Seize the moment”- capitalise on current topics to provide authentic reasons for debate Help- gather, select & present info. Reflect on best arguments- and why? 4. Be the Expert All expert groups- parents/students/ teachers- work in groups together-then reform own group 5. Change the point of view Retell story from different point of view- True story of the 3 pigs-told by the wolf 6. Character Defences Delete character from familiar story- allocate character- pupil has to defend inclusion in story Persuasive writing for Junior Classes Healthy Lunches Children should eat healthy lunches in school every day. Firstly, children need to drink milk to make their teeth and bones strong. Some schools provide milk for children and this is an excellent idea. Secondly, children need to eat fruit and vegetables every day to keep them healthy. Some children do not eat fruit or vegetables and they get sick more often. 20 Sweets and fizzy drinks should be banned from schools because they rot your teeth. Persuasive writing for Middle Classes Time for Play During the past few years, schools have been giving pupils much more homework. Some parents believe more homework is better for the future. However, this is not as good as it seems Children are having their time for play stolen from them, because they get too much homework. Children need time to play, to exercise and meet their friends. Also, it is not fair that some children have more homework than others. It makes them very angry that they can’t play as much as other children. I think that children should only have to complete a small amount of homework. A law could be made that says how much homework all children should have to do. 21 Persuasive writing for Middle Classes 11 Sample Street Madeuptown 11 September 2008 Dear Minister Dempsey, Most people in the world drive their cars on the right side of the road. As international travel becomes cheaper and more common, more and more people who are used to driving on the right side of the road are getting confused and causing accidents on Irish roads, where we drive on the left. An obvious solution would be for countries in the minority, like Ireland, which drive on the left side of the road, to change their rules so that all people in the world drive on the right side of the road. This would minimise confusion, and in the long term greatly reduce the number of injuries and deaths due to road accidents. An additional benefit would be the reduction in accident repair costs and a corresponding reduction in the amount we all have to pay for car insurance. One problem with this solution is that for a little while there would be more confusion on Irish roads, and more accidents, while everyone got used to driving on the right side. In the long run though, changing to driving on the right side of the road in Ireland makes sense. We should not allow some short term disadvantages to deter us from enjoying the huge long term advantages of making this change. Yours sincerely M de Búrca Mícheál de Búrca 22 Should children be Should it be Should children be allowed have compulsory to wear a allowed out on their televisions in their helmet when riding a own after 7pm? bedrooms? bicycle? Should school be Should violent video Should cigarettes be voluntary? games be banned? banned? Should TV adverts for Should people who Is television a bad junk food be banned? live in the city be influence on children? allowed to drive 4x4 cars? 23

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