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Introduction to business and management J. Timms MN1107, 996D107, 2790107 2011 Undergraduate study in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences This is an extract from a subject guide for an undergraduate course offered as part of the University of London International Programmes in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences. Materials for these programmes are developed by academics at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). For more information, see: www.londoninternational.ac.ukThis guide was prepared for the University of London International Programmes by: J.N. Timms, BA, MSocSci, Researcher at the Centre for the Study of Global Governance, London School of Economics and Political Science. The 2006 and 2009 editions of this guide were amended and updated by A.E. Benjamin, BSc, MA, Dip Stats, previously at Imperial College Business School. This is one of a series of subject guides published by the University. We regret that due to pressure of work the author is unable to enter into any correspondence relating to, or arising from, the guide. If you have any comments on this subject guide, favourable or unfavourable, please use the form at the back of this guide. University of London International Programmes Publications Office Stewart House 32 Russell Square London WC1B 5DN United Kingdom Website: www.londoninternational.ac.uk Published by: University of London © University of London 2002, reprinted August 2005, October 2005, and 2006 and 2009 with amendments. Reprinted with minor revisions 2012. The University of London asserts copyright over all material in this subject guide except where otherwise indicated. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. We make every effort to contact copyright holders. If you think we have inadvertently used your copyright material, please let us know. Contents Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1 Aims of the course ......................................................................................................... 2 Learning outcomes ........................................................................................................ 2 Reading and learning resources ..................................................................................... 2 Online study resources ................................................................................................... 6 Developing a glossary .................................................................................................... 7 Hours of study and using this subject guide .................................................................... 8 The structure of this course .......................................................................................... 10 Examination advice...................................................................................................... 11 Section 1: The development of business and management ................................. 13 Chapter 1: Concepts, definitions and origins ....................................................... 15 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 15 Learning outcomes ...................................................................................................... 15 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 15 Further reading ............................................................................................................ 16 Beginning your study ................................................................................................... 16 1.1 The importance of key concepts ............................................................................. 16 1.2 A closer look at business and organisations ............................................................ 17 1.3 A closer look at management ................................................................................. 19 1.4 The evolution of business and management studies ................................................ 21 Chapter review ........................................................................................................... 25 A reminder of your learning outcomes .......................................................................... 26 Sample examination questions ..................................................................................... 26 Advice on answering a question .................................................................................. 26 Chapter 2: Understanding the business organisation – a multidisciplinary approach ............................................................................................................... 29 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 29 Learning outcomes ...................................................................................................... 29 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 29 Further reading ............................................................................................................ 30 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 30 2.1 A multidisciplinary view of business and management ............................................ 30 2.2 Sociological perspectives ....................................................................................... 31 2.3 The anthropology of organisations ......................................................................... 33 2.4 The contributions of psychology ............................................................................. 34 2.5 Economic approaches to organisations ................................................................... 36 2.6 The stakeholder model of the firm .......................................................................... 38 Chapter review ............................................................................................................ 39 A reminder of your learning outcomes .......................................................................... 40 Sample examination questions ..................................................................................... 40 Advice on answering a question .................................................................................. 41 Section 2: Decision making .................................................................................. 43 Chapter 3: The management role ......................................................................... 45 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 45 i107 Introduction to business and management Learning outcomes ...................................................................................................... 45 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 45 Further reading ............................................................................................................ 46 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 46 3.1 Organisational goals and objectives ....................................................................... 46 3.2 What is a manager? .............................................................................................. 47 3.3 What do managers do? ......................................................................................... 50 3.4 Decision making and effectiveness ......................................................................... 53 3.5 Planning role ......................................................................................................... 55 3.6 Leadership role ...................................................................................................... 56 3.7 Motivating role ...................................................................................................... 61 3.8 Controlling role ..................................................................................................... 63 Chapter review ........................................................................................................... 64 A reminder of your learning outcomes .......................................................................... 65 Sample examination questions ..................................................................................... 65 Advice on answering a question .................................................................................. 66 Chapter 4: Theoretical approaches to strategic decision making and organisational change .......................................................................................... 67 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 67 Learning outcomes ...................................................................................................... 67 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 67 Further reading ............................................................................................................ 68 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 68 4.1 Decision making in business .................................................................................. 68 4.2 Theories and models for making decisions .............................................................. 71 4.3 Strategy................................................................................................................. 84 4.4 Analysing the environment ..................................................................................... 88 4.5 Organisational change and development ............................................................... 91 4.6 Managing the change process ............................................................................... 93 4.7 Managing resistance to change ............................................................................. 95 Chapter review ........................................................................................................... 97 A reminder of your learning outcomes .......................................................................... 97 Sample examination questions ..................................................................................... 97 Advice on answering a question .................................................................................. 98 Chapter 5: Managing the main functional areas .................................................. 99 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 99 Learning outcomes ...................................................................................................... 99 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 99 Further reading .......................................................................................................... 100 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 100 5.1 Functional areas of business organisations ........................................................... 100 5.2 Finance ............................................................................................................... 103 5.3 Human resource management ............................................................................. 108 5.4 Production and operations ................................................................................... 111 5.5 Marketing ........................................................................................................... 113 5.6 Communications ................................................................................................. 117 Chapter review ......................................................................................................... 119 A reminder of your learning outcomes ........................................................................ 120 Sample examination questions ................................................................................... 120 Advice on answering a question ................................................................................ 120 iiContents Section 3: Business and the environment .......................................................... 123 Chapter 6: Key internal elements of the firm ..................................................... 125 Aims of the chapter ................................................................................................... 125 Learning outcomes .................................................................................................... 125 Essential reading ....................................................................................................... 125 Further reading .......................................................................................................... 126 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 126 6.1 Organisational dynamics ...................................................................................... 126 6.2 Type, ownership, strategy and size ........................................................................ 128 6.3 Organisational structure ..................................................................................... 131 6.4 New technology and business organisations ........................................................ 140 6.5 Understanding organisational culture ................................................................... 143 Chapter review ......................................................................................................... 147 A reminder of your learning outcomes ........................................................................ 148 Sample examination questions ................................................................................... 148 Advice on answering a question ................................................................................ 149 Chapter 7: Key external elements of the business context ................................ 151 Aims of the chapter ................................................................................................... 151 Learning outcomes .................................................................................................... 151 Essential reading ....................................................................................................... 151 Further reading .......................................................................................................... 152 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 152 7.1 Studying business within its external environment ................................................ 152 7.2 The economic environment .................................................................................. 154 7.3 The political environment ..................................................................................... 157 7.4 The technological environment ............................................................................. 161 7.5 The cultural environment ...................................................................................... 162 7.6 Analysing the business environment ..................................................................... 167 7.7 Summing up ....................................................................................................... 168 Chapter review .......................................................................................................... 169 A reminder of your learning outcomes ........................................................................ 169 Sample examination questions ................................................................................... 170 Advice on answering a question ................................................................................ 170 Chapter 8: The diverse and dynamic nature of the business context ................ 173 Aims of the chapter ................................................................................................... 173 Learning outcomes .................................................................................................... 173 Essential reading ....................................................................................................... 173 Further reading .......................................................................................................... 174 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 174 8.1 The international context .................................................................................... 175 8.2 Globalisation and business .................................................................................. 176 8.3 Management of multinational companies (MNCs) ................................................ 181 8.4 Small business organisations ............................................................................... 187 Chapter review ......................................................................................................... 190 A reminder of your learning outcomes ........................................................................ 190 Sample examination questions ................................................................................... 191 Advice on answering a question ................................................................................ 191 iii107 Introduction to business and management Section 4: Contemporary issues in business and management ......................... 193 Chapter 9: Contemporary issues; knowledge management, learning organisations, e-business .................................................................................. 195 Aims of the chapter ................................................................................................... 195 Learning outcomes .................................................................................................... 195 Essential reading ....................................................................................................... 195 Further reading .......................................................................................................... 196 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 196 9.1 Dynamics of business and management ............................................................... 196 9.2 Knowledge management ..................................................................................... 197 9.3 The learning organisation ..................................................................................... 203 9.4 Electronic business (e-business) ........................................................................... 207 Chapter review ......................................................................................................... 211 A reminder of your learning outcomes ........................................................................ 211 Sample examination questions ................................................................................... 212 Advice on answering a question ................................................................................ 212 Chapter 10: The social responsibilities of business organisations ..................... 215 Aims of the chapter ................................................................................................... 215 Learning outcomes .................................................................................................... 215 Essential reading ....................................................................................................... 215 Further reading .......................................................................................................... 216 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 216 10.1 Business in society ............................................................................................. 216 10.2 Business ethics and managerial integrity ............................................................ 217 10.3 Business and social responsibilities .................................................................... 223 10.4 Corporations as good citizens ............................................................................ 231 Chapter review ......................................................................................................... 235 A reminder of your learning outcomes ........................................................................ 235 Sample examination questions ................................................................................... 235 Advice on answering a question ................................................................................ 236 Appendix 1: Sample examination paper ............................................................ 237 Appendix 2: Sources and references ................................................................. 239 ivIntroduction Introduction Welcome to 107 Introduction to business and management. You have chosen to study a dynamic subject that will stretch your knowledge and challenge your ideas. This is an introductory course, which is designed to engage you with the key concepts, models, debates and problems in the study of business and management. Developing this foundation will be beneficial to your subsequent study of specialised subjects, because you will be able to make connections between different issues. This introductory course is also a chance for you to develop your academic skills, in particular your critical approach to the ideas you are presented with. Studying at this level means actually engaging with what you are reading: considering what is being said in relation to other theories, practical examples, and your own reflections. The subject of business and management offers an ideal opportunity to develop this academic approach, as a wide variety of groups, individuals and organisations offer diverse opinions and theories regarding the workings of business and successful management. Throughout the course you will be taking an active part in your learning, developing your own responses to what you read and so building a deeper appreciation of issues concerning business and management. It is therefore helpful to view this introductory course as an opportunity to develop a solid framework of knowledge, as well as a critical academic approach. Together these will make your work on this course engaging and stimulating, and will equip you with the tools needed to do well in your future studies. In the remainder of this introductory chapter you will be given advice and guidance on the following: • the course aims and learning outcomes • the reading system • your role in using the subject guide • the structure of the course • preparing for the assessment. It is important to understand all of these at the beginning to ensure that you are able to get the most out of the course. The subject of business and management is an important and exciting one. You will learn about the workings of business organisations, how they function, and how they interact with the environment. The subject also includes how these business organisations are managed, including the strategies used to guide them and the decisions involved in the role of the manager. Studying these issues by following the course as it is designed should ensure that although challenging, it will also be an enjoyable and satisfying experience. 1107 Introduction to business and management Aims of the course This course has three main aims, and these directly relate to the major themes that will be emphasised throughout. The course aims to: • provide a comprehensive introduction to the key elements of the business organisation, and to competing theories and models of the firm and its environment, and to provide a critical perspective on the main functional areas of management • build a foundation of knowledge on the different theoretical approaches to management and decision making • develop analytical skills to identify the links between the functional areas in management, organisations, management practices and the business environment. Learning outcomes On completion of this course, you should be able to: • understand the evolution of the business organisation and management thought, identifying the interconnections between developments in these areas • evaluate alternative theories of management critically, recognising the centrality of decision making and strategic thinking to the managerial role and functions • discuss and compare different models and approaches to understanding the firm, evaluating these in the context of the business environment • explore the impact of key environmental factors on decision making and organisational behaviour • evaluate the significance of contemporary issues in business and management. Reading and learning resources A vast array of material has been written about business and management, and this is a major reason for the subject being such an interesting one. Many different people, organisations and groups hold widely differing views on issues in this area. You are going to be taking an academic approach to the subject, and this needs to be reflected in your reading. Reading is a vital and central part of your work and successful progress in this course. It is important that you make use of your academic and study skills handbook Strategies for success. This will really help you, because it includes guidance on reading technique. It is possible for everyone to develop their reading skills, and consciously working on this will be of great benefit to you. This subject guide is designed to guide you through academic material in the major areas of business and management, as set out in the syllabus. It is important at this stage to understand the reading system, for this will ensure that you cover all the necessary elements of the main topics in a comprehensive way. The reading system that will be employed consists of three elements, which are explained below. 2Introduction Essential reading For each topic you are required to study some readings that are essential and compulsory. It is from this material that the majority of your knowledge will be gained. It is therefore vital that you do all the Essential reading specified. All the Essential reading will be listed at the beginning of each chapter. However, it is best to study these readings and the guide in parallel. Therefore you will work from the guide and, at the most relevant points in each chapter, you will be advised which is the relevant reading and when to read it. Please note that when you are advised to read certain pages in a chapter, this will usually refer to the section that starts and finishes on those pages rather than all the text on them. It will be clear from the subject matter of the section which passages you are intended to read. If you flick through one of the chapters of the guide now, you will see how this will work. Key texts One main key text has been selected for this course: Mullins, L.J. Management and Organisational Behaviour. (Essex: Pearson Education, 2010) ninth edition ISBN 9780273728610. One secondary key text has been selected to supplement this, because not all topics are covered by Mullins (2010) and this will also offer you an alternative perspective. This is: Daft, R.L. New Era of Management. (Mason, Ohio: South Western: Cengage, 2008) second edition ISBN 9780324537772. Detailed reading references in this subject guide refer to the editions of the set textbooks listed above. New editions of one or more of these textbooks may have been published by the time you study this course. You can use a more recent edition of any of the books; use the detailed chapter and section headings and the index to identify relevant readings. Also check the virtual learning environment (VLE) regularly for updated guidance on readings. In the past, Daft’s text (initially titled Management and then New Era of Management) has not changed substantially, apart from updating of case studies, etc. There may be a reordering of chapters. Both of the key texts have new editions produced on a regular basis, but the content of the Essential readings should be clear enough for you to use older versions if necessary. An alternative text which covers the course syllabus in most areas is: Boddy, D. Management: An Introduction. (Harlow: FT Prentice Hall, 2008) fourth edition ISBN 9780273711063. Readings in this text will be listed in the Further reading sections at the beginning of chapters. Further reading Please note that as long as you read the Essential reading you are then free to read around the subject area in any text, paper or online resource. You will need to support your learning by reading as widely as possible and by thinking about how these principles apply in the real world. To help you read extensively, you have free access to the VLE and University of London Online Library (see below). 3107 Introduction to business and management At the beginning of each chapter, a list of possible Further readings will be offered. A selection is always presented, but none of them is compulsory. You can select from the list for each chapter when you come to it, if you wish to. Therefore you should not be worried that this list is long: it is only to give you a choice should you want one You may find it helpful to look at these readings if you are particularly interested. As much reading as possible is always to be encouraged. Again, however, it should be noted that it is the Essential readings that make up the course, and your efforts of analysis and evaluation should be concentrated on these first and foremost. Journal articles Alvesson, M. and D. Karreman ‘Odd couple: making sense of the curious concept of knowledge management’, Journal of Management Studies 38(7) 2001, pp.995–1018. Barlett, A. and S. Ghoshal ‘Matrix management: not a structure, a frame of mind’, Harvard Business Review 68(4)1990, pp.138–45. Beugre, C.D. and O.F. Offodile ‘Managing for organisational effectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa: a culture-fit model’, International Journal of Human Resource Management 12(4) 2001, pp.535–50. Easterby-Smith, M., M. Crossan and D. Nicolini ‘Organisational learning: debates past, present and future’, Journal of Management Studies 38(7) 2001, pp.783–96. Gordan, G.G. and N. Ditomaso ‘Predicting organisational performance from organisational culture’, Journal of Management Studies 29(6) 1992, pp.783–98. Hales, C. ‘Leading horses to water? The impact of decentralisation on management behaviour’, Journal of Management Studies 36(6) 1999, pp.831–51. Jackson, T. ‘Management ethics and corporate policy: a cross cultural comparison’, Journal of Management Studies 37(3) 2000, pp.349–69. Lowe, J., J. Morris and B. Wilkinson ‘A British factory, a Japanese factory and a Mexican factory: an international comparison of front-line management and supervision’, Journal of Management Studies 37(4) 2000, pp.541–62. Nutt, P. ‘Decision-making success in public, private and third sector organisations: finding sector dependent best practice’, Journal of Management Studies 37(1) 2000, pp.77–108. Porter, M. ‘What is strategy?’, Harvard Business Review 74(3) 1996, pp.61–78. Scholte, J.A. ‘Globalisation, governance and corporate citizenship’, Journal of Corporate Citizenship 1, Spring 2001, pp.15–23. Shimomurs, M. ‘Corporate citizenship: Why is it so important?’, Journal of Corporate Citizenship 1, Spring 2001, pp.127–30. Swan, J. and H. Scarborough ‘Knowledge management: concepts and controversies’, Journal of Management Studies 38(7) 2001, pp.913–21. Tsoukas, H. and E. Vladimirou ‘What is organisational knowledge?’, Journal of Management Studies 38(7) 2001, pp.974–93. Books Agmon, T. and R. Drobnick Small Firms in Global Competition. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) ISBN 9780195078251. Boddy, D. Management: An Introduction. (Harlow: FT Prentice Hall, 2008) fourth edition, ISBN 9780273711063. Cole, G.A. Management Theory and Practice. (London: DP Publications, 2003) sixth edition ISBN 9781844800889. Douma, S. and H. Schreuder Economic Approaches to Organizations. (London: Prentice Hall, 2008) fourth edition ISBN 9780273681977. 4Introduction Grint, K. Management: A Sociological Introduction. (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1995) ISBN 9780745611495. Grint, K. The Sociology of Work. (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005) third edition ISBN 9780745632506. Held, D., A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt and J. Perraton Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999) ISBN 9780804736275. Hofstede, G. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values. (London: Sage Publications, 1980; abridged edition, 1984) ISBN 9780803913066. Huczynski, A. and D. Buchanan Organisational Behaviour: An Introductory Text. (London: Prentice Hall, 2008) sixth edition ISBN 9780273708353. Johnson, G. and K. Scholes Exploring Corporate Strategy. (London: Prentice Hall Europe, 2005) seventh edition ISBN 9780273687399. Mann, C., S. Eckert and S. Knight The Global Electronic Commerce. (Washington DC: Institute for International Economics, 2000)ISBN 9780881322743. Massie, J.L. Essentials of Management. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1987) fourth edition ISBN 9780132863377. Miller, G. Managerial Dilemmas: the Political Economy of Hierarchy. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) ISBN 9780521457699. Mintzberg, H. The Nature of Managerial Work. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990) ISBN 9780060445553. Needle, D. Business in Context: an Introduction to Business and its Environment. (London: Business Press, 2004) fourth edition ISBN 9781861529923. Pearson, G. Integrity in Organisations: an Alternative Business Ethic. (London: McGraw-Hill, 1995) ISBN 9780077091361. Perman, R. and J. Scouller Business Economics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) ISBN 9780198775249. Robbins, P. Greening the Corporation: Management Strategy and the Environmental Challenge. (London: Earthscan Publications, 2001) ISBN 9781853837715. Scholte, J.A. Globalization: a Critical Introduction. (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2005) second edition ISBN 9780333977026. Senge, P. The Fifth Discipline: the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. (New York: Doubleday, 1990; second edition, 2005) ISBN 9780385517256. Sklair, L. The Transnational Capitalist Class. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001) ISBN 9780631224624. Stonehouse, G., J. Hamill, D. Campbell and T. Purdie Global and Transnational Business: Strategy and Management. (Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 2000; second edition, 2004) ISBN 9780470851265. Tissen, R., D. Andreiseen and F. Deprez The Knowledge Dividend: Creating High-Performance Companies Through Value-Based Knowledge Management. (London: Pearson Education, 2000) ISBN 9780273645108. Waters, M. Globalization. (London: Routledge, 1995; second edition 2001) ISBN 9780415238540. Wright, S. The Anthropology of Organizations. (London: Routledge, 1994) ISBN 9780415087476. Supplementary literature As well as the readings that will be specified within each chapter, you will find it helpful to read up on current issues in major journals, specialist magazines and the business sections of newspapers, etc. Below is a selection of journals which could be useful, and it is recommended that you familiarise yourself on a regular basis with the type of articles and current topics covered by them: • Journal of Management Studies 5107 Introduction to business and management • Asia-Pacific Business Review • European Business Review • The Harvard Business Review. Other learning resources Gathering case material on particular companies and countries will also help you to develop a critical approach to the theories as you relate them to practice. Building up this material and your knowledge of current business debates, familiarising yourself with key journals, improving your reading skills and developing a systematic approach to your reading are all things that you can begin to do now, today. Remember that reading is key to progress on this course. Also, friends, contacts in business and family members who are active in business can be a useful and relevant resource, because it is very useful to talk to people with practical experience. As well as this, if you know other people studying the subject, it is very helpful to talk through your ideas and to discuss what you are learning. Finally, do not forget your brain – and your capacity to think critically: you will not get far without this Online study resources Another additional learning resource for this course is the internet. If you have access to this, you should start to collect relevant websites and become familiar with searching for company information on them. At certain points in the guide you will be directed to internet sites that are relevant to your studies. Unless otherwise stated, all websites in this subject guide were accessed in 2009. We cannot guarantee, however, that they will stay current and you may need to perform an internet search to find the relevant pages. In addition to the subject guide and the Essential reading, it is crucial that you take advantage of the study resources that are available online for this course, including the VLE and the Online Library. You can access the VLE, the Online Library and your University of London email account via the Student Portal at: http://my.londoninternational.ac.uk You should receive your login details in your study pack. If you have not, or you have forgotten your login details, please email uolia.support london.ac.uk quoting your student number. The VLE The VLE, which complements this subject guide, has been designed to enhance your learning experience, providing additional support and a sense of community. It forms an important part of your study experience with the University of London and you should access it regularly. The VLE provides a range of resources for EMFSS courses: • Self-testing activities: Doing these allows you to test your own understanding of subject material. • Electronic study materials: The printed materials that you receive from the University of London are available to download, including updated reading lists and references. 6Introduction • Past examination papers and Examiners’ commentaries: These provide advice on how each examination question might best be answered. • A student discussion forum: This is an open space for you to discuss interests and experiences, seek support from your peers, work collaboratively to solve problems and discuss subject material. • Videos: There are recorded academic introductions to the subject, interviews and debates and, for some courses, audio-visual tutorials and conclusions. • Recorded lectures: For some courses, where appropriate, the sessions from previous years’ Study Weekends have been recorded and made available. • Study skills: Expert advice on preparing for examinations and developing your digital literacy skills. • Feedback forms. Some of these resources are available for certain courses only, but we are expanding our provision all the time and you should check the VLE regularly for updates. Making use of the Online Library The Online Library contains a huge array of journal articles and other resources to help you read widely and extensively. To access the majority of resources via the Online Library you will either need to use your University of London Student Portal login details, or you will be required to register and use an Athens login: http://tinyurl.com/ollathens The easiest way to locate relevant content and journal articles in the Online Library is to use the Summon search engine. If you are having trouble finding an article listed in a reading list, try removing any punctuation from the title, such as single quotation marks, question marks and colons. For further advice, please see the online help pages: www.external.shl.lon.ac.uk/summon/about.php Developing a glossary A glossary is an alphabetical listing of all the words and phrases that you come across that relate to one subject. In this course you are going to come across a lot of new words and ideas. It will be helpful for you to keep a record of these in the form of a glossary. This should keep expanding as you go through the course, so think carefully about how you are going to record them and the best way for you to add in additional entries. Mullins (2010) provides a glossary, as do Daft (2008) and Boddy (2008). These will be helpful to you in this course. If a word is not listed, look in other books or in a dictionary. You might buy one of the dictionaries of business or commerce available (for example, those published by Collins or Penguin). Your own glossary is very helpful for reference throughout your studies and also for your examination revision. In Chapter 1 we will discuss further the main terms and the need for definitions. However, it will be helpful for you to get started with your glossary now, in preparation. Below are some initial definitions (taken from the Concise Oxford Dictionary (1995) (ninth edition) – ‘COD’ for short). You can use these to 7107 Introduction to business and management start your glossary. They are purposely kept short because you need to add to them as you study. You will find lots of definitions in books and, when you do, add good ones to your glossary. Reference the definition so that you know where you found it. You can start this process immediately by looking in your own dictionary and adding to these definitions from there. Samples for your own glossary • Behaviour – COD: the way one conducts oneself; manners. The treatment of others; moral conduct. The way in which something acts or works. Psychology the response (of a person or animal, etc.) to a stimulus. (Mullins has a number of entries for the adjective ‘behavioural’: copy these in now.) • Business – COD: many different meanings here; one’s regular occupation, profession, or trade. Buying and selling. A structure. A series of things needing to be dealt with. A commercial house or firm. Something that involves dealing, operations, undertakings. In Chapter 1 we develop the definition: a commercial enterprise or establishment that makes and/or trades in goods or services. • Businessman and businesswoman – COD: people engaged in trade or commerce, especially at a senior level. • Business organisation – This definition is the one we develop in Chapter 1: an organisation (see below) that is both commercial and social, which provides the necessary structures to achieve the central objective of trades in goods or services. • Concept – COD: a notion or an idea that helps us understand some subject. For instance, the concept of motion helps us understand moving objects. (See what Mullins has in his glossary for ‘conceptual ability’. Another common term is ‘conceptual framework’. Add this to your glossary when you come across it.) • Discourse – COD: a dissertation or treatise on an academic subject. (This word is used a lot in sociology and also in literary criticism. In economics and business studies it is hardly mentioned.) • Manage – COD: organise; regulate; be in charge of (a business, household, team, a person’s career, etc.). To meet one’s needs with limited resources (for example, ‘just about manages on a pension’). To take charge of or control (for example, an animal, especially cattle). We will return to many of these terms, so do not worry if you have not fully understood them from this. The idea here is that you have a growing record of useful terms and that you start the habit of adding to this from 1 1 Have a look at the the very beginning of the course. Glossaries in Mullins (2010) and Daft (2008) Hours of study and using this subject guide now, and then make a start on developing your The period of study for a course of this nature is about eight months. You own. should spend at least seven hours on this course each week. You are about to begin a journey of learning and development, with this subject guide to direct and steer you. This subject guide has been designed to help you to work through these topics in a systematic and thorough manner. It is vital to remember that what you are reading here is not the course in itself, but a guide through the course, which also consists of the reading and your own critical thinking. It is essential that studying this guide is done in conjunction with the reading system outlined above. It is also essential that you develop your 8Introduction own set of notes as you work through the subjects, and that you engage with the material in a critical way. Your role and the design of the subject guide are explained further in this section. However, it is important for you to have familiarised yourself with your academic and study skills handbook Strategies for success before you embark on the first chapter. Your role and academic development You have an active role to play as you work through this course. It is not sufficient to view each topic in an isolated way and only to be able to describe what you read about. It is essential that you make a conscious effort to identify links, make comparisons and consider the implications of the different issues as you progress through the course. This will make the issues come to life. Thinking critically is an essential part of this course, and although nobody is born with this skill, it is one that everyone can develop and improve. Remember that there is rarely one correct answer or approach to a question. It is likely that you will be presented with a variety of theories, models or definitions, all trying to explain similar phenomena. Your role is, first, to grasp what each source is saying, but then to question, evaluate and compare it to alternative explanations. Thinking critically is also not just about developing criticisms, but is a process of evaluation, where both the positive and the negative aspects of a theory, study or model are considered. You can begin to develop these skills as soon as you start the first chapter. As you read, ask yourself what you think, how it relates to what you already know, your experience, and what others claim. Actually building into your notes your own reflections and your own responses can be a useful method of developing this skill, and will also be valuable when you come to revise. It can be helpful to make a clear separation between your own thoughts and the notes you take on the main points of the reading, perhaps by highlighting them with a different colour, dividing up the page, or boxing them off. You should note that there is further guidance on thinking critically in Strategies for success. Chapter structure Every chapter includes a number of consistent features, designed to assist you in your progress through the module. • Each chapter begins by setting out what it aims to achieve, so that it is clear what you should learn. • This is followed by the learning outcomes, so that you know what knowledge you should develop. • The Essential reading is then set out. • Suggestions for Further reading will also be given at this point. • There is a chapter review section at the end of each chapter, including: • the key points that have been made in the chapter • a range of sample examination questions to help test what you have learnt • suggestions as to how one of the examination questions could be answered. You should study this review section to be certain that you have grasped everything you are supposed to have learnt from that chapter, and that you are at the right level to move on to the next chapter. 9107 Introduction to business and management Interactive format In addition to these key features of every chapter, exercises have been provided throughout the guide to help you engage and interact with the material you are studying. Although these are not assessed, the more involved you get, the deeper the understanding you will develop. Different activities have been designed, each with a specific purpose, as follows: • questions, to test your understanding of what you have read • readings, to direct you to relevant sections of the Essential reading and instruct you when to do your reading, as well as sometimes offering questions to ensure that you understand the texts • case studies, to encourage you at specific points to learn about the case of a particular business or to think about the ones you know. There are case studies in both the subject guide and the key texts. It is strongly recommended that you complete these activities as you work through the course. The work you do for some activities will be developed further at later points in the course. Take an active role from the beginning and develop this active learning throughout. This will give you confidence in your knowledge, ability and opinions. The structure of this course It is important to understand how your course is structured, so that it is easier for you to navigate around the topics and this guide. The syllabus consists of four sections, designed to introduce you to the main theories, debates and issues relating to the study of business and management. Each section deals with several major topics and an indication is given below of the elements that each will include. However, this course deals with a dynamic topic, so it is important to recognise the interrelationships between these themes. Section 1: The development of business and management Concepts, definitions and origins; understanding the business organisation – a multidisciplinary approach. Section 2: Management and decision making The management role; theoretical approaches to strategic decision making and organisational change; also managing the main functional areas. Section 3: Business and the environment Key internal elements of the firm; key external elements of the business environment; the diverse and dynamic nature of the business context. Section 4: Contemporary issues in business and management Business development and information technology; the social responsibilities of business organisations. 10Introduction Examination advice Important: the information and advice given here are based on the examination structure used at the time this guide was written. Please note that subject guides may be used for several years. Because of this we strongly advise you to always check both the current Regulations for relevant information about the examination, and the VLE where you should be advised of any forthcoming changes. You should also carefully check the rubric/instructions on the paper you actually sit and follow those instructions. Remember, it is important to check the VLE for: • up-to-date information on examination and assessment arrangements for this course • where available, past examination papers and Examiners’ commentaries for the course which give advice on how each question might best be answered. The assessment for this course is via examination, and the guide aims to offer assistance in your preparation for this. It is essential that you make use of your academic and study skills handbook Strategies for success, which gives vital information about the examination process and guidance on preparing for all your examinations. It will really help you to study this now, before you begin, as well as at the time of the examination. In addition, guidance for the examination for the 107 Introduction to business and management course has been built into this subject guide. Each chapter ends by offering four sample examination questions and suggestions of how at least one of these could be approached. At the end of the guide, in Appendix 1, you will also find a sample examination paper. Have a look at this now to understand what you will need to do and what your examination paper will look like. It is important to remember that the examination is the end-method of assessment, rather than the focus of the course. Concentrating on engaging with the issues, building up your knowledge, and developing an academic approach, will not only be more satisfying but will also ensure that you are fully introduced to the subject of business and management. 11107 Introduction to business and management Notes 12 Section 1: The development of business and management Section 1: The development of business and management Chapter 1 focuses on the concepts, definitions and origins of the subject you are studying. The chapter aims to act as an introduction to the content that you will be studying and so is a distinct part of the course. Each of the sections will represent a different focus, and so the introductions to each section are designed to prepare you for this change. However, it is also important to recognise the links and connections between these sections, as well as the issues in the chapters within them. The first section will serve two purposes: • The first is to equip you with the understanding you will need of the main key terms you are going to be working with. However, you are not just given definitions. The idea is to offer you a way of developing your own understanding of key concepts and to be able to evaluate the meanings others attach to the terms you will meet. • Secondly, Section 1 discusses the background to the subject so that you can appreciate why and how it has developed. The different influences on its development are important. At first it may be difficult to see how this is relevant to your wanting to understand business and management today, but the developments of today emerge from this background and are often influenced by the major events and theories of the past. Therefore this section is a foundation for the rest of the course. In Chapter 2, we look at different approaches to understanding the business organisation. Several different disciplines are considered; it can be seen from this that the business organisation is an integral part of our social lives and can be studied in many different ways. We will be focusing on how different disciplines have contributed to the field of business and management. 13107 Introduction to business and management Notes 14