Learner‘s Satisfactions on ICT Innovations

Game Based Learning Approach to Improving Students Learning Influence of Instructional Innovation on Learning Satisfaction and Study Achievement
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Dr.NathanCruz,United States,Researcher
Published Date:18-11-2017
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I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 2015, 6, 24-29 Published Online June 2015 in MECS (http://www.mecs-press.org/) DOI: 10.5815/ijmecs.2015.06.04 Learner‘s Satisfactions on ICT Innovations: Omani Learners Viewpoints B. Sriram Director of Quality Assurance and Faculty IST Department, Sur University College, PO: 440, PC: 411, Sur, Sultanate of Oman. Ph: 0096893797936; Email: srishan11gmail.com Abstract—Information and Communication Technology the focal point of the educational systems. Various tools (ICT) has significantly improved the educational are developed to enable the learners to acquire desired environment to higher degrees. The teaching and learning knowledge quite comfortably and easily. The current methodologies have been changed to greater extends to learner's centered approach needs the learners‘ motivate the instructors and learners. The learner‘s involvement and satisfaction at all levels. As Moyle satisfaction on these ICT innovations depends on their (2010) said, the technologies offer opportunities to impact in day to day knowledge gaining processes. This educators and learners for creating meaningful learning paper discusses some major ICT factors that influence the environment 2. Omani learners and their corresponding satisfaction Various studies were discussed and studied with levels. This research also identified that these respect to this issue. Yien et al (2011) studied about the technological innovations motivate the learners in self- game based learning approaches to improve students' learning and in future continuing education. The study learning achievement in a nutrition course 1. Moyle identified that the overall significant development (2010) said the educators should not only provide correct educational processes and encouragement in the learning answers to the problems but also reward them for their processes by information and communication technology efforts and the ideas. According to Moyle 2, one of the innovations have higher impacts on the learners‘ major challenges for educators is to bridge the divide satisfaction. between formal and informal learning. Varis (2009) studied about the impacts and regional developments in Index Terms—ICT Innovations, Learner‘s Satisfaction, higher education due to new technologies and innovations Omani Learners Viewpoints, Factor‘s Influences, 3. Learning Processes. Though various studies were found, but very little literatures could be found with respect to Middle East countries, in particular, Sultanate of Oman. The higher education providers in Sultanate of Oman have I. INTRODUCTION incorporated maximum facilities of ICT and its Technology has become an indispensable part of day – innovations in the day – to – day educational processes. to – day life of every individual. The potentials of But, the user‘s (learner‘s) satisfaction depends on various technological innovations improved the life style to factors that supports them in their daily learning activities. higher degree. These technological innovations have Hence to identify the major information technology greater impact in educational processes. These factors that have major impacts on the Omani learners‘, innovations integrated technology and education which is this study was conducted. This paper analyzes some the primary requirement of human development. Various major factors that influence the Omani learners and their studies were conducted with respect to the impacts and corresponding satisfaction levels. The factors were requirements of these ICT innovations on educational considered based on the previous studies and general processes. requirements of the learners. This research identified that The educational processes are highly influenced with the ICT innovations motivate the learners in self-learning the technology tools and gadgets. The fast growing and in future continuing education. information technology and its allies have become A. Research Questions integral part of the educational processes without which the educational activities cannot be fulfilled. The The following research questions were formulated to economic considerations, constraints and requirements identify learner‘s satisfactions on IT innovations. may vary with respect to the national level strategies and implementation. But, these Information and 1) What are the supports that the ICT innovations communication technology and its corresponding tools provide to the learners in Omani educational need to be incorporated in all levels of educational perspectives? activities. 2) What is the satisfaction level of the users (learners) Basically the educational activities evolve around the in using ICT in learning processes? learners‘ perspectives and acceptance as the learners are Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 2015, 6, 24-29 Learner‘s Satisfactions on ICT Innovations: Omani Learners Viewpoints 25 software to educate poor peoples. Quality in the B. Objectives and Hypotheses educational system should ensure the proper integration Based on the above research questions, the following of information technology in teaching and learning. Romney and Bruseke (2014) studied the deliveries objectives and hypotheses were set. Objective 1: To measure the various supports provided through new virtualization technology. They identified that the mobile computing devices have become most by the ICT innovations to the learners Hypothesis 1: ICT innovations provide tools to preferred delivery instruments for the digital contents. According to them, student‘s learning by means of cloud measure academic performances, learning atmosphere and quality learning. has become a collaborative or social process 10. Eng (2005) studied the impact of ICT on learning. The author Objective 2: To measure the learners‘ satisfaction on ICT in learning processes suggested that use of ICT in conjunction with other teaching strategies could benefit the learners in different Hypothesis 2: The learners are highly satisfied with the supports of ICT innovations in learning processes. perspectives 11. Sinkovics et al (2009) investigated the antecedents for successful implementation of information technology based learning environments 12. They have suggested II. LITERATURE REVIEW to consider the quality of virtual interaction for the Various studies were conducted by the researchers learner‘s satisfaction. Dabbagh and Kitsandas (2011) had related to the impacts of information and communication described a pedagogical framework to use social media to technology in educational processes. Numerous create personal learning environment that support a researches were also conducted regarding the learner‘s learner centered pedagogy and foster self-regulated satisfaction, instructor‘s satisfaction and user‘s learning. According to them, in e-learning domain satisfaction in using information technology in learning personal learning environments have learner control and and instructional methodologies. Studies were also personalization 13. Villanueva (2000) said that conducted with respect to various levels of education, information technology have the potential to offer region and demographic. synchronous and asynchronous learning opportunities. He Rezaeean et al (2012) studied the importance of identified that the powerful virtual classrooms provide website innovations. According to them, the websites web based tools and created rich, high quality benefit the universities for appropriate academic environment in educational resources 14. communication. They identified that innovation is the Sriram (2014) conducted a study on impact of internet most important factor influencing the student‘s resources, one of the major information technology satisfaction. Apart from that, the students trust on these development, and identified that in Omani higher innovations has the positive influence on their satisfaction education specializations of the learners have significant 4. Lee (2008) 5 studied the relationship among impact on the usage of technology in learning processes instructional innovation, learning satisfaction and study 15. Robles (2013) identified that the instructors need to achievement. According to him, education that focuses on identify the various opportunities to integrate appropriate cultivating creativity helps in creating new innovations. educational tools to suits to their learning preferences, as Apart from that the learning environment influences the the internet dependencies are increasing in this modern learner‘s satisfaction. world 16. This integrations shall be worth only if the Zhu (2012) 6 studied the student‘s satisfaction on learners have sufficient satisfaction on the suggested web online collaborative learning. He said that when the e – technology. learning environment is applied, the effectiveness of e- Though various studies could be found with respect to learning should be studied with respect to student‘s the information and communication technology impact, satisfaction. His study confirmed that there are significant very few studies were available with respect to Middle differences between students‘ satisfaction and academic East and Sultanate of Oman. To add to literature and to achievements in an innovative e – learning environment. identify the major factors, this study was conducted in Leidner and Jarvenpaa (1995) 7 reviewed the different Omani higher education environment at undergraduate models of learning and the relationship with the level. assumptions of electronic teaching technology. According to them, information technology should be used primarily to automate the information delivery III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY functions in the classrooms. A questionnaire was prepared in Arabic and English Rouibah and Hamdy (2011) discussed on the technology adoption in the Arab world and the aids in the with 5 demographic variables, 20 closed end questions and 1 question related to measure the satisfaction level. 5 educational world 8. They suggested that the companies should understand the technical and social nature of point Likert scale was used in closed end questions with 5 – Strongly Agree to 1 – Strongly Disagree. The users‘ attitude in ICT adoption and satisfaction. As Negi et al (2011) 9 said, IT aids plenty of questionnaire was prepared with the following constructs: development in educational technology, influences on resources to enhance the student‘s learning abilities in using instructor‘s teaching skills. Also, they said that learning skills, available tools, quality in educational activities, learning atmosphere and learning processes. information technology is providing tools, techniques and Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 2015, 6, 24-29 26 Learner‘s Satisfactions on ICT Innovations: Omani Learners Viewpoints Table 1. Specialization Wise Respondents Level The above factors were selected based on the literature reviews and the student‘s feedbacks. The questionnaire Level / was distributed to the undergraduate students studying at Speciali Zation IT IS MM Acc FB Eng Tot different levels and programs. st The questionnaire had 3 separate sections. 1 section Foundation 8 6 6 4 4 0 28 had 5 questions related to demographic profile of the Diploma 36 28 22 16 10 0 112 nd respondents, 2 section had 20 questions related to Bachelor 28 18 20 12 6 16 100 research ideas and the last section had one question Total 72 52 48 32 20 16 240 related to the respondents overall satisfaction. The respondents were clearly explained about the research B. Analysis and Findings perspectives. Some sample questionnaires were distributed to the students in the classrooms and their C. Analysis on Demographic Variables feedbacks were studied initially. The questionnaire was distributed to 250 students. The questionnaire which were Fig 1 shows the gender analysis of the respondents partially filled or multiple answers were selected were with respect to the specialization wise. considered for the study. Finally, 240 responses were considered for this study. Cronbach's Alpha Reliability Analysis was conducted to check the validity of the collection instrument which showed a reliability value 0.842 for the selected collection tool. The KMO measure of sampling adequacy was 0.880 and the Bartlett's test of sphericity significance was 0.000. A. Demographic Analysis The demographic profile showed that 28 students were studying foundation level, 112 students were studying diploma and 100 students were studying bachelor level. Out of this 240 respondents, 72 students were studying Information Technology, 52 students were studying Information Systems, 48 students were studying Fig 1. Gender / Specialization Wise Marketing and Management, 32 students were studying Fig 2 shows the age groups of the respondents in Accounting, 20 students were studying Finance & department wise. Banking, 10 Students were studying Mechanical Engineering and 6 students were studying Architectural Engineering specializations. 45.8% of the respondents were studying in Information and Technology department, 35.8% were studying in Business Administration department, 6.7% were studying in Engineering Department and 11.7% were studying in General Foundation Program. 46.7% of the respondents were less than 20 years of age. 51.7% of the respondents were between 21 up to 40 years. 1.6% of the respondents were above 40 years of age. In this, 52 respondents were male and 188 respondents were female. 46.7% of the respondents were at diploma level and 41.7% of the respondents were at bachelor level. 48.2% of the diploma level learners were at first year level and Fig 2. Age / Department Wise nd 51.3% of the learners were at 2 year level. 52% of the rd bachelor level learners were at 3 of study and 48% of D. Analysis on Research Questions th the learners were at final (4 ) year level. Table 1 shows the level of study of the respondents in The responses were analyzed with respect to the specialization wise. research objectives using various statistical measures such as descriptive analysis, percentage and regression analysis. 31.25% and 47.08% of the respondents either strongly agreed or agreed that the ICT innovations have made Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 2015, 6, 24-29 Learner‘s Satisfactions on ICT Innovations: Omani Learners Viewpoints 27 significant development in educational technology in 25.8% of the respondents strongly felt that the ICT order to attain desired learning outcomes. Nearly 12% of innovations have made the learning atmosphere very respondents found to have no opinion in this regard. meaning full. 42.9% of the respondents agreed on this Around 10% of the respondents either disagreed or fact. 11.7% and 6.3% of the respondents either disagreed strongly disagreed with this fact. None of the foundation or disagreed on this fact. 13% of the respondents had no level students either strongly disagreed or disagreed with opinion of this statement. None of the foundation level the fact that the ICT innovations had made significant students strongly disagreed on this statement. development in the education field. This showed that the Nearly 75% of the respondents either strongly agreed recent developments in ICT innovations were or agreed that the ICT innovations have encouraged the implemented and utilized in beginning of the studies knowledge sharing at all levels of learning processes. itself. Very few bachelor level students (5%) have 15% of the respondents only disagreed or strongly disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement. disagreed on this statement. None of the engineering 17.9% of the respondents strongly agreed that the ICT students have disagreed on this fact. innovations have significant positive influences on The users were asked to provide their level of learning skills. 37.9% of the respondents have agreed on satisfaction on ICT innovations that they use in their day this fact. 9.2% and 7.5% of the respondents either – to – day educational activities. 18.3% of the disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement. respondents said that they were highly satisfied, 53.6% 27.5% of the respondents do not give any opinion on this suggested that they were satisfied, 10% said that they do fact. Very few (14%) foundation level students either not want to comment, 11.3% were dissatisfied and 6.8% disagreed or strongly disagreed on this statement. None were highly dissatisfied with the level of impact of of the Engineering students strongly disagreed with this information technology on their satisfaction. statement. Only 2 out of 16 engineering students From the above analysis, it is evident that more that disagreed on this fact. None of the respondents above 40 50% of the respondents were satisfied in using ICT years either strongly disagreed or disagreed on this innovations in their learning processes. 71% of the statement. foundation level students, 70% of the diploma level 22.1% and 40.4% of the respondents had either students and 75% of the bachelor level students were strongly agreed or agreed that ICT innovations provide either highly satisfied or satisfied with this statement. necessary and sufficient tools to measure academic 71% of the male respondents and 72% of the female achievement in various perspectives. 11.3% and 6.3% respondents were highly satisfied or satisfied in using either disagreed or strongly disagreed on this statement. ICT innovations in their educational processes. 16% of 20% of the respondents do not have any opinion on this the bachelor level students, 22% of the diploma level issue. All the respondents above 40 years agreed on this students and 7% of the foundation level students were fact. either dissatisfied or highly dissatisfied with this fact. 72.5% of the respondents had the opinion that the ICT E. Descriptive Analysis on the Research Questions innovations have significantly increased the quality in all educational activities. The recent developments in ICT The results collected were analyzed with respect to innovations had significant improvement in the all various statistical measures to identify the impact levels perspectives of the educational activities. Around 15% of and significance. The mean, sample standard deviation, the respondents felt that the ICT innovations shall make standard error in mean, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient more significant improvements in quality of educational of variation were calculated to identify the impact level. activities. Table 2 shows the descriptive analysis on research questions. Table2. Descriptive Analysis Variable Mean Sample CV SE Skewness Kurtosis Rank SD Mean X 3.97 0.98 24.75% 0.06 -1.12 1.09 1 1 X 3.50 1.04 31.94% 0.07 -0.62 -0.17 6 2 X 3.61 1.13 31.42% 0.07 -0.70 -0.23 5 3 X 3.78 1.17 31.06% 0.08 -1.03 0.30 3 4 X 3.70 1.16 31.24% 0.07 -0.84 -0.11 4 5 X 3.86 1.19 30.78% 0.08 -1.08 0.35 2 6 Y 3.66 1.11 30.21% 0.07 -1.00 0.27 Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 2015, 6, 24-29 28 Learner‘s Satisfactions on ICT Innovations: Omani Learners Viewpoints 2 2 In the above analysis, the following variable The highest R value was ranked 1 and lowest R value assumptions were made. was ranked 6. Table 3. Regression Analysis X = Significant Development 1 2 X = Positive influences on learning skills 2 Factor R - Value p - Value Level Rank X = Tools to measure academic performances 3 X 0.592 0.000 Medium 3 1 X = Improvement in quality in learning processes 4 X2 0.391 0.000 Medium 6 X = Meaningful Learning Atmosphere 5 X 0.573 0.000 Medium 5 3 X = Encouragement in Learning Processes 6 X 0.659 0.000 High 2 Y = Overall Satisfaction on Using ICT innovations in 4 Learning Processes X 0.586 0.000 Medium 4 5 X 0.668 0.000 High 1 6 The above descriptive analysis showed that the significant development made by the ICT innovations From the above analysis, it is evident that all factors have the highest impact on the learners. The highest considered for the study had significant impact on the negative skewness showed that the most of the user‘s satisfaction. The factors ‗Encouragement in respondents have agreed or strongly agreed on this fact. Learning Process‖ and ―Improvement in quality in The respondents felt that the ICT innovations encourage Learning Process‖ had high level relationship whereas the them in various perspectives in their learning processes. nd all the other factors had medium level relationship. Thus it had got the 2 highest rank. The ICT innovations have significantly increased the quality in learning rd processes various ways and hence it had the 3 rank. The IV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION respondents felt that the ICT innovations have created a meaningful learning atmosphere and hence this fact had The above results show that the ICT innovations have th scored the 4 rank. The tools provided by the ICT been significantly improved the learning processes in innovations and the positive influences by the ICT various degrees. The educational services uses various innovations on learners in different perceptions had ICT tools in measuring the academic performances of the scored the least ranks. The mean values of factors X , X , 1 6 learners. The higher educational providers use different X , X were higher than that of the overall satisfaction. 4 5 learning management systems. They maintain e – The mean values of X and X were lower than that of the 2 3 learning portals and deliver sufficient learning materials overall satisfaction. to provide the meaningful learning atmosphere. These learning management systems are also used to measure F. One Sample t – Test the learners academic performance using online One sample t – test (2 – tailed, 99% confidence interval examinations, multiple choices etc. at 239 df) has been conducted to identify the impact of The higher education providers in Sultanate of Oman the factors on overall satisfaction of the users. The result have benchmarked their programs with various showed that the factors such as significant development t international systems. The programs are quality assured = 61.477, p 0.01; positive influences on learning skills t by international universities. All the courses are = 48.781, p 0.01; tools to measure academic developed with significant intended learning outcomes to performance t = 49.620, p 0.01; improvement in quality achieve the desired mission and vision of the programs. in learning processes t = 49.878, p 0.01; meaningful Information and communication technology has learning atmosphere t = 49.593, p 0.01; encouragement developed various tools to achieve these required in learning environment t = 50.324, p 0.01 had intended learning outcomes. Thus the learners are significant impact on the student‘s satisfaction of using satisfied with the ICT innovations. Furthermore, the ICT technology innovation in learning processes. The result has provided various systems like interactive tutor showed that the hypotheses set were significantly systems, online search systems and resources satisfied same as suggested in descriptive analysis. management systems which are useful in day – to – day learning processes. Apart from that the electronic devices G. Regression Analysis such as smart boards, projectors and other gadgets help To measure the strength of relationship between the the learners to acquire required knowledge and develop assumed variables and the overall satisfaction, regression their cognitive skills. Thus the information technology analysis was conducted. The coefficient of determination has tremendously improved the quality of educational and p values were analyzed between the overall environment. satisfaction of the students and the considered factors. These ICT innovations considerably motivate the Table 3 shows the simple linear regression analysis. The learners in self-learning processes. The current education 2 R values were compared for level of impact and ranking. system requires various search tactics which motivate the The level of impact was measured as the following scale: learners to acquire required self-learning techniques. The 0 – 10% - No Relationship; 10% - 30% Low Relationship; learners have made to use various gadgets like mobile 30% - 60% - Medium Relationship; 60% - 90% - High and other electronic mediums in their learning processes. Relationship and 90% and above very high Relationship. Thus the ICT innovations have improved the overall Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 2015, 6, 24-29 Learner‘s Satisfactions on ICT Innovations: Omani Learners Viewpoints 29 Human Resource Management in Educational Sector. dimensions on the educational processes which made the International Journal of Computer Science and learners to utilize during their learning processes. The Telecommunications. 2(4): 66 – 72. educators need to motivate the learners to utilize the full 10 Romney, G.W., and Brueseke, (2014). Merging the Tower potentials of the information technology and its products and the Cloud through Virtual Instruction: The New in their daily learning processes in order to achieve the Academy of Distance Education. Journal of Research in required knowledge. Innovative Teaching. 7(1): 93 – 110. 11 Eng, T.S., (2005). The Impact of ICT on Learning: A LIMITATIONS AND SCOPES Review of Research. International Education Journal. 6(5): 635 – 650. This study is conducted in bachelor level of education. 12 Sinkovics, R.R., Haghirian, P., and Yu, S., (2009). The results may vary if other levels of education are Information Technology Based Innovation in included. Various other factors based on the regional International Marketing Education: An Exploration of usages may be identified and studied. Two Learning Environments. Journal of Teaching in International Business. 20: 123 – 148. 13 Dabbagh, N., and Kitsantas, A., (2011). Personal Learning ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Environments, Social Media, and Self Regulated Learning: I would like to thank the Dean of Sur University A natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal College for his motivations and supports in conducting Learning. Internet and Higher Education. DOI: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.06.002. researches and studies. I would like to thank the 14 Villanueva, C.L. (2000). Newer Technologies for a management of Sur University College for its financial Learning Society: Information Technologies in and moral supports. Educational Innovation for Development. 38 – 44. Report of Sixth UNESCO – ACEID International Conference on REFERENCES Education. 15 Sriram. B. (2014). Specialization Impact on Internet 1 Yien, J.M., Hung, C.M., Hwang, G.J., and Lin, Y.C. Resource Usage: Omani Undergraduate Learner‘s (2011). 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Sriram received his Bachelor‘s degree Sciences Journal. 18(8): 1023 – 1029. in Mathematics from St. Joseph‘s College, 5 Lee, Y.J., (2008). A Study of the Influence of Trichirapalli, India and Master‘s degree in Instructional Innovation on Learning Satisfaction and Mathematics from Annamalai University, Study Achievement. The Journal of Human Resource and India. Currently he is working for Sur Adult Learning. 4(2): 43 – 54. University College, Sultanate of Oman as 6 Zhu, C., (2012). Student's Satisfaction, Performance and lecturer since 2004. Knowledge Construction in Online Collaborative He was also holding the position of Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 15(1): 127 Quality Assurance Officer since 2009. – 136. Currently, he is the Director of Quality Assurance for Sur 7 Leidner, D. E., and Jarvenpaa, S.L., (1995). The Use of University College. He has 22 years of teaching experience in Information Technology to Enhance Management School Mathematics and IT courses. He has published 26 research Education: A Theoretical View. MIS Quarterly, 19(3): papers in peer reviewed national and international journals and 265 – 291. presented 13 papers in national and international conferences 8 Rouibah, K., and Hamdy, H., (2011). Factors Affecting and symposiums. He is an active researcher in his work profile Information Communication Technologies Usage and (Quality Assurance), teaching areas (Information Systems and Satisfaction: Perspectives from Instant Messaging in Technology) and in specialization (Mathematics and Education). Kuwait. IGI Global. 133 – 161. DOI: 10.4018/978-1- 60960-605-3.ch007. 9 Negi, P.S., Negi, V., and Pandey, A.C., (2011). Impact of Information Technology on Learning, Teaching and How to cite this paper: B. Sriram,"Learner's Satisfactions on ICT Innovations: Omani Learners Viewpoints", IJMECS,vol.7, no.6, pp.24-29, 2015.DOI: 10.5815/ijmecs.2015.06.04 Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 2015, 6, 24-29

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