Psychology of human behavior pdf download

evolutionary psychology the ultimate origins of human behavior psychology is the study of human behavior and mental processes
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Psychology of Human Behavior Part I Professor David W. Martin THE TEACHING COMPANY ® Psychology of Human Behavior Scope: This course of 36 lectures examines the breadth of modern psychology from both clinical and experimental perspectives. After an introduction to the precursors and early history of psychology in Lecture One, we discuss the research methods used in scientific psychology in Lectures Two and Three. Particular emphasis is given to the logic and procedures of the quantitative methods of experimentation, as well as correlational and quasi-experimental design. Consideration is also given to the qualitative designs of ethnography, naturalistic observation, and case history. Following a brief introduction to the scientific theory of evolution in Lecture Four, we discuss a less scientific theory in Lecture Five, that is, psychoanalytic theory as introduced by Sigmund Freud. In Lectures Seven through Eleven, the topic of abnormal psychology is introduced, and we make a comprehensive examination of the various classifications of mental illness with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR™). For each disorder, we look at the set of defining symptoms and, where known, the causes and prognosis of the illness. In Lectures Twelve through Seventeen, we explore three therapy classifications. For physical therapies, we discuss the various psychopharmacological approaches for each of the disorders, including discussion of electroconvulsive shock therapy and psychosurgeries. Psychotherapies are also covered, with an emphasis on psychoanalysis and humanistic and cognitive therapies. Behavior therapies are also examined, both those based on classical conditioning and those based on operant conditioning. In Lectures Eighteen through Thirty-One, we examine the standard content areas of experimental scientific psychology. The lecture on motivation emphasizes the biologically based homeostatic model, in which the goal of behavior is the return to an optimal state, although a brief discussion of Abraham Maslow’s self-actualization model is also included. The first lecture on motivation emphasizes the difficulty in measuring a private event, such as emotion, and examines the largely unsuccessful attempts of using facial expressions, self-report, and physiological measures, such as the polygraph, pupil size, and vocal tremors. In Lecture Twenty, we consider several theories of emotion, including the James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory, and Stanley Schachter’s cognitive-labeling theory. Lectures Twenty-One and Twenty-Two provide an overview of various psychoactive drugs, including their classifications and behavioral effects. In Lectures Twenty-Three and Twenty-Four, we introduce the broad area of social psychology, then cover in detail the mechanisms that influence us to behave in automatic ways, as put forth by Robert Cialdini in his book Influence. In the next three lectures, Twenty-Five through Twenty-Seven, we examine two forms of simple learning. Classical conditioning involves the pairing of an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus, which eventually causes the conditioned stimulus to bring about a conditioned response. Operant conditioning involves repeatedly reinforcing a voluntary response, which increases the probability of the response recurring. For both forms of learning, we detail the time course of learning and the conditions under which learning takes place. In the final learning lecture, we look at progressively more complex forms of learning, such as avoidance learning, probability learning, and concept formation, and consider whether these could be explained as combinations of classical and operant conditioning. In Lectures Twenty-Eight and Twenty-Nine, we look at memory. First, we consider how the various ways of assessing memory influence how good our memories seem to be. Then, we use an exercise in illusory memory to demonstrate how the modern view of memory is that of constructing memories from cues rather than calling up detailed snapshots. Finally, we review some research that demonstrates how this constructive process can lead to false memories. In the second memory lecture, we learn about some memory aids that can help us improve our memories, and we discuss three theories of forgetting: decay, interference, and consolidation. Perception is covered in Lectures Thirty and Thirty-One. In the first lecture, we use a series of visual illusions to convince ourselves that we are not in direct contact with the external world but that we use cues to form one or more external models that are sometimes in error. In the second lecture, we discuss three schools of thought about how we use cues to form internal models, and we then use the process of depth perception to illustrate what kinds of cues we employ. Finally, we look at evidence supporting the proposition that perception is built in or learned. Lectures Thirty-Two through Thirty-Four examine modern thought regarding evolutionary psychology. In Lecture Thirty-Two, we discuss the requirements for evolution to take place and some of the myths about evolution. Then, we give a rough timeline of human evolution and look at evolved behavior from the perspective of Desmond ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 1 Morris’s historical book The Naked Ape, particularly with respect to why we are naked, why we are sexy, and why human aggression is such a problem. The second evolution lecture examines the topics of altruism and mating. Altruistic behavior includes our behavior toward our kin and reciprocal behavior toward non-kin. Our discussion of mating includes the different behavioral strategies used by men and women related to differences in parental investment in their offspring. In the third evolutionary lecture, aggression is considered, along with parenting and eating behaviors. Evolutionary theory makes specific predictions about the kinds of family conflicts found even in today’s families. The reasons we overeat to the point of obesity are also understandable from evolution. In Lecture Thirty-Five, we look at the applied field of engineering psychology and consider how this field, which is concerned with the design of human-machine-environment, is integrated with other disciplines, such as industrial engineering. We also examine the types of recommendations engineering psychologists can make in the design of displays and controls. In the final lecture, we review where we have been, then briefly discuss a few topics not previously covered, including neuropsychology, cognitive modeling, and developmental psychology. Finally, we consider the future of psychology, with particular emphasis on genetic therapies for mental illnesses and the application of scientific psychology to practical societal problems. 2 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership Lecture One Modern Psychology in Historical Context Scope: This lecture introduces psychology as the study of human behavior, either from a clinical or a scientific perspective. It makes the distinction between clinical psychologists (who try to help people with behavioral problems in many settings, such as hospitals, clinics, schools, and prisons) and psychiatrists (who are medical doctors, can prescribe drugs, and are usually trained in a single type of therapy). Clinical psychologists have doctoral degrees, cannot prescribe drugs, and are often trained in a variety of therapies. The lecture also emphasizes the fact that experimental psychologists study human behavior as scientists. We put psychology in a historical perspective by introducing figures who served as precursors in psychology, including philosophers, such as Descartes, Locke, and Hume, and biologists, such as Weber and Darwin. The history of psychology covers only a little more than 100 years and has gone through several methodological approaches. In experimental psychology, the early introspectionists gave way to the behaviorists, who then were largely supplanted by cognitive psychologists. Recently, evolutionary psychologists have offered a new approach. This lecture also previews the topics that are covered in the course and explains why they are ordered as they are. Outline I. Psychologists are interested in human behavior, either studying behavior from a scientific perspective or using knowledge gained from the scientific perspective to try to improve the human condition. A. About two-thirds of psychologists fit the general label of clinical psychologist and are typically interested in helping people with behavioral problems. 1. Most people think of clinical psychologists as working in private practice one-on-one with clients. 2. Some clinical psychologists work in hospitals, clinics, schools, prisons, and other settings, not only doing therapy but giving tests, evaluating clients, setting up programs, and engaging in other activities to help people. B. Many people confuse psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. 1. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who can prescribe drugs and give physical exams. 2. Most psychiatrists are trained from a narrow therapeutic orientation, usually psychoanalysis. 3. A clinical psychologist typically has a doctoral degree, usually a Ph.D. 4. Most clinical psychologists cannot prescribe drugs. 5. Clinical psychologists are usually trained to use a wider variety of therapeutic techniques. C. About one-third of psychologists fit the general label of experimental psychologist and are typically interested in studying human behavior from a scientific perspective. 1. Many experimental psychologists work in universities and colleges, both teaching and doing research. 2. Experimental psychologists also work in research institutes for the government, performing both basic and applied research. 3. Increasingly, experimental psychologists work in industry as industrial/organizational psychologists or ergonomists. II. An understanding of modern psychology requires some knowledge of the history of psychology and major movements in the field. A. Psychology originally grew out of philosophy and, to some extent, biology; indeed, some philosophical and biological thought still influences psychology. 1. In 1649, René Descartes speculated about the nature of the mind as distinct from the body, with the mind and the idea of self being innate. 2. In 1690, John Locke asserted that the mind is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, and all knowledge is gained through experience using the senses. ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 3 3. David Hume, working about 1740, was a British associationist who claimed that the mind was no more than a collection of sensory impressions linked together by associations formed by contiguity and similarity. 4. In the 1830s, Ernst Heinrich Weber was one of the first empiricists, who demonstrated the quantification of mental or psychological operations. 5. Charles Darwin in the 1870s applied his theory of evolution to humans. B. Psychology as a separate discipline began in the latter half of the 1800s. 1. In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany. 2. In 1890, William James, although not an empiricist himself, introduced the empirical science of psychology to America. 3. About 1900, Sigmund Freud introduced psychoanalytic theory, giving particular emphasis to the unconscious mind. 4. About 1906, Ivan Pavlov, a physiologist, discovered classical conditioning while studying saliva in dogs. 5. About 1913, John Watson began the behaviorist tradition of psychology, in which behaviors, rather than the conscious mind, are studied. 6. In the 1950s, B. F. Skinner rejected theories of mental operations and argued that only observable behaviors were worth studying. 7. In the 1960s, Ulric Neisser reintroduced the possibility of studying mental operations of the cognitively functioning brain. This approach is called cognitive psychology and is still the primary paradigm of psychology today. 8. In 1975, Edward O. Wilson published a book on sociobiology, claiming that evolutionary theory could explain much of human behavior, as well as that of other animals. The evolutionary approach has had some impact since the 1990s. III. Since its inception as a separate disciplinary field, psychology has undergone some significant changes in theoretical approaches, both in terms of experimental psychology and clinical psychology. A. Experimental psychology has seen several approaches during a little more than a century. 1. One of the earliest methods used was introspection, in which trained observers attempted to determine the contents of their own minds. 2. The behaviorists claimed that people could not determine the contents of their own minds and that it was impossible to study the workings of the human mind; only observable behaviors could be studied. Because human behavior can be affected by conscious thinking, behaviorist research focused primarily on animal behavior. Behaviorists held sway for 40–60 years, until the arrival of cognitive psychology in the 1960s. 3. The development of the computer influenced the growth of cognitive psychology: Cognitive psychologists believed that it was possible to study the operations of the human mind by using sophisticated research techniques often based on a computer metaphor. 4. Although cognitive psychologists still consider the mind, to some extent, to be a blank slate, evolutionary psychologists claim that the human mind is not a “blank-slate” computer but contains many modules that have been built in to help solve evolutionary problems. B. Clinical psychology has also seen several trends in its century of existence. 1. Freud proposed that human motivations lie largely at the unconscious level; for this reason, highly trained psychoanalysts must spend many years trying to determine the contents of the unconscious mind in order to help patients. 2. Carl Rogers and other humanistic psychologists proposed that clients have within themselves the ability to analyze and fix their own problems if given proper guidance by a therapist. 3. Behavior therapists believe that many psychological problems are caused by people having learned inappropriate responses to stimuli and that these problems can be solved by having clients learn appropriate responses. 4 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 4. Cognitive therapists believe that many psychological problems are caused by people having inappropriate thoughts and that these problems can be corrected by teaching clients to change their thinking. IV. Psychology today has many sub-areas, most of which we will explore in this course. A. First, in Lectures Two and Three, we will establish a foundation by looking at some of the research methods used by psychologists. B. In Lecture Four, we will look at some of the basics of evolutionary theory, because evolutionary theory helps us understand some of the reasons why we behave as we do. I would like you to keep this theory in mind as we explore some of the basic areas of psychology. C. In Lectures Five and Six, we will examine one of the oldest and most prominent theories of personality, Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. I think it is important to understand psychoanalytic theory before covering the various mental illnesses, because to some extent, the classifications of mental illness are loosely based on this theory. D. In Lectures Seven through Eleven, we will ask why we consider some behaviors to be abnormal and will classify these behaviors into categories of mental illnesses. I have found that it is better to examine abnormal behavior and therapies early in the course because, much as we might learn how a car works when it breaks down, we can learn a good deal about normal behavior by examining abnormal behavior. E. In Lectures Twelve through Seventeen, we consider three categories of therapies that can be used in treating mental illnesses. I cover these categories separately from the illnesses themselves because, unlike physical illnesses, for which a particular therapy is used to treat a single illness, for mental illnesses, a particular illness might be treated by several different therapies, and the type of therapy chosen is sometimes determined more by the orientation of the therapist than by the illness. F. In Lectures Eighteen through Twenty-Two, we examine some theories of motivation, that is, what drives us; of emotion, how we feel about events; and of psychoactive drugs, because drugs are a major way of altering our emotions. G. In Lectures Twenty-Three and Twenty-Four, we look in detail at influence, one of the sub-areas of the very large field of social psychology. H. In Lectures Twenty-Five through Thirty-One, we explore three of the major research areas of experimental psychology (learning, memory, and perception), emphasizing how our views of these areas have changed in recent years. I. In Lectures Thirty-Three through Thirty-Four, we use the recently prominent field of evolutionary psychology to help us try to answer questions about why we behave the way we do. J. In Lecture Thirty-Five, we consider engineering psychology, one of the several fields of applied psychology. K. In Lecture Thirty-Six, I give a quick review of what we have covered in the course and a thumbnail sketch of several of areas we will not have time to cover in detail, such as neuropsychology, which we will discuss only briefly when we look at psychoactive drugs and drug therapies; cognitive modeling, which we will touch on in the context of complex learning; and developmental psychology, including child psychology and gerontology. Essential Reading: th D. P. Schultz and S. E. Schultz, A History of Modern Psychology, 7 ed. Supplementary Reading: th James Kalat, Introduction to Psychology, 6 ed. Questions to Consider: 1. Should psychology still be considered only one discipline, or should it be redefined into several disciplines? 2. Do you think the behaviorists were right—that it is ultimately impossible to know the inner workings of the human mind, or are the cognitive psychologists right—that there are ways of knowing the mind? ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 5 Lecture Two Experimentation as a Research Method Scope: Experimentation has been adopted as one of the primary research methods of psychology. In an experiment, there is an attempt to establish a causal relationship between at least one circumstance and one behavior. Of the infinite number of circumstances, one circumstance, called the independent variable, is operationally defined by the experimenter and set on at least two levels. A behavior is then operationally defined and measured as the independent variable is manipulated. Other circumstances, called control variables, are set and not allowed to vary during the experiment. Some circumstances, are allowed to vary by chance; in an experiment, these are called random variables. Random variables contribute to the generalizability of results. Well-designed experiments have no confounding variables, which are those that change along with the levels of the independent variable. Outline I. As a science, much of psychology has modeled itself after the so-called hard sciences and adopted experimentation as a primary research methodology. A. Suppose you were asked to pretend you were a psychologist conducting research on the question: “Does violence on TV cause aggression in children?” 1. Many people would propose doing an experiment that involved at least two groups of children, one that watched violent TV shows and one that watched nonviolent TV shows. 2. An immediate problem is how to define violent with respect to TV shows. 3. What is required is an operational definition that describes the operations one would go through to determine which shows are violent and which are nonviolent (for example, ratings systems, checklists, and so on). B. Another problem is to determine how to measure aggression in children. 1. Saying that we will observe the children’s behavior is not enough. 2. Again, what is required is an operational definition of aggression, such as the percent of time the children play with aggressive versus nonaggressive toys. C. Another problem is choosing representative children to use in the groups. 1. Should children be randomly assigned, or should they be chosen to represent some established criteria? 2. Randomization is a powerful selection mechanism that can eliminate the need to control many variables. II. Experimentation is an agreed-on way to establish a causal relationship between a circumstance and a behavior. A. Picture on the left a vertical list of individual circumstances that we want to relate to one or more behaviors. 1. For our thought experiment, the list might include such items as violent TV shows, size of TV set, age of children, size of group watching TV, length of time in each TV session, number of TV sessions, and so on. 2. This list would be potentially infinite in length. B. To indicate the possible behaviors that could be measured, picture a vertical list on the right that shows all behaviors that could possibly be measured. 1. For our thought experiment, the list might include such items as type of toys played with, number of hitting incidents, noise level of the room, and so on. 2. The list of behaviors is also potentially infinite. C. Imagine an arrow pointing from the list of circumstances to the list of behaviors, indicating that the purpose of any experiment is to establish a causal relationship between circumstances and behaviors. 6 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership III. When conducting an experiment, some choices must be made regarding the circumstances and the behaviors. A. First, at least one of the circumstances must be chosen to manipulate, that is, to be set on at least two levels. 1. The circumstance that the experimenter chooses to manipulate is called the independent variable because it is independent of the subject’s behavior. 2. In our thought experiment, the independent variable would be something like viewing violent TV shows versus viewing nonviolent TV shows. B. At least one behavior must also be chosen to be measured during the experiment. 1. The behavior that the experimenter chooses to measure is called the dependent variable because it is potentially dependent on the levels of the independent variable. 2. In our thought experiment, the dependent variable might be time spent playing with aggressive toys or nonaggressive toys, as defined by the operational definition. C. Although the rest of the items on the behavior list can now be ignored, the rest of the circumstances list must be partitioned. 1. Some of the circumstances must be set at a particular level and not be allowed to vary during the experiment; these are called control variables because the experimenter exerts control over them. 2. In our thought experiment, some control variables might be size of the TV viewing group, size of the TV set, size of the TV viewing room, external noise allowed into the room, and so on. 3. Some of the circumstances will be allowed to vary through random selection; these are called random variables. 4. In our experiment, some random variables might include the children’s socioeconomic status, the day of the week, or the weather outside. 5. Random variables are necessary in some cases because it is impossible to control some circumstances. 6. Random variables are also desirable in some cases because they allow results to be generalized to a larger population. D. Experimenters must avoid having one or more circumstances vary along with the levels of the independent variable. 1. When a circumstance varies along with the independent variable, it is called a confounding variable. 2. A confounding variable makes the results of an experiment ambiguous because it is not possible to know whether the change in behavior was the result of the independent variable or the confounding variable. 3. In our thought experiment, if one group watched 2 hours of nonviolent TV and the other group watched 4 hours of violent TV, we wouldn’t know whether any change in aggressiveness was the result of violence or time spent watching. IV. Another example is an experiment I conducted that attempted to measure the relationship between students’ attentiveness and the professor’s lecture pace. A. I varied the lecture pace from slow to medium to fast. B. Ambient noise levels in the lecture room were measured. C. The idea behind this was that when the students were quieter, they were more attentive; when they were rustling papers and talking, they were less attentive. D. Graphing the noise level as a function of low, medium, and high pace, I found that the students were most attentive when I spoke at a medium pace. E. This experiment embodied potential confounding variables. 1. My voice pitch tended to get lower when I spoke at a slower pace and higher when I spoke at a faster pace. 2. The number of words I used to talk about a concept also varied, depending on the pace of my speech. 3. It is important to be aware of confounding variables to try to eliminate them or, if that is not possible, to explain them. ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 7 V. If you manipulate an independent variable, measure a dependent variable, manage your controlled and random variables, and have no confounding variables, then you can attribute the change in behavior to the levels of the independent variables. This is a causal statement; the change in the independent variable caused the change in the dependent variable. This is the only methodology we have in which one piece of research shows a causal relationship between a set of circumstances and behavior. Essential Reading: th David Martin, Doing Psychology Experiments, 6 ed., chapter 2. Supplementary Reading: th Keith Stanovich, How to Think Straight about Psychology, 7 ed. Questions to Consider: 1. What would be good operational definitions for the following terms: intelligence, spousal abuse, attention? 2. Under what conditions is randomization preferable to control in an experiment? 8 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership Lecture Three Nonexperimental Research Methods Scope: After experimentation, the next most widely used research method in psychology is correlational observation, in which there is no independent variable. In this case, the researcher attempts to determine whether there is a relationship between two behaviors. A statistical test can provide a correlation coefficient, which can indicate a strong relationship (the closer it is to 1.0) or a weaker relationship (the closer it is to 0). The numerical sign signifies the direction of the relationship. A single correlational observation cannot be used to infer causality, because we cannot determine which variable caused the other variable to change or if some third variable caused both to change. Psychologists also sometimes use qualitative designs to do research: ethnography, which is used to find behavior patterns through interviews and observation; naturalistic observation, in which behavior is observed in its natural setting; and case studies, in which a single individual is studied extensively and usually over a period of time to reveal recurring patterns. Qualitative designs have a number of limiting factors, including inability to draw causal inferences, limits on the use of statistical tests, subjectivity, and reliance on memory. Outline I. The second most widely used research method in psychology is correlational observation. A. When correlational observation is used, no independent variable is manipulated. 1. In correlational observation, the researcher attempts to determine whether there is a relationship between two behaviors that are usually both under the control of the subject. 2. If we were trying to relate viewing violence on TV to aggression in children, we might have parents keep a TV log to determine the average level of violence of the shows watched and ask teachers to rate the aggressiveness of each child. B. To determine whether there was a relationship between violence and aggression, a statistical computation could be used to find the correlation coefficient. 1. A correlation coefficient of 1.0 indicates that one variable is perfectly predictable from the other. 2. A correlation coefficient of 0 indicates that neither variable is useful in predicting the other one. 3. A correlation coefficient with a + sign indicates that as one variable increases, the other increases; a – sign indicates that as one variable increases, the other decreases. C. Because no variable is independently manipulated, a single correlational observation cannot be used to establish causality. 1. In our TV research, even if we found a strong relationship between the average level of violence viewed on TV and the children’s aggressiveness, we could not conclude that the TV viewing caused the aggressiveness. 2. One reason for our inability to establish causality is that, although the first variable might have caused the change in the second variable, alternatively, the second variable might have caused the change in the first. This is a problem of directionality. 3. For example, in our TV research, it may be that aggressive children choose to watch TV shows having more violence. 4. A second reason for our inability to infer causality is that a third variable that we haven’t even measured might have unknowingly caused the relationship between the ones we measured. 5. In our TV research, perhaps aggressive parents teach their children to be aggressive and aggressive parents also pick more violent TV shows for their children to watch. D. An additional example illustrating the difficulty in inferring causality from correlational data is an experiment that attempted to predict G.I. motorcycle accidents. 1. It was found that the more tattoos a G.I. had, the more motorcycle accidents he had. 2. Clearly, motorcycle accidents do not cause tattoos, nor do tattoos cause motorcycle accidents. ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 9 3. The tattoos and motorcycle accidents are probably related through a third variable, such as a preference for bodily risk. E. Cigarette packs make a causal statementthat smoking causes health problems. 1. We knew many years ago that people who smoke have more health problemsa correlational observation. 2. But we can’t make a causal statement from a correlational observation, and it was not until all other possible third variables were eliminated as possible causes through additional research that a causal statement could be made. F. Surveys are usually done with correlational datano independent variables have been manipulated. Surveys have the advantage of access to opinions, but because the data are correlational, we can’t make causal statements from them. G. We should also be wary of news headlines, which often make causal statements from correlational observations. II. Experimentation and correlational observation are both considered quantitative research designs because the data collected are numerical, but qualitative designs are sometimes used in psychology, in which the data cannot be quantified. A. Ethnography attempts to observe and collect data from those living in a particular culture or undergoing a common experience. 1. Ethnographers may interview individuals to understand common patterns of behavior. 2. Ethnographers sometimes set up focus groups that bring together individuals who have similar life experiences. B. In naturalistic observation, behaviors are observed within their naturally occurring setting by an unobtrusive observer. C. In case-history research (also called case studies) the behavior of a single individual is studied extensively and usually over a period of time in order to reveal recurring patterns. D. Care must be taken in drawing conclusions from qualitative research. 1. Inferring causation is particularly dangerous because the data are correlational and, thus, no variable has been independently manipulated. 2. Most qualitative research does not lend itself to the standard statistical techniques used in quantitative research. 3. Interpretations of behaviors are typically more subjective and open to researcher biases. 4. Case-history research has the additional drawback of being based on data that may be subject to memory loss or distortion. Essential Reading: th David Martin, Doing Psychology Experiments, 6 ed., chapter 1. Supplementary Reading: nd John Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2 ed., chapter 10. W. R. Shadish, T. D. Cook, and D. T. Campbell, Experimental and Quasi-experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Questions to Consider: 1. Can you think of a case where there would likely be a strong correlational relationship between two variables without a causal relationship? 2. Why do you think it took so long for a statement to be printed on the outside of cigarette packs warning that, in one way or another, smoking causes health problems? 10 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership Lecture Four Evolutionary Theory and Modern Psychology Scope: During most of the history of psychology, human behavior has been considered to be largely a function of environmental influences, with few innate behaviors. Recently, there has been a trend to view behavior within an evolutionary context. Charles Darwin proposed the theory of evolution, which requires three simple factors: inheritability, genetic variation, and selection. Further improvements to the theory were made by Mendel, Lorenz, Hamilton, Trivers, and Wilson. Evolutionary psychologists believe that this approach can help explain why humans behave the way they do. One common misunderstanding is that evolutionary psychologists attribute behavior solely to genetics; in actuality, evolutionary psychologists believe that behavior results from the interplay of genes with the environment. Another misconception is that built-in behavioral dispositions cannot be changed. A third misconception is that built-in behaviors are optimal when, in fact, mismatches may occur as a result of rapidly changing environmental conditions. Evolutionary psychology is not without its critics: Some claim that it is just a theory; others say that it is too post hoc and, thereby, irrefutable; and others fear that it may be used to rationalize social injustices. Outline I. Because of the dominance of behaviorism and cognitive psychology through much of the history of psychology, the role of experience was given predominance over the role of built-in behavioral predispositions. A. Behaviorists took the Lockean position that the organism is a blank slate to be written upon by experience and concluded that the study of learning should be the cornerstone of psychology. B. Cognitive psychologists adopted as a metaphor the unprogrammed computer, in which experience writes the software programs, and the primary study of psychology is of the information processing done by these cognitive programs. II. A recent trend in psychology is to view human behavior in an evolutionary context, in which behavior is the result of an interplay between built-in evolutionary adaptations and environmental constraints. A. With his book On the Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin put forth the basic principles of evolution. B. Darwin proposed that there are three basic processes required for evolution to take place. 1. Although Darwin did not fully understand how it happens, he knew that there must be some way for inheritability to occur, for genetic material to be passed down through successive generations. 2. There must be variation (through mutation or sexual reproduction) in the genetic process. 3. There must be selection of some sort, such as natural selection. C. Subsequently, a number of improvements and revisions have been made to Darwin’s basic evolutionary theory that allow it to be more easily applied to human behavior. D. An Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, discovered that inheritance was particulate, that is, carried by discrete units called genes that are passed down to subsequent generations in an all-or-none manner. E. An ethologist, Konrad Lorenz, discovered that many animals have innate behavior patterns that have developed as evolutionary adaptations and are triggered by environmental cues. 1. One of Lorenz’s more famous studies involved goslings following the first moving object they saw after hatching, which happened to be Lorenz, a phenomenon called imprinting. 2. In this case, a fixed behavior pattern (the following behavior), occurred in the presence of a sign stimulus (Lorenz). F. In 1964, the biologist William D. Hamilton proposed inclusive fitness theory, asserting that fitness includes not only an individual’s reproductive success but also the reproductive success of genetic relatives, which introduced gene-level thinking. G. In the early 1970s, Robert Trivers proposed three theories that extended evolutionary thinking: reciprocal altruism, parental investment theory, and parent-offspring conflict. ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 11 1. Reciprocal altruism theory claims that reciprocal altruism has an adaptive advantage: If you do something good for someone, he or she will do something good for you later. 2. Parental investment theory claims that because women invest more time than men in the reproductive process and the raising of offspring, men and women may have differing value systems in picking mates. 3. The parent/offspring conflict theory suggests that conflicts arise because parents are related equally to all their offspring, while the offspring are related to each other by only 50% but to themselves by 100%; thus, their values are not equal to those of their parents. H. In 1975, Edward O. Wilson published Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, proposing that evolutionary concepts could be applied to all animals, including humans. I. Evolutionary thinking offers psychology the possibility of explaining not only the what and how of human behavior but also the why. III. Several common misunderstandings have arisen about evolutionary theory as applied to human behavior. A. One misunderstanding is a false nature-versus-nurture dichotomy. 1. Human behavior requires both evolved adaptations that are built into the individual and environmental conditions that activate these adaptations. 2. Sun-tanning is an example of the interaction of an adaptation, melanin synthesis, with the environment, causing uv exposure. b 3. In a similar way, it is naïve to ask whether intelligence is the result of nature or nurture. B. A second misunderstanding is that if an adaptation is built in, we cannot change it. 1. Because all behavior results from an interplay of nature with nurture, we can change behavior. 2. In the case of sun-tanning, we can control the shade of our skin by staying inside, covering our bodies, using sunscreen, and so on. 3. We can also change intelligence by manipulating the environment. C. A third misunderstanding is that current adaptations are optimal. 1. Evolutionary change is a slow process, but the environment can change rapidly; for this reason, we can point to many cases of mismatches between adaptations that were optimal during a previous adaptation period and the current environment. 2. An example of a mismatch is humans’ craving for fat and sugar and the minimization of unnecessary exercise, which was appropriate for an environment in which food was scarce, and the current environment, in which fat and sugar and exercise-saving machines are readily available, with the result obesity. IV. We will discuss evolutionary psychology in more detail in future lectures, but in the meantime, keep in mind these caveats: A. Although evolutionary theory is the most widely accepted theory in the scientific belief system about how we got to be the way we are, the scientific belief system itself is just a belief system and may compete with other personal belief systems. B. Evolutionary psychology is sometimes criticized as being too post hoc and, because of this, able to explain any type of behavior. C. There is a danger of applying the naturalistic fallacy that justifies our nature: If it is built in, it must be okay. Essential Reading: David M. Buss, Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. Supplementary Reading: Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species. Steven J. C. Gaulin and Donald H. McBurney, Psychology: An Evolutionary Approach. John Dupré, Human Nature and the Limits of Science. 12 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership Questions to Consider: 1. What evidence would it take to convince you that a particular behavior (for example, monogamy) is an evolutionary adaptation rather than environmentally learned? 2. For what behaviors besides eating is there a mismatch between today’s environment and our ancestors’ environment of evolutionary adaptation? ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 13 Lecture Five Freud’s Thinking Scope: Historically, the most prominent theory of personality is psychoanalytic theory, proposed by Sigmund Freud around 1900. Freud was a medical doctor who had patients with hysteria and, partly as a result of studying hypnotism, he began to believe that the unconscious level drives most of human behavior. Although Freud may not have been the first to propose the unconscious, he was the one who emphasized it as the largest component of the personality. This notion is now a major underlying concept that has led to many current policies and institutions. Freud also proposed that our personalities are made up of three parts. The id acts on a pleasure principle and, if unchecked, would cause us to behave in a hedonistic way. The superego operates on a moral principle and uses guilt to enforce rule-bound behavior. The ego operates on a reality principle and mediates between the id and the superego to determine appropriate behavior. Outline I. One of the major areas of psychology is the study of theories of personality, of which there are many. A. For good or ill, the name most associated with psychology is Sigmund Freud, the father of the most famous personality theory, psychoanalytic theory, and psychoanalysis. 1. Freud was born in Moravia in 1856; moved to Vienna, Austria, at the age of four when his father’s business failed; and studied medicine at the University of Vienna. 2. Freud was a rather unsuccessful physician in private practice until he began working with women having hysteria. 3. He studied hypnotism in Paris with Charcot, which helped to convince him of the power of the unconscious. 4. In 1900, he published The Interpretation of Dreams and, in 1901, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, both of which introduced psychoanalytic theory. B. The major cornerstone of psychoanalytic theory is the notion that our behavior is driven mainly by sexual and aggressive energy manifested at the unconscious level of the mind. 1. The unconscious is sometimes characterized as the submerged part of an iceberg; the part above water is the conscious level; and the waterline is a censoring mechanism preventing thoughts in the unconscious from entering the conscious level. 2. Freud believed that at the unconscious level, there are instincts from birth, one of which is the life force, or libido. This is largely made up of sexual energy. 3. Freud also talked about the death instinct, which exists at the unconscious level and may cause suicide or lead to aggressive behavior. Freud believed that efforts to suppress this instinct lead to conflict. 4. Although Freud is credited with inventing the notion of the unconscious, he was not the first to discuss the importance of the unconscious, as noted in an 1870 book by Henry Maudsley, Body and Mind. 5. Freud believed that all of behavior is determined, that there are no mistakes or accidents. 6. The notion of the unconscious permeates our society and forms the underpinnings of many of our institutions, such as our judicial system, prisons, and mental institutions. II. Beyond the concept of the unconscious, Freud proposed that our personalities were made up of three conflicting entities. A. The earliest and most basic part of the personality is the id. 1. The id operates on a pleasure principle: If it feels good, do it. 2. The id is built in at birth and is part of our basic physiology. 3. If we were solely id, we would take whatever we wanted in life without any consideration of others. B. During childhood, with proper instruction from our parents and society, the superego is formed. 1. The superego operates on a moral principle and is a concept essentially equivalent to the conscience. 14 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 2. The superego contains all the rules, the dos and don’ts taught to us early in our lives. 3. The superego has guilt as its weapon against the pleasures of the id. 4. Obviously, the id and the superego have major conflicts, because many of the ways the id wants to behave are against the rules of the superego. C. Acting as a mediator between the id and the superego is the ego. 1. The ego operates on a reality principle. 2. One role of the ego is to act as the referee between the id and the superego, giving each enough control to allow the game of life to be played. 3. As the ego develops strength, it begins to carry around a self-concept that can be used as a standard, so that each conflict between the id and superego does not have to be individually mediated. Essential Reading: Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Supplementary Reading: F. C. Crews, Unauthorized Freud. th Robert Nye, Three Psychologies: Perspectives from Freud, Skinner, and Rogers, 4 ed., chapter 3. Questions to Consider: 1. Do you think that most of behavior is driven by an unconscious level, and if so, what evidence would you cite to support that belief? 2. If hypnotism and dreams are not products of the unconscious, how else would you explain them? ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 15 Lecture Six Details of Psychoanalytic Theory Scope: Psychoanalytic theory proposes that psychosexual energy is focused on various anatomical parts during a series of developmental stages. During the oral stage, the energy is on activities of the mouth, such as eating, and insufficient gratification can lead to oral fixations, including overeating. During the anal stage, the focus is on toilet training, and fixations can lead to compulsive or slovenly behaviors. During the phallic stage, the focus is on dominance and aggressive activities, and fixation can involve undue competitiveness. During the genital phase, sharing, caring, mature relationships can occur. Boys go through an Oedipus conflict in which, unconsciously, they would like to sexually possess their mothers, but the father is in the way and might castrate them. This is resolved in the latent period, when boys learn to behave like dad in order to attract someone like mom. Girls discover they are missing a part and have penis envy, which leads them to want to possess dad or a boy child. During the latent period, they learn to act like mom as a wife and mother. Defense mechanisms are unconscious ways that we lie to ourselves to protect our psyches. These include: repression, rationalization, and projection. Some would argue that Freud’s theory has outlived its usefulness in today’s world, while others assert that parts of the theory are still applicable and that Freud’s writings are valuable from a philosophical and literary point of view. Outline I. Psychoanalytic theory is a developmental theory and proposes that a person’s psychosexual energy, called the libido, is cathected, or focused, on various anatomical parts; this process produces stages of development of the personality. A. In the earliest stage, the oral stage, energy is focused on the mouth, and oral activities give the most pleasure. 1. Especially during the first year of life, the baby is active in seeking out food and engaging in other oral activities, such as thumb sucking and teething. 2. If oral gratification is not sufficient, the person can get fixated on the oral stage, which might lead to such later-life activities as overeating, compulsive smoking, nail biting, and so on. B. The second stage, the anal stage, occurs at ages 2 to 4, and the energy is fixated on the anus. 1. During the anal stage, the child derives pleasure from anal activities, particularly those associated with toilet training. 2. If parents are too strict with toilet training, an anal compulsive fixation can occur, which in later life might be manifested in such behaviors as compulsive neatness. 3. If parents are too lenient in toilet training, the person might in later life be slovenly and disorganized. C. The third stage is the phallic stage, occurring about ages 3 to 5, in which the energy is focused on the (male) genitals. 1. During the phallic stage, energy is focused on the genitals, at least in little boys, and pleasure is derived from masturbatory behaviors and in behaviors related to dominance and aggression. 2. In the phallic stage, little boys begin to play aggressive games, such as war and king-of-the-hill, and to show dominance. 3. A fixation in the phallic stage can lead to adult behavior that overemphasizes competitiveness and treats women as trophies. D. After the third stage is the latent period, which is not really a stage and will be discussed later in this lecture. E. The last stage is called the genital stage and occurs around the time of puberty. 1. During the genital stage, energy is still focused on the genitals, but the focus is on developing caring/sharing relationships with significant others (of the opposite sex, according to Freud). 2. According to Freud, one cannot develop full maturity as a person unless the genital stage is achieved. II. During the phallic stage and into the latent period, Freud proposed that some complex dynamics occur and that 16 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership these dynamics are different for boys than for girls. A. During the phallic stage, when little boys are engaging in competitive activities and looking for prizes to be won, at the unconscious level, they discover that mom is the biggest prize and have yearnings to possess her sexually. This is called the Oedipus conflict. 1. An obvious impediment to the little boy’s desire for his mother is his father. 2. At the unconscious level, the boy is afraid of his dad even to the point that, if his desire were known, dad might castrate him; this fear causes castration anxiety. 3. The resolution of this Oedipus conflictthe desire for mom with the fear of dadis that the boy resolves to be like dad so that he can attract someone like mom. 4. The boy begins to behave like dad, and the latent period is needed to give the boy sufficient time to learn the sex-typed behavior to be like dad. B. During the phallic stage, the little girl discovers she is missing an anatomical part and develops penis envy. 1. Her unconscious tells her that one way she can gain this missing part is to possess dad sexually; thus, she develops the female equivalent of the Oedipus conflict, sometimes called the Electra conflict. 2. A second way she could get a penis is to have a boy child. 3. Because mom is in the way, preventing her from possessing dad and having a child, she resolves the Electra conflict by deciding to become like mom, both as a wife and as a mother, and uses the latency period to learn the sex-typing that allows her to do this. III. Because there is so much conflict present in the personality, such as the conflict among the id, superego, and ego, our personalities have developed unconscious ways of defending ourselves against the anxiety generated by conflict. A. The way we deal with this anxiety is to use what are called defense mechanisms, which are lies we tell ourselves at the unconscious level. 1. Freud proposed a number of defense mechanisms, one of the most important of which is repression. This mechanism is used to keep unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and memories at an unconscious level and prevent these from reaching consciousness. 2. A second widely used defense mechanism is rationalization, which makes unacceptable and irrational behaviors appear rational. 3. Projection is a third defense mechanism, in which we deny our unacceptable characteristics and assign, or project, them onto other people. B. Although some might argue that all defense mechanisms are bad because they are dishonest, others assert that when used in moderation, defense mechanisms lead to positive mental health outcomes. 1. A way to illustrate defense mechanisms is to draw a continuum from bad to good and have people indicate where on that continuum they fall. 2. The fact that the vast majority of people place themselves in the upper half (“good”) of that continuum shows the power of defense mechanisms. IV. Some psychologists today would argue that Freud’s psychoanalytic theory has worn out its usefulness and is no longer relevant, while others maintain that there is still some usefulness to the theory. A. Mikita Brottman argues that most psychologists consider Freud’s theories to be absolutely irrelevant to modern science, but non-psychologists think that he is a valuable writer, theorist, and philosopher, much like Marx or Hegel. B. Linda Peterson has written a tongue-in-cheek feminist version of psychoanalytic theory, proposing that little boys have vagina envy, which illustrates that the theory is largely semantic and not data-based. C. I would argue that the concept of the unconscious has been quite valuable to modern society and still has social relevance. D. It may also be the case that if one gets rid of the controversial anatomical names for the developmental stages, there may still be some validity to the concepts involved. ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 17 Essential Reading: Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Supplementary Reading: Mikita Brottman, “The Two Freuds,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 9, 2004, p. B5. Questions to Consider: 1. How would you go about collecting scientifically defensible evidence for the existence of Freud’s psychosexual stages of development? 2. Do you think that psychoanalytic theory offers a language and conceptual structure that helps you understand behaviors and events in your life? 18 ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership Lecture Seven Classification of Mental Illnesses Scope: The definition of abnormal behavior is multidimensional, a mixture of various criteria for determining whether a behavior pattern is normal. It is somewhat subjective and can change over time. Some of the criteria that can be used in this determination include the following: whether the behavior is statistically rare, whether the behavior violates social and moral norms, whether the behavior is so unpredictable that it causes safety concerns, and whether the behavior causes unhappiness. People have been trying to classify mental illness from the time of Hippocrates (400 B.C.) until today (DSM-IV–TR™). Today’s system has increased its reliability by focusing on observable behaviors, rather than underlying theoretically based constructs. The system also has multiple axes that evaluate not only the clinical condition of a person but also whether the person has a personality disorder or mental retardation, whether there is a medical condition present, whether there are life stressors, and whether the person functions at a satisfactory level. In any particular year, more than 18% of the U.S. population will have mental disorders, with the most frequent being anxiety disorder (12%), substance abuse (6%), mood disorder (5%), and schizophrenia (1%). Outline I. Many criteria can be used to determine whether a person’s behavior is normal or abnormal and whether the person has a mental disorder. A. One criterion is whether the person’s behavior is statistically deviant, although this criterion by itself is not sufficient for inferring mental illness; for example, geniuses are rare, but that does not mean they are mentally ill. B. Another criterion is whether the person is violating the moral and social standards of society enough that it makes others uncomfortable. For example, exhibitionists may be of no danger to others, but they make us uncomfortable. C. Another criterion is whether the behavior is so unpredictable that we are unsure whether the person exhibiting the behavior may harm him- or herself or others. D. A final criterion is whether the person is unhappy with his or her condition. E. In most states and provinces, for a person to be committed to a mental facility, he or she must have a mental illness and must be of potential harm to others or to himself or herself. II. Classification and treatment of mental disorders has a long history. A. What is the advantage of classifying mental illness? 1. The treatment depends on the classification. 2. An additional reason is that health insurance payments depend on the classification. 3. A disadvantage of classification is that it can become a self-fulfilling prophesy. B. We know from archeological digs that mental disorders were apparently treated by trephining, the process of chipping a hole in the skull. C. Hippocrates (460–377 B.C.), the father of medicine, offered the first classification of mental disorders, into three categories: mania, melancholia, and phrenitis (brain fever). D. From the Islamic tradition, Avicenna from Arabia (c. 980–1037) added epilepsy and hysteria to the list of disorders. E. Not much progress was made in the classification of mental illnesses through the Middle Ages and even up th to the 20 century. Throughout this time, mental illness was considered to be caused by possession by demons. ©2006 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 19

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