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CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN September 2015 Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries i Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................ iv 1. Introductory Chapter about ASEAN ........................................................................................ 1 1. ASEAN ................................................................................................................................ 1 2. ASEAN COST ..................................................................................................................... 7 3. Outline of S&T in ASEAN countries ................................................................................... 9 2. Singapore ............................................................................................................................... 17 2.1 Outline ............................................................................................................................. 17 2.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ............................................................. 17 2.3 Science and Technology Policy ....................................................................................... 19 2.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ................................................................. 21 2.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ........................................................................... 24 2.6 Output Index of Science and Technology ........................................................................ 28 2.7 Foreign Relations ............................................................................................................. 31 2.8 Topics on Science and Technology .................................................................................. 32 2.9 Summary .......................................................................................................................... 40 3. Malaysia ................................................................................................................................ 43 3.1 Outline ............................................................................................................................. 43 3.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ............................................................. 43 3.3 Science and Technology Policy ....................................................................................... 46 3.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ................................................................. 50 3.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ........................................................................... 53 3.6 Output Index of Science and Technology ........................................................................ 53 3.7 Foreign Relations ............................................................................................................. 54 3.8 Topics on Science and Technology .................................................................................. 58 3.9 Summary .......................................................................................................................... 62 4. Thailand ................................................................................................................................. 63 4.1 Outline ............................................................................................................................. 63 4.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ............................................................. 63 4.3 Science and Technology Policy ....................................................................................... 65 4.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ................................................................. 69 4.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ........................................................................... 74 4.6 Output Index of Science and Technology ........................................................................ 75 4.7 Foreign Relations ............................................................................................................. 76 4.8 Topics on Science and Technology .................................................................................. 79 4.9 Summary .......................................................................................................................... 80 5. Vietnam ................................................................................................................................. 83 5.1 Outline ............................................................................................................................. 83 CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries ii 5.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ............................................................. 83 5.3 Science and Technology Policy ....................................................................................... 86 5.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ................................................................. 92 5.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ........................................................................... 97 5.6 Output Index of Science and Technology ........................................................................ 98 5.7 Foreign relations ............................................................................................................ 100 5.8 Topics on Science and Technology ................................................................................ 103 5.9 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 105 6. Indonesia ............................................................................................................................. 107 6.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................ 107 6.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ........................................................... 107 6.3 Science and Technology Policy ..................................................................................... 111 6.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ............................................................... 112 6.5 Input indexes for science and technology ...................................................................... 116 6.6 Output Indexes for Science and Technology .................................................................. 117 6.7 Foreign Relations ........................................................................................................... 118 6.8 Topics in Science and Technology ................................................................................. 122 6.9 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 123 7. The Philippines .................................................................................................................... 125 7.1 Outline ........................................................................................................................... 125 7.2 Current socioeconomic trends and background .............................................................. 125 7.3 Science and Technology Policy ..................................................................................... 127 7.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ............................................................... 129 7.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ......................................................................... 133 7.6 Output Index of Science and Technology ...................................................................... 134 7.7 Foreign Relations ........................................................................................................... 136 7.8 Topics on Science and Technology ................................................................................ 139 7.9 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 142 8. Cambodia............................................................................................................................. 145 8.1 Outline ........................................................................................................................... 145 8.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ........................................................... 145 8.3 Science and Technology Policy ..................................................................................... 148 8.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ............................................................... 149 8.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ......................................................................... 151 8.6 Output Index of Science and Technology ...................................................................... 152 8.7 Foreign Relations ........................................................................................................... 153 8.8 Topics on Science and Technology ................................................................................ 154 8.9 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 154 9. Laos ..................................................................................................................................... 157 9.1 Outline ........................................................................................................................... 157 CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries iii 9.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ........................................................... 157 9.3 Science and Technology Policy ..................................................................................... 159 9.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ............................................................... 161 9.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ......................................................................... 164 9.6 Output Index of Science and Technology ...................................................................... 165 9.7 Foreign Relations ........................................................................................................... 166 9.8 Topics on Science and Technology ................................................................................ 168 9.9 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 169 10. Brunei ................................................................................................................................ 171 10.1 Outline ......................................................................................................................... 171 10.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ......................................................... 171 10.3 Science and Technology Policy.................................................................................... 173 10.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ............................................................. 175 10.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ....................................................................... 177 10.6 Output Index of Science and Technology .................................................................... 178 10.7 Foreign Relations ......................................................................................................... 178 10.8 Topics on Science and Technology .............................................................................. 179 10.9 Summary ...................................................................................................................... 180 11. Myanmar............................................................................................................................ 183 11.1 Outline ......................................................................................................................... 183 11.2 Current Socioeconomic Trends and Background ......................................................... 183 11.3 Science and Technology Policy.................................................................................... 186 11.4 Promotion Bodies of Science and Technology ............................................................. 188 11.5 Input Index of Science and Technology ....................................................................... 190 11.6 Output Index of Science and Technology .................................................................... 190 11.7 Foreign Relations ......................................................................................................... 191 11.8 Topics on Science and Technology .............................................................................. 193 11.9 Summary ...................................................................................................................... 194 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 196 Authors .................................................................................................................................... 197 CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries iv Introduction Although the economic development in ASEAN countries has been discussed quite frequently in recent years, the development of science and technology (S&T) hasn’t attracted so much attention except in Singapore. However, as labor costs rose and politics in foreign relations began to show problems in China, the “China Plus One” management strategy has developed widely in ASEAN countries on the initiative of Japanese companies. As a result, Japanese companies expanded its business not only in Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia that have had a close relationship with Japan, but also in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. It is said that this has contributed to the economy growth in these countries. Just as many countries in the world have previously done in the past, when economic growth reaches a certain level, policies for S&T are promoted and strengthened in order to maintain and further develop the growth. This cross-country report summarizes the result of the research and analysis on the progress of S&T in ASEAN countries. Speaking of the outline of the survey result, the progress of general S&T in ASEAN countries is not so rapid compared to the significant progress in economy. Most of the countries except for Singapore, which shows high performance as developed as Western countries and Japan, focus on the development of S&T-related infrastructure and human resources with advanced skills. It is still too early for these countries to contribute to the world’s S&T in the front lines. Malaysia and Thailand are thought to be at a relatively high level after Singapore. It is considered that these two countries and Singapore are able to build substantive relationships of cooperation with researchers in Japan, China and South Korea. Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines follow next. These countries have a large population and are expected to gain great impacts when they see more economy growth in the future, but they have not yet reached that stage as of today. Out of the other four ASEAN countries, Cambodia, Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic) and Myanmar are busy dealing with nation-building and infrastructure development, and they have yet to implement any S&T activities on a full scale. As Brunei (Brunei Darussalam) has the largest resources, there is no need to proactively conduct S&T activities. However, all these countries strive to promote S&T in their own way, recognizing its importance in underpinning national capability and economy. In particular, it is interesting to know that each country is conducting bio-related research activities based on the properties of geographical environment and biodiversity that are unique to Southeast Asia. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries v As for S&T cooperation between Japan and these ASEAN countries, Japan’s research level has been much higher than that of these countries except for some including Singapore, and there are not so many direct advantages to Japan so far. However, it should be noted that ASEAN countries have their eyes not only on Japan. China, which is rapidly growing in the S&T field, has already strengthened economic ties with ASEAN countries. In South Korea, not only the government but also companies such as Samsung are proactive in developing human resources in ASEAN countries as a corporate strategy. A preconceived image that ASEAN countries consider a relationship with Japan extremely important should be put aside. It is considered that Japan needs to fully understand the present situation of these countries and develop S&T relationships of cooperation with them in a strategic manner, depending on each country’s situation. I would be much obliged if this report will be of some help. June 2015 Yukihide HAYASHI Principal Fellow, Overseas Research Unit Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Introductory Chapter about ASEAN Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 1 1. Introductory Chapter about ASEAN 1. ASEAN (1) Outline The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand during the Vietnam War, with the support of the US that feared the communization of Southeast Asian countries, which has been assumed by the domino theory. The original five members included Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore, which were all anti-communist nations. Later, Brunei joined in 1984 after its independence from the UK, ASEAN’s position of anti-communism was considerably changed by Vietnam’s participation in ASEAN in 1995. It became a general regional cooperation organization for economy, society, politics, etc. Vietnam has been under the one-party rule of the Communist Party since 1976, when North and South Vietnam were unified. After the adoption of the Doi Moi (renovation) policy in 1986, followed by the signing of the Paris Peace Agreement in Cambodia in 1991 and the normalization of diplomatic relations with China, Vietnam normalized diplomatic ties with the US in 1995. This is the reason for agreement with Vietnam’s membership by the original five members. Myanmar and Laos became members in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999, making a total of 10 countries. As a notable activity in the future, the ASEAN Economic Community will be established at the end of 2015, which aims to realize economic revitalization within the region and liberalization of people, goods and services. (2) Population Many ASEAN countries have a large population. The figure 1-1 below shows populations of 10 ASEAN countries in order of size. Indonesia has the fourth largest population in the world next to China, India and the US, and the population of the Philippines and Vietnam is around 100 million. As for population of EU countries, Germany has the largest population of about 80 million, and the UK, France and Italy have about 60 million. This shows how large the populations are in ASEAN countries. On the contrary, Brunei, which has a population of only about 400,000, and Singapore, which has about 5.4 million population including expatriates, are also ASEAN members. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 2 Figure 1-1: Population Comparison in ASEAN Countries (2013) Unit: million Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators The figure 1-2 shows the comparison of the whole ASEAN population with the population of other major countries and regional unions. It indicates that the ASEAN population is larger than that of the EU as a regional union but about half of China or India, which have the largest population in neighboring countries. However, the ASEAN population is double that of the US, about four times larger than that of Russia and Japan, and about 12 times larger than that of South Korea. Figure 1-2: Comparison of Whole ASEAN Population with Population of Major Countries and Regional Union (2013) Unit: 100 million Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators (3) Political form Almost all ASEAN countries had been under the colonial rules of the West and they only obtained a political autonomous control at the time of their independence after the World War II. In order to move out of poverty and develop economic and social infrastructure, many countries have taken a dictatorial political form for development. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Introductory Chapter about ASEAN Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 3 Indonesia (Suharto Administration) and the Philippines (Marcos Administration) experienced a typical dictatorial development. At present, these countries were freed from the constraints of the charismatic leaders and are gradually establishing democracy. Cambodia has also been democratized after the period of the dictatorship by Pol Pot. Although not by a charismatic politician, dictatorship of a party or military forces has continued in Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar, and Brunei’s politics is under the rule of hereditary sultans. In Thailand, although it has been considered that democracy was established, the military currently holds control. A relatively stable political form has continued in Singapore and Malaysia after their independences from the UK. In these ways, each country in ASEAN has a different political form, and its characteristics are different from the EU that mainly consists of Christian democracies. (4) Religion Most Indonesians, which are the largest population in ASEAN, Malaysians and Bruneians are Muslims. On the other hand, most Vietnamese, Thai, Cambodian, Myanmar, Laos, Singaporean people are Buddhists. Filipinos are mostly Christians, and most Indians who live around the Malay Peninsula are Hindus. Religions are also different from those of the EU. A majority of people in the EU are Christians, which is relatively simple. (5) Economy 1. Nominal GDP If we compare all ASEAN countries with major countries and regional unions in the world, what position are they in? The following figure 1-3 is developed based on the 2013 statistics of the World Bank. It shows that the size of the ASEAN economy is about one seventh of that of the EU and the US about a quarter of that of China and about half of that in Japan so ASEAN economic scale is considered still small. Since there was no data of Myanmar in the World Bank statistics, data for ASEAN countries is a total of the other nine countries. According to the data in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2013, the nominal GDP of Myanmar was only 56.4 billion US dollars (“US dollars” is hereinafter referred as to “dollars”). It is considered that, even if data of Myanmar was added, it would not affect the total value of 2.4 trillion dollars. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 4 Figure 1-3: Comparison of Nominal GDP between all ASEAN Countries and Major Countries/Regional Unions (2013) Unit: trillion dollars Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators The figure 1-4 shows the nominal GDP comparison among individual ASEAN countries using the same figures of the World Bank. It should be noted that the unit is different from that used in the figure 1-3. Indonesia’s nominal GDP is the largest, which is still about one eleventh of that of China and about one sixth of that of Japan. Figure 1-4: Nominal GDP of ASEAN Countries (2013) Unit: billion dollars Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Introductory Chapter about ASEAN Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 5 2. Nominal GDP per capita The comparison of GDP between the total ASEAN GDP and GDP per capita shows a different status. The figure 1-5 shows GDP per capita in ASEAN countries in order of value, using the World Bank data in 2013. According to this, GDP value is extremely high in Singapore and Brunei, followed by Malaysia and Thailand. Indonesia has the highest GDP value in ASEAN but GDP per capita is the fifth highest, amounting to only one tenth of GDP of Singapore and Brunei. The Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar come next after these two countries. There was no data of Myanmar in IMF statistics. Figure 1-5: GDP per capita in major ASEAN Countries (2013) Unit: 1,000 dollar s Source: The World Bank The following figure 1-6 shows GDP per capita in the world and where these ASEAN countries are placed. Luxembourg of the EU has the world’s highest GDP per capita. Norway is second (not shown in the figure). Qatar, which is known as the largest crude oil and natural gas producer in the world, comes in third. As for ASEAN top-ranked countries, Singapore is ninth, and Brunei is 25th. Amongst The US’s GDP per capita is the tenth largest, and Japan is the 24th largest amongst major countries on the world. China is an economic power with the second highest GDP (national total) value in the world. However, its GDP per capita is a relatively small and is one eighth of that of Singapore because the country has a large population. China’s GDP per capita is around half of that of Malaysia. In ASEAN countries, the ratio of the highest GDP (Singapore) and the lowest (Myanmar) is 55:1. On the contrary, the ratio of the highest GDP per capita in the EU (Luxembourg) and the lowest (Bulgaria, 7,500 dollars) is 15:1, which shows the economic disparity in ASEAN countries is very large compared to that in EU countries. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 6 Figure 1-6: GDP per Capita in Major Countries (2013) Unit: 1,000 dollar s Source: The World Bank 3. Industrial structure Singapore is considered to have the most productive industrial structure in ASEAN countries and is active in intermediate trade and commerce, tourism and banking thanks to its geographical characteristics. In recent years, industries using S&T have been developing. Brunei is abundant in natural resources, and the national economy is supported by mining and service industries. On the other hand, Thailand and Malaysia have started industrialization early by introducing foreign capital, and agriculture, forestry and fisheries as well as manufacturing are becoming the center of the national economy. The main industry in Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar is the primary industry such as agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Although the industrial advancement through foreign capital, etc. in these countries was slow compared to aforementioned countries, the recent “China Plus One” policy, which was formulated in response to the increase in investment risk in China, is encouraging the advancement of industrialization in these countries. (6) Summary Having compared ASEAN countries from various aspects shows diversity in these countries. Compared to the EU, the diversity in ASEAN stands out such as the difference in population sizes, countries on the verge of democracy and those under a dictatorial regime, religious diversity, economic disparities, difference in industrial structure, etc. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Introductory Chapter about ASEAN Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 7 2. ASEAN COST Putting efforts on cooperation in S&T is encouraged in ASEAN. A typical challenge has been taken by the ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology (ASEAN COST). We will outline the ASEAN COST before explaining the comparison of scientific and technological capabilities in ASEAN countries. (1) History ASEAN COST is a committee that is specialized in the field of S&T. The Bangkok Declaration for ASEAN’s establishment in 1967 has already stated the promotion of mutual cooperation in the S&T field. ASEAN COST was established in 1977 with the aim of developing S&T and human resources as well as promoting technology transfers within and out of the region. The first meeting was held in the Philippines in 1978. (2) AMMST and ASEAN COST The ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Science and Technology (AMMST) is set as a ruling body of ASEAN COST. After the first meeting held in Thailand in 1980, the organization alternately holds an official meeting and unofficial meeting every year. The most recent official meeting was the 15th meeting held in Kuala Lumpur in November 2013. The 8th unofficial meeting was held in Bogor (Indonesia) in August 2014. ASEAN COST is positioned as a vice ministerial committee under ASEAN AMMST. The meetings are held about twice a year since the first meeting in 1978. The Headquarter of ASEAN COST is located in Jakarta. (3) 9 subcommittees At the time of establishment, ASEAN COST had 8 subcommittees in the fields of Food Science and Technology, Biotechnology, Microelectronics and Information Science, Materials Science and Technology, Non-Conventional Energy Research, Marine Science and Technology, Meteorology and Geophysics, and S&T Infrastructure Resources Development. At present, the above eight fields plus Space Technology and Applications are operated in the subcommittees. (4) Cooperation with countries outside ASEAN ASEAN COST holds meetings with Japan, China, South Korea, Japan-China-South Korea, the US, the EU, Russia and India once every 1 to 2 years. In the relationship with Japan, the frameworks of the ASEAN-Japan Cooperation Committee on Science and Technology (ASEAN-JAPAN CCST) and ASEAN COST+3 (Japan, China and South Korea) are important. ASEAN-Japan CCST previously held 4 meetings and ASEAN COST+3 held 8 meetings. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 8 Figure 1-7: ASEAN S&T Related Organizations ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Science and Technology ASEAN-Japan CCST(AMMST) ASEAN-China ASEAN COST ASEAN-Korea Food Microelectronics ASEAN-COST+3 Science and Biotechnology and information Technology science ASEAN-USA Material Marine Non-Conventional Science and Science and Energy Research ASEAN-EU Technology Technology Meteorology Science and Technology Space ASEAN-Russia infrastructure resource and technology and development applications Geophysics ASEAN-India 9 subcommittees CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Introductory Chapter about ASEAN Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 9 3. Outline of S&T in ASEAN countries We will compare some S&T benchmarks to evaluate the level of S&T in each ASEAN country. (1) R&D expenditures R&D expenditures in ASEAN countries are still low. In many of these countries, the statistical system for S&T is not adequate, and no accurate data has been obtained. The figure 1-8 shows the comparison of R&D expenditures in countries where data since 2007 is available. Although recent figures of Vietnam, Myanmar, Cambodia, Brunei and Laos are unclear, they are considered to be lower than that of the Philippines. Singapore’s R&D expenditures were the largest at around 6.8 billion dollars, which is only 1/22nd of Japan’s expenditures - about 150 billion dollars. Figure 1-8: R&D Expenditures in Major ASEAN Countries Unit: 100 million dollars Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (Note) Figure of Singapore is taken from 2012, Malaysia from 2011, Thailand from 2009, Indonesia from 2009 and the Philippines from 2007 (Purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion). The following figure 1-9 shows R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP. The percentage of Singapore (2.1%) is lower than that of South Korea (4.0%) and Japan (3.4%) but higher than that of China (2.0%), which indicates that the figure of Singapore is on the level of major developed countries and stands out from other ASEAN countries. Malaysia comes next to Singapore in ASEAN, although the figure is only half of that of China. Figures of other ASEAN countries are even lower. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 10 Figure 1-9: R&D Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (Note) Figures of Singapore and China are taken from 2012, South Korea, Japan and Malaysia from 2011, Thailand and Indonesia from 2009, the Philippines from 2007. (2) Number of researchers The figure 1-10 shows the number of researchers in major ASEAN countries. It also has the comparison between countries with data after 2007 only. Figure 1-10: Number of Researchers in Major ASEAN Countries (Full-time Equivalent: FTE) Unit: 10,000 people Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (Note) Figure of Singapore is taken from 2012, Malaysia from 2011, Thailand from 2009, Indonesia from 2009 and the Philippines from 2007. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Introductory Chapter about ASEAN Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 11 The figure 1-11 compares the above data with that of Japan, China and South Korea - major R&D countries in Asia. Even through Malaysia has the largest number of researchers in ASEAN countries, it is only around 1/30th of that in China and around 1/15th of that in Japan. This shows that there is a significant difference in quantity, apart from quality. Figure 1-11: Number of Researchers in Japan, China, South Korea and Major ASEAN Countries (FTE) Unit: 10,000 people Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (Note) Figures of China and Singapore are taken from 2012, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand from 2011, Indonesia from 2009 and the Philippines from 2007. (3) Overseas education Education in countries with developed S&T is important in training researchers. For countries that accept students, the number of candidates from developing countries matters in order to know the level of their own S&T. The following two figures 1-12/1-13 show a ranking of countries that accept students from ASEAN. The former includes statistics of China and the latter does not. The former figure 1-12 mainly shows ASEAN countries with higher levels of S&T. These countries focus more on China as well as Western countries and Australia, and not so much on Japan. Many people in Singapore and Malaysia are of Chinese origin and most of them would like to study in Western countries that have a different culture. However, the number of people who are studying in China is larger than that of Japan. In the past, it was considered that the most common country for overseas study was Japan for people from Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. It should be noted that the number of students from these countries who study in China is currently around 5 times more than that in Japan. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 12 Figure 1-12: Destinations for Overseas Education from ASEAN Countries (with statistics of China) (2012) Destination in number order 1 2 3 4 5 Origin Australia UK US China Malaysia Singapore 9,379 5,253 4,363 4,250 796 Australia UK US China Japan Malaysia 17,001 12,822 6,531 6,045 2,400 China US UK Australia Japan Thailand 16,675 7,386 6,098 3,282 2,476 China Australia US Malaysia Japan Indonesia 13,144 9,431 6,907 6,222 2,213 China US Australia France Japan Vietnam 13,038 15,083 11,081 5,642 4,047 Source: UNESCO, Education Statistics (Note) Data of China developed by the Chinese Service Center for Scholarly Exchange. The figure 1-13 summarizes the status of 5 countries without statistics on students studying in China. For these countries except for Myanmar, the major destination for overseas education is not Japan. Figure 1-13: Destinations for Overseas Education from ASEAN Countries (without statistics of China) (2012) Destination in number order 1 2 3 4 5 Origin France Vietnam Australia Japan UK Cambodia 602 530 462 333 323 US Australia UK Japan New Zealand The Philippines 3,094 2,374 1,306 632 429 UK Australia Malaysia New Zealand US Brunei 2,257 579 309 76 67 Japan US Australia Malaysia UK Myanmar 1,139 782 641 346 295 Vietnam Thailand Japan Australia France Laos 2,153 1,344 246 180 106 Source: UNESCO, Education Statistics (Note) The latest figure is 422 in 2013, The latest figure is 1,832 in 2013. (4) Scientific papers 1. Comparison of total number of papers According to a survey analyzed by the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) under the direct jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) based on data of Thomson Reuters, the numbers of papers and ranking of ASEAN countries from 2009 to 2011 are as follows. The number of “top 10% papers” is counted for each field with consideration of citation levels. CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency Introductory Chapter about ASEAN Current Status on Science and Technology in ASEAN Countries 13 Figure 1-14: Number of research papers in ASEAN countries Number of Total number of Country Ranking top 10% papers research papers ranking Singapore 25,763 31 24 Malaysia 16,971 39 39 Thailand 16,054 40 40 Vietnam 3,486 59 67 Indonesia 2,921 62 63 The Philippines 2,318 67 59 Cambodia 406 115 100 Laos 258 128 131 Brunei 174 140 138 Myanmar 148 146 159 Source: Benchmarking of Scientific Research 2012 According to the above figure 1-14, Singapore is making an impressive showing in the world. However, Singapore’s total number of papers (25,763) is only 2.7% of the worlds’ top the US (926,235), 6.2% of China (415,371) and 11.3% of Japan (228,446). Therefore, Singapore’s impact in the international arena is not so large. Malaysia and Thailand follow Singapore, and it is considered that these three countries are gaining the chance to become cooperative and competitive with Western countries, Japan, China and South Korea. Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines are on the next ranking, followed by lower-ranking Cambodia, Laos, Brunei and Myanmar. The status of S&T by country in the following chapters is explained based on this paper number ranking. 2. Partners of joint papers The figure 1-15 shows countries of researchers who coauthored papers with researchers in ASEAN countries, based on data by NISTEP. Figure 1-15: Partners of Joint Papers in ASEAN Countries Country No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 Singapore US China UK Australia Japan Malaysia UK China US Japan India Thailand US Japan UK Australia China Vietnam France Japan US Germany UK Indonesia Japan US Australia Netherland UK The Philippines US Japan Germany Australia India Cambodia US Japan Vietnam France The Philippines Laos Thailand UK Japan US France Brunei US Australia UK China France Myanmar Japan Thailand US France Germany Source: Benchmarking of Scientific Research 2012 This figure shows that collaborative relationships between ASEAN countries are not so active except for a few cases. Having a higher level, Singapore mainly has equal collaborative relations as developed countries in the West. Other countries also collaborate more with Western countries with relatively good relationships with Japan and Australia. China has a strong cooperative relationship with Singapore and Malaysia, where many Chinese people live, but the relationships with other CRDS-FY2014-OR-02-EN Center for Research and Development Strategy, Japan Science and Technology Agency