How can Technology and innovation be a force for good

how technology encourages innovation and creativity and how should technology and innovation be organized and management
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DrLaurenHepburn,United Kingdom,Researcher
Published Date:07-07-2017
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Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation 2006 2013 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Vision and Challenge 1 1. Our vision: Ireland by 2013 will be internationally renowned for the excellence of its research, and will be at the forefront in generating 1 and using new knowledge for economic and social progress, within an innovation driven culture . he development of the knowledge economy, including the factors that underpin it, is one of the key challenges and opportunities facing Ireland. There is widespread Tacknowledgement that the factors which led to Ireland’s current economic success will not of themselves be sufficient to achieve our vision. Most of Ireland’s recent employment growth has been driven by expansion in the services sector and construction. At the same time, Ireland’s dramatic upsurge in productivity has been driven by technology based 2 manufacturing industry . Across the economy, global competition is creating pressure for improvements in efficiency, quality and productivity and a growing need to innovate and add value across all aspects of business. These pressures are only going to increase. Important social changes are also happening in Ireland. Two particularly notable aspects are the growing internationalisation of society and the changing nature of Irish demography. In addition, we have entered a period where economic cooperation with Northern Ireland is more possible, and given global competitiveness, more compelling, for both administrations than ever before. These factors impact on the vision and on the kinds of strategies we pursue in building the knowledge economy. This Strategy has as its focus the period up to 2013. However, we fully understand the need to look beyond this. Key government decisions such as the introduction of free second level education and the ending of protectionism took years, or indeed, decades to fully bear fruit. The same need exists now; to take courageous forward looking steps that will achieve real strategic change, showing tangible results in the medium term, but also shaping the future in the longer term. 1.1 Where we have come from Ireland began to consider science policy during the 1970s through the work of the National Science Council and, subsequently, the National Board for Science and Technology. These efforts had a broad purview at the policy level, encompassing areas such as energy and the marine, as well as policy on technological innovation exemplified by the formation of Ireland’s first biotechnology programme. However, during this period there was a significant  National R&D Action Plan 2004 2 See Productivity: Ireland ’s Economic Imperative. Tansey 2005  1 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation disjunction between the effort put into policy analysis and the programmatic funding which might have flowed from that analysis. It was only with the advent of EU structural funding 3 for S&T, beginning with the 1989-1993 CSF , that substantive resources became available for S&T. These manifested themselves through the Operational Programme for Industrial Development which funded the first S&T development programme devoted to enhancing industrial R&D, higher education/industry collaboration, university research infrastructure; and the Community Initiative STRIDE, which focused on R&D in Natural Resources, including marine, forestry and agriculture. These programmes, though relatively limited in resources, provided much of the base in both policy thinking and programme design for current STI measures. Perhaps the most notable feature was the almost total focus of activity in the period up to the start of the current National Development Plan, on applied research. It became apparent however through the national Technology Foresight exercise and analysis of international good practice, that attempts to build a system of applied research without a base of excellence in the underpinning sciences are not sustainable over time. In addition, as the Irish economy continued to develop and change, the human resources aspect of research policy came into sharper relief. There is a growing recognition that high level skills provide a 4 key impetus to broad economic growth . Put simply, society, economies and individual firms benefit from having a good supply of scientifically and mathematically literate people, even though all such people may not be directly employed in the sciences. The commencement of the PRTLI initiative in 1998 represented a pioneering move towards solidifying this view. 1. N  ational Development Plan  000- 006 A decisive shift in public policy and funding was initiated under the current National Development Plan (NDP), 2000-2006. The major initiatives involved the foundation and funding of Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) and the expansion of the HEA’s Programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI). Both of these initiatives have been the subject of review by panels of international experts, with very positive findings in regard to the rapid progress in building a base of world class research in Ireland. The graph below shows how Government investment in R&D has increased exponentially over the past decade. Table 1. Government Expenditure on STI 1995- 005 in Public and Private Sectors (Constant Prices)  Community Support Framework 4 See Florida, Richard and Tingali, Irene Europe in the Creative Age, February 2004 (  Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation These initiatives were complemented by increased resources for Marine, Agricultural and Health research, and the establishment of two Councils under the aegis of the Department of Education and Science: the Irish Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (IRCSET) and the Irish Research Council for Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS), having responsibility for funding postgraduate research across a broad range of disciplines. Within the current NDP, STI has become a major strand of government policy, underpinned by significant resources. The importance of ensuring greater coherence in the development of the overall national system of innovation has been recognized by government. The Cabinet Sub Committee for STI and its supporting structures are now in place. 1. Th e Lisbon Agenda and the National R&D Action Plan The “Lisbon” agenda is aimed at making Europe more competitive and innovative on the world stage. As part of that process the Barcelona European Council concluded that Europe as a whole should aim to reach a target of spending 3% of GDP on R&D by 2010, with two thirds of that spend to come from industry. Some Member States such as Finland and Sweden are above that target, while many, including Ireland (at 1.6%) are substantially below it. 5 The National R&D Action Plan proposed that Ireland should aim to reach 2.5% of GNP by 2010, with two-thirds of the increase coming from enterprise. Perhaps more crucially, the Action Plan represented the beginning of a more structured approach to building Ireland’s National System of Innovation, which this strategy aims to fully realise. 1. Th e Role of Innovation Innovation is about doing new things, or doing old things in new ways. Innovation can apply to all aspects of human endeavour: in the arts, the sciences and business. No single area of government policy has a monopoly on innovation. In the context of this strategy technological innovation has a vital role to play. By this, we mean the capacity to turn knowledge into new products and services. This is not simply a matter of industrial policy: it also has implications for our system of scientific and technological education, for the commercialisation culture within third level institutions, for s fi cal policy and for public policy generally. The development of a fully realised innovation culture, however, transcends scientific and technological disciplines. This strategy, in assessing the need to develop advanced skills at Fourth Level also has regard to the potential of the humanities and social sciences, along with the natural sciences, engineering and technological disciplines. Thus the strategy aims to strengthen 6 the National System of Innovation (NSI) across its many dimensions, particularly with regard to the systemic aspect: forging more effective linkages and interactions among the different parts of the system. These issues permeate the strategy. 1.5 Building on Success – the challenges ahead Much has been achieved in recent years, with especially notable progress under the current National Development Plan. However, there are very significant challenges ahead. Science, Technology and Innovation in Ireland is still underdeveloped by comparison with our key 7 global competitors. An analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Threats and Opportunities 5 Report of the Interdepartmental Committee, Building Ireland’s Knowledge Economy, July 2004  See Appendix II for diagram of the NSI  Conducted at the commencement of the strategy formulation process, see Appendix I for summary  Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation confirms that we have many strengths and opportunities to capitalise on, but also substantial threats and weaknesses to address and which are explored further throughout this strategy. We now need to make the next leap forward to move Ireland from impressive latecomer to acknowledged leader. That in essence is the goal of this strategy. Our success will be marked by demonstrable achievement in a number of critical areas:- • Increased participation in the sciences by young people; • Significant increase in the numbers of people with advanced qualifications in science and engineering; • Enhanced contribution of research to economic and social development across all relevant areas of public policy including agriculture, health, environment and the marine and natural resources; • Transformational change in the quality and quantity of research undertaken by enterprise - both directly and in cooperation with third level institutions; • Increased output of economically relevant knowledge, know how and patents from those institutions; • Increased participation in international S&T cooperation and transnational research activity; • An established international profile for Ireland as a premier location for carrying out world class research and development; • Greater coherence and exploitation of synergies to mutual advantage in the development of STI policy on the island of Ireland. 1.6 Why we need to act Our economy has made great leaps forward in a relatively short time. This intensive growth can hide vulnerabilities especially when much of its foundations lie in domestic consumption and growth in public services and the construction sector. This type of growth has inevitable limitations. On the upside, it creates a window of opportunity to invest in the key factors that can allow the high living standards we currently enjoy to be maintained in a global competitive environment. It is no coincidence that those nations which have achieved long term competitiveness all have high levels of investment in research. They have universities and research institutions that produce world class talent and they have dynamic industries that make use of that talent by investing in the research and innovation that leads to world class products and services.  Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation As with the economy, our progress in science in the past decade has been impressive. However, the foundations are weak. The countries that we need to benchmark ourselves against such as Sweden, Denmark and the USA have research systems whose roots extend back more than a century. At the other end of the spectrum, developing countries such as China and India are setting aggressive targets for catch up and have economies of scale on their side. As a relatively small island, situated between the US and Europe, we have much to gain from enhanced all-island cooperation and pooling of resources in the STI arena, as is clearly evidenced by the experience to date in the sectoral research areas of health, agriculture and food, marine, energy and environment. In addition, there are wider possibilities for exploiting previously untapped potential cooperation under the umbrella of the EU Framework Programme. World class research, world class people and world class enterprises with the drive to succeed, and the resources to do it: that is what our strategy aims to deliver.  5 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation World Class Research 2  .1 Introduction orld class research and world class people are at the heart of the national system of innovation. Without scientific and technological talent, groundbreaking Winnovation is nigh on impossible. Organisations without the necessary talent are confined to adapting other people’s ideas and technology: following, rather than leading. Incremental innovation is valuable, but of itself will not reshape our economy for the challenges of the twenty first century. Under the NDP 2000-2006, Government made a significant strategic decision to develop a world class research system. Investments under the PRTLI initiative and SFI, in particular, have fundamentally changed the scale and quality of research in Ireland and the infrastructure supporting it. Independent evaluations of these investments have been uniformly positive, indicating that exceptional results have been achieved in a short period of time. Simultaneously, however, there is a widespread acknowledgement that building a world class research system requires dedication, persistence and sustained commitment. This strategy builds on what has been achieved under the NDP and maps out the next phase of development.  . I  mportance of higher education Higher education (together with key public research institutes such as Teagasc) is the engine room of Ireland’s system of innovation. Our approach has been to develop the higher education system as the focal point for learning, scholarship, research and innovation. There are considerable merits in this approach. Talented, educated people are central to the knowledge society and the higher education system is the wellspring of advanced skills and learning. Advanced research and postgraduate and postdoctoral education have vital spinoff benefits for the quality of teaching and learning at undergraduate level. A higher education system which is strongly research and innovation oriented has the potential for mutually beneficial interaction with the enterprise sector. The higher education system acknowledges the challenges it faces in meeting the demands of the knowledge society in the twenty first century and the need for reform and modernisation to meet those challenges. In the context of this strategy, there is consensus on the need to take the following specific actions:  6 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation • ·Significantly increase our research capacity, quality and output; • Invest in the Fourth Level; to provide a new cohort of graduates at the doctoral and postdoctoral level, our future innovators and knowledge entrepreneurs; • Reshape, reform and build capacity in our universities to support the development of the Fourth Level; • Better manage the research and innovation environment within universities and ensure effective transfer of knowledge and technology. At the broader level and also relevant to this strategy is the need to:- • Renew and strengthen Third Level programmes, enhancing quality and delivering an even more flexible and adaptable labour force, with a lifelong capacity to react to change and innovation; • Continue to focus on widening participation, lifelong learning and flexible educational provision, making the learning resources of the university available to a wider group throughout their working and professional lives; • Establish mechanisms by which primary and secondary education is linked to the developments at 3rd and 4th level, providing an educational continuum with better public understanding of and interest in research and innovation, which will in turn ensure greater participation in these areas at 3rd and 4th level.  . Current State of the Research Base The impact of the research base on the economy is measured by its two key outputs – highly educated people and new knowledge. Taking the number of new doctorates (PhDs) produced per million of population as an indicator of trained researchers, table 2.1 shows the latest available data for Ireland and a number of comparator countries. While Ireland performs relatively poorly in terms of overall doctoral graduates, in the science and engineering disciplines Ireland is on a par with The Netherlands and Denmark, ahead of the US and Norway, but some way behind the three leading nations. Table 2.1 Output of PhDs per Million Population (2001) Total PhDs Science/Eng. PhDs Switzerland 364 163 Finland 363 187 UK 239 144 Denmark 169 86 Netherlands 153 81 Norway 143 42 US 143 81 Ireland 125 89 Source: NSF Science and Engineering indicators 2004 As a result of the greatly increased funding for research post 2000, the Irish figures are  7 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation expected to move towards the overall OECD average in coming years. Standard indicators of knowledge output from the research system include publications in refereed journals and levels at which these publications are accessed (‘cited’) by other researchers in their own publications. Table 2.2 shows the latest available data for the same group of countries. Table 2.2 In terms of gross output of publications, Scientific Publications/Million Ireland was just below the EU average Population (2002) in 2002 and well behind the leading Switzerland 1,757 countries. Data on citations suggests Denmark 1,332 that Ireland performs relatively better, Finland 1,309 Netherlands 1,093 but such data is distorted by lower UK 1,021 citation rates for non English speaking Norway 972 countries. Using the more reliable US 926 comparator of US citations, Ireland’s Ireland 647 8 rate is 1.05 versus 1.64 for the US EU Avg. 673 Source: Eurostat Key Figures 2005 Studies undertaken in connection with the recent evaluation of Science Foundation Ireland provide an indication of the extent to which research quality in Ireland has improved since 2001. Analysis of the publication records of SFI-funded researchers, both before receipt of SFI awards and after such awards, indicates that their research performance is well in advance of average performance levels in Ireland in the past and is indicative of the success of government investment in upgrading the research base in a comparative international context. These standard metrics, give some indication of our comparative position but they have limitations. “Per million population” data fail to account for economies of scale. In other words, the sheer volume of advanced researchers in the US will have a catalytic effect disproportionate to their representation within the population as a whole. In addition, citation data is a relatively crude measure to the extent that popularity and quality are not necessarily equivalent. However, it is the internationally recognised basis for assessing quality and therefore appropriate in the context of this Strategy. It is essential, therefore, that small countries such as Ireland place a particular emphasis on quality - both in terms of the research work itself and also by achieving the critical mass of people and infrastructure to support that research. A vital part of the strategic shift under the current NDP has been the building of a quality research base by supporting excellence, as measured by international peer review. This approach will continue and will be deepened under this Strategy.  . Current R&D Performance Exchequer funding for research in both the public and private sectors has increased significantly over the last five years, rising from €334 million in 2000 to over €680 million in 2005. These increases have supported a rapid expansion of the research system over  Highly cited papers as a percentage of total publications  8 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation the period. Based on Forfás surveys, in the Higher Education sector (universities, institutes of technology and the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland), there were 2,650 researchers (full-time equivalents) engaged in research in the fields of science and engineering, and economic and social sciences in 2004, together with 950 research assistants. In addition, there were 360 technicians and 260 other research personnel supporting research activities. Total PhD students registered in the areas of science and engineering and economic and social sciences is estimated at 3,050. In the public research performing sector, which includes, for example Teagasc and the Health Research Board, on a full-time equivalents basis, there are 520 researchers, 290 of whom are at PhD level. These are supported by an additional 290 technicians.  .5 Framework for development Current efforts represent the first steps to building our research system. As a result of those efforts, we now have most of the components of a world class system. But much remains to be done to ensure that the system is truly competitive in terms of sustainability, scale, coherence and quality. In striving for excellence we have two overarching goals: 1. To build up a sustainable system of world class research teams in terms of people and supporting infrastructure; 9  . To double our output of PhDs. These goals are interlinked. The quality of both research and postgraduate formation is dependent on access to world class Principal Investigators to lead teams of Postdoctoral and Postgraduate researchers.  .6 Achieving the goals In that context we need to continue to build the critical mass in our research teams and to maintain the world class standards that have been fostered by the competitive process instigated under the NDP. These students need to join research teams that are led by truly world-class Principal Investigators backed up by Postdoctoral researchers. This will be achieved by growing the number of Principal Investigators by 350 over the period to 2013 and Postdoctoral researchers by 1,050. To support these research teams, increases in the number of research assistants by 350 and technicians by 350 respectively over the period are required, as illustrated in Table 2.3. The structure and balance in research teams envisioned by this strategy is designed to ensure quality, consistent with national and international best 10 practice as follows: Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) - 1 Principal Investigator: 3 Postdoctoral: 5 Postgraduate: 1 technician/research manager/assistant. Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) - 1 Principal Investigator: 2 Postdoctoral: 3 Postgraduate.  Relative to 200 output levels  0 Includes all SET disciplines of Science, Engineering, Medicine, Informatics, Interdisciplinary/Interfaculty, Agriculture Science, Veterinary Science, Business/Commerce; excludes non-SET Humanities and Social Sciences, i.e., Humanities, Education, Arts/Philosophy.  9 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Table 2.3 Cumulative Increases in S&E HE Researchers by 2013 Total Net New Appointments 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Principal Investigators 40 80 120 160 205 250 295 350 Researchers (PhD+) 120 240 360 480 615 750 885 1,050 Research Assistants 20 40 60 80 103 125 148 175 Technicians 20 40 60 80 103 125 148 175 PhD Student Places 235 438 719 976 1,191 1,375 1,569 1,775 Total 435 838 1,319 1,776 2,216 2,625 3,044 3,525 Over the life of the strategy it is intended that this proposed structure be developed. It will allow researchers move from PhD training to Postdoctoral and PI positions. It will also facilitate a flow of researchers in and out of the country to gain international R&D experience and combine with a flow of skilled people taking up careers in the enterprise sector. Within this team based structure the overall annual output of top level PhDs will be effectively doubled by 2013 as shown in table 2.4 below. In summary, this will allow the annual output of PhD graduates be increased from 543 in 2005 to 997 by 2013, resulting in a total output of 6,546 PhD graduates over the period 2006-2013. Table 2.4 Projections for Post Graduate Numbers Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 SET PhD Graduates 543 606 660 724 801 881 919 958 997 HSS Output PhD Graduates/Postdocs 187 284 234 285 282 300 306 306 315 In the same period, 1,815 additional postdocs will have undertaken four years of study in supported research teams HSS data groups PhDs and Postdocs as Postdoc awards are an integral part of the completion cycle in HSS This is in line with the recommendation in the OECD’s Review of Higher Education in Ireland (September 2004) that the number of PhD students should be more than doubled by 2010 when taking account of the vital requirement to maintain quality.  .6.1 Importance of Humanities and Social Sciences It will be noted that it is proposed to upscale research across all disciplines: both the physical sciences and the humanities and social sciences. This approach is founded in a belief in the intrinsic value of scholarship, both to democratic society and to the effective functioning of universities as communities of knowledge and discourse. It underscores the importance of scholarship and research in the formation of postgraduates, but also in its impact on the quality of undergraduate teaching. In addition, there are compelling social and economic reasons to further develop our capabilities in the Humanities and Social Sciences. These include: better understanding of the very rapid changes taking place in the Irish economy and society; the importance of that  0 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation knowledge and understanding in better informing public policy making; and developing creative and analytical skills in the context of a global economy which is becoming increasingly dominated by knowledge based services.  .7 Infrastructure World class research requires first class people and also the supportive infrastructure within which to carry out that research. Much of that infrastructure is specialised: technologies such as nanotechnology, for example, require facilities which are very different from the general purpose labs provided for undergraduate education. The PRTLI initiative under the current National Development Plan, which benefited from substantial philanthropic support, made significant inroads towards rectifying long run historical deficits in research infrastructures in the HEIs. However, there remains a shortfall in provision for buildings, equipment and support services. Under this Strategy, it is intended that this shortfall be addressed both through the upgrading of existing facilities and the provision of new infrastructure. The implementation mechanisms outlined in Chapter Eight will, inter alia, ensure effective linkage between competitive research funding and the provision of associated infrastructure.  .8 Graduate Schools Graduate schools underpin research programmes in the world’s leading innovative economies. In the context of this strategy’s advancement of SET postgraduate training, the development of graduate schools can deliver: · Quality-led training of early stage researchers in multi-disciplinary environments; · Structured, relevant generic and transferable professional skills training enabling the PhDs produced to develop their careers in diverse sectors of the economy, including intellectual property management and commercialisation skills; · Industrial placements and modular, transferable postgraduate courses, both practical and theory-based with built-in industrial expertise, and; · Further training for industrial researchers requiring skills/knowledge upgrading. There is an emerging consensus within the university system that a graduate school type mechanism is needed to ensure the most effective professional development of our researchers. The increases proposed in advanced researcher numbers and the aim to see a significant movement of advanced researchers to the enterprise sector, underscores the need for such a mechanism. The more structured approach to postgraduate formation also has the potential to reduce the time taken to complete a PhD and increase the completion rates of entrants to doctoral programmes, thus delivering both quality and improved value for money for the resources invested in PhD training. In addition, it is recognised that a step change is also required to raise the levels of excellence in existing graduate schools in the humanities and business education if Ireland is to achieve its ambitions of developing knowledge-based enterprises that are highly innovative in world markets.  1 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation  .9 Researcher Careers Human resources, in the form of sufficient numbers of suitably educated, high quality people, are essential to the achievement of the objectives for the research base. This has implications both for education at all levels up to and including undergraduate (to ensure 11 a ‘pipeline’ of people interested in and qualified for a career in science or engineering ) as well as for the country’s ability to attract mobile international research talent. One factor which impinges on both these issues is the availability of an attractive career structure for people interested in doing research. The development of more visible career paths will make science more attractive and has the potential to give Ireland a competitive advantage in the international market for top researchers. The recent five fold increase in national investment in research, together with the progress that has been made towards the development of a state of the art infrastructure and the growing integration of higher education research with enterprise and sectoral research, provide the foundations to differentiate Ireland as a highly stimulating place to conduct research. However, overall Ireland does not yet have a sufficiently high profile as a location of choice for world class research. This makes the recruitment of the best researchers from abroad a continuing challenge. Under this strategy we therefore need to further differentiate Ireland by developing attractive research career paths. Flexible career paths are required to reduce the reliance on two-year post doctoral contracts. Emphasis will be placed on sustainable career development rather than only focusing at early stage careers. Currently, little opportunity exists for systematic career development within the HE sector. The Advisory Science Council will be requested to examine, and come forward with proposals to the IDC on, this key issue. In addition, this strategy places a heavy emphasis on growing business expenditure on R&D. As well as building strong HE based research teams, the movement of researchers from the HE sector to industry and the growth of collaboration between companies and research institutions through the development of industry led networks and competence centres are 12 priorities. Within the HE sector, in the longer term, more of the top PIs will have to be incorporated into tenured posts in the universities. The wider programme of modernisation and reform of the higher education institutions and programmes of voluntary early retirement to provide for “new blood” will be especially important. The Strategic Innovation Fund announced in Budget 2006 will play a vital role in this regard.  .10 Mobility of Researchers Building up the required number of researchers will not be achieved by organic growth alone. Researchers will need to be attracted to Ireland in greater numbers than before. Removing obstacles to the mobility of researchers has been identified as a priority for Ireland. Efforts to improve the mobility of researchers have been helped by the establishment of the European Network of Mobility Centres.  As discussed in Chapter Five  2 See Chapter Four for more details.  Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation The Irish Universities Association is playing an important role in that regard, as operator of Ireland’s national mobility centre and mobility portal. The Mobility Centre provides assistance to researchers wishing to pursue careers in both academia and industry. In general, work permits for researchers are processed efficiently and without undue delay. A fast-track arrangement has recently been introduced by D/ETE for researchers in research- active organisations (including those to be employed in industry) who are supported by public funding - national, EU or international. However, there is a need to build on these national measures and the proposal for a new Green Card-type system for high skilled non- EEA nationals should facilitate the entry of researchers, within a particular salary range, and their family members. In addition, it is proposed to move speedily to implement the recently adopted EU Directive and accompanying proposals concerning the entry conditions for third country researchers and their family members. In that regard, D/ETE is liaising with the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform (which has lead responsibility for the Directive) and other relevant parties to facilitate its early implementation. These measures, coupled with attractive funding opportunities for researchers, will give Ireland a competitive advantage against larger, more established international funding agencies and research funding bodies. Key Actions • Build on recent NDP investments to deliver a sustainable, world class research system across the spectrum of humanities, physical and social sciences; • Deliver quality by increasing the number of research teams led by internationally competitive principal investigators; • Upgrade existing infrastructure and develop new facilities to support research; • Enhance postgraduate skills through a graduate schools mechanism; • Develop sustainable career paths for researchers; • Enhance the mobility of researchers; • Double the number of PhD graduates by 2013.  Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Capturing, Protecting and Commercialising Ideas and Knowhow 3  .1 Introduction he generation, capture, protection and exploitation of intellectual property is a central theme of any world-class research environment. Transfer of knowledge and Ttechnology, encompassing intellectual property, from HEIs and Public Research Organisations (PROs) into the market place is recognised as being of crucial importance in the establishment of a strong research environment and a knowledge-based economy, as are robust linkages between the third level and enterprise sectors. To operate at an internationally competitive level, serious deficits in the culture, process and funding in the area of IP in the Irish HEIs must be addressed. Consensus on this point has emanated from a number of groups whose recent reports have highlighted issues related to IP management in Ireland. Under the current NDP, investment in R&D has rapidly expanded the size and quality of research in Irish HEIs. As a result, the number of discoveries and inventions in these institutions has increased. Aside from the commercial benefits to the inventors, institutions, and the economy in general, awareness of IP and its significance as an integral part of research is a crucial part of the education for any investigator, undergraduate or postdoctoral student involved in research. Clearly, before technology transfer and IP commercialisation can occur a number of important stages in the IP management process must be successfully completed, including the identification of IP, its evaluation and subsequent capture and protection.  . Where we are now Financial support for the development of new technologies has come on stream in recent years but constraints still exist to the creation of a dynamic exploitation system for IP. Each of the universities and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland currently has a dedicated Technology Transfer Office (TTO) responsible for these functions. Within the Institutes of Technology (IoT) sector, only DIT has a dedicated office of some scale. However, the TecNet alliance of the Institutes of Technology has considerable potential to address shared needs 13 in this area across the sector . The TTOs are staffed by between one and four full time personnel, supplemented in some cases by part-time employees. In almost all cases the offices are jointly staffed by university and Enterprise Ireland (EI) personnel, with EI sta ff providing commercialisation expertise in biotechnology and ICT related fields. In addition, the central EI Bio Research team of five provides expert support to the TTOs for IP protection  See Chapter Four  Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation and exploitation activities, principally in the biotechnology/life sciences area. The TTOs can also access external legal and commercialisation specialists through the EI Bio team. The TTOs also interact with staff in other areas of EI whose roles involve more general commercialisation related issues such as university-industry linkages. The SFI CSETs and the Tyndall National Institute also have business development managers, part of whose role is to work with the TTOs in managing IP arising from their research activities. The underdeveloped state of IP within the HEIs is reflected in the absence of accurate data on patent filings and grants. The best available information suggests that the number of patents from HEIs to the Irish Patent Office has been increasing in recent years, but only 70 of the 1,056 applications received by the Office in 2004 came from HEIs. These 70 applications were received from seven HEIs with the remainder of HEIs recording no patent activity with the Irish Patents Office. High level analysis of return on research investment suggests that three of our universities are achieving returns on a par with those seen in the UK and the US, with one patent per approximately €3 million research investment so a clear gap exists between the best performers and the significant remaining majority of HEIs. In terms of current funding for the IP Management function, the overall financial allocation to Technology Transfer (TT) activities in the universities amounts to approximately €11 million per annum. Of this, €10 million is used to support people, databases and commercial space for incubation and €1 million is used to cover patenting expenses.  . I  nitiatives Proposed Based on engagement with the HEIs and a review of IP Management practices in other selected countries, a two-pronged approach will be implemented to upgrade our performance in the management and commercialisation of intellectual property from publicly funded and public-private collaborative research. This involves strengthening the IP/ Commercialisation function within the HEIs and supporting this where relevant with a central source of specialist expertise.  . Within the Institutions Upgrading our IP performance requires a cultural shift in many of the HEIs. In particular, it requires that IP management and commercialisation should be seen as a central part of the institution’s mission with equal standing alongside the traditional activities of teaching and curiosity driven research. Such a shift in culture could be underscored by having the head of the commercialisation function report directly to the institution’s Vice President for Research. There is also a clear need to strengthen institutional competence, both at TTO level and among the community of researchers themselves. A competitive fund administered by EI will be established to assist the institutions in strengthening their IP management functions. Grants from the fund will be made on the basis of competitive bids outlining the institutions’ proposals in this area and the expected added value in commercialisation terms from increased investment. Activities to be supported by the fund will include:  5 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation • Recruitment of staff with appropriate expertise and experience of research and enterprise activities to staff the TTOs and deliver support to researchers; • Training and support for researchers to ensure they are aware of the importance of technology transfer activities and understand the potential that exists; • IP Scouting to monitor research and inventive activity that is being generated by the university; • Better identification and selection of research inventions that are seen as valuable and worth protecting in terms of generation of future income; • Measures to better implement the Codes of Practice on Publicly Funded and Public/ Private IP; • Measures to ensure highly efficient processes that facilitate both patenting and publishing.  .5 Central support unit in Enterprise Ireland A ‘Review of International Best Practice Pertaining to the Structure, Activities and Responsibilities of Industrial Liaison Offices’ prepared for NUI Galway in 2004 suggests that to achieve globally competitive economies of scale in the management of intellectual property, there are strong arguments for a national, publicly-funded shared services facility, providing Irish institutions with access to pooled expertise in a number of resource-intensive areas. At the same time, it is clear that the HEIs need to continue with local level activities and to strengthen these as outlined in the previous section. A mix of strong local action with central support for resource intensive and cross institutional tasks is the model proposed in this strategy. Building on EI’s extensive involvement with the HEIs in this area to date, a new function will be put in place within EI to provide centralised support to the institutions and maximise the commercialisation of institution-generated IP. The services of the centralised commercialisation entity will include: · Management of a newly established Competitive Fund for Technology Transfer in HEIs; · Management of the Commercialisation Fund, Intellectual Property Fund and support for incubators and bio-incubators. The Commercialisation Fund was launched in recent years and includes three phases: proof of concept, technology development and commercialisation. An increased level of application is expected over the course of the strategy with particular emphasis being given to the final stages of support to ensure that transfer actually takes place to the benefit of the receiving company. Under the Intellectual Property Fund, 40 patents were supported in 2004 and this number is expected to double over the next few years;  6 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation • Diffusion of information on IP Management to all HEIs and sharing of good practices; • Provision of expert and specialist TT support to all HEIs – legal expertise, license negotiation, spin out creation, IP marketing, international promotion, staff training, technology assessment evaluation, provision of patent protection and infringement costs; and, • Provision of advice and seed funding to campus companies. Key Actions • Ensure that HEIs encompass IP management and commercialisation as a central part of their mission, equal to teaching and research; • Strengthen institutional competence at TTO level and among researchers; • Establish competitive fund administered by EI to assist strengthening of IP management function; • Establish a new function in EI providing centralised support to HEIs thereby maximising the commercialisation of IP.  7 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Research and Development for Enterprise Innovation and Growth 4  .1 Introduction anufacturing and international services industry in Ireland have been the most significant driver of economic growth over the past fifteen years. In that period, Mthe Irish economy tripled in size in terms of GDP, while goods and services exports grew eightfold. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was a large contributor to this expansion. The total stock of FDI in Ireland reached €168 billion in 2004, as the Enterprise Strategy Group noted, “...the highest in the world in per capita terms after Hong Kong”. In terms of Gross Value Added (GVA), manufacturing industry has been the principal engine of growth, with GVA in industry increasing almost twice as fast as in services since 1995. There is a clear correlation between technological intensity and growth. For example, in the period between 1997 and 2003, virtually all of the gain in real value added in manufacturing was attributable to four technologically intensive sectors, namely: software, chemicals, computers and instruments, and electrical machinery and equipment. For a country whose performance is so dominated by high technology industry, there is a disjunction between this impressive overall performance and the level of R&D conducted by firms in Ireland. While business expenditure on R&D has improved considerably over the last decade, growing by 19.8 per cent in nominal terms between 2001 and 2003 for example, it still lags that of competitors. And the contrast is even greater when the level of spend in high tech sectors in Ireland is compared to broader global norms for those sectors, as Table 4.1 illustrates. The four sectors of ICTs, Life Sciences (bio-pharma and pharma-chem), Medical Technologies and Food together account for the largest part of manufacturing output. Even within these technology intensive sectors, levels of R&D in Ireland are below that of competitor countries. These are also sectors where research has the potential to make a serious impact on productivity, growth and competitiveness. The four areas are also distinctly different and the level of R&D performance by companies within these sectors varies from low and non- performers to those that have high levels of R&D intensity. The challenges for small and medium sized companies and multi-nationals in undertaking R&D are distinctly different, as are the strategies and solutions required. SMEs need to increase their research activity and technological capabilities. MNCs need to be able to secure research activities for their Irish operations against competition from other corporate  8 Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation locations globally. Similarly, the large base of non-R&D performing enterprises, both large and small, need to develop their research capabilities and capacities and to become research active. Table 4.1. Business Expenditure on R&D (BERD) as per cent of Output, 2003 Sector BERD (€m) % Output Ireland % Output % Output EU OECD Electrical 212.2 0.9 3.6 3.8 and Electronic Equipment Pharmaceuticals 190.2 3.8 10.0 10.3 Medical Technology 115.9 2.0 4.9 7.8 Food, Drink and Tobacco 42.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 Machinery and Equipment 39.4 2.4 1.8 2.1 Other Manufacturing 72.1 All Manufacturing 672.1 0.7 1.9 2.4 Software 378.3 Others 25.2 Total BERD €1,075.6 Data for Ireland is 2003 and estimated from the BERD survey and the 2003 Census of Industrial production. Latest data available for EU (21 countries) and OECD is 2000. Source OECD ANBERD series 2004. 14 The R&D Action Plan proposed challenging targets for R&D performance by companies. While the increase in business expenditure on R&D of 19.5 per cent over the period 2001 to 2003 is encouraging, achieving the targets as set out in table 4.2 below will need a transformational change in company attitudes to R&D, supported by greatly enhanced efforts on the part of the state to support that change. Table 4.2. R&D Performance and Targets to 2013 Year 2003 2013 Business Investment in R&D (BERD) €1.076 billion €2.5 billion (constant prices) Number of Indigenous Companies 462 1050 with meaningful R&D activity (€100,000) Number of Indigenous Companies 21 100 performing significant R&D (€2m) Number of foreign affiliate companies 213 520 with minimum scale R&D activity Number of Foreign Affiliates companies 60 150 performing significant R&D The implications of these targets for policy are clear. While ultimately research and innovation is the responsibility of individual enterprises, the enterprise development agencies, Enterprise Ireland and IDA Ireland are committed to working with companies to strengthen the research and technological base of the enterprise sector. They will facilitate more companies in undertaking R&D and aims to support companies in moving from no or minimum scale R&D to more significant operations. If Irish industry is to grow, it needs to move progressively to undertaking research that will underpin products several generations forward and to complement the shorter term product and process development which is the focus of many current R&D performers.  4 This strategy has adopted those targets within the timeframe 200  to 20   9