Science Research and innovation performance of the eu

research and innovation performance expectations and research innovation and technological performance in germany
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Dr.ThorasRyder,Hong Kong,Researcher
Published Date:07-07-2017
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ReUTeRs /andrew Winning The ReseaR ch & innova Tion peRfoRmance of The G20 and iTs impac T on decisions made by The W oRld’s mos T infl UenTial economic leadeRs maRch 2014“Today we recognize that scientific innovation is not always a linear process, and that it often involves interplay back-and-forth between basic, translational and applied research stages. This research interaction involves a diverse system of players and institutions that influence its progress and success. Together, these are often called a science innovation system. The players may come from companies, universities, government and civil society. Scientists play a key role, but so do other stakeholders, such as policy makers, banks and investors.” -Gordon Conway Professor of International Development at Imperial College -Jeff Waage Director of the London International Development Centre (LIDC) “Innovation policy can be a key component of 21st century development strategies, even in poor countries with constraining economic environments. But to succeed, innovators must be supported by high- level central and local government policy makers who have the vision, pragmatism and ability to work creatively in institutional contexts.” -Jean-Eric Aubert The World Bank InstituteinTR odUc Tion The G20 is a group of respected world economic leaders from its 19 participating nations and the European Union. This elite team, officially known as the Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, aims to address the world’s biggest economic challenges through international cooperation. It prevents financial crises by creating sustainable and balanced global growth and reforming the architecture of global governance. The G20 is acknowledged for regulating financial markets and influencing global economic policy in the aftermath of the financial crises of the late 1990s and 2008 to 2009. As scientific research and innovation activity are predictors of economic growth and prosperity, the IP and Science business of Thomson Reuters embarked on a project to identify the G20’s impact in these areas. This report looks at trends across the G20, based on the analysis of The G20 each region’s scholarly output and innovation Argentina capacity. Australia Brazil Canada Which regions are leading and in what areas? China Which countries are falling behind? Are there European Union emerging pockets or areas of growth? What is France in decline? What technology areas dominate? Germany This report provides answers to these and Great Britain India other important questions, offering a unique Indonesia perspective that informs policymakers of the Italy changing landscape and dynamics influencing Japan G20 decision making. Mexico Russia Saudi Arabia South Africa South Korea Turkey United States Thomson ReUTeRs 3findinGs Increasing globalization is the most prominent benefited to a degree from the larger share of feature of science and innovation in the early relatively lower impact papers from developing 21st century, as the data presented in this nations that feed into the world average: by report reveals. comparison to that average their scores also have improved. On the other hand, the United The number of papers recorded in Web of States, the world’s largest producer, has had Science® for most G20 nations has been less ability to improve its already high standing increasing during the last decade, as the world’s than others because of its large output and research capacity has expanded. Some nations, only modest growth, which was only half that of however, have increased production faster the world as a whole, as represented in Web of than others, resulting in shifting world shares. Science, from 2003 to 2012 (26% vs. 50%). For example, the world share for China has increased from 5.6% in 2003 to 14% in 2012, This partially explains the almost uniform rise whereas that of the United States has fallen for the G20 in its production of highly cited from 33% to 27.8% over the same period. In papers (defined as those that rank in the top 1% general, world shares for nations with mature by citations, taking into account their field and scientific enterprises have declined and those of year of publication) as a percentage of output. developing nations have risen. Most developing nations still score below the expected 1% level in highly cited papers based Total citations recorded in Web of Science have on output but this indicator increased for all naturally increased in tandem with greater world throughout the decade. Senior producers, such output, but so have citations per paper (citation as Australia, France and especially Great Britain, impact) scores, owing to longer reference lists to name a few, also recorded higher rates in in publications. This has been called citation their production of highly cited papers. Only inflation. the United States lost ground: from 1.9% of its production in 2002 to 1.8% in 2011. Citation impact relative to the world average has likewise advanced for each of the G20 members This combination of measures demonstrates (but very little for the United States). There that the historical gap between the science are several explanations for this phenomenon. “haves” and those that have had less or very While world shares for many developing nations little is closing. The world is no longer bipartite have risen, their output typically exhibits (Europe and North America) in terms of less-than-world citation impact, resulting in a significant and even top level science. It is now dampening (but still growing) citations-per- at least tri-partite (Europe, North America and paper benchmark for the world. Asia), and perhaps more, as select nations in South America (Brazil), Africa (South Africa) Nonetheless, many developing nations, and the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Turkey and such as China and India, are improving their Iran, the last not a G20 member) increase their performance and closing the citation impact output, gain world share and advance in citation gap between themselves and the traditional impact. research leaders of Europe and North America. Many of these historical leaders, in turn, have 4 Thomson ReUTeRsThis Global Research Report attempts to The global research landscape of the past contribute to an updated view of recent and decade has become so dynamic as to be significant developments of the G20. Thomson described in terms of tectonic movements, Reuters recommends that its bibliometric most importantly for that of China. Continents and patent indicators are best used to initiate – and countries – once distant from one fact-based discussions among members of another both physically and metaphorically the research community and science policy are now appearing side-by-side, and still new makers to assist both groups in developing landforms are emerging. In another decade, and accelerating excellence in science and the geography of science is sure to be very innovation globally. different from that of today. METhodology All data in this Global Research Report are In order to provide a consistent comparison derived from the comprehensive proprietary between the G20 regions, the number of patent databases of Thomson Reuters, including Web applications with national priority published of Science and Derwent World Patents Index® from each national patent office (for example, SM (DWPI ). Brazilian-published patent applications with Brazilian priority) was used to provide invention Web of Science is deemed the world’s most trends over the 10 years from 2003 to 2012 and trusted source of bibliometrics and citation counts of the number of inventions to resident information. Derwent World Patents Index companies given in the respective charts. is a proprietary Thomson Reuters database acknowledged as the world’s most trusted For the assessment of resident versus non- source of patent information covering 48 patent resident patenting, the total number of patent authorities and two literature sources. applications published by the national patent office for each year (2003 and 2012) was The analysis uses whole counting—not fractional counted and the percentage of priority filings counting—for papers and citations. That is, any calculated to indicate the proportion of resident nation, institution or individual author listed to non-resident patents. The total number on a given receives equal credit in terms of of patent applications published from each publication output and citation impact. The national office in 2012 was also used to provide whole-counting method measures participation the listing of foreign and resident companies. instead of contribution which in any case cannot be determined precisely because it is For the Share of Top 10 Global Technologies not revealed specifically in published research 2012 radar charts, the total number of basic reports. patents (inventions) published from each national office was analyzed by Derwent For the patents analysis, data from the class (a broad classification scheme used to Derwent World Patents Index within Thomson classify the technology area of each invention) Innovation® was analyzed (except for Argentina, and the ratio of national basics to all basics Saudi Arabia and Turkey, for which the globally calculated for the Top 10 technology bibliographic collection was used). classes globally in 2012. A similar analysis was performed to determine the major areas of innovation for each region in comparison to global innovation in 2012. Thomson ReUTeRs 5ARGENTINA Scientific and Scholarly Research output of Papers Indexed in Web of Science (2003 - 2012) 9,000 Population: 41.7 million (est. 2013, Instituto 8,000 Nacional de Estadistíca y Censos) GDP (PPP): 743 billion (est. 2012, International 7,000 Monetary Fund) 6,000 GERD (billion current PPP): 4.6 (2011, MSTI, 5,000 OECD) 4,000 GERD as % of GDP: .65 (2011, MSTI, OECD) BERD as % of GDP: .16 (2011, MSTI, OECD) 3,000 Researchers (FTE) thousands: 69.7 (2011, MSTI, 2,000 OECD) 1,000,000 R&D personnel per thousand labor force: 3.74 (2011, 0 MSTI, OECD) 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Percent World Share of Papers in Select oECd Science Fields (2008 - 2012) Engineering and Technology 1.2 Computer and Information  Clinical Medicine 1 Sciences 0.8 0.6 0.4 Basic Medical Research Mathematics 0 0.2 2 0 Physical Sciences and  Biological Sciences Relative Citation Impact of Papers in Select A Asstronomy tronomy oECd Science Fields (2008 - 2012) Engineering and Technology Agricultural Sciences Chemical Sciences 1.4 Computer and Information  1.2 Earth and Related  Clinical Medicine Sciences Environmental Sciences 1 0.8 0.6 Basic Medical Research Mathematics 0.4 0 02 .2 0 Top 10 ESI Fields by Percent World Share of highly Cited Papers (2002 - 2011) Physical Sciences and  Biological Sciences Astr Astronom onomyy Environmental Sciences and  Ecology 1.2 1.2 Molecular Biology Plant and Animal Sciences 1 Agricultural Sciences Chemical Sciences 0.8 Earth and Related  0.6 Environmental Sciences 0.4 Biochemistry Physics 0.2 0 IIm mmu mun nol olog ogyy Clin Clinic ical al M Me ed diicciin ne e Geosciences Astronomy and Astrophysics Agricultural Sciences 6 Thomson ReUTeRsPercent World Share of Papers in Web of Science f rom 2003 to 2012 argentina increased its (2003 - 2012) output of Web of s cience papers some 62%— slightly above the world’s increase of 50% 0.64 over the period—but its world share of papers 0.62 in the internationally influential journals and proceedings indexed by Thomson Reuters 0.6 remained at about .6% throughout the decade. 0.58 on the other hand, argentina’s citation impact 0.56 (citations per paper) improved from 25% below to 22% above the world average by 2012. 00.5544 according to the oecd classification scheme, 0.52 agricultural and biological sciences were focus 0.5 areas for argentina during 2008 to 2012, but its 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 highest relative citation impact in the last five years was achieved in clinical medicine and in Relative Citation Impact of Papers Indexed in physical sciences and astronomy. f rom a very Web of Science (2003 - 2012) low base of only 12 highly cited papers in 2002, argentina managed a sevenfold increase by 141.4 2011 with 85 such papers amounting to 1.1% of 1.2 production, thereby exceeding the expected 1% mark in terms of national output of highly cited 1 World Average papers. environmental sciences and ecology and 0.8 the related area of plant and animal sciences 0.6 were the two essential s cience indicators fields in which argentina held its largest world share of 0 04.4 highly cited papers, at 1.1% and .8%, respectively, 0.2 for the period from 2002 to 2011. 0 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Percent of highly Cited Papers Based on National output (2002 - 2011) 11.22 1 Expected Level 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2002200320042005200620072008200920102011 Thomson ReUTeRs 7ARGENTINA Intellectual Property Research AR Patent Applications with AR Priority 2003-2012 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index Resident vs. Non-Resident 2003 2012 Resident Non-Resident Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index 8 Thomson ReUTeRsShare of global Inventions 2012 Cigars; cigarettes; tobacco smoke filters Heterocyclic compounds Detergent compositions Preservation of human, animal, or plant bodies Veterinary instruments, implements, tools Ne w plants or processes  for obtaining them Blasting Peptides  Derivatives of natural macromolecular compounds Edible oils or fa t s 0.00%0.50%1.00%1.50%2.00%2.50% Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index CoMPANy - F oREIgN & RESIdENT All AR PATENTS 2012 AR PATENTS WITh CoMPANy - RESIdENT AR PRIoRIT y 2012 hoffmann la R oche 58 conse Jo nac inves T cienT Tec 14 do W aGRosciences llc 54 comUnicaciones y consUmos sa 5 bayeR cR opscience a G 53 Univ nac del liT oR al 5 UnileveR nv 52 comision nac de en aTomica cnea 4 basf se 52 GadoR sa 4 sanofi avenTis 51 ins T nac de Tecnolo Gia aGRopecU aRia 3 synGenT a paRTicipa Tions a G 50 Univ nac de coRdoba Unc 3 Telefonica sa 47 a p h inGenieRia QUimica sa 2 col GaTe palmolive co 44 acR opolis cables s a 2 pRoc TeR & Gamble 42 ascensoRes seR vas s a 2 higher at 81.2% in 2012. As shown in the table of Top 10 resident Over the decade from 2003 to 2012, inventions originating companies, much of the domestic innovation is being conducted from Argentina have averaged less than 1,000 per annum by academic and government concerns. Since DWPI data is not (p.a.). In recent years this has dropped to just over 500. available for Argentina, analysis of the Top 10 technologies as a Although fluctuating over this time, the proportion of domestic share of global inventions is based on the WIPO’s 35 technology applications has remained fairly steady at around 17%. This is field classifications. This shows the prominence of tobacco ree fl cted in the Top 10 patent applicants for 2012, all of which technology followed by chemistry (heterocyclic compounds), are foreign. This compares with the United States where detergent compositions and preservation of human, animal or around 55% of patent applications published in 2012 were plant bodies. from domestic concerns, and Japan where the ratio is much Thomson ReUTeRs 9AUSTRAlIA Scientific and Scholarly Research output of Papers Indexed in Web of Science (2003 - 2012) 50,,000 Population: 23.1 million (est. 2013, Australia Bu- reau of Statistics) 45,000 GDP (PPP): 971 billion (est. 2012, International 40,000 Monetary Fund) 35,000 GERD (billion current PPP): 20.6 (2010, MSTI, 30,000 OECD) 25,000 GERD as % of GDP: 2.20 (2010, MSTI, OECD) 20,000 BERD as % of GDP: 1.40 (2008, MSTI, OECD) 1155,000000 Researchers (FTE) thousands: 137.5 (2008, MSTI, 10,000 OECD) 5,000 R&D personnel per thousand labor force: 8.12 0 (2008, MSTI, OECD) 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Percent World Share of Papers in Select oECd Science Fields (2008 - 2012) Engineering and Technology 5 4.5 Clinical Medicine Computer and Information Sciences 4 3 3.5 .5 3 2.5 2 Basic Medical Research Mathematics 1.5 1 0.5 0 Relative Citation Impact of Papers in Select Biological Sciences Physical Sciences and Astronomy oECd Science Fields (2008 - 2012) Engineering and Technology 1.6 1.4 Clinical Medicine Computer and Information Sciences Agricultural Sciences Chemical Sciences 1.2 1 Earth and Related Environmental  0.8 Sciences 0.6 Basic Medical Research Mathematics 0.4 0 0.2 2 0 Top 10 ESI Fields by Percent World Share of B Biio ollo oggiicca all Scien Sciencce ess Phy Physsical ical Sc Sciie ences nces and and Astronomy Astronomy highly Cited Papers (2002 - 2011) E Env nviiro ronm nme en nttal al Sci Scie ences nces aand nd Ecol Ecology ogy 12 Molecular Biology 10 Geosciences Agricultural Sciences Chemical Sciences 8 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences 6 4 Microbiology Plant and Animal Sciences 2 0 Psyychiatryy//Psyychology gy Astronomyy and Astrop py hysics Social Sciences Clinical Medicine Immunology 10 Thomson ReUTeRsPercent World Share of Papers in Web of Science d espite its mature position compared with (2003 - 2012) rapidly growing research producers such as china, india, s outh Korea and saudi arabia, 4 australia improved its world share from 2.9% 3.5 in 2003 to 3.6% in 2012 on the strength of an 33 88% increase in paper output in Web of s cience 2.5 (24,568 to 46,271). o ver the same time its 2 citation impact rose from 13% to 28% above the world average. even more impressive was 1.5 australia’s large share of highly cited papers by 1 2011, some 1.7% of output, up from 1.1% in 2002. 0.5 This increase in highly cited papers contributed 0 strongly to the nation’s overall increase in 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 citation impact. earth, environmental sciences and ecology have been robust research areas for australia—in world share, citation impact and Relative Citation Impact of Papers Indexed in production of highly cited papers. Recently, a Web of Science (2003 - 2012) Thomson Reuters report highlighted the nation’s 1.6 leadership role in research on climate change, 1.4 ocean acidification and coral reefs ( c . King and 1 12.2 d .a . pendlebury, Research Fronts 2013: 100 Top-Ranked Specialties in the Sciences and Social 1 World Average Sciences, page 9). australia also contributed more 0.8 than twice its expected world share of highly cited 0.6 papers in geosciences, plant and animal sciences, 0.4 and in astronomy and astrophysics. While these 0.2 research strengths are related to the nation’s 0 unique geography, geology, flora and fauna, 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 australian scientists seem to have made the most of their national ‘laboratory’ and its resources. Percent of highly Cited Papers Based on Also see: J. Adams, C. King, and B. Webster, Global National output (2002 - 2011) Research Report: australia and new Zealand, March 2010 http://sciencewatch.com/sites/sw/files/sw-article/ 1.8 media/globalresearchreport-anz.pdf and C. King and 1.6 D.A. Pendlebury, Research f ronts 2013: 100 Top- 1.4 Ranked specialties in the s ciences and s ocial s ciences, 1.2 April 2013 http://sciencewatch.com/sites/sw/files/sw- 1 Expected Level article/media/research-fronts-2013.pdf 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2002200320042005200620072008200920102011 Thomson ReUTeRs 11AUSTRAlIA Intellectual Property Research AU Patent Applications with AU Priority 2003-2012 Resident vs. Non-Resident 8000 20032003 7000 60006000 5000 4000 30003000 Resident Non-Resident20012 2000 1000 0 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index Share of Top 10 global Technologies 2012 Digital Digital Com Computers puters  0.20% Telephone/Data  0.18% Natural products 0.16% Transmission 0.14% 0.12% 0.10% 0.08% Scientific  Automotive Electrics 0.06% Instrumentation 0 0.04% 04% 0.02% 0.00% Electro Electro‐ ‐(in)organic (in)organic,  Semiconductor  chemical features of  materials and processes conductors, resistors, … Engineering  Lighting Instrumentation  Printed d circuits and d  connectors Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index 12 Thomson ReUTeRsShare of global Inventions 2012 Vehicles for transporting special loads Buildingg aids, sppecial structures  Structural elements  General building constructions  Hand/animal drawn vehicles  Roofing, stairs, floors  GamesGames, spsportsorts, toystoys (gene(generralal)) Games, sports, toys (polymer applications) Roads, building, construction flooring Shop, household, furnishings  0.00%0.40%0.80%1.20%1.60% Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index CoMPANy - F oREIgN & RESIdENT All AU INvENTIoNS CoMPANy - RESIdENT AU INvENTIoNS 2012 WITh AU PRIoRIT y 2012 henGdian GR oUp liniX mo ToR co l Td 94 aRis TocR aT Technolo Gies aUs TRalia 76 aRis TocR aT Technolo Gies aUs TRalia 76 pTy l T pTy l T secURency inT pT y l Td 12 heval henGdian machineR y co l Td cnnc 25 GeRaRd liGhTinG pT y l Td 9 ninGbo shi JianGdonG QU daK oU TR adinG 19 co l Td hills holdinGs l Td 8 Taoda commodiT y co l Td 15 aUs TRalian s Teel co opeR aTions pT y l Td 6 apple inc 13 cooK medical Technolo Gies llc 6 Goo Gle inc 13 meTecno pT y l Td 6 illinois T ool W oRKs inc 13 anG as ind pT y l Td 5 secURency inT pT y l Td 12 aUs TRalia GRT daRso ind dev 5 KinG fURniTURe aUs TRalia pT y l Td 5 canon KK 11 Homegrown innovation as measured by the number of Australian 10 domestic concerns are spread across a range of technology patent applications originating from Australia steadily declined areas. l ooking at the Top 10 global patented technologies, from over 7,000 inventions in 2003 to just under 4,000 in 2011, Australia holds 0.18% of the world’s patent applications in but 2012 saw a recovery to just short of 6,000 inventions. Much of digital computing followed by 0.14% in lighting and around Australian patenting is however swamped by foreign companies 0.10% in telephone/data transmission and automotive electrics. applying for protection of their innovation in Australia. Over 79% The overall balance of Australian technology compared to of applications published in 2012 came from outside Australia. global patenting shows a focus on vehicles for transporting This indicates a high interest in Australian markets by foreign special loads and general construction technologies (building concerns and is ree fl cted in the Top 10 company list for 2012 aids, special structures, structural elements and general which includes Chinese, U.S. and Japanese companies. The Top building constructions). Thomson ReUTeRs 13BRAzIl Scientific and Scholarly Research output of Papers Indexed in Web of Science (2003 - 2012) 4040,000000 Population: 193.9 million (est. 2012, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) 35,000 GDP (PPP): 2,356 billion (est. 2012, International 3030,000000 Monetary Fund) 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Percent World Share of Papers in Select oECd Science Fields (2008 - 2012) Engineering and Technology 9 8 Clinical Medicine Computer and Information Sciences 7 6 5 4 Basic Medical Research 3 Mathematics 2 1 0 Relative Citation Impact of Papers in Select Biological Sciences Physical Sciences and Astronomy oECd Science Fields (2008 - 2012) Engineering and Technology 1 Agricultural Sciences Chemical Sciences 0.9 Clinical Medicine Computer and Information Sciences 0.8 Earth and Related Environmental  0.7 0.7 Sciences 0.6 0.5 0.4 Basic Medical Research Mathematics 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Top 10 ESI Fields by Percent of World Share of highly Cited Papers (2002 - 2011) Biological Sciences Physical Sciences and Astronomy P Ph hysiics 2.5 Psychiatry/Psychology Agricultural Sciences 2 Agricultural Sciences Chemical Sciences 1.5 Earth and Related Environmental  1 Sciences Environmental Sciences and  Plant and Animal Sciences Ecology 0.5 0 Microbiologgyy Astronomyy and Astropy physics Mathematics Mathematics G Ge eo osscciie en ncce ess Clinical Medicine 14 Thomson ReUTeRsPercent World Share of Papers in Web of Science brazil’s research papers in Web of s cience (2003 - 2012) increased about three times as fast as the world average from 2003 to 2012 (145% vs. 50%), 33 resulting in a 1% expansion in world share from 2.5 1.7% to 2.7%. citation impact for brazil relative to the world average, at about 30% below 2 expectation, was essentially unchanged during 1.5 the period. This is not uncommon among nations whose output rises quickly: capacity is built 1 first and better impact generally follows over 0.5 the following decade. by far the field in which brazil held its largest world share during 2008 0 to 2012 was agricultural sciences, at 8.3%. The 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 citation impact of papers in this area, however, was only half the world average and among Relative Citation Impact of Papers Indexed in the lowest for the nation compared with other Web of Science (2003 - 2012) fields. nonetheless, agricultural sciences was the second-highest-ranked field for brazil in terms 00.7676 World Average = 1 of its percent of the world’s highly cited papers 0.74 produced during 2002 to 2011 (environmental 00.7272 sciences and ecology was third). physical sciences 0.7 and astronomy were fields in which brazil 0.68 exhibited strength in citation impact, whether 0.66 measured in terms of relative citation impact according to the oecd classification scheme, 0.64 2008 to 2012, or percent share of the world’s 0.62 highly cited papers according to essential s cience 0.6 indicators fields, 2002 to 2011. 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Also see: J. Adams, D. Pendlebury, and B. Stembridge, building bRicKs : exploring the Global Research and Percent of highly Cited Papers Based on innovation impact of brazil, Russia, india, china, and National output (2002 - 2011) s outh Korea, February 2013 http://sciencewatch.com/ 0 0.66 Expected Level = 1 sites/sw/files/sw-article/media/grr-brick.pdf and J. Adams, and C. King, Global Research Report: brazil. 0.5 Research and c ollaboration in the new Geography of s cience, June 2009 http://sciencewatch.com/sites/sw/ 0.4 files/sw-article/media/grr-brazil-Jun09.pdf 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2002200320042005200620072008200920102011 Thomson ReUTeRs 15BRAzIl Intellectual Property Research BR Patent Applications with BR Priority 2003-2012 Resident vs. Non-Resident 5000 2003 4500 40004000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 Resident 10002012 Non-Resident 550000 0 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index Share of Top 10 global Technologies 2012 Digital Computers  0 0.1 18 8% % 0.16% Telephone/Data  Natural Products Transmission 0.14% 0.12% 0.10% 0.08% 0.06% Automotive Electrics Scientific Instrumentation 0 0.0 04 4% % 0.02% 0.00% Ele Elecctro tro‐(in)organic, (in)organic,  Semiconductor Materials  Chemical Features of  and Processes Conductors, Resistors,  Magnets, Capacitors and … Engineering  Lighting Instrumentation  Printed Circuits and  Connectors Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index 16 Thomson ReUTeRsShare of global Inventions 2012 Harvesting  Butchering, processing meat, poultry … Petroleum transportation and storage Sugar and starch industry Clothing, footwear Packaging and containers HouseholdHousehold aanndd officeoffice fittingsfittings Closures  Footwear  Structural elements  0.00%0.20%0.40%0.60%0.80%1.00%1.20% Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index CoMPANy - RESIdENT BR INvENTIoNS CoMPANy - F oREIgN & RESIdENT All BR INvENTIoNS 2012 WITh BR PRIoRIT y 2012 peTRobR as peTR oleo bR asil sa 30 peTRobR as peTR oleo bR asil sa 30 Univ sao pa Ulo Usp 23 Univ sao pa Ulo Usp 23 WhiRlpool sa 18 WhiRlpool sa 18 Unicamp Univ es TadU al campinas 15 Unicamp Univ es TadU al campinas 15 Univ fedeR al do Rio GR ande do sUl 14 Univ fedeR al do Rio GR ande do sUl 14 Univ fedeR al minas GeR ais 13 Univ fedeR al minas GeR ais 13 GRendene sa 8 GRendene sa 8 Jobe ind e comeR cio plas Ticos l Tda 7 Jobe ind e comeR cio plas Ticos l Tda 7 Univ fedeR al lavR as 7 Univ fedeR al lavR as 7 comissao nacional eneRGia nUcleaR 6 comissao nacional eneRGia nUcleaR 6 in the Brazilian marketplace. Of the Top 10 organizations, six Brazilian innovation at an average of 4,000 inventions p.a. is less than fellow BRICs Russia, India and especially China, but are academic or government concerns. For the Top 10 patented higher than the other South American G20 countries (Argentina, technologies globally, Brazilian focus is on automotive electrics Mexico). More applications from outside Brazil are made to (0.16%), natural products (0.12%) and printed circuits and protect inventions in Brazil than originate there, although the connectors (0.11%). For Brazilian technology per se, the highest share compared to global patenting is in agriculture & food proportion of indigenous applications is increasing over time. Interestingly, for new inventions (basics) the Top 10 company (harvesting and butchering, processing meat) and petroleum lists for all basics and those originating from Brazil are the transportation and storage. This ree fl cts the structure of the same; although three times as many patent applications Brazilian economy which is based on a plentiful supply of natural originate from abroad, very few of these are for inventions new resources. to Brazil – instead, they seek protection for existing inventions Thomson ReUTeRs 17CANADA Scientific and Scholarly Research output of Papers Indexed in Web of Science (2003 - 2012) 70,,000 Population: 33.5 million (2011, Statistics Canada) GDP (PPP): 1,535 billion (est. 2013, International 60,000 Monetary Fund) 50,000 GERD (billion current PPP): 24.3 (2011, MSTI, OECD) 40,000 GERD as % of GDP: 1.74 (2011, MSTI, OECD) 30,000 BERD as % of GDP: .81 (2011, MSTI, OECD) 2200,000000 Researchers (FTE) thousands: 149.1 (2010, MSTI, OECD) 10,000 R&D personnel per thousand labor force: 11.91 (2010, MSTI, OECD) 0 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Percent World Share of Papers in Select oECd Science Fields (2008 - 2012) Engineering and Technology 7 6 Clinical Medicine Computer and Information Sciences 5 4 3 Basic Medical Research Mathematics 2 1 1 0 Relative Citation Impact of Papers in Select oECd Science Fields (2008 - 2012) Biological Sciences Physical Sciences and Astronomy Engineering and Technology 18 1.8 1.6 Clinical Medicine Computer and Information Sciences 1.4 Agricultural Sciences Chemical Sciences 1.2 1 1 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences 0.8 0.6 Basic Medical Research Mathematics 0.4 0 02 .2 0 Top 10 ESI Fields by Percent World Share of B Biiologic ological al Sciences Sciences Phy Physsic ical al Sciences Sciences and and Astronomy Astronomy highly Cited Papers (2002 - 2011) Astronomy and Astrophysics 16 14 Plant and Animal Sciences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Agricultural Sciences Chemical Sciences 12 10 Earth and Related Environmental  8 Sciences 6 Neurosciences Clinical Medicine 4 2 2 0 Social Sciences Psyhiatry/Psychology Molecular Biology Geosciences Agricultural Sciences 18 Thomson ReUTeRsPercent World Share of Papers in Web of Science c anada’s share of world research output was (2003 - 2012) unchanged over the last decade, ending in 2012, where it began in 2003 at 4.5%. citation 4.8 impact, however, rose from 23% to 36% above 4.75 the world average during the period. also, highly 474.7 cited papers as a percent of the nation’s output 4.65 increased from 1.3% in 2002 to 1.7% by 2011, well above the expected level of 1%. in the last five 4.6 years, 2008 to 2012, c anada captured its highest 4.55 world share of papers in earth and related 4.5 environmental sciences, according to the oecd 4.45 classification scheme. e nvironmental sciences 4.4 and ecology was the essential s cience indicators 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 field in which the nation contributed its second largest share of the world’s highly cited papers (geosciences was fifth according to this indicator). Relative Citation Impact of Papers Indexed in in both relative citation impact and share of Web of Science (2003 - 2012) highly cited papers, c anada also showed strength 1.4 in clinical medicine and in agricultural sciences. as with many nations in this report, c anada’s 1.35 highest percent share of highly cited papers was in astronomy and astrophysics, which reflects 1.3 intensive international collaboration on many large-scale, high-impact studies in this field. 1.25 1.2 1.15 World Average = 1 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Percent of highly Cited Papers Based on National output (2002 - 2011) 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 Expected Level 0.8 060.6 0.4 0.2 0 2002200320042005200620072008200920102011 Thomson ReUTeRs 19CANADA Intellectual Property Research CA Patent Applications with CA Priority 2003-2012 Resident vs. Non-Resident 2003 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 Resident 1000 2012 Non-Resident 500 0 2003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index Share of Top 10 global Technologies 2012 Digital Computers  0 0.14% 14% Telephone/Data  0.12% Natural Products Transmission 0.10% 0.08% 0.06% Automotive Electrics Scientific Instrumentation 0.04% 0.02% 0.00% Electro Electro‐(in)org (in)orga anic, nic,  Semiconductor Materials  Chemical Features of  and Processes Conductors, Resistors,  Magnets, Capacitors and…   Engineering  Lighting Instrumentation  Printed Circuits and  Connectors Source: Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index 20 Thomson ReUTeRs