How develop personality development skills

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Published Date:17-07-2017
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TRAINING MODULE ON PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Sponsored by Department of Personnel & Training Government of India & U.N.D.P Prepared by Dr.Chandra Prasad Sreedhar & Mr.Oommen Mathew Institute of Management in Government Thiruvananthapuram FOREWORD The influence of human personality upon the functional efficiency of an organization and its personnel has been widely recognized. The personality can also be modified to a certain extent. Accordingly, recent years have seen a variety of efforts by professionals in various fields to design courses that will help develop certain positive trends in personality. The objective of such courses is to remove or screen out those barriers or obstructions that stand in the way of the expression of individual personality, through a process of training. 2. The present module on personality development is specifically design to cater to the demands of training courses organized for senior officers in order to improve functional efficiency. The module covers 9 areas. It was validated in two stages, and contains the distilled wisdom of this consultative process. When effectively operationalised, the module should ensure that participants are given adequate opportunity to gain skills that will help improve their functional efficiency. 3. This project was undertaken by the Institute of Management in Government (IMG) at the behest of the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT), Government in India. RUDHRA GANGADHARAN IAS DIRECTOR INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT Thiruvananthapuram th 28 May 2003 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The successful completion of this module on Personality Development was achieved through the wholehearted, sincere and committed support of a number of dignitaries whom I take this opportunity to acknowledge. First of all let me express my deep sense of gratitude to Shri.Agarwal, Joint Secretary, Department of Personnel and Training Government of India for entrusting me with the task of preparing this module and I hope that the work has come upto his expectation level and demand. But for his encouragement, this work could not have materialized. Next I wholeheartedly acknowledge Shri. Rudhra Gangadharan, Principal Secretary and Director, IMG for his valuable suggestions, support and timely help all of which have gone a long way in helping me to complete the work within the stipulated time. I am thankful to Shri.Venkatesan, Joint Director, DoPT for all the valuable help rendered by him. My thanks are also due to Dr.Venkatapathy Director School of Management Studies, Bharathiar University, Dr.Mathew Manimalayil, Professor, IIM, Bangalore and Dr.Ramachandran Nair, Director, IMK Kerala University who have wholeheartedly conducted the evaluation of the module and offered meaningful suggestions. Their contributions have greatly helped me in perfecting the module. I also wish to acknowledge the sincere co-operation of the experts in the field of academic and administration who have attended the validation workshop and offered valuable suggestions which were appropriately incorporated in the module. Finally I wish to acknowledge the sincere suggestions and encouragement of my colleagues and well wishers. Dr.Chandra Prasad Sreedhar CONTENTS Page Number 1. Package of Personality Development 1 2. Leadership 4 3. Interpersonal Relations 7 4. Communication in organizations 9 5. Stress Management 13 6. Group Dynamics and Team Building 15 7. Conflict Management 18 8. Performance Appraisal 21 9. Time Management 24 10. Motivation 27 Package of Personality Development Aim The training module is aimed at the promotion of the strategies for the personality development of the participants. The rationale behind this endeavor is the recognition of the multifaceted influence of the personality of the employees upon organisational effectiveness. Objectives The objective of the training programme is bring about personality development with regard to the different behavioural dimensions that have far reaching significance in the direction of organisational effectiveness. Methodology Lecture-cum-discussion Group Discussion Management Games Case Studies Participants The participants will consists of officers in the A,B and C category. DURATION : 5 days Course content Unit 1 Leadership Introduction to Leadership, Leadership Power, Leadership Styles, Leadership in Administration. Unit 2 Interpersonal Introduction to Interpersonal Relations, Analysis Relations of different ego states, Analysis of Transactions, Analysis of Strokes, Analysis of Life position Unit 3 Communication Introduction to Communication, Flow of Communication, Listening, Barriers of Communication, How to overcome barriers of communication. Unit 4 Stress Introduction to Stress, Causes of Stress, Impact Management Stress, Managing Stress Unit 5 Group Dynamics Importance of groups in organization, and Team Interactions in group, Group Building Decision Taking, Team Building, Interaction with the Team, How to build a good team? Unit 6 Conflict Introduction to Conflict, Causes of Conflict, Management Managing Conflict Unit 7 Performance Introduction to Performance Appraisal, Appraisal Vertical Appraisal, Horizontal Appraisal, 360º Performance Appraisal, Methods of improving Techniques of Performance Appraisal. Unit 8 Time Time as a Resource, Identify Important Time Management Wasters, Individual Time Management Styles, Techniques for better Time Management. Unit 9 Motivation Introduction to Motivation, Relevance and types of Motivation, Motivating the subordinates, Analysis of Motivation Day-wise Breakup Registration, Familiarisation and Inauguration Session I and Introduction to the Course Problem identification, report presentation Session II Day 1 and discussion Session III Introduction to Leadership Session IV Leadership Styles Session I Interpersonal Relations Session II Boss-Subordinate Relations Day 2 Session III Introduction to Communication Session IV Barriers of Communication Session I Introduction to Stress and Causes of Stress Session II Impact of Stress and Managing Stress Day 3 Session III Group Dynamics Session IV Team Building Session I Introduction to Conflict Session II Managing Conflict Day 4 Session III Introduction to Performance Appraisal Session IV Designing a Performance Appraisal System Session I Time Management Session II Managing time meaningfully Day 5 Session III Motivation Session IV Action Plan, Evaluation and Valediction Day One (Forenoon) Registration, Familiarisation and Inauguration. (45 minutes) Introduction to the course (45 minutes) This session involves a detailed discussion pertaining to the aims and objectives of the course in general. The introduction of the total content areas is also attempted in this session. Problem Identification (45 minutes) Suggested methodology – Group discussion. During this session the participants will be divided into specific number of groups and each group is expected to discuss the problems that they are facing in their organisation. Each group is to have a leader who is to present a consolidated report of the problems faced by the members of his group. Report Presentation and discussion (45 minutes) After the presentation of the reports by each of the leaders, in order to fulfil the requirement of this session in Problem Identification, the course director will be preparing a detailed list of all the problems cited. The list of problems will then be circulated to all the trainers who are handling the various sessions. Day One (Afternoon) - Leadership Objectives To impart knowledge, sharpen skills and orient attitudes of participants so that they are capable of performing better in their roles as leaders based on the situation. Content Leadership – importance and significance – the concept – leader vs. manager – Are all leaders managers? - Are all managers leaders? – categories of leaders : entrepreneurial – administrative – political. Leadership styles : autocratic (authoritarian and paternalistic) – democratic – laizzes faire. Leadership style – the concept of situational leadership – identification of individual leadership styles and construction of personal leadership style profiles. Methodology Suggested (1) Lecture (2) Games (3) Group Discussion (4) Case Studies Time Schedule 1. Lecture cum discussion on leadership concepts – 45 minutes 2. Exercise of tower building - 60 minutes and discussion 3. TP Leadership style questionnaire & Construction of Personal Leadership style profiles - 30 minutes 4. Experience sharing - 45 minutes - Total - 180 minutes Instructions to Trainers - During the initial discussion importance and primacy of leadership should be highlighted. The concept of leader and manager should compared and contrasted. It should be made clear that while categorization of leadership is based on what leaders do or what they are capable of doing best, identification of leadership styles is based on how leaders perform the tasks of: (1) making decisions (2) implementing decisions - The tower building exercise, if properly conducted, can be a very powerful tool to bring out participants’ leadership styles and even to compare their relative merits and demerits. Two participants should be requested to volunteer to take up the roles of leader and follower. They should be requested to come to the front and shown the blocks with which they have to build a tower. They should also be told that the “follower” will be blind folded and that she/he will be allowed to use only one hand and will have to build the tower based on the leader’s instructions. It should also be told that they should try to build as high a tower as possible. Before announcement of work, they should be asked to give their estimate of the height of the tower they are going to build in terms of number of blocks. These should be recorded. Care should be taken to note even minute details such as whether the estimates given are based on mutual consultation or are individual opinions. After the briefing, the follower should be blindfolded and made to stand on one side of the table on which the blocks are kept and the leader should be instructed to stand on the opposite side. Then they should proceed to construct the tower. Even minute aspects of the behaviour of the leader and follower should be observed and recorded, such as: (1) leader’s behaviour at the beginning especially goal setting (2) whether the leader tries to encourage, control and motivate the follower. (3) Does the leader provide feedback to the follower? If yes, is it sufficient. (4) How do they respond/react in case the tower collapses during the construction. (5) Leaders behaviour at Project completion. After the team completes the tower construction there should be a guided discussion on all aspects of the teams performance viz., goal setting, leadership styles, communication, empathy etc. - The TP Leadership Questionnaire should be administered after the exercise of tower building. Required instructions are given on the Questionnaire, Score Sheet and Leadership style, Profile Sheet. Based on the leadership style of individual participants, discussions as to whether any change in their styles is required etc. can be made. Day Two (Forenoon) - Interpersonal Relations (Transactional Analysis) Objectives To create an awareness in the participants with regard to the different aspects of interpersonal relations based on the ideas envisaged in Transactional Analysis and their relative significance in the context of the functional effectiveness of organisations. Contents Introduction Analysis of different ego states Analysis of Transactions Analysis of Strokes Analysis of Life position Methodology 1. Lecture Method 2. Questionnaire method Time Schedule 15 minutes Introduction 45 minutes Analysis of different ego states 30 minutes Administor the questionnaire and analysis different ego states 30 minutes Analysis of Transactions 30 minutes Analysis of Strokes 30 minutes Analysis of Life position Instruction to Trainers 1. Introduction In this section, participants are to be provided with theoretical knowledge with regard to nature, types and outcomes of various interpersonal relationships in relation with Transactional Analysis. 2. Analysis of Ego States In this session Ego States are to be analysed with the help of concrete examples in the organisational set up. This session involves the use of a lecture-cum- discussion method. After the analysis of ego status the questionnaire for identifying the same may be administered to the participants and their responses scored in accordance with the scoring schedule provided. The scores are then analysed and interpreted in order to provide the participants informations regarding this relative positions with regard to different ego states. 3. Analysis of Transactions The participants should be made aware of the different types of transactions such as complementary, crossed and ulterior transactions and are then encouraged to identify their predominant style of transaction. Then the merits and demerits of the different styls are evaluated and the need, scope and method of changing the styles as and when required is also discussed. 4. Analysis of Strokes Strokes can be considered in the most simple way as forms of rewards (appreciations) and punishments. They can be either positive or negative and all people need them for being and also for performing. After providing the awareness regarding the different stroking patterns to the participants, they are asked to make an evaluation of their stroking patterns and identify their merits and demerits and also to suggest changes, if any, required in stroking patterns to enhance interpersonal relationships. 5. Analysis of Life Positions As per the concepts involved in Transactional Analysis, four different types of Life positions have been identified. They are: 1. I am OK You are OK 2. I am not OK You are not OK 3. I am OK You are not OK 4. I am not OK You are OK The trainer has to provide evaluative information regarding these life positions to the participants and they should be encouraged to identify their life positions and understand merits and demerits. The participants are also made to come out with suggestions for changing their life positions in accordance with the appropriation of the situations in order to enhance interpersonal contracts. Day Two (Afternoon) - Communication In Organisations Objectives To empower participants to be better communicators by providing them with relevant inputs and also sharpening their skills. Contents Introduction to Communication – Communication as a process – Communication as a concept – Importance of Communication – Types of Communication – Effective Communication - The ABCs of Communication – Model for Communication process – Communication categories – Barriers to effective Communication. Methodology The methodology shall consist of Lecture, exercises, games, inventories and case studies. Time Schedule 1. Introduction and clarification of concepts - 20 minutes (lecturette) 2. Exercise – Please follow the Instructions - 10 minutes 3. Barriers to Effective Communication - 60 minutes (story telling exercise and Lecturette) 4. Exercise – Separate Fact from Inference - 10 minutes 5. Questionnaire on Listening - 10 minutes 6. Questionnaire on Speaking - 10 minutes 7. Drawing exercise - 30 minutes 8. Improving Communication - 30 minutes Total - 180 minutes Instructions to Trainers (i) Read the write up, “Communication in Organizations” thoroughly. The sequence of topics suggested for the session closely follows the text. (ii) An appropriate ice breaker should be used at the beginning of the session. (iii) Whenever OHP is used, take care not to turn back and look at the screen. The trainer should always face the audience. If something is to be pointed, it can be done on the transparency, which will also get projected. (iv) The following modus operandi is suggested for the story telling exercise: (a) request five volunteers to wait outside the hall at a distance from where they cannot hear what somebody speaks in the class. (b) allot them numbers 1-5 and tell them that they will have to return to class in this order when called (c) request anyone in the hall to share an interesting incident in her/his life, which other participants do not know. (d) After the narration is over, request volunteer No.1 to return to the class. She/he may be given a chair right in the front. (e) Request any member in the audience to come forward and repeat the narration she/he heard. Volunteer No.1 should be asked to listen carefully to the narration and others should be instructed not to offer explanations, clarifications etc. (f) After this step is over, volunteer No.2 should be brought to the class and Volunteer No.1 should tell her/him what he heard. (g) This process has to be continued. Volunteer No.2 should repeat what she/he heard to Volunteer No.3 and Volunteer No.3 has to do the same with Volunteer No.4. (h) Volunteer No.4 should be asked to go to Volunteer No.5 who is waiting outside and tell her/him what she/he heard. (i) After step (h) Volunteer Nos.4 and 5 should return to the class. Volunteer No.4 should be requested to occupy a seat and No.5 should be asked to repeat what she/he heard to the group. (j) The narrations by Volunteer No.5 and that of the original storyteller can be compared to get some idea of the transmission alterations. (k) This exercise can be very interesting and audience usually burst out laughing during each narration. (l) It will be interesting to record the original story and the narration of the Volunteer No.5 for obvious reasons. (v) After the exercise “Separate Facts from Inference”, the trainer should point out that Separating Facts from Inferences is basically a communication skill irrespective of the field of applications. Number of correct responses by participants may also be checked (only statement No.3 is a fact). Differences in individual and group effectiveness can also be observed. (vi) For Questionnaires on Listening and Speaking, respondents should be asked to give ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ answers to each Question, based on how they would behave during majority of situations. They have to answer questions based on how they would behave and not how they should behave. Most participants will know the ideal answers and so the questionnaires will give them some idea about themselves as listeners and speakers. If necessary, the trainer can give some explanations. (vii) The modus operandi to conduct the drawing exercise will be as follows: The participants may be divided in to two equal groups (say No. Ones and No. Twos) and one group can be asked to wait outside the hall. To each participant inside the hall a piece of paper (½ of an A4 size sheet) should be given and they should be requested to write their names on top left. The following 2 figures should be projected on the screen and each participant should copy one of the figures on their sheets of paper reasonably big enough, with the sketch pens that will be supplied to them. Then they should be given the instruction sheet – sample attached – which will be of A4 size. The group of No. Ones who are given the role of senders should be given the task of making one from the other group (they will be receivers) draw the same diagram that No. Ones have drawn initially on the right hand side of the instruction sheet, by giving written instructions. They cannot give any pictorial directives. After the Senders’ finish writing down instructions their initial drawings should be collected and kept away. The pictures should no longer be projected on the screen. then the group, which has been waiting outside the hall, should be asked to come in. The senders should hand over the instruction sheets to the receivers. The sender should not be allowed to orally communicate with the receivers. But they should be encouraged to watch how the receivers proceed. Once the receivers have completed ‘their’ drawings the instruction sheets should be collected back and each drawing should be paired with its “original”. Each set should be shown to the entire group with trainers comments whenever appropriate. Day Three (Forenoon) - Stress Management Objectives The principal objectives of this unit are to familiarize the participants with the knowledge regarding the various causes of stress, type of stresses and above all the various stress management strategies. Content Introduction to Stress Management - Causes of Stress - Impact of Stress - Managing Stress Methods Lecture method Group discussion Relaxation Techniques (Demonstration) Time Schedule 30 minutes - Introduction 45 minutes - Causes of Stress 45 minutes - Impact of Stress 45 minutes - Managing Stress 15 minutes - Question and answers session Instruction to trainers Introduction of Stress Management This is the first topic of the units namely the Introduction. The following factors should be covered. 1) What is Stress? 2) Relevance of Stress 3) Difference between Distress and Eustress 4) General Adaptation Syndrome Causes of Stress The second part of the unit is aimed at analysing the Causes of Stress. This analysis will be through a group discussion. The whole class can be divided in to three groups. Each group has to analyse the causes along the following dimensions. 1. Organisational based stress 2. Family based stress 3. Social stresses After the discussion each group has to present a brief report and the presentation will be again followed by evaluations and discussion Impact of Stress This part of the unit is aimed at analysing the impact of stress up on individual and organisation. Some of the topics covered in this sections include areas such as: (1) Decision Making (Indecision, Delay, Error), (2) Performance (Absenteeism, Sabotage, Productivity) (3) Behavioural Area (Excessive smoking, Excessive drinking, Excessive in take off coffee or tea, Tremor, Drumming Fingers, Nail Bitting, Body Movements, Accidents (4) Psychological (Poor Memory, Poor Concentration, Sleep problems, Anxiety, Fear, Inability to relax, Depression, Suicide, Anger (5) Psychosomatic (Hyper tension, Peptic Ulcer, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Tension head-ache, Bronchial Asthma, Diabetes, Neuro Dermatitis) Managing Stress This section involves a theoretical as well as a practical session. The theoretical session is aimed at increasing the awareness of participants regarding the influence of perceptual changes, personality, proper exercise, time management and the avoidance of long working hours in reducing the experience of stress. The practical session involves the imparting of training in Yoga, Mediation and Relaxation. It is essential that this session should be handled by an expert in these areas. Day Three (Afternoon) - Group Dynamics &Team Building Objectives To improve managerial capabilities of participants through team building and group dynamics. Contents Concept of team – concept of group - synergy – principles of intra-group dynamics relevant in the context of team building and management. How to build and manage effective teams. Method Lecutre method Games Group work Time Schedule 1. The exercise of broken squares - 45 minutes 2. Discussion - 30 minutes 3. Participants’ experience sharing - 30 minutes 4. Group work on developing an effective - 45 minutes strategy for team building and management 5. Presentation of reports - 30 minutes Total - 180 minutes Instructions to Trainers - A unique feature of the session on team building and management will be that a game/exercise will precede discussions - The exercise of broken squares will be conducted without announcing that it is part of a session on team building and management - To conduct the exercise of broken squares the group will be divided in to teams of five members. If the group is not exactly divisible by five, the remaining members should be given the role of observers. They should be briefed before commencement of the exercise and should be given a chance to present their observations after conclusion of the exercise. - Each team of participants (consisting of five members) should be directed to sit around a table. - Each team should be given a set of 5 covers each containing 3 pieces of thick paper. - The teams should be told that they have to complete a group task. The task involves making 5 squares, one in front of each person, using the pieces of paper which they get from the covers. - It should also be announced that though it will be possible to make 5 squares using the 15 pieces that each team gets, it may or may not be possible for an individual to make squares with the pieces she/he gets from her/his cover. - The following rules of the game should be stated very clearly: •= Participants should not express their desire to get pieces from others in any manner. •= Grabbing pieces from others is prohibited. •= Participant should not talk at all during the exercise •= Sub contracting is not allowed ie., one person should not make squares for others. •= No one is captain or leader ie., every member has the same status as a group member •= Participants should refrain from mutilating the pieces in any way. ie, bending, folding, tearing, cutting etc. of pieces are not allowed. •= However, participants are free to accept pieces from any or all of the four other members if they offer pieces on their own. •= Participants are free to offer their pieces to any or all of the other four members. •= It is not obligatory on the part of the participants to offer pieces in return to the ones they accept. •= Participants may not get pieces from others in exchange of the ones given. •= No participant should offer directions to others even non-verbally.

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