Internet of things future trends 2018

internet of things future applications trends and internet of future enabling social network of things future internet of things open issues and challenges
Dr.JohnGates Profile Pic
Published Date:09-11-2017
Your Website URL(Optional)
I. J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 Published Online April 2017 in MECS ( DOI: 10.5815/ijcnis.2017.04.07 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends Jaideep Kaur Guru Nanak Dev University/Department of CET, Amritsar, 143005, India E-mail: Kamaljit Kaur Guru Nanak Dev University/Department of CET, Amritsar, 143005, India E-mail: Abstract—World Wide Web (1990‟s) and Mobile the internet. IoT makes our surroundings smart by Internet (the 2000‟s) had consequential corroborated the exploiting RFID tags, sensors, mobile phones, spime, way how people communicate. However, with evolution Internet protocols, and wired or wireless communication in technology, the cataclysm of Internet has stepped into technologies. The authors in 8 deployed Bluetooth Low a new phase-Internet of Things. Internet of Things, a Energy (BLE) technology for energy efficient smart prominent paradigm in the field of IT having a nominal homes. Tabish et al. 54 used 6LoWPAN to remotely intervention of humans allowing diverse things to monitor patient‟s health. communicate with each other, anticipate, sight, and IoT has been included in first six „Disruptive Civil perceive surroundings. IoT exploits RFID tags, NFC, technologies‟ list by US National Intelligence sensors, smart bands, and wired or wireless Council(NIC) 85. NIC also envisions IoT to be present communication technologies to build smart surroundings, in everything be it furniture, paper, food packages or smart Homes, quick-witted intelligence in medical care, anything by 2025. By 2020, CISCO gauge to ease of Transport, and more. This paper introduces IoT approximately 50 billion IoT objects. In 1999, Kevin with emphasis on its driver technologies and system Ashton first coined the term „Internet of Things‟. architecture. In addition to application layer protocols, we focus on identifying various issues and application areas of IoT as well as future research trends in the field of IoT. We have also highlighted how big data is associated with Internet of Things. Index Terms—Applications, Architecture, Big Data, Economics, Internet of Things (IoT), Protocols. I. INTRODUCTION World Wide Web (1990‟s) and Mobile Internet (the 2000‟s) had consequential corroborated the way how people communicate. However, with an evolution in technology, the cataclysm of Internet has stepped into a new phase „Internet of Things-The next generation technology‟. Fig.1.Accumulate and Ubiquitous IOT Internet of things (IoT) provides a communication Gubbi et al. define IoT as: platform supporting person to person (P2P), Machine to Machine (M2M) and Person to Machine (P2M) “Interconnection of sensing and actuating devices interactions. Thus, IoT reckons to „Accumulate and providing the ability to share information across Ubiquitous‟. Fig. 1 shows Accumulate and Ubiquitous platforms through a unified framework, developing a IOT. common operating picture for enabling innovative Internet of Things- A prominent paradigm in the field applications. This is achieved by seamless ubiquitous of IT has a nominal intervention of humans, it is a sensing, data analytics and information representation network where miscellaneous things like animals, plants, with Cloud computing as the unifying framework 3.” vehicles, appliances, buildings dialogue information via Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 58 IoT sensors enable things (real/physical) to anticipate, manufacturing processes are made efficient and more sight, perceive and conduct jobs as living things do. For economic decisions are made with IoT 36 27. In 39 example, a wristband with embedded sensors monitor an author proposed an approach to control traffic your sleeping and waking time and set an alarm congestions as well as provides smart car parking. IoT accordingly, this wristband can then convey a message to has its application in making green, safe and secure cities the bath tub to start warming water and can even 31 34. communicate to the coffee maker to prepare coffee. Thus, Section II describes various components required for IoT cannot only sense things but it can also control and the functioning of IoT devices and various IoT actuate things. technologies. These technologies include RFID which is Things can be uniquely identified by assigning the first hardware embedded in IoT devices, its main Identification through IPv6 addressing. Current IPv4 have functionality is automatic identification, authentication, the capability to address only 4.3 billion devices whereas and tracking; Near Fields communication (NFC) - A th IPv6 has an address space ranging from 2 to 128 power wireless communication technology is capable of sharing devices that count to trillions of devices. With Unique data within the range of 10 cm; ZigBee is another identification, things can be easily located, recognized communication technology based on IEEE 802.15.4; and controlled via the internet. IoT is considered essential 6LowPAN – An IoT communication technology that in performing everyday activities. It can connect, Monitor adequate IPv6 packets to IEEE 802.15.4 specification and heterogeneous things around us, locate things present provides multi-hop delivery. This section further reviews around the globe, automatically manage and control the applications where these technologies have been things. utilized. Section III highlights IoT‟s system Architecture. Deploying IoT in our daily activities can the increase Section IV describes various application layer protocols quality of life and can even help in the growth of the and their comparison. Section V reviews proposals economy. By 2025, approximately 2-3 billion people will devised for various IoT complications such as energy access the internet also economic growth caused by IoT is efficiency, cost efficiency, availability, security, estimated to be in the range of 2.7 trillion to 6.2 trillion scalability, reliability. Section VI addresses application 55. Table 1 shows various application areas and the areas leveraged by IoT. Section VII highlights future percentage they have an impact on economic growth. research trends. Section VIII associates Big Data with From this Medical Care is found to benefit economic IoT and Section IX concludes the paper. growth at the most followed by Manufacturing then Electricity. II. COMPONENT PREREQUISITE FOR INTERNET OF THINGS Table 1. Percent of Economic Growth Caused By Deploying Iot in This section describes various components required for Various Application Arenas the functioning of IoT devices and various IoT APPLICATION ARENAS PERCENTAGE technologies. These technologies include RFID which is Medical Care 41% the first hardware embedded in IoT devices, its main functionality is automatic identification, authentication, Manufacturing 33% and tracking; Near Fields communication (NFC) - A Electricity 7% wireless communication technology is capable of sharing Metropolitan Infrastructure 4% data within the range of 10 cm; ZigBee is another Safety 4% communication technology based on IEEE 802.15.4; Resource Extortion 4% 6LowPAN – An IoT communication technology that adequate IPv6 packets to IEEE 802.15.4 specification and Agriculture 4% provides multi-hop delivery. IoT exploits RFID tags, Vehicles 2% NFC, sensors, smart bands, and wired or wireless Retail 1% communication technologies to build smart surroundings, smart Homes, quick-witted intelligence in medical care, With IoT, many multinational software companies ease of Transport, and more. have switched to the physical world. For instance, Google There are three components that are required for proper collaborated with a thermostat company to create its mark functioning of IoT. These are: in providing smart world/homes. IBM also leveraged IoT for traffic management and provides solutions for smart 1) Hardware and technologies – It incorporates Grids. Various other companies such as Facebook, Apple sensors, actuators and other embedded devices and envision IoT as its future technology. technologies. IoT has a high significance in our day to day life. It has 2) Middleware – It comprises of repository and data its vision in business, working and domestic domains analytic tools. such as assisted living, e-healthcare, industrial 3) Display – It comprises of some presentation tools manufacturing, automation, management, smart required for user interaction. transportation and abundant. In 8 28 IoT is deployed for energy efficient smart Homes and Appliances, 33 Fig. 2 shows various components that sum to IoT. deploys Arduino to monitor Air quality. Industry Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 59 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends transmission, Home appliances, Vehicle to Vehicle communication and more. 6LowPan IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area network (WPANs) abbreviated as 6LowPAN is an IoT communication technology that adequate IPv6 packets to Fig.2. Various Components of IoT IEEE 802.15.4 specification. In 2007, IETF 6LowPAN working group follow this standard. This section expounds IoT components as follows: 6LowPAN foreshortens transmission overhead by A. Hardware performing comparisons. It also supports multi-hop delivery 86 and is capable of providing security and Hardware associated with IoT collects required data protection in IoT environment. It operates in the range of from the surroundings. IPv6, RFIDs, NFC, BLE, ZigBee, 10-30 m. The datagram of 6LowPAN incorporates 4 6LowPan, WiFi, LTE (Long Term Evolution) are some types of 2 bit headers. 00 represents „No Header‟ and enabling technologies that gather IoT data. jettison all those packets that discard to 6LowPAN. 01 typify to „Transmit Header‟. This Header accomplishes Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) multi-casting and constricts IPv6 header. 10 represent RFID is first technology that exists from the time when „Reticulation addressing‟. It is capable of identifying the concept of IoT was found in late 90‟s. RFID is a IEEE 802.15.4 packets. 11 represent fragmentation. hardware embedded in the device; its main functionality Applications include Intrusion detection system, is automatic identification, authentication, and tracking. Healthcare. RFID consists of passive RFID tags and active RFID Table 2 illustrates Attributes of Technologies used in readers. Passive RFID tags do not operate on batteries Internet of Things. and it conveys ID to the active RFID readers. Active RFIDs are associated with the battery and it initiates Table 2. Attributes of Technologies used in Internet of Things communication. Healthcare, supply chain management, automatic recycling are some applications of RFIDs. Technology Proficiency Data Range Applications Rate RFID Authentication Up 1-10m HealthCare17, Near Field Communication (NFC) , to Supply chain Near Fields communication (NFC) is a wireless Monitoring, 640 Management communication technology that has the capability of Identification, kbps 56, sharing data among electronic devices within the range of Information Automotive Management Recycling 10 cm. NFC works at a high frequency of 13.56 MHz and Industry57, up to 424 Kbps of the data rate. Smart transportation, Object IPv6 packet transmission are some application areas Tracking58, where NFC technology is leveraged. warehouse management59 NFC communicatio 106 - ≤ 10 Smart ZigBee n, 424 cm Transportation ZigBee is another communication technology based on Security kbps 60, IEEE 802.15.4. It was standardized in 2003 later was Electronic Lock61,IPv6 revised in 2006. ZigBee provides high-level packet communication among IoT devices with coverage of 10- transmission62 100m. It also has its proficiency in monitoring, 6LowPan Protection and 20- 10-30 Intrusion authentication but does not guarantee QoS. It is a cost- Security 250 m Detection effective technology and consumes less energy, so it can kbps System 63, HealthCare64 be deployed in electric meters, wireless light switches, BLE communicatio 1 100 m Data industrial tools that require short-range data transfer. n, mbp transmission Applications include Smart Homes, Super Market and Reduce power s 65, more. consumption Home appliances 66, Smart Home8 Bluetooth low energy (BLE) ZigBee communicatio 20- 10- Smart Bluetooth low energy (BLE) as the name suggests is a n, 250 100 m Home67, wireless technology that is proficient in reducing power monitoring kbps Super Market68 consumptions, thus increasing the lifespan of devices. BLE uses shorter wavelength, operates in the range of 100m but have 15 times lower latency than traditional B. Middleware Bluetooth. It follows a master-slave approach. Almost all In order to aid repository and data analytics, a Smartphones are leveraging this technology to a greater centralized system is a must. IoT paradigm results into extent. BLE is coherent in consuming energy as the creation of abundant data. This data must be stored compared to ZigBee. Applications include Data Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 60 efficiently and intelligently in order to perform actuation A brief introduction to the five layers of IoT system and smart observations. A centralized system provides architecture is as follows: reliability. The data so generated by IoT can be stored in A. Objects or assets layer (Perception layer) a cloud-based repository. The lowest layer of IoT architecture is responsible for C. Display gathering data from the surroundings wielding sensors Display components of IoT consist of those tools that and actuators. It is proficient in identifying location, provide user interaction with the scenario. Since most monitoring room temperature and humidity, recording users of IoT are non-technical, it becomes a necessity to vehicle acceleration and more. It digitizes the sensed data develop devices that are easy to operate and from which and communicates to the object abstraction layer. user can have maximum benefit from. Devices such as B. Objects Abstraction layer smart phones, smart tablets, 3D screen etc. fall under this category. Through various communication technologies counterpart RFID, ZigBee, 6LowPAN, WiFi, 3G/4G, BLE etc. this layer act as a bridge to transfer incoming III. IOT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE digitized data from objects layer to the service management layer. This layer is also responsible for IoT system architecture has the ability to perform cloud computing functionalities 87. interoperability among heterogeneous assets around us. Considering the aforementioned fact, the architecture of C. Service Management layer IoT should be flexible layered 1. As there is no It is a middleware layer that after identifying the names commonly accepted IoT architecture, authors proposed and address provides service to its requestors. It is the various architectures, few among them are SoA based layer with the help of which IoT is capable of connecting architecture proposed by Atzori et al. 2 and five-layered with heterogeneous things. architecture 86. D. Application layer The Application layer is associated with delivering services to the customers. For instance, it can give the acceleration of the vehicle as well as an exact location of the vehicle. Various application domains include Smart Home, Smart Grid, Intelligent Transport, Smart Factory, Quick-witted HealthCare intelligence and more. Application layer incorporates CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol), AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol), DDS (Data Distribution Service), MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport), XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol) protocols. These protocols are discussed in next section. E. Business layer The Business layer also named as management layer (a) manages all layers, activities, and service of IoT. It incorporates certain graphs, flowcharts, and models based on the data acquired from the application layer. This layer is capable of making effective decisions for big data analysis. IV. PROTOCOLS ASSOCIATED WITH APPLICATION LAYER OF IOT The Application layer of IoT system architecture furnishes user services by following certain rules and procedures called Application layer protocols. These protocols include: CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol). MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport). (b) XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol). Fig.3. (a) SoA (Service Oriented Architecture) 2 (b) Five Layered AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol). Architecture. DDS (Data Distribution Service). Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 61 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends Among these CoAP and MQTT are most disseminate 1) Fire and Forget – Fire the message and Forget i.e. protocols. A detailed description of these protocols is no acknowledgment is received. discussed as follows: 2) Delivered at least once – Message is delivered at least once and for each delivery acknowledgment A. Constrained Application Protocols (CoAP) is received. 3) Delivered exactly once – In order to guarantee CoAP is a retransmission protocol that features request and response messaging. It was standardized by Internet message delivery, 4-way handshake procedure opts. Engineering Task Force (IETF) constrained Restful environment. CoAP was basically designed for resource The Client-Server of MQTT comprises of 3 elements: constrained devices like WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The main functionality of CoAP is 1) Subscriber. monitoring, controlling remote devices as well as guarantying message delivery. CoAP leverages HTTP 2) Publisher. 3) Broker. commands GET, POST, PUT and DELETE for interactions between client and server. It relies on UPD Every server in this architecture is referred to as broker. (User Datagram Protocol). CoAP is divided into two sub-layers namely message Client subscribes to a topic generated by the publisher. The Publisher on the other hand forwards the generated sub-layer and request/response sub-layer. The former ensures reliable communication based on exponential topic to the broker. For Instance, Consider three clients A, B, and C. Here Client A is a Publisher that publishes a back off and later deals with REST communications. CoAP is proficient in providing Datagram transport topic „air humidity‟ and Client B and C subscribes to this topic. Now, whenever Client A publishes the value of air layer security (DTLS) that provides privileged message communication, minimizing communication overhead humidity says 49 then the intermediate broker gives access of this value to all the subscribed Clients. and monitoring resources by utilizing publish/subscribe mechanism. Confirmable, Non-Confirmable, Acknowledgment (Piggybacked) and Separate Response are four types of CoAP messages. CoAP has a 32 bit message format. Fig. 4 shows CoAP message format. It incorporates CoAP version (V), Transaction Type (T), OC (Option Count), Code and Message ID (M ID) in header field followed by Token, Options and Payload fields. Fig.5. Publisher/ Subscriber MQTT Architecture Fig.4. CoAP Message Format The message format of MQTT consists of four bytes Various Application domains where CoAP is utilized header, 1-4 bytes length, variable length header and are personal HealthCare Systems 9, Resource Sharing variable length message payload. Fig. 6 shows MQTT 10, Congestion Control 13, and Security 37. message format. B. Message Queue Telemetry Transport(MQTT) MQTT is a lightweight messaging protocol that supports machine to machine communication. It relies on TCP. In comparison to CoAP, MQTT has higher throughput but lower Latency 88. It was developed by IBM in collaboration with Arcom in 1999 and later was standardized as OASIS in March 2013. MQTT utilizes Publish/Subscribe messaging mechanism and provides SSL (Service Socket Layer) encrypted link between client and Broker. It has 3 QoS levels: Fig.6. MQTT Message Format Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 62 Applications include medical information sharing 21, D. Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) power meters, observations and more. AMQP is an open standard application layer protocol C. Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) that provides reliable communication over TCP transmission. It is proficient in providing security, routing. XMPP is an XML, TCP based Messaging protocol that AMQP ensures reliable message delivery through at was invented by Jaber open Source community to ensure most once, at least once, and exactly once delivery. It SSL confidential message communication. It became an supports Publish/Subscribe messaging procedure. The IETF instant messaging standard in 2002. message format of AMQPP consists of 8 bytes header. XMPP has its applications in social networking such as Fig. 8 represents AMQP message format. multi-user chat, video/voice calling and more. It is a platform independent protocol, have no QoS support and supports Publish/Subscribe and Request/ Response. Two or more users exchange data in the form of XML Stanza. XML stanza is cleaved into 3 components. 1) Message – it identifies source and destination address, type and IDs. 2) Presence – it notifies updates to the customers. 3) Info/query – It pairs sender and receiver. Shows XML Stanza of XMPP 1. Fig.8. AMQP Message Format 1 E. Data Distributed Service (DDS) DDS was designed for real time Machine to machine interactions by Object Management Group (OMG). It is a broker-less Publish/Subscribe architecture in comparison to MQTT, AMQP, and XMPP. DDS is highly reliable which provides both SSL and DTLS secure message communication. It supports both TCP and UDP transmission and has 23 QoS policies namely Security, durability, priority, reliability, etc. Table 3 demonstrates the comparison between Fig.7. XML Stanza of XMPP 1 application layer protocols of IoT. Table 3. Comparison of Application layer protocols of IoT Protocol CoAP MQTT XMPP AMQP DDS Parameter SSL, Security DTLS SSL SSL SSL DTLS Request/Response Broker-less Publish/ Publish/ Messaging Request/Response Publish/ Publish/ Subscribe Subscribe Subscribe subscribe Transport UDP TCP TCP TCP TCP,UDP 3 Levels: 23 policies: Confirmable: Fire forget Security, Acknowledgment No support for support for QoS delivered at least reliability, Non- confirmable: QoS QoS once delivered durability, fire and forget exactly once priority etc. Header Size no Header Of Message 4 2 8 _ Uses XML Stanza Format Highly Dependability Non-dependable Dependable Dependable Dependable dependable withstand any failure or damage caused to them. Thus, a V. PROPOSALS DEVISED FOR VARIOUS COMPLICATIONS durable IoT network is a great challenge for IoT. Anywhere and anytime availability of data is of great ENCOUNTERED IN IOT concern, this challenge can be resolved if both hardware IoT networks should be such that they are able to and software availability is realized. With an Introduction Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 63 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends to IoT, a number of devices have been automated and it well as a on home network. CoAP on comparison with consumes electricity. But for efficient energy other IoT application layer protocols was found to be 50% consumption green IoT is a must. This section reviews lighter. Vargheese et al. 53 collected data from sensors proposals devised for various IoT complications such as deployed in hospital in order to provide better medical energy efficiency, cost efficiency, availability, security, services to the patients. The authors proposed e-health scalability, reliability. architecture to ensure availability of patient‟s data whenever needed. Fang et al. 52 presented IIS that A. Propensity in Reciprocity of Data integrated IoT, Cloud Computing, GIS, and GPS. IIS Since Internet of things revolves around miscellaneous leveraged IoT for collecting sensor data. things having divergent platforms around us, these things D. Regulates Escalation in Energy Efficiency must perform node to node interoperability for proper functioning. Hence, Propensity in the reciprocity of data In 8 Collotta and Pau addressed a fuzzy logic becomes an IoT challenge. It is a challenge both for approach in order to forge energy efficient smart homes. manufacturers and developers to deliver services BLE supported home devices were monitored against irrespective of the platform user‟s are operating on. It is battery consumptions and Throughput/workload ratio. It also a duty for developers to develop applications in was analyzed that life expectancy of devices increases by which addition of new functions do not disturb the 30%. interaction that an application is having with other With an Introduction to IoT, a number of devices have application. Through NFC, WiFi and GSM Smart Phones been automated and it consumes electricity. But for perform interoperability. Kiljander et al. 42 proposed efficient energy consumption green IoT is a must. To Interoperability architecture for Internet of Things. This resolve this problem Huang et al 38 proposed a Steiner architecture postulates that universal IoT is cleaved into tree algorithm to have devices that consume less energy smaller smart areas and these smart areas exchange and have a longer lifespan. On evaluation, it was information by Semantic Information Broker (SIB). SIB observed that the proposed algorithm was more energy supervises and reforms real time events with SPARQL. efficient compared to WSN. Kim et al. 28 presented a On Evaluation, the proposed architecture affirmed to IoT- scheme named „DAOT- Dynamic and energy-aware A ARM (Architecture Reference Model). Authentication scheme for Internet of Things‟. DAOT prevents IoT devices from MITM security attacks by B. Sturdy in Establishment of Networks leveraging energy aware security strategy. DAOT is cost IoT networks should be such that they are able to and energy efficient. In 20, authors analyzed one-year energy utilization of a building. They envisioned that withstand any failure or damage caused to them. Thus, a durable IoT network is a great challenge for IoT. existing green IoT structure may not be efficient. To resolve this problem, authors‟ leveraged smartphones and Heterogeneous IoT networks may encounter node failures due to low energy, hardware impairments, software error cloud computing was leveraged to propose an IoT framework. This framework helped in the growth of the or spiteful attacks. Multimedia devices encounter such failures. Qiu et al. 6 proposed a Greedy Model that economy, reduction in energy consumption and better civilization. encompasses small world properties. Qui et al. Compared GMSW (Greedy Model with Small World) with DASM E. Cost efficiency in terms of providing services (Directed Angulations toward the Sink Node Model) in terms of robustness and examined that the proposed With an advent of IoT, Hussain et al. 29 proposed an model had lower latency than DASM. To forge a resilient IoT-based framework to monitor medical status of aged approach for multimedia transference on changing and handicapped people. This framework recommended topologies, Rosario et al. 30 introduced a protocol service offerings in emergency situations. On executing, named LinGO (Link quality and Geographical beaconless the proposed framework was observed to be cost OR). LinGO on evaluation endows increase in packet effective and productive. delivery rate, QoS. Abraham and Li 34 presented a cost-effective air pollution monitoring system. This system is embedded C. Anywhere and at anytime Availability of Data with Arduino, inexpensive micro gas sensors and ZigBee Anywhere and anytime availability of data is of great networks. It is effective in producing a healthy environment. concern, this challenge can be resolved if both hardware and software availability is realized. Software availability F. Degree of Sanctuary deals with providing application services to all users at any time and at any place. On the other hand, hardware It is a difficult task to ensure security in heterogeneous availability refers to the anytime and anywhere IoT networks where billions and trillions of devices share availability of IoT compatible devices. data. In order to have secured link between these things These days‟ smartphones are deemed to accumulate Pereira et al. 45 proposed a CoAP dependent scheme. data; they are capable of storing piles of information. This scheme provides user authentication, it allows only With this context, Santos et al. 9 proposed a system authenticated users to access read/write commands. For based on CoAP to accumulate data of medical care instance, a user authenticated for the read operation devices so that this data is available over the internet as cannot perform the modification. By implementing this Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 64 Batzler et al. 2015 X scheme on client server machine, it was possible to 13 identify a user‟s I/O request and send a response to the Mcerreale et 2015 X X request. al. 14 For secure transmission of data over IoT, Mao et al. Villalba et al. 2015 X 11 compared existing and proposed FIBE models. On 15 Chai et al. 2015 X analysis, it was found that proposed FIBE was more 16 secure in dissemination and had fewer parameters. He and 2015 X Kantarci and Moftah 42 presented a cloud platform Zeadally 17 named TSCM to ensure mob protection in various events Kumar et al. 2015 18 such as bidding. On Evaluating TSCM, it was observed Premnath and 2015 X that spiteful users impression lowered by 75% and Hass19 reliability by 40% also TSCM can be leveraged to 85%. Pan et al. 20 2015 X G. Workload Conduct Gomes et al. 2015 21 Jiang et al. 7 identified the challenge of handling Big Collier et al. 2015 X Data gathered from sensors. An increase in demand for 22 mining this data, Jiang et al. 7 presented a secure, Suresh et al. 2015 X 23 reliable and scalable storage system. Due to a rapid Pham et al. 2015 X increase in the number of mobile users, it has become an 24 issue to share hardware and software resources needed by Kalmar et al. 2015 X mobile apps. To resolve this issue Xue and Dateres 10 25 Zhu et al. 26 2015 X addresses a horizontal scalability approach that creates an environment for providing hardware and software Zhu et al. 27 2015 X X resources. Villalba et al 15 presented a scalable Kim et al. 2015 X X X platform to perform mining of IoT data. 28 Hussain et al. 2015 X X H. Scalability 29 IoT scalability refers to adjoining new features and Rosario 30 2014 X X functionalities to the IoT application without causing any Castro et al. 2014 X loss of user information or data while maintaining and 31 enhancing QoS. Due to the variety of platforms and Luvisi and 2014 X X Lorenzini 32 protocol availability, it becomes challenging to perform C.Bekara 33 2014 X scalability. Xue and Detera 10 introduced the concept of horizontally scalable applications so that diverse mobile Abraham and 2014 X Li34 phones are clubbed together into a single compute Elmaghraby 2014 X environment. Villaba et al. 15 developed an open source and scalable project namely „ServIoTicy and iServe‟. Losavio35 Nitti et al. 2014 X X I. Reliability 36 Raza et al. 2014 X A system ensures an increase in reliability in terms of 37 IoT service delivery by consistently performing following Huang et al. 2014 X X its specifications. It is equivalent to availability as it 38 ensures service delivery and takes both hardware and Fuhong et al. 2014 X X 39 software into consideration. Zheng et al. 40 proposed Zheng et al. 2014 X X X reliable clustering anomaly detection in Smart Parking. 40 Chen et al. 2014 X Table 4. Parametric Analysis of Work Done in Resolving Challenges 41 Encountered in Internet Of Things. Kantarci and 2014 X Mouftah42 PUBLICATIONS PARAMETERS Kiljander et 2014 X REFERENCE YEAR SC R S C EE AV RB I al. 43 Liu et.al44 2014 X Qiu et al. 6 2016 X Jiang et al. 7 2015 X X X Periera et al. 2014 X Collotta and 2015 X X 45 Pau 8 Castellani et 2013 X Santos et al. 2015 X al. 46 9 Palattella et 2013 X Xue and 2015 X al. 47 Detera 10 Sun et al. 48 2011 X Mao et al. 2015 X 11 SC: Scalability; R: Reliability; S: Security; C: Cost; EE: Energy Marjanovic et 2015 X Efficiency; AV: Availability; RB: Robustness; I: Interoperability al. 12 Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 65 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends introduced an intelligent communication system „eBPlatform‟ for the doctors and patients of china. VI. DIVERSE ARENAS LEVERAGING INTERNET OF THINGS Sensors are deployed at native place of non-infectious IoT has a potential to enhance our day to day activities patients. The sensors are capable of recording blood with an introduction of automated applications. These pressure, blood sugar and ECG of patients and applications can be found in various domains such as transferring the details to doctors via online mode. A Industry, Home/Buildings, Healthcare, Agriculture, similar approach was proposed by Al-Taee et al. 74 Education, Smart Grid and abundant. A review regarding where patients can monitor their diabetes through various areas where IoT is leveraged is as follows: smartphones. A. Ease of Transportation or Intelligent Transportation C. Smart homes or Buildings System IoT has huge potential for quality living and comfort. It Presently all cars, buses, trains are advancing in can dim/brighten lights as time change; it can increase/ features due to the advent of IoT. These vehicles are now decrease room temperature. BLE, a low-cost technology equipped with sensors and actuators. Besides sensors and is deployed for power efficient homes. For better actuators certain tags like RFID, NFC, QR codes, sustainability and healthy environment IoT can be barcodes, and digital watermarking are also being deployed for monitoring room air quality, open garage implanted. Sensors, actuators, tags are embedded in roads, doors, automate all home appliances, thus acting as parking lots, railway lines as well for reducing road assistance in our busy schedules. congestion, traffic management, road safety, spotting Choubey et al. 75 proposed a decision-making parking locations etc. With the help of RFIDs and NFC scheme to monitor devices installed at home collects passengers and Driver can have proper navigation of their sensory data, transmits it to Cloud Server and then takes routes; also tourists can have information for nearby the decision to minimize the use of the device that hotels, restaurants, tourist places and more. In 23, consumes high power/ electricity. In 76 Coelho et al. authors leveraged IoT in airport parking systems where proposed a system to provide care for people. This passengers can monitor their parked cars through system tracks the behavior of people and communicates smartphones. Authors in 70 proposed a feasible any threat encountered to caretaking staff. Authors in 77 machine to machine middleware named ICSI based on leveraged IoT technologies to provide secure, theft free smart transportation. smart homes or buildings. In metropolitan cities, due to large population traffic jams are observed for long hours due to this traffic people D. Exploiting Smart Industrial and Manufacturing Processes get late for their work. Keeping this in mind, Rathore et al. 69 proposed a graph-based approach to collect traffic Advancement in Industry is not only beneficial to information as well as the location of individual devices. industrialists but it also leads to growth in country‟s For this sensors are deployed on the road which collects economy. IoT provides efficient and smart solutions for individual vehicles data also in other words „Big data‟. automation of Industry and various manufacturing This data is then transformed into a graph using Giraph processes like car/aircraft manufacturing, printing and tool to achieve efficiency. Authors proved the proposed packing 78, performance measurements etc. Every system to be efficient and scalable by implementing it on process inside industry such as pressure check, product Giraph and Spark- a better approach than Hadoop. location, fuel exhaustion, etc. should be monitored and B. Quick witted Intelligence in Providing Healthcare controlled. Khaleel et al. 79 deployed technologies of IoT in Advice to Patients order to make efficient, interoperable and flexible car Internet of Things has great significance in the medical manufacturing process. Wireless sensor networks were field; it can assist patients, provide health care services deployed to monitor machines; identification, tracking, over internet, infant recognition to avert any mismatch, authorization was deployed with RFID. IoT can also be giving correct prescriptions, etc. Wearable wristbands, deployed in the construction industry where RFIDs can sensors embedded in human bodies can monitor patient‟s be used to track, monitor, manage manufacturing health status, detect heart rate, stress, Blood pressure, processes as well as control quality of product 80. Sugar level etc. RFID, MQTT, CoAP, 6LowPAN are E. Deploying IoT in providing Smart Education some of the technologies of great significance in providing IOT medical services. It can also be utilized to Education institutes have incorporated technology for monitor elderly and disabled people. better learning. Smart wristbands/ biometric sensors can Istepanian et al. 71, presented an intelligent be useful for the saving time of teachers in taking architecture –m-IoT. This architecture deploys 6LowPan attendance. Whenever a student enters the class this IoT technology to assist patients by monitoring their body wristband sends a signal to mark present. Neurosensors temperature. IoT has tremendous applications in the field can be implanted to know about student‟s learning of Medical Care from assistance, care to awareness. Das capabilities. IoT can also be deployed in automatically et al. 72 proposed a cloud-based approach to make measuring the academic performance of students. people aware of the health uncertainty they are In 81 author presented a new approach where IoT can encountering due to gleaming of lights. Lui et al. 73 Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 66 create a new evolution in the education system by making which becomes a costly process for users as well as amendments in teaching, training and learning, environment. Constructing energy-efficient devices is an experiments, schools etc. Pruet et al. 82 provided opportunity for IoT developers. Keeping this in context education to primary students residing in rural areas of Collotta and Pau 8 incorporated BLE to make energy Northern Thailand through IoT-enabled tablets. efficient homes. Abedin et al. 49 address issues regarding energy efficiency and proposed a G-IOT model. F. Smart and Safe Mining C. Constructing Social Networks for Objects Mining safety is of big concern in various countries. However, IoT can be deployed to ensure safe and Since IoT is a network of heterogeneous things, they accident-free mining. WiFi, NFC, RFID tags deployed in must communicate with each other to provide user mining areas has the capability of sending a warning services. Atzori et al. 50 address a model named Social signal. Also, mining companies in danger situations can Internet of Things (SIoT) in order to depict need of track the location of miners and can locate or direct them communication of objects over social networks. accordingly. KunKun and Xiangong 83 applied IoT to detect risks and ensure safe coal mining VIII. BIG DATA IN ASSOCIATION WITH IOT G. Smart Agriculture With Big Data it is possible to extract analytics and Internet of Things occupied all fields without an value from data for better decision making which in turn exception to Agriculture. Farmers make use of this leads to efficiency and cost or risk reduction; also it acts technology to modernize activities related to agriculture, as a competitive advantage for businesses. Apache weather forecasting, yielding, wildlife management water Hadoop, Apache Cassandra, Voldemort are some regulation 84, etc. It can be deployed to track the platforms for Big Data analysis. However, the data location of animals, disease spread out among animals sensed by IoT is enormous to be analyzed and processed and plants can be detected and controlled. by these tools. To analyze Facebook messages received per day, Facebook used an improved version of Apache Table 5. Products Launched by Various Companies Corresponding to which is an integration of Apache HBase built over Application Areas Associated with Internet of Things. Hadoop 89. Apache Spark these days is the fastest Applications Products available in Market analytic tools. SMART The massive data gathered from IoT sensors require EcoTrafix and EVlink. TRANSPORT analysis such as pattern searching. However, existing Nymi; Proteus Helius; Sproutling Baby HEALTHCARE time series data analysis services are low in efficiency Monitor. and have a higher maintenance cost. To tackle this issue, Motorola 4Home; Samsung Home SMART HOME/ Monitoring Kit incorporating Hub, motion Xu et al. 90 proposed TSAaaS for efficient and BUILDING sensor, water leakage sensor, arrival effective time series data searching. TSAaaS on sensor; August Smart Lock. evaluation was found 10 to 100 times faster than existing SMART ThingWorx IOT platform. services and it requires only 0.4% of original data for AGRICULTURE storage. InovGrid; IssyGrid; Telegestore; GE and SMART GRID Alstom Grid. A feasible solution for Big Data gathered from IoT is SMART Samsung Magic IWB; Smart light raises to keep an account of only quality or interesting data that EDUCATION interactive projectors; BYOD. will be actionable data. Pattern reductions, feature extraction, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) are suitable approaches for mining IoT data 91. VII. FUTURE RESEARCH TRENDS A. Automatic Sensor Selection Based on Task (Context IX. CONCLUSION Awareness) IoT is an emerging paradigm; it aims at providing IoT is present in everything around us; sensors are quality life by connecting things around us and deployed in these things. Since these things are billion in integration with various technologies such as Cloud number the data (big data) sensed by these sensors Computing, Big Data, Wireless Sensor Networks, etc. become difficult both for technical and non-technical IoT is considered to be highly dynamic. It automates the users to collect and interpret and process. Perra et al. 51 world around us thus providing a Smart Environment. identified this opportunity as Sensing-as-a-service and Leveraging IoT can lead to economic growth and better proposed a context-aware architecture. The challenge of sustainability. By 2025, approximately 2-3 billion people collecting and processing of sensed data is of great will access the internet also economic growth caused by concern in IoT and has become a new research area. IoT is estimated to be in the range of 2.7 trillion to 6.2 B. Heading toward Green-IOT (Constructing least trillion 55. Energy consumption Devices) With this context, we consider IoT as next revolution of internet. We presented an overview of IoT by IoT automates the world around us. However, describing the technologies it encompasses, emphasis on automating things consume a huge amount of electricity Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 67 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 13 Betzler, C. Gomez, I. Demirkol, and J. Paradells, the application layer of a flexible layered IoT architecture. "CoCoA+: An advanced congestion control mechanism We also compared the protocols of the application layer. for CoAP," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 33, pp. 126-139, Apr. This paper concludes IoT to be „Accumulate and 2015. Ubiquitous‟ i.e. present everywhere and anywhere. It 14 P. Morreale, J. McAllister, S. Mishra, and T. Dowluri, ensues automation of our daily activities in the home, "Turning Leaf: Ecovisualization for Mobile User education, industry, transport, agriculture, mining, Engagement," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 52, pp. healthcare and still abundant. Despite its benefits, IoT 690-694, 2015. deals with various security, energy efficiency, availability, 15 Á. Villalba, J. L. Pé rez, D. Carrera, C. Pedrinaci, and L. interoperability, reliability issues, we reviewed various Panziera, "servIoTicy and iServe: A Scalable Platform for research papers that address these issues and provided Mining the IoT," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 52, pp. 1022-1027, 2015. proposals to handle them, a parametric analysis is given 16 Chai, J. Choi, and J. Jeong, "An Enhanced Secure for the same. Future work of IoT includes gathering and Mobility Management Scheme for Building IoT processing of sensory data, having energy efficient Applications," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 56, pp. devices, integration of IoT with cloud computing and in 586-591, 2015. social networking. We also highlighted solution to handle 17 He and S. Zeadally, "An Analysis of RFID Authentication IoT Big Data. Schemes for Internet of Things in Healthcare Environment Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography," IEEE REFERENCES Internet of Things Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 72-83, Feb 2015. 1 Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, 18 N. Kumar, N. Chilamkurti, and S. Misra, "Bayesian and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling coalition game for the internet of things: an ambient technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE intelligence-based evaluation," IEEE Communications Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. Magazine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 48-55, 2015. 2347 – 2376, jun. 2015. 19 S. Premnath and Z. Haas, "Security and Privacy in the 2 L. Atzori, A. Iera, and G. Morabito. "The internet of Internet-of-Things under Timeand-Budget-limited things: A survey," Computer networks, vol. 54, no. 15, pp. Adversary Model," IEEE Wireless Communications 2787-2805, 2010. Letters, Vol. 4, No. 3, June 2015. 3 Gubbi, R. Buyya, S. Marusic, and M. Palaniswami, 20 Pan, R. Jain, S. Paul, T. Vu, A. Saifullah, and M. Sha, "A "Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, Internet of Things Framework for Smart Energy in and future directions," Future Generation Computer Buildings: Designs, Prototype, and Experiments," IEEE Systems, vol.29, no. 7, pp. 1645-1660, 2013. Internet Of Things Journal, vol. 2, No. 6, December 2015. 4 Borgia, "The Internet of Things vision: Key features, 21 Y. F. Gomes, D. F. S. Santos, H. O. Almeida, and A. applications and open issues," Computer Communications, Perkusich, "Integrating MQTT and ISO/IEEE 11073 for vol. 54, pp.1-31, 2014. health information sharing in the Internet of Things," in 5 IERC Cluster SRIA, (2014). Internet of Things Online. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Available: www.internet-of-things- Electronics (ICCE), 2015, pp. 200-201. 22 S. Collier, "The Emerging Enernet: Convergence of the 6 T. Qiu, D. Luo, F. Xia, N. Deonauth, W. Si, and A. Tolba, Smart Grid with the Internet of Things." in IEEE Rural "A Greedy Model with Small World for Improving the Electric Power Conference (REPC), 2015, pp. 65-68. Robustness of Heterogeneous Internet of Things," 23 M. Suresh, P. S. Kumar, and T. V. P. Sundararajan, "IoT Computer Networks, 2016. Based Airport Parking System," in IEEE Sponsored 2nd 7 Jiang, F. Shen, S. Chen, K. Li, and Y. Jeong, "A secure International Conference on Innovations in Information, and scalable storage system for aggregate data in IoT," Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS), 2015, Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 49, pp. 133- pp. 1-5. 141, 2015. 24 T. N. Pham, M. Tsai, D. B. Nguyen, C. Dow, and D. Deng, 8 M. Collotta and G. Pau, "Bluetooth for Internet of Things: "A Cloud-Based Smart-Parking System Based on A fuzzy approach to improve power management in smart Internet-of-Things Technologies," IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. homes," Computers & Electrical Engineering, vol. 44, pp. 1581-1591, 2015. 137-152, 2015. 25 Kalmar, R. Vida, and M. Maliosz, "CAEsAR: A Context- 9 F. S. Santos, H. O. Almeida, and A. Perkusich, "A Aware Addressing and Routing scheme for RPL personal connected health system for the Internet of networks," in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Things based on the Constrained Application Protocol," Communications (ICC), 2015, pp. 635-641. Computers & Electrical Engineering, vol. 44, pp. 122-136, 26 Zhu, V. Leung, L. Shu, and E. C-H. Ngai, "Green Internet 2015. of Things for Smart World," IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 10 Y. Xue, and R. Deters, "Resource Sharing in Mobile 2151-2162, 2015. Cloud-computing with Coap," Procedia Computer 27 R. Zhu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, W. Shu, T. Mao, and B. Jalaian, Science, vol. 63, pp. 96-103, 2015. "ERDT: Energy-Efficient Reliable Decision Transmission 11 Y. Mao, J. Li, M. Chen, J. Liu, C. Xie, and Y. Zhan, for Intelligent Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Industrial "Fully secure fuzzy identity-based encryption for secure IoT," IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 2366-2378, 2015. IoT communications," Computer Standards & Interfaces, 28 Y-P. Kim, S. Yoo, and C. Yoo, "DAoT: Dynamic and vol. 44, pp. 117-121, 2015. energy-aware authentication for smart home appliances in 12 M. Marjanović, L. Skorin-Kapov, K. Pripužić, A. Antonić, Internet of Things," in 2015 IEEE International and I. P. Žarko, "Energy-aware and quality-driven sensor Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2015, pp. management for green mobile crowd sensing," Journal of 196-197. Network and Computer Applications, vol. 59, pp. 95-108, 29 Hussain, R. Wenbi, A. L. d. Silva, M. Nadher, and M. Jul. 2015. Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 68 Mudhish, "Health and emergency-care platform for the 45 P. P. Pereira, J. Eliasson, and J. Delsing, "An elderly and disabled people in the Smart City," Journal of authentication and access control framework for CoAP- th Systems and Software, vol. 110, pp. 253-263, Sep. 2015. based Internet of Things," in 2014-40 Annual 30 D. Rosá rio, Z. Zhao, A. Santos, T. Braun, and E. Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Cerqueira, "A beaconless opportunistic routing based on a IECON, 2014, pp. 5293-5299. cross-layer approach for efficient video dissemination in 46 P. Castellani, M. Rossi, and M. Zorzi, "Back pressure mobile multimedia IoT applications," Computer congestion control for CoAP/6LoWPAN networks," Ad Communications, vol. 45, pp. 21-31, Apr. 2014. Hoc Networks, vol. 18, pp.71-84, 2014. 31 M. Castro, A. J. Jara, and A. F. Skarmeta, "Enabling end- 47 R. Palattella, N. Accettura, L. A. Grieco, G. Boggia, M. to-end CoAP-based communications for the Web of Dohler, and T. Engel, "On optimal scheduling in duty- Things," Journal of Network and Computer Applications, cycled industrial IoT applications using IEEE802.15.4 e vol. 59, pp. 230-236, Oct. 2014. TSCH," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol.13, no. 10, pp.3655- 32 Luvisi and G. Lorenzini, "RFID-plants in the smart city: 3666, 2013. Applications and outlook for urban green management," 48 Sun, X. Zhang, and Z. Li, "The internet of things (IOT) Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. and cloud computing (CC) based tailings dam monitoring 630-637, 2014. and pre-alarm system in mines," Safety science, vol. 50, 33 Bekara, "Security Issues and Challenges for the IoT-based no. 4, pp.811-815, 2012. Smart Grid," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 34, pp. 49 S. F. Abedin, M. Alam, G. Rabiul, R. Haw, and C. S. 532-537, 2014. Hong, "A system model for energy efficient green-IoT 34 S. Abraham, and X. Li, "A cost-effective wireless sensor network," in 2015 IEEE International Conference on network system for indoor air quality monitoring Information Networking (ICOIN), 2015, pp. 177-182. applications," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 34, pp. 50 Atzori, A. Iera, G. Morabito, and M. Nitti, "The social 165-171, 2014. internet of things (siot)–when social networks meet the 35 S. Elmaghraby, and M. M. Losavio, "Cyber security internet of things: Concept, architecture and network challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy," characterization," Computer Networks, vol. 56, no. 16, pp. Journal of advanced research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 491-497, 3594-3608, 2012. 2014. 51 C. Perera, A. Zaslavsky, P. Christen, and D. 36 M. Nitti, R. Girau, and L. Atzori, "Trustworthiness Georgakopoulos, "Ca4iot: Context awareness for internet management in the social internet of things," IEEE of things," in 2012 IEEE International Conference on Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), 26, no. 5, pp. 1253-1266, May 2014. 2012, pp. 775-782. 37 S. Raza, H. Shafagh, K. Hewage, R. Hummen, and T. 52 S. Fang, L. D. Xu, Y. Zhu, J. Ahati, H. Pei, J. Yan, and Z. Voigt, "Lithe: Lightweight secure CoAP for the internet Liu, "An integrated system for regional environmental of things," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. monitoring and management based on internet of 3711-3720, 2013. things," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 38 Huang, Y. Meng, X. Gong, Y. Liu, and Q. Duan, "A novel 10, no. 2, pp.1596-1605, 2014. deployment scheme for green internet of things," IEEE 53 R. Vargheese and Y. Viniotis, "Influencing data Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 196-205, availability in IoT enabled cloud based e-health in a 30 2014. day readmission context." in 2014 IEEE International 39 Fuhong, L. Qian, Z. Xianwei, C. Yueyun, and H. Daochao, Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, "Cooperative differential game for model energy- Applications and Worksharing (CollaborateCom),2014, bandwidth efficiency tradeoff in the Internet of Things," pp. 475-480. China Communications, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 92-102, Jan 54 R. Tabish, A. M. Ghaleb, R. Hussein, F. Touati, A. B. 2014. Mnaouer, L. Khriji, and M. F. A. Rasid, "A 3G/WiFi- 40 Y. Zheng, S. Rajasegarar, C. Leckie, and M. Palaniswami, enabled 6LoWPAN-based U-healthcare system for "Smart car parking: Temporal clustering and anomaly ubiquitous real-time monitoring and data logging," in detection in urban car parking," in 2014 IEEE Ninth 2014 IEEE Middle East Conference on Biomedical International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Engineering (MECBME), 2014, pp. 277-280. Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2014, pp. 55 J. Manyika, M. Chui, J. Bughin, R. Dobbs, P. Bisson and 1-6. A. Marrs, Disruptive Technologies: Advances that Will 41 P-Y. Chen, S-M. Cheng and K-C. Chen, "Information Transform Life, Business, and the Global Economy. fusion to defend intentional attack in Internet of things," McKinsey Global Institute San Francisco, CA, 2013. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1, no. 4, pp. 337-348, 56 B.Yan and G. Huang, "Application of RFID and Internet 2014. of Things in Monitoring and Anti-counterfeiting for 42 B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, "Trustworthy Sensing for Products," in IEEE International Seminar on Business and Public Safety in Cloud-Centric Internet of Things," IEEE Information Management, ISBIM’08, 2008, vol. 1, pp. Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 360-368, 392-395. 2014. 57 T. Zhang, X. Wang, J. Chu, X. Liu, and P. Cui, 43 Kiljander, A. D'Elia, F. Morandi, P. Hyttinen, J. Takalo- "Automotive recycling information management based on Mattila, A. Ylisaukko-Oja, J-P. Soininen, and T. S. Cinotti, the internet of things and RFID technology," in 2010 "Semantic interoperability architecture for pervasive IEEE International Conference on Advanced Management computing and Internet of Things," IEEE Access, vol. 2, Science (ICAMS),2010 , vol. 2, pp. 620-622. pp. 856-873, 2014. 58 M-C. Chung, G. M. Lee, N. Crespi, and C-C. Tseng, 44 C. H. Liu, J. Fan, J. W. Branch, and K. K. Leung, "RFID object tracking with IP compatibility for the "Toward QoI and Energy-Efficiency in Internet-of-Things internet of things," In IEEE International Conference on Sensory Environments," IEEE Transactions on Emerging Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), Topics in Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 473-487, 2014. 2012, pp. 132-139. Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 69 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 59 Yanhui, "Internet of Things Application of RFID (GLOBECOM), 2014 IEEE, Austin, TX, 2014, pp. 2448- Technology in Warehouse Management," in Third 2453. International Conference on Instrumentation, 74 A. Al-Taee, W. Al-Nuaimy, A. Al-Ataby, Z. J. Muhsin Measurement, Computer, Communication and Control. and S. N. Abood, "Mobile health platform for diabetes 2013. management based on the Internet-of-Things," Applied 60 T. Bojan, U. Kumar, and V. Bojan, "An internet of things Electrical Engineering and Computing Technologies based intelligent transportation system," in IEEE (AEECT), 2015 IEEE Jordan Conference on, Amman, International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and 2015, pp. 1-5. Safety (ICVES),2014, pp. 174-179. 75 K. Choubey, S. Pateria, A. Saxena, Vaisakh Punnekkattu 61 P. Urien, "A secure cloud of electronic keys for NFC Chirayil SB, K. K. Jha and Sharana Basaiah PM, "Power locks securely controlled by NFC smartphones," in IEEE efficient, bandwidth optimized and fault tolerant sensor 11th Consumer Communications and Networking management for IOT in Smart Home," Advance Conference (CCNC), 2014, pp. 1120-1121. Computing Conference (IACC), 2015 IEEE International, 62 J. Park, S. Lee, S. H. Bouk, D. Kim, and Y. Hong, Banglore, 2015, pp. 366-370. "6LoWPAN adaptation protocol for IPv6 packet 76 C. Coelho, D. Coelho and M. Wolf, "An IoT smart home transmission over NFC device," in 2015 Seventh architecture for long-term care of people with special International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future needs," Internet of Things (WF-IoT), 2015 IEEE 2nd Networks (ICUFN),2015, pp. 541-543. World Forum on, Milan, 2015, pp. 626-627. 63 C. Cervantes, D. Poplade, M. Nogueira, and A. Santos, 77 V. Sivaraman, H. H. Gharakheili, A. Vishwanath, R. "Detection of sinkhole attacks for supporting secure Boreli and O. Mehani, "Network-level security and routing on 6LoWPAN for Internet of Things," in 2015 privacy control for smart-home IoT devices," Wireless IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications Network Management (IM),2015 , pp. 606-611. (WiMob), 2015 IEEE 11th International Conference on, 64 T. N. Gia, N. K. Thanigaivelan, A-M. Rahmani, T. Abu Dhabi, 2015, pp. 163-167. Westerlund, P. Liljeberg, and H. Tenhunen, "Customizing 78 W. Li, C. Pi, M. Han, C. Ran, W. Chen and P. Ke, "A 6LoWPAN networks towards Internet-of-Things based scheduling method for IOT-aided packaging and printing ubiquitous healthcare systems," in IEEE NORCHIP, 2014, manufacturing system," in 2015 11th International pp. 1-6. Conference on Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, 65 E. Boualouache, O. Nouali, S. Moussaoui, and A. Derder, Reliability, Security and Robustness (QSHINE), Taipei, "A BLE-based data collection system for IoT," in IEEE 2015, pp. 335-340. First International Conference on New Technologies of 79 Khaleel, D. Conzon, P. Kasinathan, P. Brizzi, C. Pastrone; Information and Communication (NTIC),2015, pp. 1-5. F. Pramudianto, M. Eisenhauer, P. A. Cultrona, F. Rusina, 66 Matsuoka, J. Wang, L. Jing, Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, and Z. G. Lukac, M. Paralic, "Heterogeneous Applications, Tools, Cheng, "Development of a control system for home and Methodologies in the Car Manufacturing Industry appliances based on BLE technique," in 2014 IEEE Through an IoT Approach," in IEEE Systems Journal , International Symposium on Independent Computing vol.PP, no.99, pp.1-1,2015. (ISIC), 2014, pp. 1-5. 80 H. Min and L. Junyu, "An Intelligent System for Precast 67 W. Yiqi, H. Lili, H. Chengquan, G. Yan, and Z. Zhangwei, Concrete Element Manufacturing Management Based on "A ZigBee-based smart home monitoring system." RFID Technology," Green Computing and In 2014 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Communications (GreenCom), 2013 IEEE and Internet of Intelligent Systems Design and Engineering Applications Things (iThings/CPSCom), IEEE International (ISDEA),2014, pp. 114-117. Conference on and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social 68 R. Chen, L. Peng, and Y. Qin, "Supermarket shopping Computing, Beijing, 2013, pp. 1138-1143. guide system based on Internet of things." in IET 81 Zhang Tianbo, "The Internet of Things Promoting Higher International Conference on Wireless Sensor Network, Education Revolution," in 2012 Fourth International 2010, pp. 17-20. Conference on, Multimedia Information Networking and 69 M. Rathore, A. Ahmad, A. Paul and G. Jeon, "Efficient Security (MINES), Nanjing, 2012, pp. 790-793. Graph-Oriented Smart Transportation Using Internet of 82 Pruet, C. S. Ang, D. Farzin and N. Chaiwut, "Exploring Things Generated Big Data," 2015 11th International the Internet of “Educational Things”(IoET) in rural Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet- underprivileged areas," 12th International Conference on Based Systems (SITIS), Bangkok, 2015, pp. 512-519. Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, 70 Azzara, M. Petracca and P. Pagano, "The ICSI M2M Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI- Middleware for IoT-Based Intelligent Transportation CON), Hua Hin, 2015, pp. 1-5. Systems," Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 83 Kunkun and L. Xiangong, "Reliability Evaluation of Coal 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on, Las Palmas, Mine Internet of Things," Identification, Information and 2015, pp. 155-160. Knowledge in the Internet of Things (IIKI), 2014 71 R. S. H. Istepanian, A. Sungoor, A. Faisal and N. Philip, International Conference on, Beijing, 2014, pp. 301-302. "Internet of m-health Things “m-IoT”," Assisted Living 84 V. V. H. Ram, H. Vishal, S. Dhanalakshmi and P. M. 2011, IET Seminar on, London, 2011, pp. 1-3. Vidya, "Regulation of water in agriculture field using 72 S. Das, M. Ballav and S. Karfa, "Application of IoT in Internet Of Things," 2015 IEEE Technological Innovation detecting health risks due to flickering artificial lights," in ICT for Agriculture and Rural Development (TIAR), Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics Chennai, 2015, pp. 112-115. (ICACCI), 2015 International Conference on, Kochi, 85 National Intelligence Council, Disruptive Civil 2015, pp. 2331-2334. Technologies – Six Technologies with Potential Impacts 73 Y. Liu, J. Niu, L. Yang and L. Shu, "eBPlatform: An IoT- on US Interests Out to 2025 –Conference Report CR based system for NCD patients homecare in 2008-07, (2008) Online. Available: China," Global Communications Conference Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70 Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends 70 86 Khan, S. U. Khan, R. Zaheer and S. Khan, "Future Authors’ Profiles internet: The internet of things architecture, possible applications and key challenges," in Frontiers of Jaideep Kaur was born in Jalandhar, Information Technology (FIT), 2012 10th International Punjab, India. She completed B.Tech with Conference On, 2012, pp. 257-260. Distinction from Punjab Technical 87 Z. Yang, Y. Peng, Y. Yue, X. Wang, Y. Yang and W. Liu, University, and M.Tech from Guru Nanak "Study and application on the architecture and key Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab. Her area technologies for IOT," in Multimedia Technology (ICMT), of research is Internet of things, Big Data. 2011 International Conference On, 2011, pp. 747-751. 88 Collina, M. Bartolucci, A. Vanelli-Coralli and G. E. Corazza, "Internet of Things application layer protocol analysis over error and delay prone links," Advanced Kamaljit Kaur was born in Kapurthala, Satellite Multimedia Systems Conference and the 13th Punjab, India. She completed B.Tech. with Signal Processing for Space Communications Workshop Distinction from Punjab Technical (ASMS/SPSC), 2014 7th, Livorno, 2014, pp. 398-404. University, and M.Tech. with Gold Medal 89 D. Borthakur, J. Gray, J. S. Sarma, K. Muthukkaruppan, from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar. N. Spiegelberg, H. Kuang, K. Ranganathan, D. Molkov, A. She is pursuing PhD in the field of Cloud Menon and S. Rash, "Apache hadoop goes realtime at Computing from Guru Nanak Dev facebook," in Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMOD University, Amritsar. From 2007 to 2008 International Conference on Management of Data, 2011, she was employed with Dr. B.R.Ambedkar NIT, Jalandhar as pp. 1071-1080. Lecturer and from 2010 to 2012, she worked as an Assistant 90 Xu, S. Huang, Y. Chen, K. Browny, I. Halilovicy and W. Professor at Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar. She Lu, "TSAaaS: Time series analytics as a service on IoT," joined Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar in July 2012 in Web Services (ICWS), 2014 IEEE International where she is currently working as an Assistant Professor. Her Conference On, 2014, pp. 249-256. research interests are in Resource Provisioning in Cloud 91 C. Tsai, C. Lai, M. Chiang and L. T. Yang, "Data Mining Computing, Resiliency in Cloud Computing and Distributed for Internet of Things: A Survey," Communications Systems, Big Data, IoT. Kamaljit Kaur has published and Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, vol. 16, pp. 77-97, 2014. presented more than 35 papers in scientific journals and international conferences. How to cite this paper: Jaideep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur,"Internet of Things: A Review on Technologies, Architecture, Challenges, Applications, Future Trends", International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security(IJCNIS), Vol.9, No.4, pp. 57-70, 2017.DOI: 10.5815/ijcnis.2017.04.07 Copyright © 2017 MECS I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2017, 4, 57-70