Music education articles

music education benefits statistics and also the music composition pedagogy a history philosophy and guide
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LaylaChadwick,New Zealand,Teacher
Published Date:15-07-2017
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MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF USING MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY IN THE LEARNING PROCESS A dissertation submitted by Dianne McAdams-Jones to College of Saint Mary in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctorate in Education This dissertation has been accepted by the faculty of College of Saint Mary 1 MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY We hereby certify that this dissertation, submitted by your name, conforms to acceptable standards and fully fulfills the dissertation requirements for the degree of Doctor in Education from College of Saint Mary Lois Linden, Ed. D, RN, CNE Chair __________________________________________________________ Pat Morin, Ph.D., R.N. Committee member __________________________________________________________ Donna Ehrlic, Ph.D., R.N. Committee member MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express many thanks to Dr. Peggy Hawkins for developing this program and for the faculty who support her. Dr. Hawkins’ inspiration was the fiber of my perseverance. A mind as great as that of Dr. Hawkins surely demonstrates she has each student’s interests always at the forefront. A special thanks to Dr. Pat Morin who quietly soothed my weary soul through many phone calls and e-mails; for researching articles for this study and passing them along. I express much appreciation to my committee for their guidance and cheering me along; I thank Dr. Linden and Dr. Ehrlich for their courtesy, intelligence and professionalism. I thank all of those who participated in this study without whom this study would not have been possible. Special thanks to my babies Morgan (15), Jette (17), and Eunicia (21), James (22) and LaShawn for studying alongside mommy and for sharing their love of music. It is because of them I committed to this research. Their father is remembered fondly for feeding them when I didn’t cook; I never cooked during these past four years. MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 2 Using Music as Pedagogy in the Learning Process Advisor: Dr. Lois Linden ABSTRACT Today’s students are a part of a different learning environment. They live and learn in an environment that uses technology. One piece of technology that is easy to notice on many students is the iPod or some other brand of musical technology plugged into their ears. No formal research on benefit to recall when listening to the lecture notes being sung or perceptions of student nurses for benefit gained from studying with music was located. A mixed method experimental qualitative phenomenological inquiry research study was conducted using a purposive sampling strategy where pre-nursing and beginning level nursing students first participated in a two-sample t-test to determine degree of recall when lecture notes were delivered through music. There was no statistical significance between the two groups. Afterwards, a narrative inquiry was conducted to ascertain perceptions of pre- nursing and beginning level nursing students regarding benefit to be gained when studying and listening to music and if there was benefit to recall when lecture notes were set to music. Emerging themes, patterns, and descriptions of feelings were identified from the narrative inquiry. From this graph, meaning emerged demonstrating perceptual domains of f f f fe e e ee e e elllliiiin n n ng g g gs s s s ( ( ( (e e e em m m mo o o ot tt tiiiio o o on n n ns s s s) ) ) ),,,, c c c co o o og g g gn n n niiiit tt tiiiio o o on n n n a a a an n n nd d d d e e e en n n nv v v viiiir r r ro o o on n n nm m m me e e en n n nt tt t. In each domain positive perceptions of effects experienced were discussed as a result of listening to music while studying or as a result of having their lecture notes set to music. MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY Table of Contents Abstract ...............................................................................................................................2 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................3 Background and Definition of Terms .................................................................................4 Statement of the Problem ....................................................................................................6 Purpose of the Study ...........................................................................................................7 Research Questions .............................................................................................................7 Research Design ..................................................................................................................8 Significance to Education ...................................................................................................9 Summary ...........................................................................................................................10 Assumptions ......................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................... 12 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Study .......................................................................12 Theoretical Framework .....................................................................................................30 Summary ........................................................................................................................... 32 CHAPTER III: METHODS AND PROCEDURES ........................................................ 33 Design and Methods ......................................................................................................... 33 Data Collection .................................................................................................................36 Consent Procedure and Protection of Human Subjects ....................................................39 Data Generation ................................................................................................................40 i MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY Data Management ............................................................................................................. 42 Reliability and Validity .....................................................................................................43 Procedure .........................................................................................................................46 Data Analysis ....................................................................................................................46 Summary ...........................................................................................................................49 CHAPTER IV: SUMMARIES AND FINDINGS ............................................................ 50 Introduction .......................................................................................................................50 Data Analysis ....................................................................................................................50 Summary of Analysis ........................................................................................................ 66 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS .............................................................67 Introduction .......................................................................................................................67 Sample of Interviews ........................................................................................................67 Perceptual Domains Discovered and Correlation to Literature and Framework ..............76 Discussion ......................................................................................................................... 93 Limitations of Study ........................................................................................................98 Implications in Education and Correlation to Theoretical Framework…. ........................99 Final Summary ................................................................................................................101 References ....................................................................................................................... 106 Appendices ......................................................................................................................112 ii MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Table 1: Two Sample T-Test .................................................................................52 2. Table 2: Learning Habits Associated with Music During Childhood ..................57 3. Table 3: Types of Music Being Listened to when Studying .................................58 4. Table 4: Benefits and Uses of Listening to Music while Studying .......................61 5. Table 5: Influence of Studying with Music on Recall .........................................63 6. Table 6: Opinion on Turning Lecture Notes into Music .......................................66 7. Table 7: Excerpts from Interviewees ....................................................................73 iii MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE of DISTRIBUTION CHARTS PAGE 1. Figure 1: Dot-plot of Music-difference......................................................................... 53 2. Figure 2: Dot-plot of Notes-difference ......................................................................... 54 3. Figure 3: Learning Habits Associated with Music during Childhood .......................... 56 4. Figure 4: Types of Music ..............................................................................................58 5. Figure 5: Benefits and uses of Listening to Music while Studying .............................. 60 6. Figure 6: Influence of Studying with Music on Recall ................................................. 62 7. Figure 7: Opinion on Turning Lecture Notes into Music ............................................. 65 8. Figure 8: Cognitive Benefits (Effects) of Music ...........................................................89 9. Figure 9: Environmental Effects of Music.................................................................... 89 10. Figure 10: Emotional Effects of Music ....................................................................... 90 iv MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY LIST OF MODELS MODEL PAGE 1. MODEL 1: Why Students Listen to Music.................................................................. 91 2. MODEL 2: If Lecture Notes were Set to Music ...........................................................92 Matrix of Selected Bibliography ..................................................................................... 134 v MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 3 CHAPTER I PROBLEM AND PURPOSE Introduction It is not difficult to find students on any campus throughout the world who owns an iPod or some form of musical paraphernalia that fits conveniently in their ears. In October, 2007, America Online (AOL) introduced the latest twist: Aim Tunes, a plug-in for the popular AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), which lets users tap into the music collections of instant messaging contacts, discuss music, and listen to songs from users’ libraries while connected (Jefferson, 2007). Realizing how much students are listening to music, it calls into question how much, if any, the role of music might be playing in the learning environments of these students. It is apparent to educators that the methods by which students learn are an important factor in the teaching environment and educators are constantly looking for more ways to bring students into the learning environment which makes learning more students centered (National League for Nursing, 2007). Little research has been conducted that explores what role, if any, music might play in the learning process of students or if music might be a possible teaching strategy. This study will explore the benefit to recall of lecture notes being sung for students to use while studying and the possibility of using music as a learning enhancement. Listening to music while studying, a behavior observed in some students, and if this listening to music enhances study is another focus of this study. MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 4 Background and Definition of Terms Several terms associated with music and learning was found in the literature and was brought to the forefront of discussion in order to gain a clearer understanding of students’ perceptions of how they use music during study. For this study, Culture is defined as the accumulated habits, attitudes, and beliefs of a group of people who define their general behavior and way of life as the total set of learned lifestyles of a people. Culture is important in this study as the efforts of this study centered on the behaviors and attitudes of learning as seen through the eyes of pre nursing and first year nursing students. Students are a culture of their own. It is important to understand the culture of the population being studied. Student is defined as a group of people enrolled in a formal program of education. Pre-nursing students is defined as those students enrolled in pre- requisite nursing courses. These students are not formally in the nursing program yet their success in this coursework is essential to gaining entrance into the program. Beginning level nursing students is defined as students enrolled in the first nursing course on the beginning level of nursing. Many formal programs of learning, nursing included, are organized on levels that are synonymous with the term semester used by other disciplines in the educational process. Attitude is defined as a positive or negative state of mind (Webster, 2003). An attitude is essential to understand because a culture of people will exhibit a certain attitude about them. In the culture of students who listen to music while they study, their attitude relevant to this behavior (studying with music) is one of the foci of this study. Music is defined as vocal, instrumental or mechanical sounds having rhythm, melody or harmony (Webster, 2003). Experimental group is defined as the group that MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 5 receives the song and notes for listening and studying. Control group is defined as the group that only receives the lecture notes in writing for studying. Musical Jingles is the making of a tune based on the use of words from a concept, idea or thought. The term learning styles is defined by Kolb and Kolb (2006) as how one “takes in” and “processes” information. Nursing school presents the student with many terms not seen or used in high school e.g. bed pan, urinal, ambulate, lung expansion, to name a few. The pre nursing student or first level nursing student may find it necessary to associate new terms with something familiar; how this is done may be identified differently with each individual student. Another focus of this study seeks to know how each individual pre nursing and first level nursing student perceives the benefit of recall when listening to music while studying. A student can find many books about study tips which will lend themselves to exploring methods which are suggested to improve study habits. Some of these methods will suggest the student a) do difficult tasks first, b) allow longer time for the difficult tasks, c) when boredom sets in, switch tasks or environments, (Campus Health, 2010) and the list goes on. However, because all persons process information differently (Kolb & Kolb, 2006), students will continue to utilize those aids which enhance their studying the most. Other students will continue to look for a particular behavior that may enhance studying and while doing so may decide to utilize music due to its popular presence. Another prominent reason to try music during study may be due to its popularity and portability. Music paraphernalia such as the iPod and AIM tunes has connected people with music at the push of a button (Jefferson, 2007). Further, most popular cellular phones advertised through Verizon, AT&T, Sprint and other service lines will function as MP3 players. With an MP3 player, music is at the fingertips. If a student likes listening to MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 6 music, the inclination to do so is even more prevalent because of the cellular phone being in close possession. It is easy to see why the student may experiment with listening to music while studying even if that student has never experimented with this behavior in the past. Nursing students are seen using popular music paraphernalia similar to other college students. Nursing students develop certain study habits in their culture of learning similar to other college students. No two nursing students will process information alike, but there may be some similarities in how they process information. Because there may be some similarities in ways student’s process information, this study may contribute to information used in preparing to teach these students. Statement of the Problem Educators have been challenged to provide classroom experiences that involve students, are interactive, and are more learner-centered. If students are listening to music widely, educators might capitalize on this phenomenon by bringing music into classrooms. Perceptions which may raise one’s awareness of how music may be used as a learning enhancement is little exposed in the literature. Some of the general population has listened to music since childhood. Some of the general population has sung some kind of music for different purposes and different occasions since childhood (Cantor, 2006). Homework tips by Grace Fleming in a Home Work Study Tips poll of over 300 respondents revealed 41% who use music to concentrate (New York Times, 2010). The problem is little to no research has been done of the benefit from setting content to be learned to music nor the perceptions of the pre-nursing and beginning level nursing students regarding having content to be learned set to music. The purpose of this study was to determine the pre-nursing and beginning level nursing student’s degree of recall when content to be learned is delivered through music and to describe the emotions MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 7 and perceptions of the pre-nursing and beginning level nursing students when lecture notes are delivered through music. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to: 1. To determine the pre- nursing and beginning level nursing students degree of recall when content to be learned is delivered through music. 2. Describe the emotions/attitudes and perceptions of the pre-nursing and beginning level nursing students when lecture notes are delivered through music. 3. To explore pre-nursing and beginning level nursing students’ perceptions of using music a s a learning enhancement. Research Questions 1. What is the benefit to recall when pre-nursing and first level nursing students listen to and study their lecture notes being delivered through music? 2. What are the perceptions of pre-nursing students and first level nursing students of the benefits when lecture notes are delivered through music? 3. What are the perceptions of pre-nursing and beginning level nursing student of using music as a learning enhancement? Since little is known of the nursing student’s perceptions of how music is used to study or if it enhances their study, there was minimal data to analyze or to shed light on this subject. Student nurses are learning and those who teach student nurses (professors and other faculty members) may be interested in how these student nurses learn. MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 8 Understanding student nurses’ perceptions concerning how they study and why they use music in their learning process may add additional teaching strategies to the teaching tool box of current nursing faculty. Understanding how student nurses learn may also bring the nursing faculty to a more student approach in the teaching and learning process. Research Design This study employed a mixed method, experimental qualitative phenomenological inquiry research design. In the experimental portion, it was examined if a certain treatment influences an outcome. This experiment was done by randomizing individuals for a group that provided a specific treatment to one and withholding the treatment from the other group (Creswell, 2009). For the qualitative portion, a semi-structured interview was conducted which collected lived human experiences about listening to music while studying (Creswell, 2009). Experimental research examines results of an experiment. The purpose here is to note if a specific treatment affects an outcome. A true experiment was used in this study where the subjects were randomized in the assignment. The outcomes are assessed when a certain treatment is applied to one group but this same treatment is withheld from the other group. Both groups are then scored and the outcomes of these scores are assessed (Creswell, 2009). The qualitative portion of this study used phenomenological inquiry. Phenomenological research places the researcher in the position to identify the true nature of human experiences as seen through the eyes of the participant. These are lived experiences and can be seen through the lens of philosophy which makes this style of collecting data more than a method. This style of collecting data involves using small MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 9 numbers of subjects where they are studied intensely looking for patterns or themes and relationships in which meaning surfaces (Creswell, 2009). Themes and relationships are examined throughout the process until they are exhausted. During this process, the researcher must bracket his or her personal/lived experiences with this study such that he or she may understand the personal/lived experiences of the participants being studied (Creswell, 2009). Significance to Education Education centered on the learner is a new paradigm hailed by educational theorists and regional accrediting agencies (The Committee on Academic Programs and Teaching, 2005). In the learning process, students process information differently (Kolb & Kolb, 2006). As educators, the cultural context of students should be acknowledged for it is here that educators must meet students in order to create positive learning environments. Students have been observed to listen to music on devices such as the iPod. Other educators (Binkiewicz, 2006), have observed digital listening devices as a trend. If music could be used as an effective learning enhancement, nursing educators might have more incentive to move away from the podium and become more student centered by using teaching strategies that are harmonious with the students’ learning environments or their attitudes of preferred learning styles thereby positively influencing learning outcomes. Grace Fleming (2009) makes a point of how students learn in many different ways through seeing, hearing and enjoying first hand experiences. Because as educators, teachers and faculty, it is important to have the students learn in an environment that fits that students’ personal or preferred learning style. Faculty, when teaching, might be interested in matching that student’s attitude of preferred or personal learning style with MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 10 his/her teaching style. Having this knowledge on board regarding the nursing student’s attitude about their learning preference could help the faculty meet the student in a common learning environment. An example of this matching of teaching style and attitudes of learning style can be envisioned when the student who is an auditory learner performs poorly when only power point lecture style is used to share information in the learning environment as opposed to when demonstrational videos are use in the learning environment. Having different learning preferences among nursing students’ does pose a heavy teaching burden upon faculty members. Making a plan or strategy to meet each nursing students’ learning needs can become a daunting task. Combining music in teaching strategies could be helpful when attempting to meet the students on common ground. After the faculty has gained knowledge which includes attitudes of student nurses’ preferred learning styles, it is significant that faculty make every effort to include some of all styles preferred. Summary The purpose of this study was to determine the pre- nursing and beginning level nursing students’ degree of recall when content to be learned is delivered through music and to describe the emotions and perceptions of the pre-nursing and beginning level nursing students when lecture notes are delivered through music. Additionally, pre nursing and first level nursing students were asked to share their experiences in learning with music. In this chapter, the problem, lack of research discussing students’ attitudes regarding using music in study or having their lecture notes set to music was stated. Background MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 11 information, purpose of the study, research questions, research design, significance and potential contributions were also described. Chapter II presents a review of selected relevant literature. Research and theoretical literature concerning music, the affect of music on humans in different settings and learning styles is examined and given analysis under Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model. Chapter III includes discussion of methods and research design. Using NViovo (NVivo, 2008) )and Mini Tab software (Minitab, 2010), Chapter IV presents results of the t-test and a narrative description of each participants experience with tables and models depicting each students ’ attitude relative to the use of music during studying. A modified synopsis of the original interviews introduces the reader to each participant. Chapter V offers a discussion of the findings where the participant’s experiences are shared and compared with several emerged themes being analyzed. Significant patterns, thoughts, categories, statements, themes and formulated ideas and meanings along with exhaustive descriptions are examined and scrutinized. Assumptions The investigation, grounded in relevant literature on music and its affect on an individual began with the assumption that music is listened to during study by students because there is benefit to be gained during the process of listening and studying. What benefit is unknown but because individuals rarely repeat unpleasant behaviors there must be a pleasant benefit to be had as students are observed to study while listening to music. No two people will process information in the same way, yet information is presumed to be processed when students listen to music while studying. MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 12 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Literature Review The literature search found many articles on music and its effect on patients or the general public. Other than nursery rhymes and biblical verses in song; there was little research found which explored the effects of listening to music which sang the learning material while studying. There was one which studied the effects of listening to music while taking a test where no significant difference in test scores was found between any conditions studied (Cockerton, Moore & Norman, 1997). Databases were searched for the following terms: cognitive, learning, Kolb, social learning, cognitive learning, and music in learning. The terms music and learning were crossed with learning styles and synonyms of these terms. Databases from 1990-2008 were searched and included ERIC, Cochrane Library, Education, and Academic Search Premier. Seventy possible journal articles were located with these strategies. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Study Of the 70 articles retrieved, thirty-nine were included, 1 paper, 1 You Tube video, 1 blog, and 4 books. The only articles included focused on music and the effect of music on the individual. Of the thirty-nine included, 4 were quantitative, one was qualitative, and the remaining were literature reviews, papers or manuscripts. The quantitative studies were concerned with the effects of music on patients in the health care setting with all results pointing to decreased stress and anxiety in the patient as a result of listening to music. The one qualitative phenomenological study conducted spoke with MUSIC AS PEDAGOGY 13 high school and elementary students ascertaining their attitudes about listening to music. All of the inclusive articles were significant to the discussion of music having an effect on an individual. When learning, students will receive information and process it in different ways: through audio and visual, logic reason with intuition and analyzing what is seen either in spurts or steadily. Teaching methods also vary. Some teachers lecture, others lead through self discovery and demonstration; some teachers concentrate on tried and true principles and application while some emphasize memory and others place emphasis on understanding (Kolb, 1984). This study will include learning experiences and the social cognition (Vygotsky, 1978) associated with music of babies to adults showing the affect of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984) from infancy to adulthood with subsequent social effects in later years. This is particularly useful as the attitudes of pre-nursing students and beginning level nursing students regarding use of music during study have been little studied. The author wishes to connect the experience of using music in infancy through adulthood exploring social cognition (Vygotsky, 1978) as well as experiential learning (Kolb, 1984). This process might help to support some of the students’ attitudes regarding why they use music to study as young adults in college. A Brigham Young University Study showed that 5-month-old babies can recognize up beat songs. The study furthers that babies 9-months-old can distinguish between the down-beat of Beethowen’s Seventh Symphony (Flom, 2009). If babies are responding to music at such an early age, the perception here might be there is no

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