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How to writing a science research paper

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P605tp.indd 1 12/10/09 2:24:41 PMThis page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blankHilary GlasmanDeal Imperial College London, UK Imperial College Press ICP P605tp.indd 2 12/10/09 2:24:42 PMPublished by Imperial College Press 57 Shelton Street Covent Garden London WC2H 9HE Distributed by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224 USA office: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401402, Hackensack, NJ 07601 UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data GlasmanDeal, Hilary. Science research writing for nonnative speakers of English / by Hilary GlasmanDeal. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 9781848163096 (alk. paper) ISBN 9781848163102 (pbk : alk. paper) 1. English languageTechnical EnglishHandbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Technical writing Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. English languageTextbooks for foreign speakers. I. Title. PE1475.G57 2009 808'.0665dc22 2009043016 British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Copyright © 2010 by Imperial College Press All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher. For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. Printed in Singapore. Kim Science Research Writing.pmd 1 1/13/2010, 1:49 PMFA v Introduction: How to Use Th is Book Th ings should be made as simple as possible, but not any simpler. — Albert Einstein Who is this book for Th is book is designed to help nonnative speakers of English write science research papers for publication in English. However, it can also be used as a guide for native English speakers who would like support with their science writing, and by science students who need to write a Master’s dissertation or PhD thesis. It is a practical, rather than a theoretical book, and is intended as a fast doityourself manual for researchers and scientists. Th e book is aimed at those whose English language ability is at intermediate level or above. If you have taken an IELTS test, this is equivalent to a score of above 6.0; if you have taken a TOEFL test then this is approximately equivalent to a score above 550 (paperbased test) or 91 (iBT). However, if you have managed to read this far without using a dictionary, you will be able to use this book, even if you don’t understand every word. Why do I need it Th e goal of scientifi c research is publication, but good scientists are not always good writers and even native speakers of English sometimes have diffi culty when they write up their research. Th e aim of this book is to give you the information, vocabulary and skills you need quickly and easily so that you can write confi dently using the style and structure you see in the journals you read. B875FM.indd v B875FM.indd v 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA vi Science Research Writing As a science researcher, you are able to read and understand complex, highlevel material in your fi eld. However, you may fi nd it diffi cult to produce written English which is at the same level as your reading. You may feel that your English writing does not represent the content of your work eff ectively or accurately. Th e aim of this book is to enable you to use your reading ability and the material you read to develop the writing skills your work requires. Developing the skills to write up your own research is the only way to join the international science community. If you depend on English speakers to translate your writing, their translation may not represent exactly what you intended. If you depend on proofreaders to correct your English they may not notice some errors, because a sentence which is grammatically correct is still ‘wrong’ if it does not mean what you intended. Also, a proofreader may not check whether your writing fi ts the conventional ‘science research’ patterns. For example, you may have forgotten to justify your choice of method or explain how your results relate to your original question, and this could mean that an editor of a science journal rejects your paper as unprofessional. Writing and publishing a research paper is the best way to get your career off the ground. If you can turn your thesis or research project into a useful paper, your CV (Curriculum Vitae) will immediately look more professional and will be more competitive internationally. You may feel that you don’t have the time to improve your English, but you already know most of what you need from the reading you have done over the years. In order to write up your research for publication you don’t need to learn much more English than you already know. Science writing is much easier than it looks. Most science research is written according to a fairly conventional structure: fi rst the title, then the abstract, followed by an introduction, aft er which there is a central section which describes what was done and what was found and then a discussion and/or conclusion. At the end of the paper or research article, acknowledgements and references are added. Th is means that the structure of a research article will be quite similar for all writers. Because science writing is so conventional, the amount of grammar and vocabulary you need to learn is quite small. For example, the non technical vocabulary used in scientifi c writing consists of a limited set of B875FM.indd vi B875FM.indd vi 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA Introduction: How to Use This Book vii words such as attempt, conduct, interpret, evaluate, determine, implement, formulate, classify, correlate, enhance, which are used as a kind of ‘code’. All the vocabulary you need to get started (apart from the specialised vocabulary of your fi eld) is in this book. What will this book teach me Th e book will show you how to discover the conventions of structure, organisation, grammar and vocabulary in science writing in your fi eld and will provide you with the tools to write in a similar way and at a similar level. It will teach you how to turn your research into a paper that can be submitted to a professional journal. You will also be able to use most of the information in the book and all of the language and vocabulary if you are writing a thesis in English. I have been teaching English for Academic Purposes to science students for over 30 years. For the past 15 years I have been teaching research writing in the English Language Support Programme at Imperial College, London, where I also work closely with individual research students and staff who are writing a paper or thesis. Th is book is based on the most useful thing I have learned: when your language skills are not perfect, organising your information in a conventional way and using conventional language are very important. If you write according to a conventional model, the reader knows what you are trying to do because the model you are following is familiar, and language errors are therefore less signifi cant. A researcher who begins by writing according to a simple and conventional model will soon develop higher level skills for writing independently and professionally. Th e opposite is also true: researchers who do not begin by writing according to a conventional model are less likely to develop these skills. How does the book work Th e strategy in this book can be summed up as follows: carefully examine good examples of the kind of writing you would like to produce, identify and master the structure, grammar and vocabulary you see in these examples and then apply them in your own writing. Th e book is divided into fi ve units, each dealing with one section of a research article. Unit 1 deals with the Introduction, Unit 2 the Methodology, Unit 3 the Results, Unit 4 the Discussion or Conclusion and Unit 5 the B875FM.indd vii B875FM.indd vii 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA viii Science Research Writing Abstract and Title. Since the aim of this book is to enable you to write in a conventional way, each unit is designed to help you discover what the conventional model of that section of a research article looks like. In each unit you will also be given support on the grammar and writing skills needed to write that section of the research article and you will be guided towards the appropriate vocabulary. Each unit is similar . The unit on Introductions, for example, begins by looking at a sample research article Introduction similar to those in science journals, then there is a Grammar and Writing Skills section designed to respond to frequently asked questions. Because you are probably working hard on your research and don’t have time to do much grammar work, there are very few grammar exercises in the Grammar and Writing Skills sections. In any case, getting the answer right in a grammar exercise doesn’t automatically mean you will produce the correct grammar when you write about complex topics. Answering correctly can give you a false sense of confi dence and security. Aft er the Grammar and Writing Skills section you will create a model or template for writing Introductions using the sample Introduction, and this is followed by a detailed Key providing model descriptors, discussion and answers to questions. Th e unit includes extracts from real Introductions so that you can test the model and see how it works in the ‘real world’. Th ese extracts are then used to fi nd the vocabulary which will help you operate the model successfully. Th is is followed by a complete list of useful vocabulary together with examples of how the words and phrases are used. At this stage, you will have a robust model of an Introduction, a grammar guide to deal with possible problems and a list of useful vocabulary to make the model work. Towards the end of the unit, you will be ready to test what you have learned by writing an Introduction. If you have done the tasks, you should be able to put the model, the grammar/writing skills and the vocabulary together, and a perfect Introduction will write itself almost automatically So at the end of the unit on Introductions, you will try out what you have learned: you will write an Introduction using the model and the vocabulary list and then compare it with a sample answer in the Key. Th is pattern is repeated in the rest of the units. Ideally, you should work through the book and do each task. If you read the book without completing the tasks you will have an intellectual understanding of what to do but you may fi nd it harder to put it into practice. B875FM.indd viii B875FM.indd viii 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA Introduction: How to Use This Book ix Do I need any other material or books No, but before you begin, you should collect three or four recent research papers in your fi eld from the journals you usually read and photocopy them. You will use these as target articles to help you adapt what you learn here to your own work, and you will refer to them while reading this book to see how the things you are learning are done in your research fi eld. Don’t use chapters from books as target articles; they are not written according to the same conventional structure as research papers and so will not help you discover how a research paper or thesis in your fi eld is written. Your target research articles should: • be written by a researcher/research team based at an Englishspeaking institution, ideally a native speaker of English. • be reasonably short (less than 15 A4 sides including graphs and tables). • deal with subject matter which is as close as possible to your own topic and the kind of research you are doing. • have clearly defi ned Introduction, Methodology, Results and Discussion/ Conclusion sections. It will help you if these are subtitled so that you can locate them easily. Note that the subtitles may vary in diff erent fi elds and even in diff erent journals in each fi eld; for example the Methodology can be called ‘Procedure’, ‘Materials and Methods’, ‘Experimental’ or some other variation. B875FM.indd ix B875FM.indd ix 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank B875FM.indd x B875FM.indd x 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA xi Contents Introduction: How to Use Th is Book v Unit 1: How to Write an Introduction 1.1 Structure 1 1.2 Grammar and Writing Skills 4 1.2.1 Tense pairs 4 1.2.2 Signalling language 7 1.2.3 Passive/Active 11 1.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 15 1.3.1 Building a model 15 1.3.2 Key 17 1.3.3 Th e model 24 1.3.4 Testing the Model 25 1.4 Vocabulary 32 1.4.1 Vocabulary for the Introduction 34 1.5 Writing an Introduction 41 1.5.1 Write an Introduction 41 1.5.2 Key 42 Unit 2: Writing about Methodology 2.1 Structure 44 2.2 Grammar and Writing Skills 46 2.2.1 Passives and tense pairs 47 2.2.2 Use of ‘a’ and ‘the’ 50 2.2.3 Adverbs and adverb location 56 2.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 57 2.3.1 Building a model 57 2.3.2 Key 59 B875FM.indd xi B875FM.indd xi 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA xii Science Research Writing 2.3.3 Th e model 66 2.3.4 Testing the model 67 2.4 Vocabulary 75 2.4.1 Vocabulary task 76 2.4.2 Vocabulary for the Methodology section 77 2.5 Writing a Methodology Section 88 2.5.1 Write a Methodology section 88 2.5.2 Key 90 Unit 3: Writing about Results 3.1 Structure 91 3.2 Grammar and Writing Skills 94 3.2.1 Sequence 94 3.2.2 Frequency 99 3.2.3 Quantity 102 3.2.4 Causality 108 3.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 111 3.3.1 Building a model 111 3.3.2 Key 113 3.3.3 Th e model 122 3.3.4 Testing the model 124 3.4 Vocabulary 135 3.4.1 Vocabulary task 136 3.4.2 Vocabulary for the Results section 137 3.5 Writing a Results Section 149 3.5.1 Write a Results section 150 3.5.2 Key 151 Unit 4: Writing the Discussion/Conclusion 4.1 Structure 154 4.2 Grammar and Writing Skills 158 4.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 167 4.3.1 Building a model 167 4.3.2 Key 170 4.3.3 Th e model 179 4.3.4 Testing the model 180 B875FM.indd xii B875FM.indd xii 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA Contents xiii 4.4 Vocabulary 186 4.4.1 Vocabulary task 187 4.4.2 Vocabulary for the Discussion/Conclusion 187 4.5 Writing a Discussion/Conclusion 193 4.5.1 Write a Discussion/Conclusion 194 Unit 5: Writing the Abstract 5.1 Structure 197 5.2 Grammar and Writing Skills 201 5.2.1 Verb tense 201 5.2.2 Length 204 5.2.3 Language 204 5.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 205 5.3.1 Building a model 205 5.3.2 Key 206 5.3.3 Th e models 212 5.3.4 Testing the models 213 5.4 Vocabulary 216 5.4.1 Vocabulary task 217 5.4.2 Vocabulary for the Abstract 217 5.5 Writing an Abstract 221 5.5.1 Write an Abstract 221 5.5.2 Key 224 5.6 Creating a Title 224 Sources and Credits 229 Useful Resources and Further Reading 231 Appendix A: Abbreviations Used in Science Writing 233 Appendix B: Prefi xes Used in Science Writing 234 Appendix C: Latin and Greek Singular and Plural Forms 239 Appendix D: Useful Verbs 241 Index of Contents 243 Index of Vocabulary 245 B875FM.indd xiii B875FM.indd xiii 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:52 AMFA This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank B875FM.indd xiv B875FM.indd xiv 12/11/2009 8:47:53 AM 12/11/2009 8:47:53 AMFA 1 Unit 1 ✏ How to Write an Introduction 1.1 Structure Until now, much of your science writing has focused on writing reports in which you simply described what you did and what you found. Although this will help you write the central ‘report’ sections (Methodology and Results) of a research paper or thesis, it doesn’t prepare you for writing an Introduction to a fulllength research article; this is a new task that faces you once you move on to research writing. In practice, you will fi nd that you need to be certain about what you have done and what you have found in order to write the Introduction, and so the best time to write it will be aft er you have written, or at least draft ed, the report sections. However, in this book, the structure of a research article is presented in the order in which it appears in a paper/thesis so that you can trace the connections between each part and see the sequence in which information is presented to the reader. You may want to start your Introduction by describing the problem you are trying to solve, or the aim of your work, but as you will see when you examine published work, this is not how most research papers begin — and therefore it is not the best way for you to begin. In order to help you write the Introduction to your own research, the model you build must answer the following three questions: • How do writers normally start the Introduction • What type of information should be in my Introduction, and in what order • How do writers normally end the Introduction B875Chapter01.indd 1 B875Chapter01.indd 1 12/9/2009 8:48:01 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:01 AMFA 2 Science Research Writing ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY (what you did/used) central report section RESULTS (what you found/saw) DISCUSSION/ CONCLUSION Fig. 1. Th e shape of a research article or thesis. Th e fi rst thing you may notice about Fig. 1 is that it is symmetrical. Th is is because many of the things you need to do in the Introduction are done — in reverse order — in the Discussion/Conclusion. For example, you need to write an opening sentence which enables you and your reader to ‘get in’ or start your paper/thesis and you also need to ‘get out’ at the end of the Discussion/Conclusion by fi nding an acceptable way to end the paper/thesis. In addition, you must look for a way to interface with the central report section at the end of the Introduction, and again — in reverse — when you move out of the central section to start the Discussion/ Conclusion. Something else you should notice about the shape of the diagram is that it narrows towards the central report section, and widens aft er it. Th is represents the way information is ordered in the Introduction and the Discussion/Conclusion: in the Introduction you start out by being fairly general and gradually narrow your focus, whereas the opposite is true in the Discussion/Conclusion. B875Chapter01.indd 2 B875Chapter01.indd 2 12/9/2009 8:48:06 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:06 AMFA Introduction — Structure 3 Read the Introduction below. Don’t worry if the subject matter is not familiar or if you have diffi culty understanding individual words, especially technical terms like polylactide. Just try to get a general understanding at this stage and familiarise yourself with the type of language used. Th e synthesis of fl exible polymer blends from polylactide and rubber Introduction 1 Polylactide (PLA) has received much attention in recent years due to its biodegradable properties, which off er important economic benefi ts. 2 PLA is a polymer obtained from corn and is produced by the polymerisation of lactide. 3 It has many possible uses in 1 the biomedical fi eld and has also been investigated as a potential 2,3 engineering material. 4 However, it has been found to be too weak 4 under impact to be used commercially. 5 One way to toughen polymers is to incorporate a layer of rubber 5 particles and there has been extensive research regarding the rubber modifi cation of PLA. 6 For example, Penney et al. showed that 6 PLA composites could be prepared using blending techniques and 7 more recently, Hillier established the toughness of such composites. 7 However, although the eff ect of the rubber particles on the mechanical properties of copolymer systems was demonstrated over 8 two years ago, little attention has been paid to the selection of an appropriate rubber component. 8 Th e present paper presents a set of criteria for selecting such a component. 9 On the basis of these criteria it then describes the preparation of a set of polymer blends using PLA and a hydrocarbon rubber (PI). 10 Th is combination of two mechanistically distinct polymerisations formed a novel copolymer in which the incorporation of PI signifi cantly increased fl exibility. B875Chapter01.indd 3 B875Chapter01.indd 3 12/9/2009 8:48:06 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:06 AMFA 4 Science Research Writing 1.2 Grammar and Writing Skills Th is section deals with four language areas which are important in the Introduction: TENSE PAIRS SIGNALLING LANGUAGE PASSIVE/ACTIVE USE PARAGRAPHING 1.2.1 Tense pairs Present Simple/Present Continuous In order to use tenses correctly in the Introduction, you fi rst need to look at the diff erence between the way the Present Simple tense and the Present Continuous tense are used. Look at these two sentences: (a) I live in Beijing. Present Simple (b) I’m living in Beijing. Present Continuous (a) describes a permanent situation and (b) describes a temporary situation. Because of this, the Present Simple tense is used in science writing to state accepted facts and truths — but what qualifi es as an accepted fact or truth is oft en, surprisingly, your decision. Sometimes the writer considers that research fi ndings have the status of a fact; in that case, s/he can decide to state them in the Present Simple, usually followed by the appropriate research reference. Here is an example from the Introduction in Section 1.1: 5 One way to toughen polymers is to incorporate a layer of rubber 5 particles and there has been extensive research regarding the rubber modifi cation of PLA. B875Chapter01.indd 4 B875Chapter01.indd 4 12/9/2009 8:48:06 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:06 AMFA Introduction — Grammar and Writing Skills 5 Later on, in the Results section, you can even decide to state your own fi ndings this way. Look at these two sentences which describe results: (a) We found that the pressure increased as the temperature rose, which indicated that temperature played a signifi cant role in the process. (b) We found that the pressure increases as the temperature rises, which indicates that temperature plays a signifi cant role in the process. Which sentence is ‘stronger’ In (a), using the Past Simple tense means that your fi ndings are linked only to your own research, and you do not claim your deductions should be considered as accepted or established facts, or even that another researcher will necessarily get the same results. In (b), using the Present Simple tense means that you believe your fi ndings and deductions are strong enough to be considered as facts or truths. Th e Present Simple communicates this reliability and your readers will respond to your work accordingly. Th ere will be more about this later, in the unit on Results. Past Simple/Present Perfect Another tense pair you need in the Introduction is the Past Simple tense and the Present Perfect tense. You will need both, and you need to know when and why to switch from one to the other. Look at these sentences: (a) Past Simple: I lived in Tokyo for fi ve years… but I don’t live there anymore. (b) Present Perfect: I have lived in Tokyo for fi ve years… and I still live there NOW. (c) Past Simple: I broke my glasses… but it doesn’t matter/I repaired them. (d) Present Perfect: I have broken my glasses… and so I can’t see properly NOW. B875Chapter01.indd 5 B875Chapter01.indd 5 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA 6 Science Research Writing You probably learned the diff erence between (a) and (b) years ago: that one of the diff erences between Past Simple and Present Perfect is the ‘time’ of the verb, i.e. when it happened. Th e diff erence between (c) and (d) is harder to understand and more important for you as a writer of science research. In (c) and (d), ‘time’, i.e. when the verb happened, isn’t really what separates the two sentences; it’s possible that both (c) and (d) happened last month, this morning, or one nanosecond ago. What is important is that the event in (d) is considered more relevant to the situation now than the event in (c), which is why it is given in the Present Perfect. Why is this idea of relevance useful when you write an Introduction Look at these sentences from the Introduction in Section 1.1: For example, Penney et al. showed that PLA composites could be 6 prepared using blending techniques and more recently, Hillier 7 established the toughness of such composites. However, although the eff ect of the rubber particles on the mechanical properties of 8 copolymer systems was demonstrated over two years ago, little attention has been paid to the selection of an appropriate rubber component. Note: a little means ‘a small amount’, but little means ‘virtually none’. Where does the tense change Why do you think the writer changes from the Past Simple to the Present Perfect Could it be because this research article is NOW paying attention to the selection of an appropriate rubber component Now look at what happens if the writer forgets to change tense and continues in the Past Simple: However, although the eff ect of the rubber particles on the mechanical properties of copolymer systems was demonstrated over two years 8 ago, little attention was paid to the selection of an appropriate rubber component. B875Chapter01.indd 6 B875Chapter01.indd 6 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA Introduction — Grammar and Writing Skills 7 Suddenly, the sentence means that little attention was paid THEN, i.e. two years ago. Perhaps attention has been paid to this problem since then; perhaps the problem has even been solved Tense changes are always meaningful, and they always signal a change in the function of the information — so don’t change tense randomly and make sure you remember to change tense when you should. Now check what you have learned about tenses by looking carefully at the way the Past Simple and Present Perfect are used in the Introductions of your target articles. Look in particular at the way the Past Simple tense and the Present Perfect tense are used to refer to previous research. 1.2.2 Signalling language Sentence connection One of the most common errors in writing is failing to connect one sentence or idea to the next. Every time you end a sentence, your reader has no idea what the next sentence is going to do or say. As a result, the space between a full stop and the next capital letter is a dangerous space for you and your reader. Perhaps you stopped for ten minutes aft er a sentence, and during that time you thought about your work and your ideas developed. Perhaps you turned off your computer and went home. When you start typing again, if you don’t share the link between those sentences with your reader, you create a gap in the text which will cause problems. One of your tasks as a writer is to make sure that gap is closed, so that your reader is carried carefully from one piece of information to the next. Connecting sentences and concepts is good for you too, as it forces you to develop your ideas logically. One way to connect sentences is to overlap, meaning to repeat something from the previous sentence: Th e pattern of infl ammation during an asthma attack is diff erent from that seen in stable asthma. In stable asthma the total number of infl ammatory cells does not increase. One way to toughen polymers is to incorporate a layer of rubber particles. As a result, there has been extensive research regarding the rubber modifi cation of PLA. B875Chapter01.indd 7 B875Chapter01.indd 7 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA 8 Science Research Writing Another way is to use a pronoun (it, they) or proform (this method, these systems) to glue the sentences together: Many researchers have suggested ways of reducing cost without aff ecting the quality of the image. Th ese methods rely on data structures built during a preprocessing step. On the basis of these criteria it then describes the preparation of a set of polymer blends using PLA and a hydrocarbon rubber (PI). Th is combination of two mechanistically distinct polymerisations formed a novel copolymer in which the incorporation of PI signifi cantly increased fl exibility. Th e third way is not to fi nish the sentence at all, but to join it to the next sentence with a semicolon or a relative clause (a ‘which’ clause). Joining sentences with a semicolon works well when two sentences are very closely related and one of them is quite short: Th e procedure for testing whether components are operationally safe usually takes many hours; this means that tests are rarely repeated. It has received much attention over the past few decades due to its biodegradable properties, which off er important economic benefi ts. Th e fourth way is to use a signalling sentence connector to indicate the relationship between one sentence and the next, or one part of a sentence and the next. You know how useful sentence connectors are from your reading; when you see a word like therefore or however, you are able to process the next piece of information in the sentence correctly even if you don’t understand every word. Th is is because the sentence connector signals the function of the information in the sentence. Th e opposite is also true: when the writer does not signal the function of the information with a connector, it is harder for the reader to process the information. Even if the grammar is perfect and every word is correct, the reader still may not be sure what the information is doing (Is it a result of the previous B875Chapter01.indd 8 B875Chapter01.indd 8 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA Introduction — Grammar and Writing Skills 9 sentence An example A cause), and may interpret it diff erently from the way the writer intended. You already use words like therefore and however and one aim of this subsection is to make sure that you are using them correctly. Another aim is to expand your vocabulary of signalling words, because you can’t spend the rest of your writing life using only therefore and however Here are some examples of signalling language arranged according to their function. It is not a long list because only those which are commonly used in science writing have been included. CAUSE Th e experiment was unsuccessful the measuring instruments were inaccurate. Th e experiment was unsuccessful the inaccuracy of the measuring instruments. due to (the fact that) as on account of (the fact that) because in view of (the fact that) since • Be careful when you use since; it is also oft en used to mean ‘from that time’, so if there’s any possibility of confusion, choose a diff erent connector. • All these connectors can be used at the start of a sentence, even because (Because the measuring instruments were inaccurate, the experiment was unsuccessful). RESULT Th e measuring instruments were calibrated accurately, the experiment was successful. therefore as a result (of which) consequently which is why hence so • Don’t start sentences with so to communicate a result; it’s too informal. B875Chapter01.indd 9 B875Chapter01.indd 9 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA 10 Science Research Writing • You can sometimes use then, for example in sentences like ‘If x then y’, but it won’t work in every sentence, which is why it has not been included in this list. CONTRAST/DIFFERENCE British students are all vegetarians, Norwegian students eat meat every day. however on the other hand whereas while but by contrast • on the contrary and conversely don’t fi t into this category because they don’t only communicate diff erence; they communicate the fact that ‘exactly the opposite is true’, so you can’t use them in the sentence above (because vegetarians and meat eaters aren’t opposites, they’re just diff erent). However, you could use them in the following sentence: Some experiments used uncalibrated instruments and succeeded; conversely, other experiments used carefully calibrated instruments and failed. • Be careful when you use while; it is also oft en used to mean ‘at that/the same time’, so if there’s any possibility of confusion, choose a diff erent connector. UNEXPECTEDNESS (a) it was diffi cult, a solution was eventually found. (b) the diffi culty, a solution was eventually found. (c) It was diffi cult; a solution was eventually found. (a) Although (b) Despite (c) nevertheless (a) Even though (b) In spite of (c) however (a) Th ough (b) Regardless of (c) yet (b) Notwithstanding (c) nonetheless (c) even so B875Chapter01.indd 10 B875Chapter01.indd 10 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA Introduction — Grammar and Writing Skills 11 • Th ere are other connectors with the same meaning, such as still and anyway, but they are more informal. ADDITION We used a batch processing system because it was more eff ective; it was faster. in addition also moreover secondly (etc.) furthermore in the second place (etc.) apart from that/which what is more • besides has more or less the same meaning as the items in the list above, but it’s more powerful and is therefore better used in more persuasive contexts. Now check what you have learned by looking at the way sentences are connected in the Introductions of your target articles. 1.2.3 Passive/Active Students oft en ask whether they can use we in their research articles. In the Introduction you usually say what you will be doing or presenting in the research article. You can use we to refer to your research group or team, but do not use it to refer to people or humanity in general. If you are referring to people in general, it’s better to use a construction with It (It is known/ thought that…) rather than We know/think that… It is also common to use the passive instead of we, especially in the central ‘report’ section (was measured, was added, etc.). In a thesis, you are writing as an individual and you don’t have a research group or team. Since you cannot write your thesis using I, you will probably write in the passive. Use words like here and in this study to B875Chapter01.indd 11 B875Chapter01.indd 11 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA 12 Science Research Writing let your reader know when you are referring to your own work. You can also use a ‘dummy’ subject to take the place of I or we: Th is article describes an algorithm for clustering sequences into index classes. Th e present paper presents a set of criteria for selecting such a component. Th e problem with using the passive in formal writing is that the agent (the person who performed the action of the verb) is oft en not mentioned in the sentence. In other words, we say that something was done or was identifi ed but we don’t say ‘by me’ or ‘by other researchers’, so the reader may not know who did it or who identifi ed it. Th is can cause confusion and for that reason it is sometimes clearer to use a dummy subject (Th is article/ the present paper) in the Introduction rather than the ‘agentless’ passive (x is presented). Now look at the way the passive and dummy subject are used in the Introductions of your target articles. PARAGRAPHING Why is paragraphing important Paragraphs are an important visual aid to eff ective reading and writing. Two common errors in paragraphing are clusters of short or single sentence paragraphs, and paragraphs that are too long. Both errors will confuse readers and are signs of poorlyorganised writing. To understand how paragraphing works, imagine that you have won a 24hour trip to Paris. You have two options. Th e fi rst option is to fl y to Paris, get off the plane and walk around the city. If you take that option, a friend may ask you later if you saw the famous Louvre art gallery; you say: ‘Well, no, I got lost and spent hours walking around the industrial area by mistake.’ You show your mother the clothes you bought in Paris and she asks if you bought them in the famous Rue de la Paix shopping street, and you say, ‘No, I bought them near my hotel. I didn’t know where the big shopping area was.’ You begin to realise that you wasted a lot of time and missed many important things. B875Chapter01.indd 12 B875Chapter01.indd 12 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA Introduction — Grammar and Writing Skills 13 Th e second option is to take a short helicopter ride over Paris before you leave the airport. It’s a diffi cult decision because you are impatient; you only have 24 hours and you don’t want to waste time, but you do it anyway. Th e helicopter fl ies over Paris for half an hour in a grid pattern, aft er which you begin your tour of Paris. You fi nd a wellsituated hotel, which you saw from the helicopter. You buy your clothes in the Rue de la Paix — which you saw from the helicopter. You visit the Louvre and you have lunch in one of the big parks near the centre … which you saw from the helicopter. What is the connection between this and good paragraphing Let’s bring that idea to the skills of reading and writing. If you read the last page of a murder mystery before you fi nish the book, the rest of the story is less exciting — but you may fi nish the book faster. Th is is because you don’t waste time wondering who the murderer is; you know it’s the husband, so whenever his name is mentioned you concentrate and read carefully, but you don’t bother to read the details about the other suspects. Th is enables you to read faster by giving you the confi dence to ignore things which you know are not relevant. Th e more you know about what you are reading, the faster and more eff ectively you read. So how can you fi nd out about a long article or chapter before reading it Th e answer is to skim it quickly before you begin to read. Like the helicopter ride over Paris, skimming is done before reading, not instead of reading. Your aim when you skim through a text is to fi nd out quickly what it is about and where the various pieces of information are located so that you can read it faster and more confi dently. How do I skim effi ciently and quickly Most of the instructions in the box on the next page tell you just to ‘look at’ or ‘check’ something. Skimming is a prereading technique and should be done very fast; if it takes more than a few minutes you’re not skimming, you’re reading. Skimming may help me read, but how does it help me to write Look at number 6 in the box: LOOK QUICKLY AT THE FIRST SENTENCE OF EACH PARAGRAPH. A paragraph in academic writing oft en starts with a topic sentence, which gives the main idea of the paragraph, and tells the reader what the paragraph is about. Th e other sentences are related to B875Chapter01.indd 13 B875Chapter01.indd 13 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA 14 Science Research Writing 1. READ THE TITLE and try to predict the type of information you expect to see 2. LOOK AT THE NAME OF THE AUTHOR What you know about the writer will help you predict and evaluate the content. 3. CHECK THE DATE and use it to help you assess the content. 4. READ THE ABSTRACT to fi nd out what the researchers did and/or what they found 5. LOOK QUICKLY AT THE FIRST PARAGRAPH without trying to understand all the words. 6. LOOK QUICKLY AT THE FIRST SENTENCE OF EACH PARAGRAPH without trying to understand all the words 7. LOOK QUICKLY AT EACH FIGURE/TABLE AND READ ITS TITLE to try and fi nd out what type of visual data is included 8. READ THE LAST PARAGRAPH especially if it has a subtitle like ‘Summary’ or ‘Conclusion’ this idea; they discuss it, describe it, defi ne it in more detail, argue about it, give examples of it, rephrase it, etc. When the ‘topic’ or idea moves too far away from the fi rst sentence, the writer usually begins a new paragraph. You can therefore get a good idea of the various topics covered in an article — or in a chapter of a book — by reading the fi rst sentence of each paragraph. And because it is a conventional way of writing paragraphs, it is a safe way for you to write paragraphs too. Th e more aware you are of the way other writers structure paragraphs, the easier it will be for you to do it yourself. As you know, paragraphs are marked either by indentation (starting fi ve spaces in) or by a double space between lines. Over the years, you have developed a very strong response to these visual signals. Th is means that each time you begin a new paragraph, this conditioned response in your brain prepares for a change or shift of some kind. B875Chapter01.indd 14 B875Chapter01.indd 14 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:07 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 15 Correct paragraphing is essential, but it is easy to get into poor paragraphing habits, either through laziness or carelessness. If you oft en write onesentence paragraphs or your paragraphs seem to be very long or you’re not sure when to start a new paragraph, you are making writing harder for yourself. When you are planning your paper, write down each idea/concept that you want to talk about, checking that they are in a logical order and then listing what you want to say about each, using bullet points. Th is will help you create paragraphs that have a logical and coherent structure. 1.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 1.3.1 Building a model You are now ready to begin building a model of Introductions by writing a short description of what the writer is doing in each sentence in the space provided. Th is may be hard, because it is the fi rst time you are doing it, so read the guidelines below before you start. Th e Key is on the next page. Once you have tried to produce your own model you can use the Key to help you write this section of a research article when you eventually do it on your own. GUIDELINES: You should spend 30–45 minutes on this task. If you can’t think of a good description of the fi rst sentence, choose an easier one, for example, Sentence 7, and start with that. Remember that your model is only useful if it can be transferred to other Introductions, so don’t include content words such as polymer or you won’t be able to use your model to generate Introductions in your own fi eld. One way to fi nd out what the writer is doing in a sentence — rather than what s/he is saying — is to imagine that your computer has accidentally deleted it. What is diff erent for you as a reader when it disappears If you press another key on the computer and the sentence comes back, how does that aff ect the way you respond to the information Another way to fi gure out what the writer is doing in a sentence is to look at the grammar and vocabulary clues. What is the tense of the main verb What is that tense normally used for Is it the same tense as in the previous sentence If not, why has the writer changed the tense What words has the writer chosen to use Don’t expect to produce a perfect model. You will modify your model when you look at the Key, and perhaps again when you compare it to the way Introductions work in your target articles. B875Chapter01.indd 15 B875Chapter01.indd 15 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA 16 Science Research Writing Th e synthesis of fl exible polymer blends from polylactide and rubber In this sentence, Introduction the writer: 1 Polylactide (PLA) has received much 1 attention in recent years due to its biodegradable properties, which off er important economic benefi ts. 2 PLA 2 is a polymer obtained from corn and is produced by the polymerisation of lactide. 3 It has many possible uses in 3 1 the biomedical fi eld and has also been investigated as a potential engineering 2,3 material. 4 However, it has been 4 found to be too weak under impact to 4 be used commercially. 5 One way to toughen polymers is to 5 5 incorporate a layer of rubber particles and there has been extensive research regarding the rubber modifi cation of PLA. 6 For example, Penney et al. 6 showed that PLA composites could be 6 prepared using blending techniques and more recently, Hillier established 7 the toughness of such composites. 7 However, although the eff ect of the 7 rubber particles on the mechanical properties of copolymer systems was 8 demonstrated over two years ago, little attention has been paid to the selection of an appropriate rubber component. 8 Th e present paper presents a set of 8 criteria for selecting such a component. B875Chapter01.indd 16 B875Chapter01.indd 16 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 17 9 On the basis of these criteria it 9 then describes the preparation of a set of polymer blends using PLA and a hydrocarbon rubber(PI). 10 Th is 10 combination of two mechanistically distinct polymerisations formed a novel copolymer in which the incorporation of PI signifi cantly increased fl exibility. 1.3.2 Key In Sentence 1 ‘Polylactide (PLA) has received much attention in recent years due to its biodegradable properties, which off er important economic benefi ts.’ the writer establishes the importance of this research topic. If you wrote ‘introduces the topic’ for Sentence 1, it won’t really help when you come to write a real research article. How exactly do you ‘introduce’ a topic You need to be more specifi c. Most research articles begin by indicating that the research fi eld or topic is useful or signifi cant. Th ey may focus on the quantity of research in this area, or how useful research in this area can be, or simply how important this research fi eld is. If you look at your target articles, you will probably fi nd something in the fi rst one or two sentences that establishes the signifi cance of the research. Phrases like much study in recent years or plays a major role are common here, and you’ll fi nd a list of useful vocabulary for this in Section 1.4. What if I don’t have the confi dence to say that my research is important Most authors of research articles begin by establishing the signifi cance of their research; if you don’t, it can look as though your research is NOT signifi cant, so don’t be shy about stating why or how your fi eld is important or useful. B875Chapter01.indd 17 B875Chapter01.indd 17 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA 18 Science Research Writing What tense should I write in here Phrases like much study in recent years or in the past fi ve years are normally followed by the Present Perfect tense (Much study in recent years has focused on...). Other ways of establishing signifi cance may use the Present Simple tense (Th ere are substantial benefi ts to be gained from…). In Sentence 2 ‘PLA is a polymer obtained from corn and is produced by the polymerisation of lactide.’ the writer provides general background information for the reader. Sentence 2 is in the Present Simple tense, which is used for accepted/ established facts (see Section 1.1). Research articles oft en begin with accepted or established facts. Th is ensures that the reader shares the same level of background information as the writer, and is therefore ready to read the article. So what kind of facts should I start with Th is depends on how wide your subject — and therefore your readership — is. If the subject of your research is very specifi c, then many of your readers will have a high level of background knowledge, and you can start with fairly specifi c information. If your paper is likely to attract a wider audience, then you should start with more general background information. Remember that your background facts may come from research (see Section 1.1), so don’t forget to include the research references where necessary. What if there are several background facts I want to start with, not just one How do I know which one to begin with Start with the most general one, the one that many of your readers will already know. Th is is a ‘meeting place’ fact, a place where all your readers can start together, aft er which you can move on to more specifi c information. Always show your readers the general picture before you examine the details: show them the wall before you examine the bricks Also, don’t forget to close the gap between these sentences (see Section 1.2.2) so that your readers can move smoothly through the information. B875Chapter01.indd 18 B875Chapter01.indd 18 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 19 Remember that the background facts to your research are very familiar to you and the people you work with, but they won’t be as familiar to all of your readers. Th erefore, if the article is to reach a wider audience you need to state background facts which seem obvious or wellknown to you. I’m still not sure where to begin. If you are still stuck for a fi rst sentence, look at your title. It is helpful to your readers if you defi ne the key words in your title — perhaps you can begin with a defi nition or a fact about one of those key words. Can’t I start by describing the problem I am hoping to solve You can, but most authors don’t, because it’s sometimes diffi cult to say exactly what the problem is until your readers have enough background information to understand it. It’s also very hard to limit yourself to one sentence about the problem you are hoping to solve, and before you know it, you’ve written down a lot of specifi c information which your readers aren’t ready for because you haven’t given them enough background. 1 In Sentence 3 ‘PLA has many possible uses in the biomedical fi eld 2,3 and has also been investigated as a potential engineering material ’ the writer does the same as in Sentences 1 and 2, but in a more specifi c/detailed way, using research references to support both the background facts and the claim for signifi cance. Don’t the research references mean that this is part of the literature review No, it’s still part of the background to general research in this area. Th e short literature review which is generally found in the Introduction of a research article comes later, and is more likely to deal with individual studies and their methods or results. In a thesis the literature review is much longer and may be a separate chapter. So why does the author include references if it’s only the background For three reasons: First, because plagiarism (failing to give others the appropriate credit for their work) is unprofessional; second, referencing gives your reader the chance to fi nd and read the study mentioned. B875Chapter01.indd 19 B875Chapter01.indd 19 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA 20 Science Research Writing Th e third reason is that failing to provide a reference may indicate that you are not familiar with research in your area. Although Sentence 3 isn’t part of the literature review (which comes later in the Introduction) it includes a citation reference. Before you write a research paper, you collect a lot of references, quotations and ideas from journals and the Internet, many of which you will mention at some point in the paper. When you are writing the Introduction, you need to ask yourself three questions: 1. Which of the research papers I have read should be mentioned somewhere in the Introduction Th e selection of names and references in the Introduction is important, because they draw a research ‘map’ for the reader by indicating the key players in your fi eld and the progress or achievements so far. Th ese names and references give the reader a clear idea of where your research is located and how it is related to other work in the fi eld. 2. Which ones should be part of the background to the research (as in Sentence 3 above) and which ones should go in the literature review which comes later in the Introduction If the fi ndings are wellknown and considered reliable enough to be presented as truths, you can present them in the Present Simple as part of the factual background to your paper (as in Sentence 3) with a research reference. Th e literature review, which describes recent and current research in your fi eld, usually mentions authors by name, and the sentences are usually in the Simple Past or Present Perfect tense. 3. What order should I mention them in Who comes fi rst and who comes last Th ese questions about the literature review itself will be discussed aft er Sentence 6. In Sentence 4 ‘However, it has been found to be too weak under impact 4 to be used commercially. ’ the writer describes the general problem area or the current research focus of the fi eld. Notice that the author is still not describing the specifi c problem which this research article will deal with; s/he is describing the current focus of the fi eld, a problem which many researchers in this fi eld are interested in and which leads to the specifi c problem which will be addressed in this article. Remember to keep this general description of the problem area B875Chapter01.indd 20 B875Chapter01.indd 20 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 21 or current research focus brief, or you will fi nd that you begin to give a specifi c description of what your research is trying to achieve, and it’s still too early in the Introduction for that. As you can see from Sentence 4, you may need a research reference when you describe the problem your paper will deal with; however, if it is a wellknown problem (rather than a recent issue, as in Sentence 4), then it is not necessary to provide a reference. In Sentence 5 ‘One way to toughen polymers is to incorporate a layer 5 of rubber particles. ’ the writer provides a transition between the general problem area and the literature review. As a general rule, you should include references to previous or current research wherever it is useful, even in a sentence whose function is primarily to provide a transition. Make sure that the superscript reference number includes all and only the work referred to in the sentence (see the notes on Sentence 6 below for more about this). In Sentence 6 ‘For example, Penney et al. showed that PLA composites 6 7 could be prepared using blending techniques and more recently, Hillier established the toughness of such composites.’ the writer provides a brief overview of key research projects in this area. You can’t just ‘pour’ the literature review onto the page in any order; you should arrange your references and studies so that the reader is able to process them in a logical way. Here are three common options: • chronological: Deal with the research in chronological order. Th is may be appropriate, for example, if the development of your fi eld is related to political decisions. • diff erent approaches/theories/models: Group projects or studies according to their approach or methodology. Grouping similar projects together helps you avoid the ‘tennis match’ eff ect where you B875Chapter01.indd 21 B875Chapter01.indd 21 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA 22 Science Research Writing go backwards and forwards, beginning each sentence in the literature review with However or On the other hand • general/specifi c: Start with general research in the fi eld and gradually move to research that is closer to your own. When should a research reference come in the middle of the sentence When it is necessary to avoid confusion, for example if you are referring to more than one study in a sentence or if the citation reference only refers to part of your sentence. You can see examples of this in Sentences 6 and 7. In Sentence 7 ‘However, although the eff ect of the rubber particles on the mechanical properties of copolymer systems was demonstrated 8 over two years ago, little attention has been paid to the selection of an appropriate rubber component.’ the writer describes a gap in the research. Th is is where you begin to introduce the purpose of your paper and the specifi c problem you will deal with, and in order to do this it is necessary to create a research space. You can do this either by describing a problem in the previous research or by indicating that there is a gap in the research. It is conventional to introduce it with a signalling connector such as However or Although. In professional writing it is unusual to put it in the form of a question; instead you can state it as a prediction or a hypothesis which you intend to test. Don’t be shy about pointing out the problems in previous research. In the fi rst place it may be necessary in order to explain why you have done your study, and in the second place, the language used here is usually respectful and impersonal, and is therefore not considered off ensive. We will look at the politeness aspect of this language in the vocabulary section at the end of the unit. Y ou may need more background information at this stage (for example, you may need to give details of the properties of the material which you have chosen to investigate, or describe the specifi c part of the device which you plan to improve). Research writing requires far more background information than you have previously given in your undergraduate writing, and it is better to off er slightly too much background information than too little. B875Chapter01.indd 22 B875Chapter01.indd 22 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 23 In Sentence 8 ‘Th e present paper presents a set of criteria for selecting such a component.’ the writer describes the paper itself. At this stage you move to the present work. You can describe it, say what its purpose or focus is, give its structure or a combination of these. Check Section 1.2.3 to see whether to write these sentences in the active or the passive. You normally use the Present Simple tense to describe the work itself (Th is paper is organised as follows or Th is study focuses on) and the Past Simple tense to talk about the aim of the work (Th e aim of this project was…), because in ‘real time’, the aim occurred before the work was carried out. It is also possible to state the aim in the Present Simple (Th e aim of this work is…). Th is is especially true in cases where the aim is only partially achieved in the paper you are submitting and the rest of the work will be done and reported on at a later stage. In Sentence 9 ‘On the basis of these criteria it then describes the preparation of a set of polymer blends using PLA and a hydrocarbon rubber(PI).’ the writer gives details about the methodology reported in the paper. In Sentence 10 ‘Th is combination of two mechanistically distinct polymerisations formed a novel copolymer in which the incorporation of PI signifi cantly increased fl exibility.’ the writer announces the fi ndings. Although you can give information about your methodology or fi ndings in the Introduction, be careful not to go into too much detail at this point or you will fi nd that you have nothing to write about in the Methodology or Results sections. Look at the way the writer begins Sentences 9 and 10. In each case the information is joined to the previous sentence with a proform (On the basis of these criteria in Sentence 9 and Th is combination in Sentence 10). B875Chapter01.indd 23 B875Chapter01.indd 23 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA 24 Science Research Writing 1.3.3 Th e model Here are the sentence descriptions we have collected: In Sentence 1 the writer establishes the importance of this research topic. In Sentence 2 the writer provides general background information. In Sentence 3 the w riter does the same as in Sentences 1 and 2, but in a more specifi c/detailed way. In Sentence 4 the w riter describes the general problem area or the current research focus of the fi eld. In Sentence 5 the w riter provides a transition between the general problem area and the literature review. In Sentence 6 the writer provides a brief overview of key research projects in this area. In Sentence 7 the writer describes a gap in the research. In Sentence 8 the writer describes the paper itself. In Sentence 9 the writer gives details about the methodology reported in the paper. In Sentence 10 the writer announces the fi ndings. We can streamline these so that our model has FOUR basic components: 1 ESTABLISH THE IMPORTANCE OF YOUR FIELD PROVIDE BACKGROUND FACTS/INFORMATION (possibly from research) DEFINE THE TERMINOLOGY IN THE TITLE/KEY WORDS PRESENT THE PROBLEM AREA/CURRENT RESEARCH FOCUS 2 PREVIOUS AND/OR CURRENT RESEARCH AND CONTRIBUTIONS 3 LOCATE A GAP IN THE RESEARCH DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM YOU WILL ADDRESS PRESENT A PREDICTION TO BE TESTED 4 DESCRIBE THE PRESENT PAPER B875Chapter01.indd 24 B875Chapter01.indd 24 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 25 1.3.4 Testing the Model Th e next step is to look at the way this model works in a real Introduction. Here are some fulllength Introductions from real research articles. Read them through, and mark the model components (1, 2, 3 or 4) wherever you think you see them. For example, if you think the fi rst sentence of the Introduction corresponds to number 1 in our model, write 1 aft er it, etc. Th e height of biomolecules measured with the atomic force microscope depends on electrostatic interactions INTRODUCTION Because the atomic force microscope (AFM) (Binnig et al., 1986) makes it possible to image surfaces in liquids, it has become an important tool for studying biological samples (Drake et al., 1989). Recent reports document the observation of protein assemblies under physiological conditions at nanometer resolution (Butt et al., 1990; Hoh et al., 1991; Karrasch et al., 1993, 1994; Yang et al., 1993, Schabert and Engel, 1994; Mou et al., 1995b; Muller et al., 1995b, 1996b). As demonstrated on solids under vacuum conditions (Sugawara et al., 1995) and in liquid (Ohnesorge and Binnig, 1993), the AFM also makes it possible to measure sample heights with subangstrom accuracy. However, the heights of native biological samples measured with the AFM in aqueous solution vary signifi cantly, and may diff er from values estimated with other methods (Butt et al., 1991; Apell et al., 1993; Muller et al., 1995b, 1996a; Schabert and Rabe, 1996). For example, the height reported for single purple membranes ranges from 5.1 ± 0 nm to 11.0 ± 3.4 nm (see Table 1). Height measurements on actin fi laments (Fritz et al., 1995b), bacteriophage ø29 connectors (Muller et al., 1997c), cholera toxin (Yang et al., 1994; Mou et al., 1995b), DNA (Hansma et al., 1995; Mou et al., 1995a; Wyman et al., 1995), gap junctions (Hoh et al., 1993), GroEL (Mou et al., 1996), hexagonally packed intermediate layer (HPI) (Karrasch et al., 1993; Muller et al., 1996a; Schabert and Rabe, 1996), lipid bilayers (Mou et al., 1994, 1995b; Radler et al., 1994), and microtubules (Fritz et al., 1995a) exhibit a similar variability. Height anomalies B875Chapter01.indd 25 B875Chapter01.indd 25 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:08 AMFA 26 Science Research Writing of soft surfaces have previously been studied and attributed to the mechanical properties of the sample (Weisenhorn et al., 1992; Radmacher et al., 1993, 1995; Hoh and Schoenenberger, 1994). However thin samples such as twodimensional protein arrays or biological membranes adsorbed to a solid support are not suffi ciently compressible to explain such large height variation. Here we demonstrate that electrostatic interactions between the AFM tip and the sample (Butt, 1991a, b) infl uence the measured height of a biological structure adsorbed to a solid support in buff er solution. Th e DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek) theory (Israelachvili, 1991) is used to describe the electrostatic repulsion and van der Waals attraction acting between tip and sample (Butt et al., 1995). Experimental results and calculations show that the electrostatic doublelayer forces can be eliminated by adjusting the electrolyte concentration (Butt, 1992a, b), providing conditions for correct height measurements with the AFM. In addition, the observed height dependence of the biological structure on electrolyte concentration allows its surface charge density to be estimated. Optimal location discrimination of two multipartite pure states 1. INTRODUCTION Entanglement lies at the heart of many aspects of quantum information theory and it is therefore desirable to understand its structure as well as possible. One attempt to improve our understanding of entanglement is the study of our ability to perform information theoretic tasks locally on nonlocal states, such as the local implementation of nonlocal quantum gates 2, telecloning 3, the remote manipulation and preparation of quantum states 4 or the recently studied question of the local discrimination of nonlocal states by a variety of authors. In 1 it was shown that any two orthogonal pure states can be perfectly discriminated locally, whereas in 5 examples of two orthogonal mixed states were presented which cannot be distinguished B875Chapter01.indd 26 B875Chapter01.indd 26 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 27 perfectly locally. Another surprising development is that there exist bases of product orthogonal pure states which cannot be locally reliably discriminated, despite the fact that each state in the basis contains no entanglement 6. Here we discuss the issue of discriminating two nonorthogonal pure states locally, and show that in this regime the optimal global procedure can be achieved. Inert COD production in a membrane anaerobic reactor treating brewery wastewater INTRODUCTION Th e chemical characterization of wastewaters is commonly undertaken to determine their biological treatability, load on an existing treatment system, or compliance with the fi nal discharge standards. In each case, one of the most important parameters to be measured is the chemical oxygen demand (COD). In general, the COD value of a wastewater mainly represents the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable organic components, although inorganic compounds may be signifi cant in certain cases. In biological treatment systems, the biodegradable fraction of wastewater can be removed eff ectively, but its nonbiodegradable fraction passes through the system unchanged. In addition to this, a signifi cant amount of soluble microbial products may be produced by microorganisms within the treatment systems. Some of these will be resistant to biological degradation and will appear in reactor effl uents. Th e factors that aff ect effl uent quality and overall organic matter removal in biological treatment systems are, therefore, the presence of both the inert COD fraction in the infl uent wastewater and the soluble microbial products which are produced during biological treatment. Although their concentrations may have few practical implications in the treatment of low strength wastewaters, they may have relatively greater signifi cance in the treatment of mediumhigh strength industrial wastewaters. Th ere is extensive literature on the determination of inert COD fractions in industrial wastewaters under aerobic conditions (Chudoba, 1985; Ekama et al., 1986; Rittman et al., 1987; B875Chapter01.indd 27 B875Chapter01.indd 27 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA 28 Science Research Writing Henze et al., 1987; Orhon et al., 1989; Germirli et al., 1991). However, little has been reported under anaerobic conditions (Germili et al., 1998; Ince et al., 1998). Since mediumhigh strength industrial wastewaters have been treated effi ciently by anaerobic treatment systems, both the inert COD fraction of wastewaters under anaerobic conditions and the soluble microbial products produced within the anaerobic treatment systems should be investigated. A novel anaerobic reactor system, crossfl ow ultrafi ltration membrane anaerobic reactor (CUMAR) has previously shown great potential for retaining high biomass levels and high biological activity within a fully functioning anaerobic digester (Ince et al., 1993, 1994, 1995a). Since the CUMAR system can be operated at high organic loading rates, the quantifi cation of its effi ciency under varying loading rates would be of considerable interest, particularly with regard to the nature and quantity of soluble COD produced in the reactor effl uent under various operating conditions. In this study, formation of soluble microbial products within a 120:1 is this correct Should it be 120:1 pilotscale CUMAR system treating brewery wastewater will, therefore, be discussed in relation to reactor operating conditions. Organic vapour phase deposition: a new method for the growth of organic thin fi lms with large optical nonlinearities 1. INTRODUCTION Th ere is considerable interest in organic materials with large secondorder hyperpolarizabilities for use in nonlinear optical (NLO) devices such as modulators and frequency doublers 1. To achieve a high fi gure of merit for such NLP devices requires a material with a noncentrosymmetric bulk structure and low dielectric constant. To this end, NLPactive chromophores are traditionally incorporated into a polymer matrix and electrically poled to achieve the necessary bulk symmetry. However, such materials B875Chapter01.indd 28 B875Chapter01.indd 28 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 29 are limited by their low glass transition temperatures and poor stabilities at elevated temperature. Recently, single crystals of organic and organometallic salts 2–4 have been shown to possess extremely large secondorder (x(2)) NLP eff ects leading to a high second harmonic generation (SHG) effi ciency. Th e naturally noncentrosymmetric crystal structures of these compounds obviates the need for external poling. Furthermore, these salts have a high optical damage threshold and suffi cient stability with respect to temperature to withstand many conventional semiconductor fabrication processes. In particular, highly pure single crystals of the salt, 4′dimethylaminoNmethyl4stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) 2, have been shown to have a value of x(2) at least 103 times greater than that of urea due to dipole alignment of the cation and anion constituents of the DAST structure. To illustrate this alignment, the DAST bulk crystal structure is shown in the inset of Fig. 1. For many applications such as waveguide devices, it is desirable to grow NLO materials into optical quality thin fi lms. Although thermal evaporation in a high vacuum environment has been used to grow thin fi lms of many organic 5–7 and inorganic materials, the technique is not always applicable to highly polar molecules 8 or organic salts. For example, when heated in vacuum, DAST decomposes before vaporization. Although in situ reactions of multicomponent organic molecules to synthesize polymer fi lms previously has been demonstrated using vacuum techniques as physical vapour deposition or vapour deposition polymerization 9, attempts in our own laboratory at doublesource coevaporation of DAST neutral precursors 4′dimethylamino4stilbazole (DAS) and methyl ptoluenesulfonate (Methyltosylate, MT) to form DAST have been unsuccessful, due in part to the radically diff erent vapour pressures of DAS and MT, which leads to highly nonstoichiometric growth. In contrast, atmospheric or low pressure (eg milliTorr) vapour phase epitaxy (VPE) has been used to grow epitaxial thin fi lms of many IIIV compound semiconductors, such as InP and GaAs, where there is a large diff erence in the vapour pressures of the group III and group V atomic constituents 10. Th is method was recently extended to allow the growth of IIIV and IIVI B875Chapter01.indd 29 B875Chapter01.indd 29 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA 30 Science Research Writing semiconductors from volatile organic precursors 11. Here, a high vapour pressure compound (typically a metal halide or a metallorganic) of each respective metal is carried independently, via a carrier gas, to a high temperature reaction zone. In this zone, the compounds are deposited onto a heated substrate where they thermally decompose and react to yield the desired IIIV compound. Th e excess reactants and reaction products are then exhausted from the system via a scrubber. In this paper we apply the techniques of VPE to grow fi lms of DAST by the reaction of two volatile organic materials in a hotwall, atmospheric pressure reactor. By nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we fi nd that the stoichiometry of polycrystalline DAST fi lms is 95 pure (limited by instrumental sensitivity). Using Xray diff raction and other analytical techniques, we observe a signifi cant dependence of fi lm quality, such as ordering and crystallite size, on the substrate composition and other deposition conditions used for growth, suggesting that it may be possible to generate optical quality thin fi lms of DAST and similar organic salts and compounds by OVPD using suitable substrates. To our knowledge, this is the fi rst demonstration of the deposition of ordered thin fi lms of a highly nonlinear optically active organic salt using atmospheric vapour phase techniques. Limitations of chargetransfer models for mixedconducting oxygen electrodes INTRODUCTION Traditionally, electrochemistry is concerned with chargetransfer reactions occurring across a 2dimensional interface. Indeed, at any macroscopic twophase boundary, the magnitude, direction and driving force for current density can be described relatively unambiguously. As early as 1933 1, workers began introducing the concept of a ‘threephase boundary’ (solid/liquid/gas) in order to allow for direct involvement of gasphase species at an electrochemical interface. However, since matter cannot pass B875Chapter01.indd 30 B875Chapter01.indd 30 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA Introduction — Writing Task 31 through a truly onedimensional interface among three phases, concepts of ‘interfacial area’, ‘current density’, and ‘overpotential’ at a threephase boundary lack clear defi nition. For example, where exactly is the current fl owing from/to, and what is the local fl ux density Also, if we defi ne overpotential in terms of thermodynamic potentials of species outside the interfacial region, what species and region are we talking about Although the three phase boundary concept may serve as a useful abstraction of the overall electrode reaction, it does not address these mechanistic questions. Workers studying gasdiff usion electrodes in the mid 1960s recognized the limitations of the threephase boundary concept 2, 3. As an alternative, they began to break down the electrode reaction into individual steps, some that involve charge transfer across a twodimensional interface, and some that involve dissolution and diff usion of molecular species in three dimensions or across a chemical interface. Th ese and subsequent studies have demonstrated that electrodes with iV characteristics indicative of chargetransfer limitations (eg. Tafel behaviour) can, in fact, be limited by steps that do not themselves involve charge transfer 4. Although the solidstate literature has held on to the threephase boundary concept more tightly than the aqueous or polymer literature, few examples remain today or solidstate electrochemical reactions that are not partially limited by solid state reaction and diff usion processes. One example is the O reduction reaction on a mixed 2 conducting perovskite electrode, which defi es rational explanation in terms of interfacial impedance. In order to incorporate non chargetransfer eff ects, workers oft en apply an empirical Butler– Volmer model (for DC characteristics) or an equivalentcircuit model (for AC impedance) that treat nonchargetransfer processes in terms of an eff ective overpotential/current relationship 5, 6. However, this approach lacks generality and can oft en be incorrect for treating oxygen absorption and solidstate and gaseous diff usion, which contribute to the impedance in a convoluted manner 7. Although such models may provide a useful set of parameters to ‘fi t’ data accurately, they leave the electrode reaction B875Chapter01.indd 31 B875Chapter01.indd 31 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA 32 Science Research Writing mechanism only vaguely or empirically defi ned, and provide little mechanistic insight. Th e purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for defi ning ‘chargetransfer’ and ‘nonchargetransfer’ processes, and to illustrate how they are diff erent. We investigate why chargetransfer models have diffi culty modelling noncharge transfer eff ects, and walk through several examples including the ALS model for oxygen reduction on a porous mixedconducting oxygen electrode. We then review a recent study of linear AC polarization of La Sr CoO (LSCO) electrodes on ceria that 1x x 35 corroborates the ALS model, and demonstrates the importance of O surface exchange and diff usion. Th is study shows that the 2 electrode reaction extends up to 20 microns beyond the electrode/ electrolyte interface, implying that electrode polarization is better described by macroscopic thermodynamic gradients than as an ‘overpotential’. Now do the same for the Introductions of your target articles. You should fi nd that most Introductions begin with item 1, that the order of the model components is usually fairly reliable (although items 2 and 3 can occur more than once) and that almost all Introductions fi nish with number 4. We have, therefore, answered the three questions we set at the beginning of this unit: • How do I start the Introduction What type of sentence should I begin with • What type of information should be in my Introduction, and in what order • How do I end the Introduction 1.4 Vocabulary You now need to collect vocabulary for each part of the Introduction model. Th e vocabulary in this section is taken from over 600 research articles in diff erent fi elds, all of which were written by native speakers and published in science journals. Only words/phrases which appear frequently have been B875Chapter01.indd 32 B875Chapter01.indd 32 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA Introduction — Vocabulary 33 included; this means that the vocabulary lists contain words and phrases which are considered normal and acceptable by both writers and editors. We will look at vocabulary for the following areas of the model: 1. ESTABLISHING SIGNIFICANCE Th is includes phrases such as Much research in recent years. A good list of commonly used words and expressions will encourage you to include this in your fi rst sentences. 2. PRE VIOUS AND/OR CURRENT RESEARCH AND CONTRIBUTIONS Th is includes all past tense verbs describing what researchers did, i.e. calculated, monitored, etc. Instead of just using did, showed and found, you oft en need to be more specifi c about what a researcher actually ‘did’ 3. GAP/PROBLEM/QUESTION/PREDICTION Th is includes ways to say exactly how previous and/or current research is not yet complete or has not addressed the problem your paper deals with, e.g. However, few studies have focused on… 4. THE PRESENT WORK Th is may include your purpose, your strategy and the design of your paper, using language such as the aims of the present work are as follows: VOCABULARY TASK Look through the Introductions in this unit and the Introductions of your target articles. Underline or highlight all the words and phrases that you think could be used in each of the four areas given above. A full list of useful language can be found on the following pages. Th is includes all the appropriate words and phrases from the Introductions in this unit, together with some other common ones which you may have seen in your target articles. Underneath each list you will fi nd examples of how they are used. Read through the list and check the meaning of any you don’t know in the dictionary. Th is list will be useful for many years. B875Chapter01.indd 33 B875Chapter01.indd 33 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA 34 Science Research Writing 1.4.1 Vocabulary for the Introduction 1. ESTABLISHING SIGNIFICANCE (a) basic issue economically important (a) central problem (has) focused (on) (a) challenging area for a number of years (a) classic feature for many years (a) common issue frequent(ly) (a) considerable number generally (a) crucial issue (has been) extensively studied (a) current problem importance/important (a) dramatic increase many (an) essential element most (a) fundamental issue much study in recent years (a) growth in popularity nowadays (an) increasing number numerous investigations (an) interesting fi eld of great concern (a) key technique of growing interest (a) leading cause (of) oft en (a) major issue one of the bestknown (a) popular method over the past ten years (a) powerful tool/method play a key role (in) (a) profi table technology play a major part (in) (a) range (of) possible benefi ts (a) rapid rise potential applications (a) remarkable variety recent decades (a) signifi cant increase recent(ly) (a) striking feature today (a) useful method traditional(ly) (a) vital aspect typical(ly) (a) worthwhile study usually B875Chapter01.indd 34 B875Chapter01.indd 34 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:09 AMFA Introduction — Vocabulary 35 (an) advantage welldocumented attracted much attention wellknown benefi t/benefi cial widely recognised commercial interest widespread during the past two decades worthwhile Here are some examples of how these are used: • A major current focus in population management is how to ensure sustainability of… • Numerous experiments have established that ionising radiation causes… • Lowdose responses to radiation have generated considerable recent research interest. • Analysis of change in the transportation sector is vital for two important reasons: … • PDA accounts for over 95 of all pancreatic cancers. • It is generally accepted that joints in steel frames operate in a semi rigid fashion. • Nanocrystalline oxide fi lms are attracting widespread interest in fi elds such as… • Th e importance of strength anisotropy has been demonst rated by… • Convection heat transfer phenomena play an important role in the development of… • For more than 100 years researchers have been observing the stress strain behaviour of… • Much research in recent years has focused on carbon nanotubes. B875Chapter01.indd 35 B875Chapter01.indd 35 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA 36 Science Research Writing 2. VERBS USED IN THE LITERATURE REVIEW TO PRESENT PREVIOUS AND/OR CURRENT RESEARCH AND CONTRI BUTIONS achieve develop obtain address discover overcome adopt discuss perform analyse enhance point out apply establish predict argue estimate present assume evaluate produce attempt examine propose calculate explain prove categorise explore provide carry out extend publish choose fi nd put forward claim focus on realise classify formulate recognise collect generate recommend compare identify record concentrate (on) illustrate report conclude implement reveal conduct imply revise confi rm improve review consider incorporate show construct indicate simulate correlate interpret solve deal with introduce state debate investigate study defi ne measure support demonstrate model suggest describe monitor test design note undertake detect observe use determine prefer utilise B875Chapter01.indd 36 B875Chapter01.indd 36 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA Introduction — Vocabulary 37 Here are some examples of how these are used: • Th is phenomenon was demonstrated by… • In their study, expanded Tcells were found in… • Initial attempts focused on identifying the cause of… • Weather severity has been shown to… • Early data was interpreted in the study by… • Th e algorithm has been proposed for these applications… • Th e results on pair dispersion were reported in… • Th eir study suggested a possible cause for… • An alternative approach was developed by… Note: You can recycle these verbs at the end of the Introduction when you say what you plan to do in your paper (see 4 below) 3. GAP/QUESTION/PROBLEM/CRITICISM Th is is oft en signalled by words such as however, although, while, nevertheless, despite, but. ambiguous (the) absence of (an) alternative approach computationally demanding confused (a) challenge (a) defect defi cient doubtful (a) diffi culty expensive (a) disadvantage false (a) drawback far from perfect (an) error illdefi ned (a) fl aw impractical (a) gap in our knowledge improbable (a) lack inaccurate (a) limitation inadequate (a) need for clarifi cation incapable (of) (the) next step incompatible (with) no correlation (between) incomplete (an) obstacle inconclusive (a) problem inconsistent (a) risk inconvenient (a) weakness incorrect B875Chapter01.indd 37 B875Chapter01.indd 37 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA 38 Science Research Writing ineff ective (to be) confi ned to ineffi cient (to) demand clarifi cation inferior (to) disagree infl exible (to) fail to insuffi cient (to) fall short of meaningless (to) miscalculate misleading (to) misjudge nonexistent (to) misunderstand not addressed (to) need to reexamine not apparent (to) neglect not dealt with (to) overlook not repeatable (to) remain unstudied not studied (to) require clarifi cation not suffi ciently + adjective (to) suff er (from) not well understood not/no longer useful few studies have... of little value it is necessary to... oversimplistic little evidence is available poor little work has been done problematic more work is needed questionable there is growing concern redundant there is an urgent need… restricted this is not the case timeconsuming unfortunately unanswered uncertain unclear uneconomic unfounded unlikely unnecessary unproven unrealistic unresolved unsatisfactory unsolved unsuccessful unsupported B875Chapter01.indd 38 B875Chapter01.indd 38 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA Introduction — Vocabulary 39 Here are some examples of how these are used: • Few researchers have addressed the problem of… • Th ere remains a need for an effi cient method that can… • However, light scattering techniques have been largely unsuccessful to date. • Th e high absorbance makes this an impractical option in cases where… • Unfortunately, these methods do not always guarantee… • An alternative approach is necessary. • Th e function of these proteins remains unclear. • Th ese can be timeconsuming and are oft en technically diffi cult to perform. • Although this approach improves performance, it results in an unacceptable number of… • Previous work has focused only on… • However, the experimental confi guration was far from optimal. Note: Some of these words/phrases express very strong criticism. A useful exercise is to put an asterisk () next to those you think you could use if you were talking about the research of your professor or supervisor. You can also alter them to make them more polite (i.e. instead of unsuccessful, which is quite a strong criticism, you could write may not always be completely successful). (to) attempt (is) organised as follows: (were/are) able to (to) compare (is) set out as follows: accurate/accurately (to) concentrate (is/are) presented in detail eff ective/eff ectively (on) (our) approach effi cient/effi ciently (to) conclude (the) present work excellent results (to) describe (this) paper innovation (to) discuss (this) project new (to) enable (this) report novel method (to) evaluate (this) section powerful (to) expect (this) study practical B875Chapter01.indd 39 B875Chapter01.indd 39 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA 40 Science Research Writing 4. THE PRESENT WORK (to) facilitate (this) work simple (to) illustrate begin by/with straightforward (to) improve close attention is paid to successful (to) manage to here valuable (to) minimise overview (to) off er aim (to) outline goal (to) predict intention (to) present objective (to) propose purpose (to) provide (to) reveal (to) succeed Here are some examples of how these are used: • is p Th aper focuses on… • Th e purpose of this study is to describe and examine… • In order to investigate the biological signifi cance… • In this paper we present… • New correlations were developed with excellent results… • In the present study we performed… • Th is paper introduces a scheme which solves these problems. • Th e approach we have used in this study aims to… • Th is study investigated the use of… • In this report we test the hypothesis that… • Th is paper is organised as follows:… Note: In a thesis or a very long research paper, you use these to say what each chapter or section will do. Don’t rely on onesizefi tsall verbs such as discuss; some chapters/sections do not ‘discuss’ anything, and even if they do, their main purpose may be to compare things, analyse things or describe things rather than to discuss them. B875Chapter01.indd 40 B875Chapter01.indd 40 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA Introduction — Writing an Introduction 41 1.5 Writing an Introduction In the next task, you will bring together and use all the information in this unit. You will write an Introduction according to the model, using the grammar and vocabulary you have learned, so make sure that you have the model (Section 1.3.3) and the vocabulary (Section 1.4) in front of you. Th roughout this unit you have seen that conventional science writing is easier to learn, easier to write and easier for others to read than direct translations from your own language or more creative writing strategies. You have learned the conventional model of an Introduction and collected the vocabulary conventionally used. Your sentence patterns should also be conventional; use the sentences you have read in your target articles and in the Introductions printed here as models for the sentence patterns in your writing, and adapt them for the task. Follow the model exactly this time. Aft er you have practiced it once or twice you can vary it to suit your needs. However, you should use it to check Introductions you have written so that you can be sure that the information is in an appropriate order and that you have done what your readers expect you to do in an Introduction. Although a model answer is provided in the Key, you should try to have your own answer checked by a native speaker of English if possible, to make sure that you are using the vocabulary correctly. 1.5.1 Write an Introduction Imagine that you have just completed a research project to design a bicycle cover which can protect the cyclist from injury, pollution, or just from rain. Perhaps you provided a computer simulation of its use, or modelled the ventilation system. Perhaps you were involved in the aerodynamics, or the polymer construction of the material for the cover — or any other aspect of the project. Write the Introduction of your research paper, to be published in the Journal of PedalPowered Vehicles (Vol. 3). Th e title of your research paper is A COVER FOR THE SPPPV (SinglePerson PedalPowered Vehicle) and your Introduction should be between 200– 400 words. You can lie as much as you like, and of course you will have to create fake research references. Follow the model as closely as possible; B875Chapter01.indd 41 B875Chapter01.indd 41 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA 42 Science Research Writing make sure your Introduction contains the four main components of the model and try out some of the new vocabulary. If you get stuck and don’t know what to write next, use the model and the vocabulary to help you move forward. Don’t look at the key until you have fi nished writing. 1.5.2 Key Here is a sample answer. When you read it, think about which part of the model is represented in each sentence. A COVER FOR THE SPPPV (SinglePerson PedalPowered Vehicle) Concern about global warming and urban air pollution have become central issues in transport policy decisionmaking, and as a result much research in recent years has focused on the development of vehicles which are environmentally friendly. Air quality in cities is currently signifi cantly lower than in rural 1 areas and this has been shown to be directly linked to the level 2 of vehicle emissions from private cars. Due to the fact that urban transport policy in the UK is designed to reduce or discourage 3 the use of private cars, there has been an increase in the sale of nonpolluting vehicles such as the SPPPV (SinglePerson Pedal Powered Vehicle). However, although the number of SPPPV users has increased, safety and comfort issues need to be addressed if the number of users is to increase to a level at which a signifi cant eff ect on environmental pollution can be achieved. Researchers have studied and improved many aspects of the SPPPV. In 1980, Wang et al. responded to the need for increased safety by designing an SPPPV surrounded by a ‘cage’ 4 and in 2001 Martinez developed this further with of safety bars, the introduction of a reinforced polymer screen which could be fi tted to the safety bars to protect the cyclist’s face in the event 5 of a collision. Th e issue of comfort has also been addressed by many design teams; in 1998 Kohl et al. introduced an SPPPV with a builtin umbrella, which could be opened at the touch of B875Chapter01.indd 42 B875Chapter01.indd 42 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA Introduction — Writing an Introduction 43 6 7 a button, and more recently, Martinez has added a mesh fi lter which can be placed over the entire cage to reduce the risk of environmental pollution. However, the resulting ‘cage’ or cover is aerodynamically ineff ective due to the shape of the umbrella and the weight of the mesh fi lter. In this study, we used computer simulation to model the aerodynamic eff ect of the existing safety and comfort features and we present a new design which integrates these features in an optimallyeff ective aerodynamic shape. B875Chapter01.indd 43 B875Chapter01.indd 43 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AM 12/9/2009 8:48:10 AMFA 44 Unit 2 ✏ Writing about Methodology 2.1 Structure Th e title of this section varies in diff erent disciplines and in diff erent journals. It is sometimes called Materials and Methods, or it can be called Procedure, Experiments, Experimental, Simulation, Methodology or Model. Th is section is the fi rst part of the central ‘report’ section of the research article (the second part is the Results section), and it reports what you did and/or what you used. Most journals publish (usually on the Internet) a Guide for Authors. Before you begin to read this unit, access the guide for a journal you read regularly — if you’re lucky, it will include a short description of what the editors expect in each section in addition to technical information relating to the fi gures. Here is a typical sentence from such a guide: Th e Methodology should contain suffi cient detail for readers to replicate the work done and obtain similar results. It is true that your work must contain suffi cient detail to be repeatable, but the type of writing you will need to do is not just a record of what you did and/or used. One of the most interesting and important changes you need to make in the way you write is that until now, you have probably been writing for people (perhaps your teachers) who know more about your research topic than you do. You have been displaying to them that you understand the tasks they have set and have performed them correctly. However, when you write a research article, people will be learning from you. Th erefore you now need to be able to communicate information about a new procedure, a new method, or a new approach so that everyone reading it can not only carry it out and obtain similar results, but also understand and accept your procedure. B875Chapter02.indd 1 B875Chapter02.indd 1 12/1/2009 10:42:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:42 AMFA Methodology — Structure 45 ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY (what you did/used) central report section RESULTS (what you found/saw) DISCUSSION/ CONCLUSION Fig. 1. Th e shape of a research article or thesis. When we come to ask our three questions: • How do I start the Methodology/Experiments section What type of sentence should I begin with • What type of information should be in this section, and in what order • How do I end this section you already know that the Methodology should contain a detailed description of what you did and/or used, and this helps to answer the second of the three questions. As we will see, however, it is not a full answer; to be eff ective and conform to what is normally done in a research paper, this section must contain other important information as well. Read the example below. Th e title of the paper is Changes in the chemistry of groundwater in the chalk of the London Basin. Don’t worry if the subject matter is not familiar to you or if you have diffi culty understanding individual words, especially technical terms like ground water. Just try to get a general understanding at this stage and familiarise yourself with the type of language used. B875Chapter02.indd 2 B875Chapter02.indd 2 12/1/2009 10:42:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:47 AMFA 46 Science Research Writing Methodology 1 Th e current investigation involved sampling and analysing six sites to measure changes in groundwater chemistry. 2 Th e sites were selected from the London Basin area, which is located in the southeast of England and has been frequently used to interpret 2,3,4 groundwater evolution. 3 A total of 18 samples was collected and then analysed for the isotopes mentioned earlier. 4 Samples 1–9 were collected in thoroughlyrinsed 25 ml brown glass bottles which were fi lled to the top and then sealed tightly to prevent contamination. 5 Th e fi lled bottles were shipped directly to two separate laboratories at Reading University, where they were analysed using standard methods suitably miniaturised to 5 handle small quantities of water. 6 Samples 10–18 were prepared in our laboratory using a revised version of the precipitation method established by the ISF Institute in 6 Germany. 7 Th is method obtains a precipitate through the addition of BaCl .2H O; the resulting precipitate can be washed and stored 2 2 easily. 8 Th e samples were subsequently shipped to ISF for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 9 All tubing used was stainless steel, and although two samples were at risk of CFC contamination as a result of brief contact with plastic, variation among samples was negligible. 2.2 Grammar and Writing Skills Th is section deals with three language areas which are important in the Methodology: PASSIVES AND TENSE PAIRS USE OF ‘A’ AND ‘THE’ ADVERBS AND ADVERB LOCATION B875Chapter02.indd 3 B875Chapter02.indd 3 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AMFA Methodology — Grammar and Writing Skills 47 2.2.1 Passives and tense pairs When a sentence changes from active to passive, it looks like this: Th e dog bit the policeman. active Th e policeman was bitten by the dog. passive But in formal academic writing, when you report what you did, you don’t write ‘by us’ or ‘by me’ when changing the sentence from active to passive. You simply leave the agent out, creating an agentless passive: We/I collected the samples. active Th e samples were collected. passive Before you begin to write the description of what you did and used, you need to check with the Guide for Authors in your target journal (if you are writing a doctoral thesis in an Englishspeaking country, check with your supervisor) to fi nd out whether this part of the paper or thesis should be written in the passive or in the active. You can use the active (we collected) if you worked as part of a research team. Using the active is not usually appropriate when you write your PhD thesis because you worked alone, and research is not normally written up in the fi rst person singular (I collected). In most cases, you will fi nd that in papers and theses, the procedure you used in your research is described in the passive, either in the Present Simple passive (is collected) or in the Past Simple passive (was collected). To make that choice, it is useful to explore the advantages and disadvantages of each. Th ere are two common errors in the way passives are used in this section. First, look at these two sentences: (a) A fl exible section is inserted in the pipe. Present Simple passive (b) A fl exible section was inserted in the pipe. Past Simple passive When you write about what you did and what you used, you need to be able to distinguish between standard procedures, i.e. what is normally done or how a piece of equipment is normally constructed, and what you did yourself. In the examples above, (a) uses the Present Simple tense to describe what is normally done or to describe a standard piece of equipment used in the research and (b) uses the Past Simple tense to describe what you did yourself. It is conventional in this section to use the passive for B875Chapter02.indd 4 B875Chapter02.indd 4 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AMFA 48 Science Research Writing both, and the agent of the action is not mentioned in the sentence — we don’t add ‘by the researcher’ or ‘by me’ at the end. Passives used in formal writing are normally of this type, i.e. agentless passives. However, because the agent is not given, the only way that the reader can separate what is normally done (Sentence (a)) from what you did yourself (Sentence (b)) is if you use the correct tense. Check your target journal, but wherever possible it is clearer to use the Present Simple passive for what is normally done and the Past Simple passive to indicate what you did yourself. You can see that if you don’t pay careful attention to the tense of these sentences, your own work may become confused with the standard procedures you are describing. Th is is a very common error, even among native speakers, and has serious consequences. If the reader cannot identify your contribution, that is a disaster Look at this example: Two dye jets are placed in the laser cavity. A gain jet is then excited by an argon ion laser and the pulses are spatially fi ltered in order to obtain a Gaussian beam. Polarisation is confi rmed using a polarising cube. Th e pulses were split into reference pulses and probe pulses and the reference pulses were carefully aligned into the detector to minimise noise levels. In this case, splitting the pulses into two groups for testing was the signifi cant innovation of the writer’s research team but the only way the reader knows this is because of the change in tense from Present Simple passive to Past Simple passive (were split). Here is another example: Samples for gas analysis were collected using the method described by Brown (1999), which uses a pneumatic air sampling pump. Another diffi culty arises with the passive when you write about the procedure you used and compare it with the work of other researchers. You can use the Past Simple agentless passive to describe the procedure you used (the samples were collected using a suction tube) but you may also need to use exactly the same Past Simple agentless passive to describe the procedure used by the other researcher whose work you are citing (the samples were collected using a suction tube). Th is means that unless you are very careful, the reader has no way of separating your work from that B875Chapter02.indd 5 B875Chapter02.indd 5 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AMFA Methodology — Grammar and Writing Skills 49 of the other researcher. Th e fact that you are so familiar with what you did means that your own contribution is obvious to you — but it may not be obvious to your reader. One way to make sure that your own contribution is clear and easy to identify is by marking it with words — perhaps by adding phrases like In this study, the samples were collected using a suction tube or In our experiments the samples were collected using a suction tube, and by identifying the procedure used by other researchers with careful references at the appropriate place in the sentence (In Brown (1999) the samples were collected using a suction tube). Th ere are fi ve possible uses that you may need. Note the diff erent tenses. What do you mean How can you make it clear 1 X was (collected/ substituted/ Either move to the active adjusted etc.) by me in the (We collected/adjusted/ procedure or work that I substituted etc.) or add words carried out or phrases such as here/in this work/in our model or use a ‘dummy’ subject such as Th is experiment/Th e procedure 2 X was (collected/ substituted/ Give a research reference and/ adjusted etc.) by the person or add words/phrases such as whose procedure or work in their work/in that model I am using as a basis for, or comparing with, my own 3 X is (collected/substituted/ You may need a research adjusted etc.) normally, i.e. as reference even if it is part of a standard procedure a standard procedure, depending on how well known it is. Use phrases such 5 as as in B875Chapter02.indd 6 B875Chapter02.indd 6 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AMFA 50 Science Research Writing 4 X is (collected/substituted/ Move to the active (We adjusted etc.) as you can see collected/adjusted/substituted in Fig. 1, but it was collected/ etc.) if you can or make sure substituted/adjusted etc. that you come out of the by me Present Simple passive when you stop describing the fi gure 5 X is (collected/substituted/ Either move to the active adjusted etc.) by me in (‘We collect/adjust/substitute the procedure/work that etc.) or add words or phrases I carried out, but my fi eld such as here/in this work/ requires authors to write in our model or use a procedural descriptions in ‘dummy’ subject such as Th is the Present Simple tense. experiment/Th e procedure (Th is is quite common in pure mathematics) 2.2.2 Use of ‘a’ and ‘the’ Th is is one of the most problematic areas of English grammar and usage. Many languages do not have separate words for a and the, and even if they do, these words may not correspond exactly to the way in which they are used in English. Students studying English as a second language are oft en given the following useful, but sometimes confusing, rule: SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUNS NEED A DETERMINER A determiner is a word like the, a, my, this, one, some. It’s a diffi cult rule to operate successfully because two problems need to be solved before you can use it. Firstly, it’s hard to know exactly which nouns are countable and, secondly, even when you know, how do you decide whether to use a or the Let’s look at the fi rst problem. Deciding which nouns are countable nouns and which aren’t isn’t as easy as it looks. Many nouns which are oft en B875Chapter02.indd 7 B875Chapter02.indd 7 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AMFA Methodology — Grammar and Writing Skills 51 considered uncountable can actually be used ‘countably’. Nouns like death or childhood, for example, can occur in the plural: Th ere have been three deaths this year from pneumonia. Our childhoods were very diff erent; I grew up in France and she grew up in China. and so can nouns like industry: Many industries rely on fossil fuels. Even names of materials like steel can occur in the plural: Some steels are used in the manufacture of medical instruments. In the following list of uncountable nouns, mark those which can also be used in the plural, i.e. countably. Th e way you use a noun determines whether it is used in its countable or uncountable form. So when you use a noun like industry, stop and think — do you mean industry in general (uncountable) or a particular industry (countable) Check your answers in the Key. absence access analysis advice age agriculture cancer art atmosphere beauty behaviour duty capacity childhood calculation concern economy death democracy depression design environment earth education electricity energy evidence equipment existence experience failure fashion fear fi re health food freedom history growth independence heat help insurance ice knowledge industry information machinery intelligence light B875Chapter02.indd 8 B875Chapter02.indd 8 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AMFA 52 Science Research Writing life luck philosophy nature loss paper organisation pollution physics oil power progress research protection policy pressure reality security respect purity rain sand strength silence safety salt science time stuff sleep swimming space trouble trade sunlight transport technology waste truth traffi c vision treatment water velocity violence wildlife wind work wealth welfare KEY Th e nouns which can also have a countable meaning appear in italics. absence access analysis advice age agriculture cancer art atmosphere beauty behaviour duty capacity childhood calculation concern economy death democracy depression design environment earth education electricity energy evidence equipment existence experience failure fashion fear fi re health food freedom history growth independence heat help insurance ice knowledge industry information machinery intelligence light life luck philosophy nature loss paper organisation pollution physics oil power progress research protection policy B875Chapter02.indd 9 B875Chapter02.indd 9 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:48 AMFA Methodology — Grammar and Writing Skills 53 pressure reality security respect purity rain sand strength silence safety salt science time stuff sleep swimming space trouble trade sunlight transport technology waste truth traffi c vision treatment water velocity violence wildlife wind work wealth welfare Now look at the second problem: how do you decide whether to use a or the You may have been told that a is used for general reference and the is used for specifi c reference, but in the following sentence: Th ere is a book on the shelf above my desk; can you bring it here a book clearly refers to a specifi c book; in fact, that part of the sentence specifi es which book the speaker wants. So if the specifi c/general criterion doesn’t help you to select a or the, what does Start by asking yourself this simple question: Why do you use a the fi rst time you talk about something, but when you refer to it again you use the Aft er all, it’s the same specifi c item on both occasions. For example, in the sentence below, why does the fi rst reference to the cheese sandwich use a and the second reference use the if both refer to the same specifi c sandwich I had a cheese sandwich and an apple for lunch. Th e sandwich was fi ne but the apple had a worm in it. Th e diff erence is that the fi rst time the speaker mentions the cheese sandwich or the apple, only the speaker knows about them — but the second time, both the speaker and listener know. Th e worm, however, is ‘new’ to the listener, and so is referred to using a. Now we can add a new rule: USE THE IF OR WHEN YOU AND YOUR READER BOTH KNOW WHICH THING/PERSON YOU MEAN. B875Chapter02.indd 10 B875Chapter02.indd 10 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA 54 Science Research Writing Th is is true even if the thing or person has not been mentioned before, for example, in the following sentences: I arrived at Heathrow Airport but the checkin was closed. I bought a new computer but the keyboard was faulty. checkin and keyboard need the because as soon as Heathrow Airport is mentioned, the speaker and listener know about and therefore share check in; as soon as a computer is mentioned, they share keyboard. Similarly, in the sentence: He lit a match but the fl ame went out. mentioning a match automatically creates the concept of fl ame in the reader’s mind — and this shared understanding is marked by the use of the. Similarly, if we were in the same room and I told you to look up at the ceiling, you wouldn’t ask me ‘Which ceiling are you talking about’ because it would be obvious; we would share it. Did she get the job (the job we both know she wanted) I’ll meet you in the library later. (the library we normally use) Here are some more useful rules: USE THE IF THERE IS ONLY ONE POSSIBLE REFERENT We removed the soft est layer of membrane. Cairo is the capital of Egypt. Th e opening was located in the centre of each mesh. Government policy is committed to protecting the environment. Th e sun’s altitude is used to determine latitude. USE A IF IT DOESN’T MATTER or YOU DON’T KNOW or YOUR READER DOESN’T KNOW WHICH THING/ PERSON YOU ARE REFERRING TO. B875Chapter02.indd 11 B875Chapter02.indd 11 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA Methodology — Grammar and Writing Skills 55 A 35 ml brown glass bottle was used to store the liquid. (It doesn’t matter which 35 ml brown glass bottle was used.) Th e subject then spoke to an interviewer. (It doesn’t matter which interviewer/I know which one but you don’t.) It works on the same principle as a combustion engine. (It doesn’t matter which combustion engine.) Sometimes the choice of a or the changes the meaning of the sentence completely: (a) Th is eff ect may hide a connection between the two. (Th ere may possibly be a connection between the two but if there is, we cannot see it.) (b) Th is eff ect may hide the connection between the two. (Th ere is defi nitely a connection between the two but we may not be able to see it because of this eff ect.) Here’s another pair in which the choice of a or the has a signifi cant eff ect on the meaning (∅ is used here to indicate the plural of a): (a) Th e nodes should be attached to ∅ two adjacent receptor sites. (Th ere are many receptor sites and any two adjacent ones will do.) (b) Th e nodes should be attached to the two adjacent receptor sites. (Th ere are only two receptor sites.) Th e best way to use the information you have just learned is to take a paragraph from a research article that you are reading and use the information in this grammar section to work out why the writer has chosen each instance of the or a, or why the writer has not used any determiner before a particular noun. Another important point to note about the use of a, the and ∅ is that they can all be used generically, i.e. when expressing a general truth: Th e electroencephalograph is a machine for measuring brain waves. An electroencephalograph is a machine for measuring brain waves. Electroencephalographs are machines for measuring brain waves. One last note: a is used before consonant sounds, while an is used before vowel sounds. Sound, not spelling, is important here, so we write an MRI scan because the letter ‘M’ is pronounced ‘em’, but a UV light because the letter ‘U’ is pronounced ‘yoo’. B875Chapter02.indd 12 B875Chapter02.indd 12 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA 56 Science Research Writing 2.2.3 Adverbs and adverb location When you are communicating complex ideas in another language, an obvious grammatical error is not as bad as an error which is invisible. A proofreader or editor will notice an obvious grammatical error and correct it, but if the sentence is written in grammatically correct English the error is not visible to proofreaders and editors. An example of an invisible error is where the sentence is grammatically correct but the choice of which verb tense to use is inappropriate or does not represent the intention of the writer. Th ese hidden errors are worrying because neither the writer nor the editor/proofreader knows they have occurred and yet the sentence does not mean what the writer intended. Common hidden errors include mistakes in the use of a and the (see Section 2.2.2 above), whether or not to use a comma before the word which in relative clauses and adverb location errors. Adverb location errors are easy to make and hard to detect. Adverbs don’t always do what you want or expect them to do. In the fi rst place, adverbs needing prepositions can be ambiguous (Look at that dog with one eye can either mean USING one eye or HAVING one eye) and in the second place, adverbs may attach themselves to unexpected parts of a sentence. Be careful where you put your adverb, and be especially careful if you are using more than one adverb in a sentence. Here is an example of the kind of problem you may encounter: Th e patient was discharged from hospital aft er being shot in the back with a 9 mm gun. Did the doctors shoot her He gave a lecture about liver cancer at the hospital last January. Was the lecture in the hospital — or the cancer Did the lecture refer to cancer cases occurring in January or did the lecture itself occur in January Although there are rules for adverb location, they are complex and hard to apply when you are writing. Since your aim is to stay safe and write clearly, it is better to avoid adverb clusters like these, and rewrite the information in a diff erent order. If your adverb relates to the whole B875Chapter02.indd 13 B875Chapter02.indd 13 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 57 sentence (i.e. clearly, last January, as a result) then consider putting the adverb at the front of the sentence: Last January he gave a lecture about liver cancer at the hospital If you are still left with ambiguous adverb clusters, consider breaking the sentence down into units, each with its own adverb: Last January he gave a lecture at the hospital; his subject was liver cancer 2.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 2.3.1 Building a model You are now ready to begin to build a model of the Methodology by writing a short description of what the writer is doing in each sentence in the space provided below. Th e Key is on the next page. Once you have tried to produce your own model, you can use the Key to help you write this section of a research article when you eventually do it on your own. GUIDELINES You should spend 30–45 minutes on this task.If you can’t think of a good description of the fi rst sentence, choose an easier one, for example Sentence 4, and start with that. Remember that your model is only useful if it can be transferred to other Methodology sections, so don’t include content words such as groundwater or you won’t be able to use your model to generate Methodology sections in your fi eld. One way to fi nd out what the writer is doing in a sentence — rather than what s/he is saying — is to imagine that your computer has accidentally deleted it. What is diff erent for you (as a reader) when it disappears If you press another key on the computer and the sentence comes back, how does that aff ect the way you respond to the information Another way to fi gure out what the writer is doing in a sentence — rather than what s/he is saying — is to look at the grammar and vocabulary clues. What is the tense of the main verb What is that tense normally used for Is it the same tense as in the previous sentence If not, why has the writer changed the tense What words has the writer chosen to use Don’t expect to produce a perfect model. You will modify your model when you look at the Key, and perhaps again when you compare it to the way Methodology sections in your target articles work. B875Chapter02.indd 14 B875Chapter02.indd 14 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA 58 Science Research Writing Changes in the chemistry of groundwater in the chalk of the London Basin Methodology In this sentence, the writer: 1 Th e current investigation involved 1 sampling and analysing six sites to measure changes in groundwater chemistry. 2 Th e sites were selected from 2 the London Basin area, which is located in the southeast of England and has been frequently used to interpret groundwater 2, 3, 4 evolution. 3 A total of 18 samples was collected 3 and then analysed for the isotopes mentioned earlier. 4 Samples 1–9 were 4 collected in thoroughlyrinsed 25 ml brown glass bottles which were fi lled to the top and then sealed tightly to prevent contamination. 5 Th e fi lled bottles 5 were shipped directly to two separate laboratories at Reading University, where they were analysed using standard methods suitably miniaturised to handle 5 small quantities of water. 6 Samples 10–18 were prepared in our 6 laboratory using a revised version of the precipitation method established by the 6 ISF Institute in Germany. 7 Th is method 7 obtains a precipitate through the addition of BaCl .2H O; the resulting precipitate 2 2 can be washed and stored easily. B875Chapter02.indd 15 B875Chapter02.indd 15 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 59 8 Th e samples were subsequently shipped 8 to ISF for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 9 All tubing used 9 was stainless steel, and although two samples were at risk of CFC contamination as a result of brief contact with plastic, variation among samples was negligible. 2.3.2 Key In Sentence 1 ‘Th e current investigation involved sampling and analysing six sites to measure changes in groundwater chemistry.’ the writer off ers a general overview of the entire subsection, including the purpose of the investigation. If you wrote ‘introduction’ or ‘introduces the Methodology’ here, that won’t help you when you come to write your own thesis or research article because it doesn’t tell you what exactly to write in that sentence. Why do I need to introduce the Methodology In some cases, writers begin immediately with a description of the procedure or the materials. Th is is appropriate where the research focus is very narrow and all those who are likely to read it are carrying out similar research. If this is not the case, it is more readerfriendly to start with some introductory material. Th e aim of providing a short introduction is to make the entry to that section smooth for the reader. Th ere are many ways to introduce the Methodology. Here are three of the most common ways: • Off er a general overview by outlining the parameters of the work, for example the number of tests, the equipment /material/soft ware used and perhaps also the purpose of the investigation. Th is helps the reader to get a general idea of this section. • Provide background information about the materials or about the source of the materials/equipment. • Refer back to something in the previous section. Common options are restating the aim of the project or the problem you are hoping to address. B875Chapter02.indd 16 B875Chapter02.indd 16 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA 60 Science Research Writing If you start with a general overview or even a general paragraph about what was done and used, it can then be broken down to produce the details. However, if you begin with the details, you force the reader to put those details together to create a general picture of what you did and used. Th is is quite diffi cult for the reader to do and it is not his/her job; it is your job as a writer to arrange the information in an appropriate order so that it is easy for the reader to process it. Furthermore, asking your reader to put details together to create a picture of what you did is risky, because each reader may create a slightly diff erent picture of the process if they begin ‘bottomup’ with the details, rather than ‘topdown’ with a general overview. When you write using ‘top down’ strategies you are in control. If you begin with general statements about what was done/used (In all cases, Most sites), you and your reader share the same framework, so when you fi ll in the details you are creating the same picture of what was done/used in the mind of each individual reader. Remember: show your reader the wall before you begin to examine the bricks. In Sentence 2 ‘Th e sites were selected from the London Basin area, which is located in the southeast of England and has been frequently 2–4 used to interpret groundwater evolution. the writer provides background information and justifi es the choice of location by referring to previous research. Why do I need to justify or give reasons for what I did Isn’t it obvious Your reasons may be obvious to you, but they are not always obvious to your readers. If you fail to provide justifi cation for what you did, then the reader may not accept the validity of your choices. Th ey may wonder why you did things in a particular way, or why you used a particular procedure. Th is has a negative eff ect: if you don’t explain why you did things then readers cannot be expected to accept your methodology, and this will eventually aff ect the way they evaluate your whole paper. Many writers believe that this section is just an impersonal description of what was done or used; in fact there is a strong persuasive and communicative element. We see this not only in language such as thoroughly or with care but also in the frequency of justifi cation. In this B875Chapter02.indd 17 B875Chapter02.indd 17 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 61 description of your materials and methods, you need to communicate not only Th is is exactly what I did/used but also I had good reasons for those decisions. Justifi cation enables the reader to trust the choices you made. Sometimes background information is given in the Present Simple to justify choices made. For example, you may have chosen a particular material because of its properties; if so, say what those properties are (Th is material is able to…). You may have chosen specifi c equipment or soft ware because of what it can do; if so, say what that is. In Sentence 2, we understand that the writer chose this geographical area because it had been previously validated as an appropriate location by other researchers. In Sentence 3 ‘A total of 18 samples was collected and then analysed for the isotopes mentioned earlier’ the writer provides an overview of the procedure/method itself. If I gave a general overview at the start of this subsection, why should I also give an overview of the procedure itself As you saw in Section 1.2.4, the beginning of a paragraph oft en signals the beginning of a new topic, and providing an introductory sentence is a readerfriendly technique. In addition, the overview in Sentence 3, like the one at the start of the subsection, enables the writer to move in a ‘top down’ direction by creating a general framework into which the details can be easily slotted. Because the reader knows from the start how many samples were tested and what was done with them, both reader and writer share the same clear picture. Th ese sentences oft en start with phrases like Most of the tests or In all cases (see the vocabulary list in Section 2.4.2). In Sentence 4 ‘Samples 1–9 were collected in thoroughlyrinsed 25 ml brown glass bottles which were fi lled to the top and then sealed tightly to prevent contamination.’ the writer provides details about what was done and used and also shows that care was taken. How much detail do I need to provide If you’re not certain that all readers are familiar with the precise details of your methodology, it is better to give slightly too much information than B875Chapter02.indd 18 B875Chapter02.indd 18 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:49 AMFA 62 Science Research Writing too little. By the time you write up your research you will probably have repeated your experiments or simulations many times and so you are very familiar with the materials, quantities, equipment, soft ware, the sequence or steps in the procedure and the time taken for each step. Because of this familiarity, specifi c details (the size of the bottles in Sentence 5, for example) may seem obvious to you, but those details may not be obvious to every reader. If you want another researcher to be able to reproduce your work and obtain similar results, you should include every specifi cation and detail. Note that in this sentence, the writer uses thoroughly, fi lled to the top and tightly to communicate to the reader that the work was carried out with care. Remember that your aim in writing the paper is not only to say what you did and found, but also to make sure that your reader accepts the conclusions at the end of your paper. In order to do this, the reader has to accept your results — but to accept your results s/he must fi rst accept your methodology. For this reason, it is important to present yourself as a competent researcher who carries out procedures accurately and with care. Notice the use of 25 ml in Sentence 4. ml is the SI (Système International d’Unités) symbol for millilitre. Check the SI to make sure that you are using the correct symbol. Th ere is oft en a space between the quantity/number and the SI symbol; in addition, although SI symbols look like abbreviations they are not, and therefore should not be followed by a period. In Sentence 5 ‘The filled bottles were shipped directly to two separate laboratories at Reading University, where they were analysed using standard methods suitably miniaturised to handle 5 small quantities of water. ’ the writer continues to describe what was done in detail, using language which communicates that care was taken. Can you see which words in Sentence 5 communicate to the reader that care was taken Th e writer could just have written Th e fi lled bottles were shipped to two laboratories and analysed using standard methods miniaturised to handle small quantities of water, but including words like directly, separate and suitably communicates reliability. B875Chapter02.indd 19 B875Chapter02.indd 19 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 63 In Sentence 6 ‘Samples 10–18 were prepared in our laboratory using a revised version of the precipitation method established by the ISF 6 Institute in Germany. ’ the writer describes what was done by referring to existing methods in the literature. Why should I refer to other research; why not just describe the method I used One reason is that it is unlikely that you created the entire method you used all by yourself. In many cases part of it will be taken from a method used or discovered by someone else and their method may be very well known, so if you give the research reference you do not need to give every detail. Giving the research reference, therefore, provides you with a shortcut. You will fi nd vocabulary for this in Option 1 in Section 2.4. But if the reference is available in the literature, why does the writer need to give any details Why can’t readers just go to the library, fi nd the reference and read it themselves In this case, the writer provides basic details of the method because some readers may not be familiar with it and it is not always appropriate to send readers to the library or Internet to look up a reference. It’s a matter of professional courtesy for writers to describe the procedures, tests, equipment or materials they used even when they are used in a way that is identical to the reference. Remember to use the Present Simple for this kind of background information (Th is method obtains) and to switch back to the Past Simple when you return to describing what you did. Comparisons between your materials and methods and those of other researchers in the same fi eld are a legitimate topic for the Methodology section. It is common to keep previous or current research procedures clearly in your readers’ view so that they can see how your work is diff erent from other work in the area. Either your method is identical to others you mention (Option 1 in the vocabulary list in Section 2.4), or it is similar (Option 2 in the vocabulary list), or it is signifi cantly diff erent, in which case the diff erences between your materials/method and those of other researchers in the same fi eld may even represent the actual contribution of your paper/thesis itself (Option 3). B875Chapter02.indd 20 B875Chapter02.indd 20 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA 64 Science Research Writing When you refer to the work of other researchers, be careful about the location of your reference notation in the sentence; you may accidentally credit someone with work they have not done — perhaps even with your own work Remember that reference notations do not automatically go at the end of a sentence. It is sometimes appropriate or necessary to mention the eff ects of the procedures you used. However, it is not a good idea to discuss them or comment at this stage. If you go into too much detail you may leave yourself with nothing to write about in the Results section. Interestingly, it is common to provide further details about the methodology in the Results section. Sometimes the Methodology section just provides basic parameters and the method itself is detailed in the Results section in relation to the results obtained. In Sentence 7 ‘Th is method obtains a precipitate through the addition of BaCl 2H O; the resulting precipitate can be washed and stored 2. 2 easily.’ the writer provides more detailed information about the method and shows it to have been a good choice. Justifi cation is common throughout this section; as before, the aims are to answer possible criticisms or doubts about your choices, to assure the reader that your choices were made on the basis of good reasons and to give those reasons. We oft en see justifi cation of signifi cant choices and the reason for rejecting alternative options given in full. As mentioned earlier, this is because it is essential that your reader accepts the decisions you made about your methodology. In Sentence 8 ‘Th e samples were subsequently shipped to ISF for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS).’ the writer provides more details of the method. It is interesting to note that, as mentioned earlier, you need to do more than just provide details of what you did and used; this is the only sentence in this section that gives details and nothing more — every other sentence has an additional function. B875Chapter02.indd 21 B875Chapter02.indd 21 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 65 In Sentence 9 ‘All tubing used was stainless steel, and although two samples were at risk of CFC contamination as a result of brief contact with plastic, variation among samples was negligible.’ the writer mentions a possible diffi culty in the methodology. Doesn’t this discuss a result of what was done No, it’s actually saying that the problems in the methodology didn’t aff ect the results. Sometimes you do need to mention results in this section, but only if the preliminary results were used to modify or develop the design of the main experiments/simulations. Why should I mention problems in the methodology Won’t it make me look bad In fact the opposite is true. In the fi rst place, if you don’t mention the imperfections in your work, it may look as though you are not aware of them, which gives a very poor impression. So you look far more professional if you do mention them. If you ignore or try to hide imperfections (such as a data set which was too small, equipment or soft ware that was not ideal) and your readers notice them, they will begin to doubt your legitimacy as a researcher, which aff ects their acceptance of your results and conclusions. Second, whenever you fi nish a piece of research, there is a good chance that you have learned enough from the problems encountered during the project to do it better next time. Should you delay writing it up while you repeat the work and improve your technique What if you learn more this time too; should you delay again while you do it again And again If you do, you may never actually write it up. An acceptable option is to write up the research and acknowledge the problems or diffi culties you encountered. In fact, it’s not only considered acceptable to mention them in this section, it’s much better to do it here rather than wait until the end. It isn’t considered appropriate to mention limitations or imperfections for the fi rst time when you are discussing suggestions for future work in the Discussion/Conclusion. But how can I talk about problems in my work without looking like a failure Use vocabulary that minimises the problem, minimises your responsibility, maximises the good aspects and suggests a solution. In B875Chapter02.indd 22 B875Chapter02.indd 22 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA 66 Science Research Writing the example above, the writer has acknowledged that there was a problem and then minimised its eff ects (variation among samples was negligible). Th is is a standard way of dealing with the need to talk about problems. You can fi nd examples of the language needed to refer to problems and diffi culties in a conventional, professional way in the vocabulary list in Section 2.4. 2.3.3 Th e model Here are the sentence descriptions we have collected: In Sentence 1 the w riter off ers a general overview of the subsection. In Sentence 2 the w riter provides background information and justifi cation. In Sentence 3 the w riter provides an overview of the procedure/ method itself. In Sentence 4 the w riter provides details about what was done and used and shows that care was taken. In Sentence 5 the writer continues to describe what was done in detail, using language which communicates that care was taken. In Sentence 6 the w riter describes what was done by referring to existing methods in the literature. In Sentence 7 the w riter provides more detailed information about the method and shows it to have been a good choice. In Sentence 8 the w riter provides more details of the method. In Sentence 9 the writer mentions a possible diffi culty in the methodology. We can streamline these so that our model has FOUR basic components. Unlike the Introduction model, in which all the items of each component are likely to be used, this is a ‘menu’ from which you select items appropriate to your research topic and the journal you are submitting to. If you constructed the equipment yourself you won’t need to ‘give the source of’ the equipment used in component 1. If there were no problems, you won’t need the fourth component at all. B875Chapter02.indd 23 B875Chapter02.indd 23 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 67 1 PROVIDE A GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE MATERIALS/METHODS RESTATE THE PURPOSE OF THE WORK GIVE THE SOURCE OF MATERIALS/EQUIPMENT USED SUPPLY ESSENTIAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION 2 PROVIDE SPECIFIC AND PRECISE DETAILS ABOUT MATERIALS AND METHODS (i.e. quantities, temperatures, duration, sequence, conditions, locations, sizes) JUSTIFY CHOICES MADE INDICATE THAT APPROPRIATE CARE WAS TAKEN 3 RELATE MATERIALS/METHODS TO OTHER STUDIES 4 INDICATE WHERE PROBLEMS OCCURRED 2.3.4 Testing the model Th e next step is to look at the way this model works in a real Materials/ Methods section (remember it may not be called Materials and Methods) and in the target articles you have selected. Here are some fulllength Methodology sections from real research articles. Read them through, and mark the model components (1, 2, 3 or 4) wherever you think you see them. For example, if you think the fi rst sentence corresponds to number 1 in the model, write 1 next to it, etc. Eff ects of H O on structure of acidcatalysed SiO 2 2 solgel fi lms Experimental procedure Equal volumes of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and ethanol were mixed and stirred vigorously for 10 min at room temperature. B875Chapter02.indd 24 B875Chapter02.indd 24 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA 68 Science Research Writing Th en 0.1 M HCl was gradually added to the solutions, until a water to TEOS molar ratio of R = 2 was attained. Additional deionised water was added to give solutions with R = 3, 4 and 5, so that for all solutions the molecular ration TEOS:HCl was maintained, as summarised in Table 1. Th e solutions were placed in the refl uxing bath immediately aft er mixing, and the temperature of the bath was increased to 70°C in 15 min, while stirring, and kept there for 2 h. Th e solutions were then aged for 24 h at room temperature, before being diluted with an equal volume of EtOH and stirred for 10 min, to give the solution used for spin coating. All the chemicals were obtained from Aldrich Chemicals Ltd. Th e sols were dispensed on ptype, 75 mm diameter silicon wafers, through a 0.1 µm fi lter (PTFE Whatman, obtained from BDH Merk Ltd), and thereaft er the substrate was spun at 2000 rpm for 15 s. Th e coated substrate was baked at 100°C for 5 min, and then cleaved into 10 pieces. Each piece was baked in air at a diff erent temperature, in the range from 100 to 1000°C, for 30 min. Th e samples were kept in covered petri dishes for a few days in room conditions before the experiments were continued; this allows the completion of surface hydroxylation, and gave reproducible ellipsometer results when water is used as an adsorbate. Th e thickness and refractive index of the samples were measured using a Rudolph AutoEl III ellipsometer, with an o perating wavelength of 633 nm, and precisions of about ±0.002 and ±3 Å in index and thickness, respectively. For microporous fi lms, the measured index is strongly dependent on relative h umidity, because of condensation of water in the pores. By mea suring the dependence of index on humidity, information about porosity can be obtained. We have extended this technique to the use of diff erent adsorbate species, in order to probe pore sizes 3; this, for the sake of brevity, we call molecular probe ellipsometry. In this technique, the fi lm is placed in a sealed chamber on the sample stage of the ellipsometer; fi rst dry N gas is passed through 2 the chamber to empty the pores of any condensed adsorbate, and then N having been bubbled through the liquid adsorbate is 2 passed over the sample to fi ll the pores; in each case the refractive index is measured. By assuming that all the accessible pores in B875Chapter02.indd 25 B875Chapter02.indd 25 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 69 dry and saturated atmospheres are completely empty or fi lled with adsorbate, respectively, the pore volume and index of the solid skeleton can be determined by an extension of the LorentzLorenz relation 8 where n , n and n are the refractive indices of the f s p fi lm, solid skeleton and pores, respectively, and v is the volume p fraction porosity. Measurement of n for both the dry and satu f rated fi lms allows both v and n to be determined with the as p s sumption that n has the same value as that of the bulk adsorbate p in the saturated case, and of air (n = 1) in the dry case. p In order to empty the pores, an initial high fl ow rate of N was used for a few minutes and the rate was then reduced to 2 1000 sccm (standard c.c per minute) for 15 min. the fl ow rate was kept at 100 sccm for 15 min to fi ll the pores. Th e low fl ow rate in this case reduces the likelihood of cooling of the sample surface, which could cause condensation on the external fi lm surface. Comparison of the measured fi lm thickness for wet and dry atmospheres indicated that this did not occur. Th e temperature inside the chamber was monitored by a thermocouple to ensure that there was no drift or alteration due to gas fl ow. In each case, the measurement was recorded once repeatable readings were obtained. Th e adsorbates used are listed in Table 2. Th eir average diameters were estimated using a combination of bond length data 9 and Van der Waals atomic radii 10. All were obtained from Aldrich Chemical Ltd, except C H O obtained from Fluka 24 44 8 Chemie AG. Th e optical quality of the fi lms was fi rst studied qualitatively by visual examination, and by optical microscopy. Th e homogeneity of the fi lms was then investigated quantitatively by measuring the intensity of scattered light resulting from oblique refl ection of a laser beam from the fi lmcoated silicon substrate. A heliumneon laser beam, having a wavelength of 633 nm, was directed onto the sample, through a chopping wheel, at an angle 59° from the normal. Th e specularly refl ected beam was absorbed onto a black card, and the scattered light was collected at normal incidence to the sample using a ×10 microscope objective, and measured using a silicon photodiode and a lockin amplifi er. Th e position of lens and angle of incidence were fi xed during measurements. B875Chapter02.indd 26 B875Chapter02.indd 26 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA 70 Science Research Writing Th e fi lm stress, σ , can be determined by measuring the f resulting substrate curvature 11, according to Stoney’s formula: σ = (E t2 /6(1 − v )t )(1/r − 1/r), (2) f s s s f s f where r and r are the radii of curvature of the bare substrate s f and substrate with fi lm, respectively; E , t and v are the Young’s s s s modulus, thickness and Poisson’s ratio of the silicon substrate, respectively, and t is the thickness of the fi lm. Tensile stresses f are positive and compressive stresses negative; thus, a positive radius of curvature denotes a convex fi lm surface. Entire 75 mm diameter wafers were used, and curvature was measured from plots of surface profi le along 30 mm lines over the central part of the fi lm surface using a Dektak IIA autolevelling profi lometer. To reduce inaccuracy caused by lack of axial symmetry in the wafer curvature, two scans were made, in orthogonal directions, for each measurement, and the inverse radii thus obtained were averaged. Care was taken not to use wafers which had a substantially asymmetric curvature before deposition. Wafer thicknesses, measured with a micrometer, were 390 ± 3 µm. Final fi lm thicknesses were measured by ellipsometry and checked by patterned etching and profi lometry, and interim thicknesses were estimated by interpolation. Equivalent singlelayer thickness measurements indicate that the assumption that fi nal thickness is proportional to number of layers is suffi ciently accurate. For E / s (1 − v ), the value 180 GPa was used 11. s In order to give an indication of the eff ect of water content on stress, 10 layers were deposited for each R value, using 10 s rapid thermal annealing at 1000°C in all cases. Infrared imaging of defects heated by a sonic pulse ii) Experiment Our experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. Th e source of the sonic excitation is a Branson, Model 900 MA 20 kHz ultrasonic welding generator, with a Model GK5 handheld gun. Th e source has a maximum power of 1 kW, and is triggered to provide a B875Chapter02.indd 27 B875Chapter02.indd 27 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 71 short (typically 50–200 ms duration) output pulse to the gun. Th e gun contains a piezoelectric transducer that couples to the specimen through the 1.3cmdiam tip of a steel horn. In the laboratory setup, as can be seen in Fig. 1, we use a mechanical fi xture to hold the sonic horn fi rmly against the sample surface. Th is setup uses a machine slide to provide reproducible alignment of the horn. Typically, a piece of soft Cu sheet is placed between the tip of the horn and the specimen to provide good sound transmission. Th e location of the source on the sample is chosen primarily for convenience of geometrical alignment, and since it has minimal eff ect on the resulting sonic IR images, typically is not changed during the course of the inspection. Sound waves at frequencies of 20 kHz in metals such as aluminium or steel have wavelengths on the order of tens of centimetres, and propagate with appreciable amplitude over distances much longer than a wavelength. For typical complexshaped industrial parts (see, for example, the aluminium automotive part shown in Fig. 1), refl ections from various boundaries of the specimen introduce countless conversions among the vibrational modes, leading to a very complicated pattern of sound within the specimen during the time that the pulse is applied. Since the speed of sound in solids is typically on the order of a few km/s, this sound fi eld completely insonifi es the regions under inspection during the time that the excitation pulse is applied. If a subsurface interface is present, say a fatigue crack in a metal, or a delamination in a composite structure, the opposing surfaces at the interface will be caused to move by the various sound modes present there. Th e complexity of the sound is such that relative motion of these surfaces will ordinarily have components both in the plane of the crack and normal to it. Th us, the surfaces will ‘rub’ and ‘slap’ against one another, with a concomitant local dissipation of mechanical energy. Th is energy dissipation causes a temperature rise, which propagates in the material through thermal diff usion. We monitor this dissipation through its eff ect on the surface temperature distribution. Th e resolution of the resulting images depends on the depth of the dissipative source as well as on the time at which the imaging is carried out. B875Chapter02.indd 28 B875Chapter02.indd 28 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA 72 Science Research Writing Th e IR camera that we used in the setup that is shown in Fig. 1 is a Raytheon Radiance HS that contains a 256×256 InSb focal plane array, and operates in the 3–5 µm spectral region. It is sensitive (with a 1 ms integration time) to surface temperature changes of 0.03°C, and can be operated at full frame rates up to 140 Hz with that sensitivity. We have also observed the eff ects reported here with a considerably less expensive, uncooled, microbolometer focal plane array camera, operating in the long wavelength (7–10 µm) of the IR. Th e height of biomolecules measured with the atomic force microscope depends on electrostatic interactions MATERIALS AND METHODS Biological samples Aquaporin1 (AQP1) from human erythrocyte solubilized in octylf3glucopyranoside was reconstituted in the presence of Escherichia coli phospholipids to form twodimensional (2D) crystalline sheets (Walz et al., 1994). Th e 2D crystals were prepared at a concentration of 0.5 mg protein/ml and 0.25 mg/ml , 20 mM 2(Nmorpholino) lipid in 0.25 M NaCl, 20 mM MgCl 2 ethanesulfonic acid (MES) (pH 6). Hexagonally packed intermediate (HPI) layer from Deinococcus radiodurans, a kind gift of Dr. W. Baumeister, was extracted from whole cells (strain SARK) with lithium dodecyl sulfate, and purifi ed on a Percoll density gradient (Baumeister et al., 1982). A stock solution (1 mg/ml protein) was stored in distilled water at 4°C. Purple membranes of Halobacterium salinarium strain ET1001 were isolated as described by Oesterhelt and Stoeckenius (1974). Th e membranes were frozen and stored at −70°C. Aft er thawing, stock solutions (10 mg protein/ml) were kept in distilled water at 4°C. Porin OmpF trimers from E. coli strain BZ 1 10/PMY222 (Hoenger et al., 1993) solubilized in octylpolyoxyethylene were mixed with solubilised dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (99 purity; B875Chapter02.indd 29 B875Chapter02.indd 29 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:50 AMFA Methodology — Writing Task 73 Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) at a lipidtoprotein ratio (w/w) of 0.2 and a protein concentration of 1 mg/ml. Th e mixture was reconstituted as previously described (Hoenger et al., 1993) in a temperaturecontrolled dialysis device (Jap et al., 1992). Th e dialysis buff er was 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 100 mM NaCl, 20 mM MgCl , 0.2 mM dithiothreitol, 3 mM azide. 2 1,2Dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) from Sigma was solubilized in chloroform:hexane (1:1) to a concentration of 1 mg/ml. Th e resulting solution was diluted in buff er solution (150 mM KCl, 10 mM Tris, pH 8.4) to a concentration of 100 µg/ml. Layered crystals MoTe , a layered crystal of the family of transition metal 2 dichalcogenides (Wilson and Yoff e, 1969), was employed to calibrate the piezo scanner of the AFM. It was prepared by chemical vapor transport (CVT), with chlorine or bromine as carrier gases in a temperature gradient of 100°C across the quartz ampule (Jungblut et al., 1992), and was a kind gift of Y. Tomm. Muscovite mica (Mica New York Corp., New York) was used as the solid support for all samples. Mica minerals are characterized by their layered crystal structure, and show a perfect basal cleavage that provides atomically fl at surfaces over several hundreds of square microns. Th eir hydrophilicity and relative chemical inertness (Bailey, 1984) make them suitable for the adsorption of biological macromolecules. Atomic force microscopy A commercial AFM (Nanoscope III; Digital Instruments, Santa Barbara, CA), equipped with a 120µm scanner (jscanner) and a liquid cell, was used. Before use, the liquid cell was cleaned with normal dish cleaner, gently rinsed with ultrapure water, sonicated in ethanol (50 kHz), and sonicated in ultrapure water (50 kHz). Mica was punched to a diameter of −5 mm and glued with water insoluble epoxy glue (Araldit; Ciba Geigy AG, Basel, Switzerland) onto a Tefl on disc. Its diameter of 25 mm was slightly larger than the diameter of the supporting steel disc. Th e steel disc was required to magnetically mount the sample on to the piezoelectric scanner. B875Chapter02.indd 30 B875Chapter02.indd 30 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA 74 Science Research Writing Imaging was performed in the error signal mode, acquiring the defl ection and height signal simultaneously. Th e defl ection signal was minimized by optimizing gains and scan speed. Th e height images presented were recorded in the contact mode. Th e scan speed was roughly linear to the scan size, at 4–8 lines/s for lower magnifi cations (frame size 1–25 µm). Th e applied force was corrected manually to compensate for thermal drift . To achieve reproducible forces, cantilevers were selected from a restricted area of one wafer. Th e dimensions of one tip were measured in a scanning electron microscope to calculate the mechanical properties of the cantilever (Butt et al., 1993). Th e 120µmlong cantilevers purchased from Olympus Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan) had a force constant of k = 0.1 N/m, and the 200µmlong cantilevers purchased from Digital Instruments had a force constant of 0.15 N/m. All cantilevers used had oxidesharpened Si3N4 tips. Sample preparation To minimize contamination of surfaces during exposure to ambient air, sample supports were prepared immediately before −1 use. All buff ers were made with ultrapure water (−18 MDcm ; Branstead, Boston, MA). Th is water contains fewer hydrocarbons than conventional bidistilled water and fewer macroscopic contaminants, both of which can infl uence the imaging process. Chemicals were grade p.a. and purchased from Sigma Chemie AG (Buchs, Switzerland). Th e buff ers used were Tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (from pH 10.2 to pH 7.2), MES (from pH 6.5 to pH 5.5), and citric acid (from pH 5.4 to pH 3.0). Macromolecular samples were checked before use by conventional negative stain electron microscopy (Bremer et al., 1992) and/or by sodium dodecyl sulfategel electrophoresis. Th e samples were diluted to a concentration of 5–10 µg/ml in buff er solution (pH 8.2, 20 mM TrisHCl, 2100 mM; monovalent electrolyte; except for DPPE, which was not further diluted) before adsorption to freshly cleaved mica. Aft er an adsorption time of 10–60 min, the samples were gently washed with the measuring buff er to remove weakly attached membranes. Th is allowed height measurements at low electrolyte concentrations, at which B875Chapter02.indd 31 B875Chapter02.indd 31 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA Methodology — Vocabulary 75 samples adsorb sparsely to mica (Muller et al., 1997a and 1997b). Experiments requiring constant pH were performed at pH 8.2. Th e isoelectric points of bacteriorhodopsin, AQP1, DPPE, and OmpF are 5.2 (Ross et al., 1989), 6.95 (calculated), −10 (Tatulian, 1993), and 4.64 (calculated), respectively. Th us, at this pH, all samples had a net negative charge, except for DPPE, which had a net positive charge. Now do the same in your target articles. We hope you obtain good confi rmation of the model and can now answer the questions in Section 2.1: • How do I start this section What type of sentence should I begin with • What type of information should be in this section, and in what order • How do I end this section 2.4 Vocabulary In order to complete the information you need to write this section of your paper you now need to fi nd appropriate vocabulary for each part of the model. Th e vocabulary in this section is taken from over 600 research articles in diff erent fi elds, all of which were written by native speakers and published in science journals. Only words/phrases which appear frequently have been included; this means that the vocabulary lists contain words and phrases which are considered normal and acceptable by both writers and editors. In the next section we will look at vocabulary for the following seven areas of the model: 1. PROVIDE A GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE MATERIALS/METHODS and GIVE THE SOURCE OF MATERIALS/ EQUIPMENT USED Th is includes phrases such as In this study, most of the samples were tested using a… as well as verbs such as were supplied by. A good list of commonly used words and expressions will encourage you to include this in your fi rst sentences. B875Chapter02.indd 32 B875Chapter02.indd 32 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA 76 Science Research Writing 2. SUPPLY ESSENTIAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION Th is list provides words and phrases used to describe instruments, equipment or locations, and includes items such as parallel to and equidistant. Th ey are essential because the reader needs them in order to visualise or recreate your work. 3. PROVIDE SPECIFIC AND PRECISE DETAILS ABOUT MATERIALS AND METHODS (i.e. quantities, temperatures, duration, sequence, conditions, locations, sizes) Th is includes verbs which specifi cally describe what you did/used. Instead of writing only was done or was used, a more specifi c verb such as optimise or extract can save you time by explaining exactly what was ‘done’. 4. JUSTIFY CHOICES MADE Th is includes phrases that introduce the reasons for the choices you made, such as in order to. It also includes a list of verbs that specify the advantages of the choices you made, like enable and facilitate. 5. INDICATE THAT APPROPRIATE CARE WAS TAKEN Th is includes adjectives (careful) as well as adverbs (carefully), so as to give you maximum fl exibility when you are constructing sentences. 6. RELATE MATERIALS/METHODS TO OTHER STUDIES Th is provides you with ways to distinguish between procedures/materials/ tests which were exactly the same as those used by other researchers, procedures/materials/tests which were similar to those used by other researchers and procedures/materials/tests which were signifi cantly diff erent. 7. INDICATE WHERE PROBLEMS OCCURRED Th is list includes ways of minimising the problem, minimising your responsibility, maximising the good aspects and suggesting a solution to the problem. 2.4.1 Vocabulary task Look through the Methodology sections in this unit and the Methodology or Experimental sections in your target articles. Underline or highlight all B875Chapter02.indd 33 B875Chapter02.indd 33 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA Methodology — Vocabulary 77 the words and phrases that you think could be used in the seven areas above. A full list of useful language can be found on the next pages. Th is includes all the appropriate words and phrases you highlighted along with some other common ones. Read through them and check the meaning of any you don’t know in the dictionary. Th is list will be useful for many years. 2.4.2 Vocabulary for the Methodology section 1. PROVIDE A GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE MATERIALS/METHODS and GIVE THE SOURCE OF MATERIALS/ EQUIPMENT USED Some of the vocabulary you need for this is in the Introduction vocabulary list; for example, many of the verbs that describe what you did/used can be found there. Th ese verbs fall into three categories: the fi rst includes general verbs related to academic research, such as attempt, consider, conduct, determine, investigate, report, suggest, verify, and most of these can be found in the Introduction vocabulary list. Th e second category contains verbs that specify what you did, such as calculate, extract, isolate, formulate, incorporate, modify, plot, simulate, and these can be found in the vocabulary list below. Th e third category includes verbs which are specifi c to your fi eld and your research, but which are not useful in other fi elds, for example clone, dissect, isotype, infuse. Also try: all (of) (the) tests is/are commercially available both (of) (the) samples was/were acquired (from/by) each (of) (the) trials was/were carried out many (of) (the) experiments was/were chosen most (of) (the) equipment was/were conducted the majority(of) (the) chemicals was/were collected (the) models was/were devised (the) instruments was/were found in (the) materials was/were generated (by) was/were modifi ed was/were obtained (from/by) B875Chapter02.indd 34 B875Chapter02.indd 34 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA 78 Science Research Writing was/were performed (by/in) was/were provided (by) was/were purchased (from) was/were supplied (by) was/were used as supplied was/were investigated Here are some examples of how these are used: • Th e impact tests used in this work were a modifi ed version of… • All reactions were performed in a 27 ml glass reactor… • All cell lines were generated as previously described in… • In the majority of the tests, buff ers with a pH of 8 were used in order to… • Both experiments were performed in a greenhouse so that… • Th e substrate was obtained from the Mushroom Research Centre… • SSCE glass structures were used in this study to perform… • Th e cylindrical lens was obtained from Newport USA and is shown in Fig. 3. • Th e material investigated was a standard aluminium alloy; all melts were modifi ed with sodium. • Topographical examination was carried out using a 3D stylus instrument. • Th e experiments were conducted at a temperature of 0.5ºC. 2. SUPPLY ESSENTIAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION As well as describing standard procedures and techniques you may need to describe the equipment/apparatus or instrument you used or constructed. In order to do this accurately you need good control over the language of spatial location. Make sure you know how to use the words/phrases below. If you are not sure, write down the dictionary defi nition and use a concordance sampler (which you can fi nd on the Internet) to see how they are used. B875Chapter02.indd 35 B875Chapter02.indd 35 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA Methodology — Vocabulary 79 opposite facing out of range (of) within range (of) below under underneath above over on top (of) parallel (to/with) perpendicular (to) adjacent (to) on the right/left to the right/left (to) bisect (to) converge (to) intersect near side/end far side/end side edge tip end downstream (of) upstream (of) boundary margin border on the front/back at the front/back in the front/back in front (of) higher/lower upper/lower inner/outer horizontal vertical lateral circular rectangular conical equidistant equally spaced on either side on both sides on each side is placed is situated is located occupies is mounted (on) is coupled (onto) is fastened (to) is positioned is aligned (with) is connected (to) is fi xed (to) is embedded extends is surrounded (by) is fi tted (with) is encased (in) is attached to is covered with/by is joined (to) Here are some examples of how these are used: • Porosity was measured at the near end and at the far end of the polished surface. • Th e compression axis is aligned with the rolling direction… • Th e source light was polarised horizontally and the sample beam can be scanned laterally. • Th e mirrors are positioned near the focal plane. • Electrodes comprised a 4 mm diam disk of substrate material embedded in a Tefl on disk of 15 mm diam. B875Chapter02.indd 36 B875Chapter02.indd 36 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA 80 Science Research Writing • Th e intercooler was mounted on top of the engine… • Th e concentration of barium decreases towards the edge… • Similar loads were applied to the front and side of the box… • A laminar fl ow element was located downstream of the test section of the wind tunnel… In which sentence(s) below was the table closest to the wall Th e table was placed against the wall. Th e table was placed next to the wall. Th e table was placed fl ush with the wall. Th e table was placed in contact with the wall. Th e table was placed right against the wall. Th e table was placed alongside the wall. In which sentence(s) below was the clock closest to the door Th e clock was located just above the door. Th e clock was located slightly above the door. Th e clock was located immediately above the door. Th e clock was located directly above the door. Th e clock was located right above the door. Note that half as wide (as) = half the width (of); half as heavy (as) = half the weight (of); twice as long (as) = twice the length (of) and twice as strong (as) = twice the strength (of). Also note that with/having a weight of 20 kg = weighing 20 kg and with/having a width/length of 20 cm = 20 cm wide/long. 3. PROVIDE SPECIFIC AND PRECISE DETAILS ABOUT MATERIALS AND METHODS Th ese verbs fall into three categories: the fi rst includes general verbs used in academic research, such as attempt, consider, conduct, determine, investigate, report, suggest, verify, and these can be found in the Introduction vocabulary list (Section 1.4). Th e second category contains technical verbs which are specifi c to your fi eld and your research, but which are not useful B875Chapter02.indd 37 B875Chapter02.indd 37 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA Methodology — Vocabulary 81 in other fi elds, for example anneal, calibrate, centrifuge, dissect, fertilise, ionise, infuse. Th ese will not be given here because they are not generally useful. Th e third category is a set of less technical verbs that specify what was done or used, such as calculate, extract, isolate, formulate, incorporate, modify, plot, simulate. Th ese usually occur in the passive (was/were isolated) and can be found in the vocabulary list below. was adapted was divided was operated was added was eliminated was optimised was adopted was employed was plotted was adjusted was estimated was positioned was applied was exposed was prepared was arranged was extracted was quantifi ed was assembled was fi ltered was recorded was assumed was formulated was regulated was attached was generated was removed was calculated was immersed was repeated was calibrated was inhibited was restricted was carried out was incorporated was retained was characterised was included was sampled was collected was inserted was scored was combined was installed was selected was computed was inverted was separated was consolidated was isolated was simulated was constructed was located was stabilised was controlled was maintained was substituted was converted was maximised was tracked was created was measured was transferred was designed was minimised was treated was derived was modifi ed was varied was discarded was normalised was utilised was distributed was obtained B875Chapter02.indd 38 B875Chapter02.indd 38 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA 82 Science Research Writing 4. JUSTIFY CHOICES MADE because provide a way of (+ ing) by doing…, we were able to selected on the basis of… chosen for (+ noun) so as to (+ infi nitive) chosen to (+ infi nitive) so/such that for the purpose of (+ ing or so (+ ing ) noun) thereby (+ ing ) for the sake of (+ ing or noun) therefore in an attempt to (+ infi nitive) thus (+ ing) in order to (+ infi nitive) to (+ infi nitive) it was possible to (+ infi nitive) to take advantage of off er a means of (+ ing) which/this allows/allowed etc. one way to avoid... with the intention of (+ ing) our aim was to (+ infi nitive) See Section 1.2.2 for other examples of signalling language See box below for infi nitives, ing forms and noun forms of useful verbs. ∅ indicates that a noun form is not available or is not common in this type of structure INFINITIVE ING FORM NOUN FORM achieve achieving achievement allow allowing ∅ assess assessing assessment avoid avoiding avoidance compensate for compensating for compensation for confi rm confi rming confi rmation determine determining determination enable enabling ∅ enhance enhancing enhancement ensure ensuring ∅ establish establishing establishment facilitate facilitating facilitation B875Chapter02.indd 39 B875Chapter02.indd 39 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:51 AMFA Methodology — Vocabulary 83 guarantee guaranteeing guarantee identify identifying identifi cation improve improving improvement include including inclusion increase increasing increase limit limiting limitation minimise minimising ∅ obtain obtaining ∅ overcome overcoming ∅ permit permitting ∅ prevent preventing prevention provide providing provision reduce reducing reduction remove removing removal validate validating validation Here are some examples of how these are used: • To validate the results from the metroscale model, samples were collected from all groups. • Th e method of false nearest neighbours was selected in order to determine the embedding dimension. • For the sake of simplicity, only a single value was analysed. • By partitioning the array, all the multipaths could be identifi ed. • Zinc oxide was drawn into the laminate with the intention of enhancing delaminations and cracks. • Th e advantage of using threedimensional analysis was that the outof plane stress fi eld could be obtained. • Because FITC was used for both probes, enumeration was carried out using two diff erent slides. • Th e LVDTs were unrestrained, so allowing the sample to move freely. • Th e cylinder was constructed from steel, which avoided problems of water absorption. B875Chapter02.indd 40 B875Chapter02.indd 40 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AMFA 84 Science Research Writing 5. INDICATE THAT APPROPRIATE CARE WAS TAKEN Most of the items in the box below are in adverb form, but they also occur in adjective form (e.g. accurate). accurately every/each immediately rigorously always exactly independently separately appropriately entirely individually smoothly at least fi rmly never successfully both/all frequently only suitably carefully freshly precisely tightly completely fully randomly thoroughly constantly gently rapidly uniformly correctly good reliably vigorously directly identical repeatedly well Here are some examples of how these are used: • A mechanical fi xture was employed to hold the sonic horn fi rmly in place. • Aft er being removed, the mouse lungs were frozen and thawed at least three times. • Th e specimen was monitored constantly for a period af 24 hours. • Th ey were then placed on ice for immediate FACS analysis. • Frequent transducer readings were taken to update the stress conditions smoothly. • e s Th amples were slowly and carefully sheared to failure. 6. RELATE MATERIALS/METHODS TO OTHER STUDIES Th ere are three ways in which you might want to relate your materials/ methods to those used in other studies. Option 1: Th e procedure/material you used is exactly the same as the one you cite. B875Chapter02.indd 41 B875Chapter02.indd 41 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AMFA Methodology — Vocabulary 85 according to as reported by/in given by/in as described by/in as reported previously identical to as explained by/in as suggested by/in in accordance with as in can be found in the same as that of/in as proposed by/in details are given in using the method of/in by and of are usually followed by the name of the researcher or research team (by Ross or using the method of Ross et al.) and in is usually followed by the work (in Ross et al. (2003)). Another option is simply to give the research reference at the appropriate place in the sentence, either in brackets or using a superscript number. Option 2: Th e procedure/material you used is similar to the one you cite. a (modifi ed) version of (very) similar (to) adapt adapted from almost the same (to) adjust based in part/partly on essentially the same (to) alter based on largely the same (to) change essentially identical practically the same (to) modify in line with virtually the same (to) refi ne in principle with some adjustments (to) revise in essence with some alterations (to) vary more or less identical with some changes slightly modifi ed with some modifi cations Option 3: Th e procedure/material you used is signifi cantly diff erent from the one you cite. a novel step was… although in many ways similar (to) adapt adapted from although in some ways similar (to) adjust based on although in essence similar (to) alter in line with (to) change B875Chapter02.indd 42 B875Chapter02.indd 42 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AMFA 86 Science Research Writing loosely based on with the following (to) refi ne partially based on modifi cations/changes: (to) revise partly based on (to) vary (to) modify as you can see, these can be used in Option 2 as well as Option 3. When you use them in Option 2 you may not need to state the diff erences between the procedure/material you used and the one you cite if they are not signifi cant. In Option 3 those diff erences or modifi cations are signifi cant and you should say what they were, especially if they were modifi cations which improved the procedure/material. Here are some examples of how these are used: • Developmental evaluation was carried out using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley, 1969). • Th e size of the Gaussians was adjusted as in (Krissian et al., 2000). • Th e centrifuge is a slightly modifi ed commercially available model, the Beckman J6HC. • Th e protein was overexpressed and purifi ed as reported 10,12 previously. 6 • A revised version of the Structured Clinical Interview (4th edition) was used. • We modifi ed the Du and Parker fi lter to address these shortcomings and we refer to this modifi ed fi lter as the MaxCurve fi lter. • In our implementation we followed Sato et al. (1998) by using a discrete kernel size. 7. INDICATE WHERE PROBLEMS OCCURRED minimise minimise maximise problem responsibility good aspects did not align precisely limited by acceptable only approximate inevitably fairly well B875Chapter02.indd 43 B875Chapter02.indd 43 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AMFA Methodology — Vocabulary 87 it is recognised that necessarily quite good less than ideal impractical reasonably robust not perfect as far as possible however not identical (it was) hard to nevertheless slightly problematic (it was) diffi cult to rather timeconsuming unavoidable talk about a solution minor defi cit impossible future work should… slightly disappointing not possible future work will… negligible currently in progress unimportant currently underway immaterial a preliminary attempt not signifi cant Th ere is an interesting diff erence between the phrase future work should and the phrase future work will. When you write future work should you are suggesting a direction for future work and inviting the research community in your fi eld to take up the challenge and produce the research. When you write future work will you are communicating your own plans and intentions to the research community and it should be understood that these plans and intentions belong to you — you’re saying ‘hands off ’ to the rest of the research community and describing a research plan of your own Here are some examples of how these are used: • Inevitably, considerable computation was involved. • Only a brief observation was feasible, however, given the number in the sample. • Although centrifugation could not remove all the excess solid drug, the amount remaining was negligible. • Solutions using (q = 1) diff ered slightly from the analytical solutions. • Continuing research will examine a string of dcdc converters to determine if the predicted effi ciencies can be achieved in practice. • While the anode layer was slightly thicker than 13 μm, this was a minor defi cit. B875Chapter02.indd 44 B875Chapter02.indd 44 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AMFA 88 Science Research Writing 2.5 Writing a Methodology Section In the next task, you will bring together and use all the information in this unit. You will write a Methodology section according to the model, using the grammar and vocabulary you have learned, so make sure that you have both the model (Section 2.3.3) and the vocabulary (Section 2.4) in front of you. In this unit you have seen the conventional model of the Methodology and the vocabulary conventionally used has been collected. Remember that when you write, your sentence patterns should also be conventional, so use the sentence patterns you have seen in the Methodology samples in this unit and in your target articles as models for your writing. Follow the model exactly this time, and in future, use it to check the Methodology of your work so that you can be sure that the information is in an appropriate order and that you have done what your readers expect you to do in this section. Although a model answer is provided in the Key, you should try to have your own answer checked by a native speaker of English if possible, to make sure that you are using the vocabulary correctly. 2.5.1 Write a Methodology section Th e aim of this task is for you to learn how to describe what you did and used so that any reader can repeat exactly what you did and obtain exactly the same result as you obtained. Remember that you are expected to show that you carried out your work with due care and that you had good reasons for doing what you did. Th e message is: Th is is exactly what I did, I did it carefully and I had good reasons for doing it in this way. To complete the task, imagine that you are writing up a research project which has carried out the fi rstever attempt to cook chicken. Imagine that until now, everyone ate it raw. Th e task is to write a recipe for cooking chicken as if it were the Materials/Methods section of a research paper. As an example, instead of starting by writing something like Cut the chicken into four pieces, you could perhaps start with an overview of the entire procedure, or by giving the source of your chicken. Did you obtain it from a supermarket Was it supplied by a laboratory facility You will need to say what you used to cut the chicken up; using an axe gives a very B875Chapter02.indd 45 B875Chapter02.indd 45 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AMFA Methodology — Writing a Methodology Section 89 diff erent result from using a 4 cm Sabatier steel knife Instead of writing Now put the chicken in a hot oven for about an hour and a half, you should write something like: Th e sample was then placed on a 300 × 600 mm stainless steel sheet and heated in a Panasonic E458 × 500 w standard fan assisted oven for 90 minutes at 350°C. Don’t worry if you don’t know how to cook chicken — it doesn’t matter if you report that you cooked it by boiling it in vodka, but you must give the exact quantity and the brand name of the vodka you used, so that your method and results can be replicated by someone else. Remember to use the passive voice and the appropriate tense. Th e title of the research paper in which you report the new process is: AN APPROACH TO THE PREPARATION OF CHICKEN. Th e Introduction to your paper looks like this: Introduction Chicken preparation techniques are used in a range of applications both in homes and in restaurants. Chicken is easily available and can be locally 1 produced in most areas; in addition it is easily digested and low in calories. Since Dundee’s pioneering work reporting the ‘natural’ method of chicken preparation (Dundee et al., 1990) in which the chicken was killed and then eaten raw with salt, there have been signifi cant innovations. Much work has been carried out in France in relation to improving the method of 2 slaughtering chickens, whereas in the USA researchers have concentrated on 3,4 improving the size of the bird. Th e ‘natural’ method is widely used since the time required for the process is extremely short; however, some problems remain unsolved. Th e fl avour of chicken prepared using the Dundee method is 5 oft en considered unpleasant and there is a welldocumented risk of bacterial 6 infection resulting from the consumption of raw meat. Th e aim of this study was to develop a preparation method that would address these two problems. In this report, we describe the new method, which uses seasoning to improve the fl avour while heating the chicken in order to kill bacteria prior to eating. Now write the Methodology section of this paper. You should write approximately 250–400 words. If you get stuck and don’t know what to write next, use the model and the vocabulary to help you move forward. Don’t look at the Key until you have fi nished writing. B875Chapter02.indd 46 B875Chapter02.indd 46 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AMFA 90 Science Research Writing 2.5.2 Key Here is a sample answer. When you read it, think about which part of the model is represented in each sentence. Two experiments were carried out using diff erent combinations of seasoning and varying cooking temperatures. A 4.5 kg frozen organic chicken was purchased from Buyrite Supermarket. Buyrite only sell grade ‘A’ chickens approved by the Organic Farmers Association, thus ensuring both the homogeneity of the sample and the quality of the product. Seasonings were obtained from SeasonInc UK and were used as supplied. According to the method described by Hanks et al. (1998), the chicken was fi rst immersed in freshly boiled water cooled to a temperature of 20°C and was subsequently rinsed thoroughly in a salt solution so as to reduce the level of bacteria on the surface 7 In order to obtain two samples of equal size and of the chicken. weight for testing, the chicken was fi rst skinned using a standard BS1709 Skinomatic; the fl esh was then removed from the bone with a 4 cm steel Sabatier knife, aft er which it was cut into 3 cmcubes, each weighing 100 g. Two of the cubes thus obtained were randomly selected for testing. Th e cubes were dried individually in a Phillips R2D2 Dehydrator for 10 minutes. Immediately aft er removing each cube from the dehydrator it was coated with the selected seasoning 8 and left to stand on a glass plate for 30 minutes at mixture room temperature (16°C) in order to enhance absorption of the seasoning prior to heating. Seasoning quantities were measured used standard domestic kitchen scales and were therefore only approximate. Each cube was then placed on an ovenproof dish and transferred to a preheated Panasonic Model 33KY standard electric fanassisted oven at 150°C for 10 minutes. Th e product was removed from the oven and allowed to come to equilibrium, aft er which the cubes were assessed according to the TTS test developed by Dundee (Dundee, 1997). B875Chapter02.indd 47 B875Chapter02.indd 47 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AM 12/1/2009 10:42:52 AMFA 91 Unit 3 ✏ Writing about Results 3.1 Structure Th e title of this section varies in diff erent disciplines, and also in diff erent journals. Instead of Results, it is sometimes called ‘Analysis’ or ‘Data Analysis’. Th e table below shows four options for the subtitles from this point until the end of the research paper. Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Results Results Results and Results or or Discussion or Data Analysis Data Analysis Data Analysis Discussion Discussion Ø Discussion and Conclusion(s) Conclusion(s) Ø Conclusion(s) Ø In all cases this section reports your comments on what you found or observed, and if the subtitle contains the word Discussion (i.e. Results and Discussion), it includes some or all of the Discussion. As with the Methodology section, the best way to choose an appropriate subtitle is to look at the Guide for Authors of the journals you read regularly. In most cases, the results of your work can be given in graphs, tables, equations or images. Why, then, should you bother to write a Results section Why not simply provide good, clear graphs or tables with good, clear titles and perhaps a few notes underneath each Th inking about these questions is a good way to begin to understand what you should be writing B875Chapter03.indd 1 B875Chapter03.indd 1 12/1/2009 10:44:35 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:35 AMFA 92 Science Research Writing ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION MATERIALS/ METHODS (what you did/used) central report section RESULTS (what you found/saw) DISCUSSION/ CONCLUSION Fig. 1. Th e shape of a research article or thesis. in this section. Almost everyone writes a Results section, so it is clear that some things cannot be achieved by just using tables, graphs or other images of your results. Th ey can be achieved only by using words. Th ere are many reasons for writing a Results section. In the fi rst place, some of your results may be more interesting or signifi cant than others, and it is diffi cult to communicate this in a table or graph. Also, it is essential to relate your results to the aim(s) of the research. Th irdly, in some cases you may want to off er background information to explain why a particular result occurred, or to compare your results with those of other researchers. In addition, your results may be problematic; perhaps some experiments were not fully successful and you want to suggest possible reasons for this. However, one of the most important reasons for writing a Results section rather than relying on graphs, tables and other images is that you must communicate your own understanding and interpretation of the results to your readers. Results do not speak for themselves; if they did, the tables or graphs of your results would be enough. Your readers do not have to agree with you but they need to know your opinion and understanding of your results. B875Chapter03.indd 2 B875Chapter03.indd 2 12/1/2009 10:44:41 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:41 AMFA Results — Structure 93 So when we come to ask our three questions: • How do I start the Results section What type of sentence should I begin with • What type of information should be in this section and in what order • How do I end this section You already know that this section contains some comments on what you found or observed rather than just a description of your fi ndings and observations, and this helps to answer the second question. Read the Results section below. Th e title of the paper is: A modelling approach to traffi c management and CO exposure during peak hours. Don’t worry if the subject matter is not familiar to you or if you have diffi culty understanding certain words, especially technical terms such as median exposure. Just try to get a general understanding at this stage and familiarise yourself with the type of language used. Results 1,2 1 Data obtained in previous studies using a fi xed onsite monitor indicated that travel by car resulted in lower CO exposure than travel on foot. 2 According to Figo et al. (1999), the median exposure of car 2 passengers was 11 lower than for those walking. 3 In our study, modelled emission rates were obtained using the Traffi c Emission Model (TEM), a COexposure modelling framework developed by 3 Ka. 4 Modelled results were compared with actual roadside CO concentrations measured hourly at a fi xed monitor. 5 Figure 1 shows the results obtained using TEM. 6 As can be seen, during morning peaktime journeys the CO concentrations for car passengers were signifi cantly lower than for pedestrians, which is consistent with results obtained in previous 1,2 studies. 7 However, the modelled data were not consistent with these results for aft ernoon journeys. 8 Although the mean CO concentrations modelled by TEM for aft ernoon journeys on foot were in line with those of Figo et al., a striking d ier ff ence was noted when each of the three peak hours was considered singly (Fig. 2). B875Chapter03.indd 3 B875Chapter03.indd 3 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AMFA 94 Science Research Writing 9 It can be observed that during the fi rst hour (H1) of the peak period, journeys on foot resulted in a considerably lower level of CO exposure. 10 Although levels for journeys on foot generally exceeded those modelled for car journeys during H2, during the last hour (H3) the levels for journeys on foot were again frequently far lower than for car journeys. 11 A quantitative analysis to determine modelling uncertainties was applied, based on the maximum deviation of the measured and calculated levels within the considered period. 12 Using this approach, the uncertainty of the model prediction for this study 7 slightly exceeds the 50 acceptability limit defi ned by Jiang. 13 Nevertheless, these results suggest that data obtained using TEM to simulate CO exposures may provide more sensitive information for assessing the impact of traffi c management strategies than traditional onsite measurement. Before you begin to build a model, read the following section on grammar and writing skills. 3.2 Grammar and Writing Skills Th is section deals with four language areas which are important in the Results section: SEQUENCE FREQUENCY QUANTITY CAUSALITY 3.2.1 Sequence In order for other researchers to be able to repeat your work accurately and compare their results with yours, you need to be able to describe the order and time sequence of what you did and found in a very precise way. Time sequence means how long each step took and where it occurred in the sequence. You cannot use only then or next; these words tell your reader the B875Chapter03.indd 4 B875Chapter03.indd 4 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AMFA Results — Grammar and Writing Skills 95 order in which events occurred but they don’t provide information about how long each event took, how soon the next event occurred or where it occurred in the sequence. A clear understanding of the time sequence will help your reader to picture it and repeat it for themselves. Th e words and phrases that communicate sequence can be divided into eight groups. 1) Th e fi rst group contains words or phrases which refer to events that occurred before you began your experiment/simulation or before you began observing your results: It was apparent beforehand that a reduction in temperature would be a desirable outcome. 2) Th e second group marks the beginning of the experiment/simulation or the fi rst result you are describing: At the beginning the temperature was stable, as predicted. 3) Th e third group contains words/phrases which tell you the order in which events occurred but do not give any information about the time sequence: Th e temperature increased to 49°C and then dropped to 30°C. In this case, the drop in temperature may have occurred quite soon aft er the temperature reached 49°C or it may have taken a long time; the word then only tells the reader the order in which these events occurred. 4) Th e fourth group is used to communicate that there was (only) a short period of time between two events: Th e temperature increased to 49°C but soon dropped to 30°C. 5) Th e fi ft h group communicates that the period of time between events was long, or that the event occurred near the end of the sequence: Th e temperature increased to 49°C and later dropped to 30°C. 6) Th e sixth group is extremely useful and important. It contains words and phrases that are used to communicate that events occurred at the same time or almost at the same time, or during the same period, and B875Chapter03.indd 5 B875Chapter03.indd 5 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AMFA 96 Science Research Writing therefore the items in this group are sometimes used to communicate a possible causal relationship between events: e t Th emperature dropped sharply when we reduced the pressure. 7) Th e seventh group marks the end of the sequence of events: At the end there was a noticeable drop in temperature. 8) Th e last group refers to events that occurred aft er you fi nished your experiment/simulation or aft er you fi nished observing the results: At the end there was a noticeable drop in temperature but it was decided aft erwards to omit it from the input data. Here is a list of the words and phrases that communicate sequence: aft er fi rstly previously aft erwards formerly prior to as immediately secondly as soon as in advance shortly aft er at fi rst in the beginning simultaneously at that point in the meantime soon at the beginning in the end straight away at the end initially subsequently at the same time just then then at the start lastly to begin with beforehand later to start with before long later on towards the end earlier meanwhile upon eventually next when fi nally once while originally Now put them into one (or more) of the appropriate groups. One example in each group has been entered in the box as a guide and some of the words or phrases can appear in more than one group. B875Chapter03.indd 6 B875Chapter03.indd 6 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AMFA Results — Grammar and Writing Skills 97 1. before the beginning beforehand 2. the beginning or fi rst step at the beginning 3. steps/order then 4. aft er a short while soon 5. at a late/later stage; aft er a while/longer period later 6. one point/period occurring almost or exactly at the same time as another when 7. the end or last step at the end 8. aft er the end aft erwards B875Chapter03.indd 7 B875Chapter03.indd 7 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AMFA 98 Science Research Writing KEY 1. before the beginning beforehand originally earlier previously formerly prior to in advance 2. at the beginning/fi rst step at fi rst in the beginning at the beginning initially at the start to begin with fi rstly to start with 3. steps/order aft er previously aft erwards prior to earlier secondly etc next subsequently once then 4. aft er a short while before long soon shortly aft er 5. at a late/later stage; aft er a while/longer period eventually later on in time subsequently later towards the end B875Chapter03.indd 8 B875Chapter03.indd 8 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AMFA Results — Grammar and Writing Skills 99 6. one point/period occurring almost or exactly at the same time as another as meanwhile as soon as simultaneously at that point straight away at the same time upon + ing immediately when in the meantime while just then 7. at the end/last step at the end fi nally eventually lastly 8. aft er the end aft erwards in the end eventually later later on 3.2.2 Frequency It is also important to communicate clearly how oft en a particular event or result occurred. If a particular result occurred on every occasion a test was carried out, then it is a very reliable result; if it sometimes occurred when the test was carried out, that is a less reliable result. In the Methodology, if you write x was done without a frequency modifi er, your reader may not be able to reproduce your method exactly. In the Results, if you write x occurred without a frequency modifi er, your readers may not be able to compare their results with yours. Most importantly, readers may not be able to evaluate your results appropriately if they do not know how oft en a particular result occurred. Frequency language has been arranged in the list below in order of frequency from 100 frequency (on every occasion) down to zero B875Chapter03.indd 9 B875Chapter03.indd 9 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AMFA 100 Science Research Writing frequency (never). However, note that frequency language is oft en used in a subjective way: if something is said to occur frequently, this could be in relation to how oft en it was expected to occur. In other words, if previous research indicated that a particular result was unlikely to occur at all but in your study you fi nd it on as many as 18 of occasions, you may consider that to be a frequent occurrence. On the other hand, if previous research indicated that something is very likely to occur but in your study you fi nd it on only 57 of occasions, you may consider that to be relatively rare. Although frequency terms have an objective meaning, they can be used in a subjective way. Th ere is an identifi able midpoint in the list below: the phrase as oft en as not is used to express the fact that something occurred as oft en as it did not occur, i.e. with neutral frequency. Items appearing above that 50 midpoint express positive frequency and items appearing below it express negative frequency. However, apart from the fi rst group and the last group, the items on the list cannot be quantifi ed in terms of precise percentage frequency. Th e list has been broken down into 11 groups, each of which contains items with more or less the same meaning. 1. each/every time without exception on each/every occasion always invariably 2. habitually as a rule generally normally usually 3. regularly repeatedly B875Chapter03.indd 10 B875Chapter03.indd 10 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:42 AMFA Results — Grammar and Writing Skills 101 4. frequently oft en commonly 5. more oft en than not 6. as oft en as not (neutral frequency) 7. sometimes on some occasions at times 8. occasionally now and then from time to time 9. rarely seldom infrequently 10. hardly ever barely ever almost never scarcely ever 11. on no occasion not once at no time never Th e meanings of the items in Categories 3 and 4 are more fl exible than those in the other categories. B875Chapter03.indd 11 B875Chapter03.indd 11 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AMFA 102 Science Research Writing Look at how the words/phrases in each group aff ect the meaning of a sentence. Imagine you want to fi nd your supervisor on a Monday morning, and you want to know whether you should look for him in the library. 1. If he always goes to the library on Monday mornings you will fi nd him there today. 2. If he generally goes to the library on Monday mornings you expect to fi nd him there today and you will be surprised if he is not there. 3. If he regularly goes to the library on Monday mornings you will probably fi nd him there today. 4. If he oft en goes to the library on Monday mornings there is a good chance that you may fi nd him there today. 5. If he goes to the library more oft en than not on Mondays, you should start by looking for him there, but he may not be there today. 6. If he goes to the library as oft en as not on Monday mornings you may fi nd him there today — or you may not. It’s impossible to predict because the chances are equal; he goes there as oft en as he doesn’t go there. 7. If he sometimes goes to the library on Monday mornings perhaps he will be there today (but you won’t be surprised if he isn’t there). 8. If he occasionally goes to the library on Monday mornings he might be there today but it’s unlikely. 9. If he rarely goes to the library on Monday mornings he probably won’t be there today (so don’t bother to look for him there). 10. If he hardly ever goes to the library on Monday mornings he is not expected to be there today, and you would be surprised to fi nd him there. 11. If he never goes to the Library on Monday mornings he won’t be there today. 3.2.3 Quantity Words have surprising power, and can encourage people to form strong impressions. Imagine, for example, that you are at a party and someone says to you: ‘Come and meet my neighbour, he spent 10 years in prison for murder’ . When you meet the neighbour his face may seem quite frightening. However, if you are told beforehand: ‘Come and meet my neighbour, he gives a lot of money to poor people’, he will probably look like a kind and caring person. B875Chapter03.indd 12 B875Chapter03.indd 12 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AMFA Results — Grammar and Writing Skills 103 Th e language you use to describe your results has as much power as the tables and graphs themselves, perhaps even more. Look at the two curves in the fi gure below: When you comment on this fi gure, if you write As can be seen in the fi gure, the two curves are very similar, the reader will focus on the similarity between the curves, and they will therefore seem similar. However, if you write As can be seen in the fi gure, the two curves are noticeably diff erent, the reader will focus on the diff erence between them, and they will therefore seem diff erent. Th e comments you make on your results tell your reader what you think about those results and infl uences the way readers perceive them. Results do not speak for themselves You can describe your results in numbers or percentages but those numbers or percentages are already visible to your reader in the graph or table; your reader needs to know what the numbers or quantities mean in order to understand them. For example, if the table or graph of your results shows that the eff ect you were looking for occurred in 23 of cases, you can communicate this as a strong result (in as many as 23 of cases) or a weak result (in only 23 of cases), but if you just write: As can be seen in Fig. 1, the eff ect occurred in 23 of cases, you have not added anything to what the reader can see for themselves. Losing this opportunity to communicate what your results mean can cause problems. If you do not describe or comment on your results in words, the reader may perceive them diff erently from you. In other words, if you write As can be seen in Fig. 1, the eff ect occurred in 23 of cases, although you may have thought that was a high percentage, the reader may decide that 23 of cases is low, or vice versa. Th is will have a damaging eff ect on the rest of your paper, in particular on your conclusions. You want your readers to accept your conclusions, and those conclusions should follow logically and naturally from your results. If you do not comment on your results so that the reader can share your understanding of them, s/he may B875Chapter03.indd 13 B875Chapter03.indd 13 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AMFA 104 Science Research Writing see them diff erently. As a result, the conclusion you eventually derive from those results will not seem either natural or logical; in fact it can even seem surprising or rather strange to the reader. One way to communicate your interpretation of the results is to use the language in the Frequency list in Section 3.2.2. For example, instead of writing As can be seen in Fig. 1, the eff ect was seen on 23 of occasions, you could write: Th e eff ect was seen frequently (if you believe that 23 of occasions is evidence of a high level of frequency), or Th e eff ect was seen occasionally (if you believe that 23 of occasions is evidence of a low level of frequency). Another way to communicate your comments on the numbers, levels and quantities in the fi gure you are describing is to use quantity language. Quantity language can be used to replace numbers (many) or it can be used to comment on numbers (as many as 45). Th e words and phrases that communicate quantity can be divided into fi ve groups. 1) Th e fi rst group contains words or phrases which make the size/quantity look big: A considerable amount of residue remained in the pipe. 2) Th e second group contains words or phrases which make the size/ quantity look small: Barely 23 of the residue remained in the pipe. 3) Th e third group is used to emphasise how big/small/high/low the size/ quantity is: Th e amount that remained was even higher/even lower than predicted. 4) Th e fourth group is used to communicate that the size/quantity is similar/close to another: Almost all/Almost half of the residue remained in the pipe. 5) Th e fi ft h group is useful when you need to say something about the quantity but you do not want to commit yourself to an interpretation of how big or small it was: Some of the residue remained in the pipe. B875Chapter03.indd 14 B875Chapter03.indd 14 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AMFA Results — Grammar and Writing Skills 105 Here is a list of words/phrases which can be used in this way: a great deal (of) marked a few markedly a little moderate a number (of) more (than) appreciable most appreciably (higher/lower) much approximately nearly as many as (e.g. 45) negligible as few as (e.g. 45) noticeable at least noticeably barely numerous below only by far over (half/25) close (to) particularly considerable plenty considerably (higher/lower) practically easily (over/under) quite even (higher/lower) reasonably exceptionally (high/low) relatively extremely (high/low) signifi cant fairly (high/low) signifi cantly far (above/below) slight few small fewer (than) so (high/low) greater (than) some hardly somewhat infi nitesimal substantial in some cases substantially just to some extent just (over/under) under less upwards of little virtually marginal well (under/over) marginally (higher/lower) B875Chapter03.indd 15 B875Chapter03.indd 15 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AMFA 106 Science Research Writing Now put them into the appropriate groups as described above. You can do this by imagining that the word/phrase is being used to describe the data in a fi gure, for example: As can be seen in Fig. 1, a substantial amount of residue remained in the pipe. Some of the words/phrases can be used in more than one category; for example, the word ‘much’: As can be seen in Fig. 1, much of the residue remained in the pipe (Group 1) and As can be seen in Fig. 1, the amount of residue remaining in the pipe was much lower than expected (Group 3). One example in each group is given in the box as a guide. 1. words or phrases which increase the size/quantity most 2. words or phrases which reduce the size/quantity below 3. words or phrases which emphasise how big/small/high/low the size/ quantity is very 4. words or phrases which communicate that the size/quantity is similar/ close to another almost 5. words or phrases which communicate a reluctance to commit oneself to an interpretation of the size/quantity some B875Chapter03.indd 16 B875Chapter03.indd 16 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AMFA Results — Grammar and Writing Skills 107 KEY 1. words or phrases which increase the size/quantity: a great deal (of) most a number (of) numerous as many as (45) over (half/25) appreciable plenty at least much considerable substantial greater (than) signifi cant marked upwards of more (than) 2. words or phrases which reduce the size/quantity: a few little a little less as few as 45 marginal barely negligible below only few slight fewer (than) small hardly under infi nitesimal 3. words or phrases which emphasise how big/small/high/low the size/quantity is: appreciably extremely (high/low) by far far (above/below) considerably particularly easily (over/under) so (high/low) even (higher/lower) substantially exceptionally (high/low) well (under/over) 4. words or phrases which communicate that the size/quantity is similar/close to another: approximately little (i.e. close to none) close (to) nearly few practically B875Chapter03.indd 17 B875Chapter03.indd 17 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AMFA 108 Science Research Writing few (i.e. close to none) slightly just (over/under) virtually 5. words or phrases which communicate a reluctance to commit oneself to an interpretation of the size/quantity: fairly reasonably in some cases relatively moderate some quite somewhat rather to some extent 3.2.4 Causality When you describe your results, you may want to indicate the relationships or connections between the events that you observed. Sometimes you may be able to state clearly that one event caused another, on other occasions you may want to say that one event caused another but you do not have proof of the causal connection between them. Th is section is designed to provide you with a variety of language options to represent your understanding of the relationships between the events you observed. In some of the verbs or phrases, the position of the cause and the eff ect are fi xed. For example, in x produced y, the subject, x, is the cause and the object, y, is the eff ect; in x originated in y, x is the eff ect and y is the cause. In others, however, such as x is linked to y, it depends on what the writer wishes to say; x could be either the cause or the eff ect, or the writer may simply want to indicate that x and y are connected in some way. Some verbs/phrases in the list below communicate a clear/strong causal connection (cause, produce, be due to). Some refer to a partial cause (be a factor in, contribute to), some refer to the initial or fi rst cause in a causal chain (originate in, initiate). Th ere are also verbs and phrases in the list which communicate a weak causal connection (be related to, link). Th ese are useful when you want to indicate that there is a connection between particular events or phenomena but perhaps are not certain which was the B875Chapter03.indd 18 B875Chapter03.indd 18 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:43 AMFA Results — Grammar and Writing Skills 109 cause and which was the eff ect. You may not even be certain yourself that the connection between them is defi nitely a causal connection. Th ese verbs and phrases are indicated by an asterisk () in the table. Not all these verbs can be used in the passive, but where the passive can be used, it is given in the list. Note that: • to be a cause of or a result of something implies that other factors were also involved, whereas to be the cause of or the result of something implies that it is the only cause or result. • x results from y means x is a consequence of y; whereas result in y means y is a consequence of x (be) a/the cause of create/(be) created (be) a/the consequence of derive/(be) derived (be) a factor in eff ect/(be) eff ected (be) a/the result of elicit/(be) elicited (be) due to give rise to accompany/(be) accompanied generate/(be) generated account for/(be) accounted for infl uence/(be) infl uenced aff ect/(be) aff ected initiate/(be) initiated arise from link/(be) linked ascribe to/(be) ascribed to originate in associate/(be) associated produce/(be) produced attribute to/(be) attributed to relate/(be) related bring about/(be) brought about result from cause/(be) caused result in come from stem from connect to/(be) connected to trigger/(be) triggered contribute to yield Causal statements such as x caused y are risky because they may be disproved at a later stage. As a result, science writing has developed many ways of reducing the responsibility of the writer when making such statements. One of the ways which you have seen in the box above is to weaken the causal verb, so that instead of saying x caused y you may decide B875Chapter03.indd 19 B875Chapter03.indd 19 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA 110 Science Research Writing to say x was linked to y. Here are some other ways of reducing your risk and responsibility by ‘soft ening’ a causal statement: You can begin with one of the following: It appears that… It can/may (therefore) be inferred/assumed that… It is (very/highly/extremely) probable/likely that… It is (widely/generally) accepted that… It is/may be reasonable to suppose/assume that … It is/may be thought/recognised/believed/felt that… It is/may/can be assumed that… It seems (very/highly) probable/likely that… It seems (likely) that… It would seem/appear that … x caused y. Th e evidence points to the likelihood/probability that… Th e evidence suggests that… Th ere is a clear/good/defi nite/strong possibility that… Th ere is evidence to indicate that… is im Th plies/seems to imply/may imply that… Apparently, (therefore), Th ere seems to be/is a tendency to It is thought/said/recognised that Th ere will be more about this type of verb, called modal verbs, in the next unit. Another option is to add a frequency qualifi er: x oft en caused y x commonly caused y x rarely caused y or a quantity qualifi er: x caused y in many cases x caused y in some cases/to some extent x caused y in virtually all cases B875Chapter03.indd 20 B875Chapter03.indd 20 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA Results — Writing Task 111 or a modal verb: x may have caused y x might have caused y x could have caused y and you can use more than one in a sentence, depending on how ‘weak’ you want your claim to be — but be careful; if you add too many, the sentence may not mean very much at all: Th e evidence points to the possibility that in many cases, x can contribute to certain types of y. 3.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 3.3.1 Building a model You are now ready to begin to build a model of the Results section by writing a short description of what the writer is doing in each sentence in the space provided below. Th e Key is on the next page. Once you have tried to produce your own model you can use the Key to help you write this section of a research article when you eventually do it on your own. GUIDELINES You should spend 30–45 minutes on this task. If you can’t think of a good description of the fi rst sentence, choose an easier one, for example Sentence 5, and start with that. Your model is only useful if it can be transferred to other Results sections, so don’t include content words such as traffi c or you won’t be able to use your model to generate Results sections in your own fi eld. Remember that one way to fi nd out what the writer is doing in a sentence, rather than what s/he is saying, is to imagine that your computer has accidentally deleted it. What changes for you, as a reader, when it disappears If you press another key on the computer and the sentence comes back, how does that aff ect the way you respond to the information As mentioned in previous sections, another way to fi gure out what the writer is doing in a sentence — rather than what s/he is saying — is to look B875Chapter03.indd 21 B875Chapter03.indd 21 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA 112 Science Research Writing at the grammar and vocabulary clues. What is the tense of the main verb What is that tense normally used for Is it the same tense as in the previous sentence If not, why has the writer changed the tense What words has the writer chosen to use Don’t expect to produce a perfect model. You will modify your model when you look at the Key, and perhaps again when you compare it to the way Results sections work in your target articles. A modelling approach to traffi c In this sentence, management and CO exposure during the writer: peak hours Results 1,2 1 Data obtained in previous studies using a 1 fi xed onsite monitor indicated that travel by car resulted in lower CO exposure than travel on foot. 2 According to Figo et al. (1999), the 2 median exposure of car passengers was 11 2 lower than for those walking. 3 In our study, 3 modelled emission rates were obtained using the Traffi c Emission Model (TEM), a CO exposure modelling framework developed by 3 Ka. 4 Modelled results were compared with 4 actual roadside CO concentrations measured hourly at a fi xed monitor. 5 Figure 1 shows 5 the results obtained using TEM. 6 As can be seen, during morning peak 6 time journeys the CO concentrations for car passengers were signifi cantly lower than for pedestrians, which is consistent with results 2 obtained in previous studies. 7 However, 7 the modelled data were not consistent with these results for aft ernoon journeys. B875Chapter03.indd 22 B875Chapter03.indd 22 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA Results — Writing Task 113 8 Although the mean CO concentrations 8 modelled by TEM for aft ernoon journeys on foot were in line with those of Figo et al., a striking diff erence was noted when each of the three peak hours was considered singly (Fig. 2). 9 It can be observed that during the 9 fi rst hour (H ) of the peak period, journeys on 1 foot resulted in a considerably lower level of CO exposure. 10 Although levels for journeys 10 on foot generally exceeded those modelled for car journeys during H , during the last hour 2 (H ) the levels for journeys on foot were again 3 frequently far lower than for car journeys. 11 A quantitative analysis to determine 11 modelling uncertainties was applied, based on the maximum deviation of the measured and calculated levels within the considered period. 12 Using this approach, the average 12 uncertainty of the model prediction for this study slightly exceeds the 50 acceptability 7 limit defi ned by Jiang. 13 Nevertheless, 13 these results suggest that data obtained using TEM to simulate CO exposures may provide more sensitive information for assessing the impact of traffi c management strategies than traditional onsite measurement. 3.3.2 Key 1,2 In Sentences 1 and 2 ‘Data obtained in previous studies using a fi xed onsite monitor indicated that travel by car resulted in lower CO exposure than travel on foot. According to Figo et al. (1999), the median 2 exposure of car passengers was 11 lower than for those walking. ’ the writer refers to the fi ndings and conclusions obtained by other researchers. B875Chapter03.indd 23 B875Chapter03.indd 23 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA 114 Science Research Writing Why not start by describing my results If you begin by describing individual results, the reader will need to build an overall scheme or pattern of your results by putting those individual results together. Th is is diffi cult for the reader to do; it is your job as a writer to arrange the information so that it is easy for a reader to process it. As with all subsections, therefore, it is more ‘readerfriendly’ to start with some introductory material. When you start any new section or subsection in your work the fi rst sentence(s) should provide a smooth transition for the reader between the new (sub)section and the previous one. Th ere are two good ways to do this: 1. You can begin by offering an overview of the current section. Th is is a description of the overall pattern or trend of the results. If you start with individual results and your reader puts them together ‘bottom up’ to create an overall picture of what happened, there is a risk that each reader may end up with a diff erent picture of your results. It is preferable therefore to begin with general statements about what was found (in most cases, generally speaking, overall). Providing an overview enables you to show your reader the ‘wall’ before you begin to describe the ‘bricks’. It is useful to remember that this type of general overview may need to be repeated when you move from one set of results to another. 2. You can begin by referring back to something from the previous section(s). For example, you can refer back to: • the general aims of research in this area (which you mentioned in the Introduction) • the specifi c research problem you are focusing on, or the aim of your project (which you mentioned in the Introduction) • the methodology • the original prediction or assumption to be tested (which you mentioned in the Introduction) • the fi ndings of other research in this area (which you mentioned in the Introduction) B875Chapter03.indd 24 B875Chapter03.indd 24 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA Results — Writing Task 115 Why should I restate my specifi c research problem or the aim of my project here Eventually, in the Discussion, you will need to say to what extent your study (and in particular your fi ndings) solves the problem or fulfi ls the aim(s) you set out in the Introduction. Your results should therefore be very closely related to your aim(s); in fact, when you examine your results carefully you may even decide to go back to the Introduction and redefi ne the original aim(s) in relation to the results you obtained. Why should I restate the original prediction or the fi ndings of other research here Your results support, modify or contradict the original prediction, and they may support, modify or contradict the fi ndings of other researchers. By repeating the original prediction or the fi ndings of other researchers at the start of this section, your readers can see more clearly how your results relate to that prediction or those fi ndings. Your readers will not remember the earlier parts of your paper as clearly as you do. In Sentences 3 and 4 ‘In our study, modelled emission rates were obtained using the Traffi c Emission Model (TEM), a COexposure 3 modelling framework developed by Ka. Modelled results were compared with actual roadside CO concentrations measured hourly at a fi xed monitor.’ the writer refers back to his/her own methodology and adds more information about it. You may decide to refer to or summarise your methodology in your opening sentences. One reason for doing this is to highlight the important aspects of the materials, equipment or methodology you used to obtain your results. Another reason is to remind your readers of the methodology. You of course, remember it well — aft er all, it’s your own research — but your readers don’t share that familiarity. Also, extended details of the methodology are oft en given here rather than in the previous section, B875Chapter03.indd 25 B875Chapter03.indd 25 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA 116 Science Research Writing which may have included only the basic framework of the method. Th e more specifi c and complex the method, the more likely this is. Background information is as common and as necessary here as elsewhere. In this case, information is provided about the instrument(s) or equipment used to obtain the results (a COexposure modelling 3 framework developed by Ka ). Later on in the Results section you may need to provide more factual information in order to explain why a specifi c result occurred. For example, perhaps a result was obtained because of a particular property or characteristic of the materials used, in which case it would be appropriate for you to off er information about that property or characteristic to the reader. As always, it is better to off er slightly too much background factual information than too little. Th e wider the topic — and therefore the wider the readership — the more background information you should provide, so that all readers can understand why the results occurred as they did. In Sentence 5 ‘Figure 1 shows the results obtained using TEM.’ the writer invites the reader to look at a graph/fi gure/table etc. Why do I need to invite the reader to look Surely they will see the fi gure if they continue reading down the page. What do you do when you are reading and you come to a sentence like this You stop reading and take a look at the fi gure; you try to understand it or interpret the data you see in it; then you return to the text and keep that interpretation in mind when you carry on reading. If the data in the fi gure is very clear and has only one possible interpretation, it doesn’t matter when you invite your reader to look at it. In this case, the results are very clear and easily interpreted, and so it is safe to let the reader view them before you comment on them. However, the data in many fi gures, tables and photographs can be interpreted in more than one way, in which case you should comment on the results in that fi gure before you invite the reader to take a look. If not, the reader may interpret it diff erently from you. B875Chapter03.indd 26 B875Chapter03.indd 26 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA Results — Writing Task 117 In Sentence 6 ‘As can be seen, during morning peaktime journeys the CO concentrations for car passengers were signifi cantly lower than for pedestrians, which is consistent with results obtained in previous 2 studies. ’ the writer refers to specifi c results and compares them with those obtained in another study, using subjective, evaluative language (consistent with). Do I need to compare my results with those of other researchers One of the aims of this book is to make you aware of the diff erence between the kind of writing you produced before you began to do your own research and the kind of writing you want to produce now. Until now, you have probably written reports for people like your teachers or professors, who know more about your research topic than you. You have performed experiments or simulations that have already been performed by other researchers and the results were therefore predictable in most cases. Your only task was to describe the methods you used and the results you obtained to readers who already knew what methods you should use and what results you would obtain. Now, however, things have changed, and in addition to reporting your results you should locate them on the ‘research map’ in your fi eld. Th is means that you need to show your reader how and where your results fi t in with the existing research picture, so you need to compare your results with those in the literature. You will develop this ‘mapping’ of your work more extensively in the Discussion, but in order to do it eff ectively, you need to fi rst set your results against existing results. What order should I present my results in Th e order in which you present your results to the reader is very important. You may be impatient to present your most important results, but it may be necessary to start by describing the results which underlie or lead to the more important ones. Why do I have to use evaluative language — why not simply describe the results which are in the fi gure or table As stated earlier, results do not speak for themselves. You do not have to use evaluative language in every case; sometimes results can be given B875Chapter03.indd 27 B875Chapter03.indd 27 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA 118 Science Research Writing objectively, either numerically or in nonevaluative language. However, if you simply describe what is in the fi gure or table, you have not added anything to what the reader can see for themselves — so why bother Th e comments you make on your results infl uence the way readers perceive them. As we noted earlier (in Section 3.2.3), if you write As can be seen in Fig. 1, the two curves are very similar, the reader will focus on the similarity between the curves; however, if you write As can be seen in Fig. 1, the two curves are noticeably diff erent, the reader will notice the diff erence between them. In Sentence 7 ‘However, the modelled data were not consistent with parallel FOM measurements for aft ernoon journeys.’ the writer off ers a general statement about his/her results to begin a new paragraph. In this sentence, the writer is moving on to more interesting, controversial results, and communicates this to the reader by starting a new paragraph and using a signal (However) at the start of the sentence. As a writer, you always know which results are interesting or signifi cant, but unless you communicate this to the reader by using a signal like this, all results will be perceived as having the same function and importance. In Sentence 8 ‘Although the mean CO concentrations modelled by TEM for aft ernoon journeys on foot were in line with those of Figo et al., a striking diff erence was noted when each of the three peak hours was considered individually (Fig. 2).’ the writer refers to specifi c results and compares them to those obtained in another study, using language that comments on the result(s) (a striking diff erence). At some stage, you need to describe individual results in some detail, selecting results which are important, typical, or especially interesting. Isn’t a word like ‘striking’ considered too informal Defi nitely not. In science research writing, you do not normally use exclamation marks (), even though you may feel that you want to if your B875Chapter03.indd 28 B875Chapter03.indd 28 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA Results — Writing Task 119 results are very exciting. Instead, science writing uses a variety of words and phrases to achieve that ‘wow’ feeling, including striking. A full list of these can be found in the vocabulary section for the Discussion/Conclusion (Section 4.4). Notice also that by starting the sentence with Although, the writer helps the reader to predict the function of the sentence correctly. Th e sentence could also have been written as follows: Th e mean CO concentrations modelled by TEM for aft ernoon journeys on foot were in line with the FOM data but a striking diff erence was noted when each of the three peak hours was considered singly. but the reader would have had to wait until the middle of the sentence (but) to discover the function of the information in the fi rst part of the sentence, and may have needed to ‘loop back’ through the fi rst part of the sentence again in order to understand it. Signals are more useful when they occur early in the sentence. In Sentences 9 and 10 ‘It can be observed that during the fi rst hour (H1) of the peak period, journeys on foot resulted in a considerably lower level of CO exposure. Although levels generally exceeded those modelled for car journeys during H2, during the last hour (H3) the levels for journeys on foot were again frequently far lower than for car journeys.’ the writer selects specifi c results to describe in more detail, using language that comments on the results (considerably lower, generally, frequently far lower). Should I explain my results as well as present them Th at depends on the complexity of your results and the type of paper you are writing. Explanations can be given by providing background factual information to explain why a particular result occurred, for example, information about the properties of the material you are studying or the type of method you used. Make sure that you understand the diff erence between the explanation of a result (why it occurred as it did), the evaluation of a result (what the numbers mean) and the implication of a result B875Chapter03.indd 29 B875Chapter03.indd 29 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:44 AMFA 120 Science Research Writing (what the result suggests or implies). At this stage your explanations should be limited to fairly direct comments about your results; you will move on to broader explanations and implications in the Discussion/Conclusion. How do I know which results to describe in detail Why not describe all of them in detail If you describe all your results in equal detail they will seem to have the same level of importance. Th is is unlikely to be the case: some of your results are probably more signifi cant than others, some are typical, and some are key results whereas others may be of more peripheral interest. However, your sentences are, in the end, simply black lines on a white page — the reader cannot hear your voice and so cannot hear you emphasising the importance of a particular result. You cannot print it in red and, as we have seen, you cannot even use an exclamation mark. So choosing to describe a specifi c result in detail communicates to your reader that you consider that particular result to be signifi cant, worth highlighting or emphasising. It is interesting to note that the best results are oft en described in such a way as to give the impression that they are typical results — look out for this in the papers you read. Th is is commonly done by stating a generalisation followed by for example and then the result: ‘…the SFS results are in very good agreement with their FE counterparts; for example, at midspan the values are almost identical.’ Don’t be ashamed of the need to persuade; if you proudly or shyly stick to simple descriptions of your results using ‘naked numbers’, your reader may be surprised by your conclusions because you have not said what those numbers mean. Your reader may not agree with you, but s/he needs to know what you think about your results. In Sentence 11 ‘A quantitative analysis to determine modelling uncertainties was applied, based on the maximum deviation of the measured and calculated levels within the considered period.’ the writer refers to the method used to analyse the results. Why wasn’t this included in the Methodology If you look at the Results sections in your target journals, you will be surprised by the amount of methodology included in this section. B875Chapter03.indd 30 B875Chapter03.indd 30 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA Results — Writing Task 121 Th e Methodology oft en only deals with the basic structure and compo nents of the materials and methods. In such cases, most of the details are incorporated into the Results. Th is way of presenting information is becoming quite common in science journals. In Sentence 12 ‘Based on this approach, the average uncertainty of the model prediction for this study slightly exceeds the 50 acceptability 7 limit defi ned by Jiang. ’ the writer mentions a problem in the results and uses quantity language (slightly) to minimise its signifi cance. Do I need to mention problems in the results Won’t it make the reader doubt my results As discussed in the Methodology, the opposite is true. Don’t ignore problems in your results unless you are certain that the problems are insignifi cant and invisible. If your results are incomplete or some of them don’t ‘fi t’, you should mention this, minimise its importance if you can, and suggest possible reasons for the problem/off er a solution. Failing to mention a problem suggests that you aren’t suffi ciently expert to be aware of it, and this has a negative eff ect on your professional authority. By contrast, including a discussion of a problem in your work does exactly the opposite: it shows you to be fully in control of your research and able to evaluate it clearly. Furthermore, it provides you with an essential element for the Discussion/Conclusion: directions or suggestions for future research. As with problems in the methodology, if you delay writing up until your results are all perfect, you may never get to publish it. So write it up as soon as your results are worth communicating; don’t wait for perfection. Mention and acknowledge the problems or diffi culties you encountered with your results while you are writing the Results section; it isn’t appropriate to mention them for the fi rst time when you are discussing suggestions for future work in the Discussion/ Conclusion. So how can I talk about problems in the Results Use vocabulary that minimises the problem, suggests possible reasons for it and/or off ers a solution or a way forward. In the example above, the writer acknowledged that there was a problem and minimised its eff ects B875Chapter03.indd 31 B875Chapter03.indd 31 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA 122 Science Research Writing (slightly). You can fi nd examples of the language you will need to refer to imperfect or problematic results in the vocabulary list in Section 3.4. In Sentence 13 ‘Nevertheless, these results suggest that data obtained using TEM to simulate CO exposures may provide more sensitive information for assessing the impact of traffi c management strategies than traditional onsite measurement.’ the writer makes a reference to the implications and applications of the work s/he has done. Shouldn’t that wait until the Discussion An examination of implications and applications is certainly one of the central areas of the Discussion, but most writers give some indication of what their results mean, i.e. the implications of their results, towards the end of the Results section. Once individual results have been described and discussed, the focus of the paper or thesis begins to open out and move away from the central ‘reporting’ section towards the conclusion. A sentence of this type is very common at this point, using verbs like suggest or indicate. 3.3.3 Th e model Here are the sentence descriptions we have collected: In Sentences 1 and 2 the w riter refers to the fi ndings and conclusions obtained by other researchers. In Sentences 3 and 4 the writer refers back to his/her own metho dology and adds more information about it. In Sentence 5 the writer invites the reader to look at a graph/ fi gure/table etc. In Sentence 6 the w riter refers to specifi c results and compares them with those obtained in another study, using subjective, evaluative language. In Sentence 7 the writer off ers a general statement about his/ her results to begin a new paragraph. In Sentence 8 the w riter refers to specifi c results and compares them to those obtained in another study, using language that comments on the result(s). B875Chapter03.indd 32 B875Chapter03.indd 32 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA Results — Writing Task 123 In Sentences 9 and 10 the writer selects specifi c results to describe in more detail, using language that comments on the results. In Sentence 11 the w riter refers to the method used to analyse the results. In Sentence 12 the w riter mentions a problem in the results and uses quantity language to minimise its signifi cance. In Sentence 13 the w riter makes a reference to the implications and applications of the work s/he has done. We can streamline these so that our model has FOUR basic components. Like the Methodology model, this is a ‘menu’ from which you select those items appropriate to your research topic and the journal you are submitting to. 1 REVISITING THE RESEARCH AIM/EXISTING RESEARCH REVISITING/EXPANDING METHODOLOGY GENERAL OVERVIEW OF RESULTS 2 INVITATION TO VIEW RESULTS SPECIFIC/KEY RESULTS IN DETAIL, WITH OR WITHOUT EXPLANATIONS COMPARISONS WITH RESULTS IN OTHER RESEARCH COMPARISON/S WITH MODEL PREDICTIONS 3 PROBLEMS WITH RESULTS 4 POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS OF RESULTS B875Chapter03.indd 33 B875Chapter03.indd 33 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA 124 Science Research Writing 3.3.4 Testing the model Th e next step is to look at the way this model works in a real Results section, and in that section (remember it may be called ‘Analysis’ or ‘Data Analysis’ instead) in the target articles you have selected. Here are some fulllength Results sections from real research articles. Read them through, and mark the model components (1, 2, 3 or 4) wherever you think you see them. For example, if you think the fi rst sentence corresponds to number 1 in the model, write 1 next to it etc. Finite element modelling of sewer linings 4. NUMERICAL MODELLING 4.1. Th e fi nite element mesh Th e crosssectional geometries of the three eggshaped linings are defi ned by the joining of two circles of diff ering diameters by slightly curved segments tangential to the circles. In the case of the St and Ch linings, the circles were osculating and with (275, 140 mm) and (330, 110 mm) radii, respectively; the Ce lining consisted of nonosculating circles of (250, 115 mm) radii, their nearest points from one another separated by a distance of 105 mm. Measurements were carried out on the crosssections of the three lining types so as to determine the radii of curvature of the somewhat fl at midsection, a diffi cult task because of this fl atness. Th e thickness of the linings was found to vary along the crosssection; hence the midfl at section tends to become slightly thicker than the rest of the crosssection. However, this is not accounted for in the model because it was observed that the thickness also varies along the length of the lining, and accurate measurements are not practically viable. So, a thickness of 6 mm is adopted for the St lining, 8 mm for the Ch, and a 10 mm thickness for the Ce lining. Th ese thickness values are doubled at the hoop joints so as to simulate the actual junctions. Due to symmetry about the vertical axis (i.e. the yaxis) of both loading and geometry, only half of the crosssection is B875Chapter03.indd 34 B875Chapter03.indd 34 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA Results — Writing Task 125 analysed (see Fig. 2). Moreover, because of symmetry about the xy plane, only half of the total lining length is considered (see Fig. 3). Th e crosssection of the lining which is under study is situated at the xy plane of symmetry, located at a distance equal to half the total length of the lining. Th e reason for restricting the calculation of the stresses and defl ections to this crosssection, is that full experimental data was only obtained at this lining location 8. Th e element used in the analysis is an eightnoded isoparametric thinshell element 6 with six degrees of freedom (i.e. three displacements and three rotations) at each node. Bending and membrane stresses are calculated at nodal points of individual elements and are then averaged for nodes which are common to more than one element. Finally, the mesh adopted consists of 180 elements subdivided into nine elements in the longitudinal direction and 20 elements in the hoop direction (see Figs. 2 and 3). Th e subdivision of elements in the hoop direction consists of six elements at the invert of the lining, six elements at the midfl at section, and eight elements at the top section of the lining (Fig. 2). Th e same mesh was used in the analysis of all three linings. In addition to imposing the relevant displacement and rotation constraints along the two planes of symmetry that allow only onequarter of the lining assembly to be analysed, and full fi xity at the end of the pipe (i.e. all displacements and rotations are set to zero there), the boundary conditions corresponding to the fi ve restraint setups were readily simulated by reference to the nodes situated at the joint section. Th us, whereas both displacements in the plane of the crosssection and the rotation about the longitudinal axis were suppressed at all midsection nodes for BCI , no constraint for any of the degrees of freedom at the joint was imposed in the case of BC5 (see Fig. 1). For the three intermediate restraint setups, displacements of those nodes in contact with the wooden segment(s) were suppressed. All analyses were carried out by reference to a value of (uniform) suction −2 pressure equal to 1 kN m , and subsequent results, therefore, should be viewed with this value in mind. B875Chapter03.indd 35 B875Chapter03.indd 35 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA 126 Science Research Writing 4.2. Stanton and Staveley lining As mentioned earlier, a thickness value of 6 mm was adopted in the analysis of the St pipe, this becoming equal to 12 mm for the elements located at the joint section. Th e midlength of the pipe encompassed by the FE mesh was 1200 mm, as measured from the end of the lining assembly to the central crosssection monitored during testing and presently under study. Figures 4 and 5 show a comparison between the experi mental values of inner (hoop) strains and (transverse) defl ections 8, and the ones stemming from the FE analysis for all fi ve boundary cases. (Th ese and subsequent results are plotted against the vertical distance from the crown right up to the invert.) Here, the material properties used in the numerical model were selected from the lower range of values listed earlier, as this gave rise to a better correlation between the experiments and the FE analysis. Th ese material properties for the lining were chosen as follows: E = h −2 −2 11.5 kN mm , E = 5.5 kN mm , v = 0.29 and v = 0.14, where, l h l in order to be consistent with Betti’s condition, v ∙E = v ∙E , l h h l it was decided to adjust the value of Poisson’s ratio by taking the lower range of v (v being considered, in general, a more reliable l l test value than v ) at 0.14, and then working out v at 0.29, h h a sensible approximation, as argued elsewhere 8. It is noticed from the results of the analysis that the hoop strains and defl ections resulting from the FE model follow similar patterns to the ones recorded from the vacuum rig tests. Moreover, it can be seen from Table 1 (which includes the maximum percentage error between the experimental results and the analytical predictions) that the FE model predicts reasonably well the critical values of defl ection at the midfl at section of the lining for the fi ve test cases. Th is was also true for the critical values of inner strain (occurring at the invert of the lining) for test cases 3 and 5; however, the predicted values of critical bending strain were lower than their experimental counterparts for test cases 1, 2 and 4. Th is suggests that the FE model tends to predict reasonably well the behaviour of the lining in the absence of restraint set ups, as can be shown from Table 1 (i.e. small percentage error in B875Chapter03.indd 36 B875Chapter03.indd 36 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA Results — Writing Task 127 terms of critical strains and defl ections for BC5). It will be shown later on that a more realistic simulation of the restraint setups can improve considerably the numerical predictions of the lining response. 4.3. Channeline lining Th e halflength of the Ch pipe was 1170 mm and, again, its thickness (equal to 8 mm) was doubled for elements located at the joint section. Figures 6 and 7 show a comparison between the experimental results and the FE analysis using a lower range of values of isotropic material properties for reasons similar to those for the previous lining. Th ese were chosen as follows: E = E = h l −2 6.9 kN mm and v = v = 0.33. h l Unlike the St pipeline, which was made up of onepiece linings, the Ch linings are twopiece segmental. As it is diffi cult to simulate realistically the behaviour of the longitudinal joint(s) in the case of segmental linings, the experimental results are still compared with the FE results using the mesh described earlier, even though such a mesh does not attempt to model the joint. From the outcome of this analysis, it can be shown that the response of the numerical model in terms of inner strains and defl ections follows a similar pattern to that of the experimental results, as indicated in Figs. 6 and 7. At fi rst sight, this would seem to imply that the longitudinal joint did in fact provide full shear and bendingmoment continuity, so that the joint could be replaced by an equivalent continuous structure (i.e. stiff er than a hinge but well below fi xity). Th is conclusion, however, need not follow since the shape of the bendingmoment diagram is such that it changes sign in the vicinity of the longitudinal joint, so that, for this particular type of loading, the latter location is acted upon by relatively small bending action anyway. Th erefore, on the basis of the bending strains, it is diffi cult to establish what the relative stiff ness of the joint is, and it might seem reasonable to postulate a hinge (whether because of a fl exible joint or simply due to the shape of the bendingmoment diagram). On the other hand, it is shown from Table 1 that the numerical model predicts reasonably well the behaviour of the lining in terms of values of critical inner B875Chapter03.indd 37 B875Chapter03.indd 37 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA 128 Science Research Writing strains, but that it is not so good in terms of values of critical defl ections. Th is fact would now suggest that the presence of the straight longitudinal joint might approach the eff ect of a hinge, thus allowing a larger rotation at the springings, with associated defl ections at the fl at midsection of the lining, which are bigger than those obtained by the continuousjoint model in which the point of contrafl exure does not occur exactly at the springing locations. 4.4. Celtite lining Th e halflength of the pipe was 1200 mm and its thickness 10 mm (20 mm at the joint section). Similarly to the previous cases, Figs. 8 and 9 show a comparison between the experimental observations and the FE analysis results. Once again, a lower range of values of material −2 properties is used; these properties are: E = 13 kN mm , E = h l −2 10 kN mm , v = 0.10 and v = 0.13. (It should be noted that, h l while v was not obtained experimentally, it has been derived h from Betti’s condition.) It may be seen that the patterns of inner strains and defl ections from the numerical analysis are similar to their experimental counterparts. Since the Ce linings were segmental, remarks as for the Ch linings may be made regarding the straight longitudinal joint; namely, that, although the bendingmoment diagram has a point of infection in the vicinity of the segmental joint, the larger percentage errors exhibited by both Channeline and Celtite linings, relative to the onepiece Stanton and Staveley lining, suggest that a line hinge may be more appropriate than the assumption of full continuity. Table 1 shows that good predictions in terms of the value of critical inner strain have resulted for boundary case 1 only, whereas in terms of critical defl ection, such a conclusion applies for boundary cases 3 and 5, but not for the other three cases. As for the previous two lining types, a stiff er response has resulted from the model. In addition to the presence of longitudinal joints, one must also point out that the defl ection values recorded for the Ce lining during the experiments were small, and hence B875Chapter03.indd 38 B875Chapter03.indd 38 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA Results — Writing Task 129 the error induced in the readings might have further aff ected their accuracy. Observations of 2,4,6trichlorophenol degradation by ozone 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Rate constants for the degradation of 2,4,6TCP In previous studies degradation rate constants have been established by undertaking ozonation experiments (Graham et al., 2003) in the presence of a reference compound (Xiong and Graham, 1992a). Th e theoretical basis for this is as follows. Th e reaction of ozone with a solute M may be described by the following reaction scheme: M + nO → Moxid (1) 3 where n is the stoichiometric factor for the number of ozone molecules consumed per molecule of M degraded. The stoichio metric factor for many organic substrates has been reported to vary in the range of 1–5 (Hoigne and Bader, 1983b), and values of 1 (Davis et al., 1995) and 2 (Javier Benitez et al., 2000a) have been proposed for 2,4,6TCP. In practice it is usually assumed that the ozone reaction is first order with respect to ozone and solute M concentration, thus the rate law can be formulated as −dM/dt = kMO M (2) 3 where kM is the rate constant for the degradation of solute M by O . Previous work by the authors (Chu and Wong, 2003) has 3 confi rmed that under conditions where the ozone concentration can be considered constant, the degradation of 2,4,6TCP is fi rst order with respect to its concentration. In this study, in order to determine the degradation rate constant kM, ozonation has been conducted with a mixture of a solute M1 (2,4,6TCP) and a reference compound M2 having a known rate constant (kM2 ). According to Eq. (2), it can be shown that B875Chapter03.indd 39 B875Chapter03.indd 39 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:45 AMFA 130 Science Research Writing −dM /dt = kM O M (3) 1 1 3 1 −dM /dt = kM O M (4) 2 2 3 2 Dividing Eq. (3) by (4), gives dM kM M 1 1 1 = (5) dM kM M 2 2 2 Integration of Eq. (5) yields M kM M 1 0 1 2 0 Ln = Ln . (6) M kM M 1 1 2 2 t Th us, a graph of LnM /M versus LnM /M yields 1 0 1 2 0 2 a line whose gradient gives (kM /kM ). Since the rate constant 1 2 (kM ) of M is known, the value of kM can be determined. 2 2 1 In these tests, the reference compound that was chosen was the herbicide atrazine (2chloro4ethylamino6isopropylamino 1,3,5triazine) since rate constants for this had been determined previously under the same conditions (Xiong and Graham, 1992a). Figure 1 shows the results of the ozonation tests in terms of the comparative degradation of 2,4,6TCP and atrazine. Th e calculated values for the rate constants for 2,4,6TCP are shown in Table 1. 3.2. Reaction mechanism and dechlorination of 2,4,6TCP Th e rate constants shown in Table 1 indicate that the reactivity of 2,4,6TCP is much greater at neutral pH than at low pH; this can also be seen in Fig. 2. Th is is partly explained by the much lower reactivity of undissociated 2,4,6TCP with molecular ozone than in its substantially dissociated state at pH 7.5, and partly by the eff ect of hydroxyl radicalreactions at the higher pH. Th e latter eff ect is predominant at high pH and a previous study has shown a linear increase in pseudo fi rstorder reaction rates with pH in the range of 7 pH 11 (Chu and Wong, 2003). Th e results shown in Fig. 2 indicate that in the early stages of the reaction there is a large overall O :TCP reaction stoichiometry, thus, at a reaction time of 3 2 min, the stoichiometry is 89 and 47 mol O /mol TCP at pH 2 3 and 7.5, respectively. B875Chapter03.indd 40 B875Chapter03.indd 40 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA Results — Writing Task 131 An indication of the reaction mechanism during the ozonation of TCP is given by the extent of dechlorination. Recent studies (Han et al., 1998; Chu and Wong, 2003) have suggested one specifi c mechanism whereby a hydroxyl group replaces one chlorine atom to form 2,6dichlorobenzo1,4quinone (DCQ), as indicated in Fig. 3. From this it can be seen that the reaction leads to a reduction in solution pH through the formation of HCl. To investigate this, the ozonation of TCP at various initial pH levels was carried out without the use of a pH buff er and the results are summarized in Fig. 4. Evidence of signifi cant proton generation was observed, and the rate of pH reduction increased with the initial pH of the solution. In the reaction scheme shown in Fig. 3, only one chlorine in the TCP is substituted by a hydroxyl group + to produce DCQ, H and Cl. However, it is likely that further dechlorination of the remaining two chlorine atoms is possible under favourable conditions, such as at high pH where substantial hydroxyl radical generation occurs. It can be seen from Fig. 4 that for the ozone reaction at the initial pH of 8.17 the change in the solution pH suggested a proton generation equivalent to approximately 1 mM, which is stoichiometrically close to the total chlorine mass of the original TCP (0.88 mM). However, it should be noted that DCQ can be further degraded by cleavage of the aromatic ring leading to the formation of aliphatic products. Th ese in turn may react with ozone to form organic acids, such as formic acid and acetic glycolic acids (Abe and Tanaka, 1997), thereby reducing the solution pH. Direct measurements of chloride concentration were made during the buff ered ozone tests and these are shown in Fig. 5. It can be seen that the degradation of TCP (each molecule having three chlorine atoms) generates signifi cant chloride ions as one of the major products. Th e number of chloride ions released during the TCP degradation was found to range between 1.5 and 1.9 per degraded molecule of TCP, with the number in this range systematically increasing with the extent of TCP degraded. Since this is an average value for the reaction, it indicates that dechlorination is a major reaction mechanism and suggests that for a proportion of the TCP molecules there may be complete dechlorination. B875Chapter03.indd 41 B875Chapter03.indd 41 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA 132 Science Research Writing Since it is speculated that at pH 7.5 a major part of the TCP reaction is via hydroxyl radical attack, it was thought that the generation of OH radicals may be limited in the presence of the carbonate buff er. To enhance the concentration of radicals the tests were repeated in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H O / HO 2 2 −2 is a promoter of radicaltype chain reactions) and the comparative results can be seen in Fig. 5. Th e concentration of hydrogen peroxide (15 mM) used in this case corresponded to a fi nal H O :O mass 2 2 3 ratio of 0.8 g/g. It can be observed from Fig. 5 that there was only a very small enhancement (5) of TCP degradation when H O 2 2 was present during the ozonation. A similar eff ect was observed with a lower H O concentration (7.5 mM) indicating that H O 2 2 2 2 concentration was not a sensitive factor. In contrast, there was a much greater production of chloride, with the number of chloride ions released during the TCP degradation ranging between 1.7 and 2.7 per degraded molecule of TCP, with the number in this range systematically increasing with the extent of TCP degraded. Th is considerably higher productivity of chloride ions, without a proportional increase in TCP degradation, suggests that the O / 3 H O oxidising conditions are able to readily release chloride 2 2 from intermediate compounds formed from the TCP degradation. It is assumed that the reaction with intermediate compounds is principally through OH∙ radicals, but direct H O oxidation may 2 2 also occur. 3.3. Degradation of TCP with humic acid Humic substances (e.g. humic acid) are typically present in signifi cant quantities (2–20 mg/l) in natural, and wastewaters. Th ey have been shown to have a complex behaviour in ozone reactions in that they can act as initiators, promoters and scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, as well as being a substrate for molecular ozone reactions. Previous studies (e.g. with atrazine; Xiong and Graham, 1992b) have shown that relatively low concentrations of humic substances can substantially enhance the degradation of organic substrates, while higher concentrations can greatly reduce the degradation. A similar approach was used in this study in which the rate of degradation of 2,4,6TCP was determined in the B875Chapter03.indd 42 B875Chapter03.indd 42 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA Results — Writing Task 133 presence of diff erent concentrations of HA. Th e results are shown in Fig. 6(a) and the TCP degradation curves were found to fi t a pseudofi rstorder model (R2 = 0.997–0.999); the pseudo fi rst order rate constants are shown in Table 2. It can be seen in Table 2 that the peak degradation rate occurred in the presence of approximately 17 mg/l (as TOC) of HA, corresponding to a HA:TCP mass ratio of 0.43. Th e maximum increase in degradation rate is approximately 25 (cf. in the absence of HA). At a HA concentration of 56.1 mg/l, and presumably higher concentrations, the degradation rate decreased relative to that in the absence of HA. In comparison, Xiong and Graham (1992b) found that the optimal degradation of atrazine occurred at a mass ratio of humic substances (as DOC)toatrazine of 1.8. However, since only part of the humic substances would be HA, the corresponding HA:atrazine ratio would be lower, and therefore closer to the values shown in Table 2. A further comparison can be made between the enhanced TCP degradation caused by the presence of HA with that caused by hydrogen peroxide. Fig. 6(b) compares the TCP degradation rates for the optimal HA concentration (16.8 mg/l TOC) with 516 mg/l of H O (≡ 15 mM; H O :O fi nal mass ratio of 0.8 g/g). If it can be 2 2 2 2 3 assumed that the enhanced degradation rates in both cases is the result of increased OH∙ radical production, then it appears that the HA was more eff ective than the hydrogen peroxide. An examination of the relationship between fl owering times and temperature at the national scale using long term phenological records from the UK Results Mean dates and standard deviations of dates, together with extreme early and late dates for all species, are shown in Table 1. It is apparent, and was noted by Jeff ree (1960), that there is a bias towards extreme lateness for earlyseason species, which is less obvious, or even reversed, in later species. Th is is demonstrated in Fig. 2, where the 11 species for which 58 years of data are available B875Chapter03.indd 43 B875Chapter03.indd 43 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA 134 Science Research Writing are presented as box plots. Th e vertical dashed line represents the standardised mean of 0 days and asterisks represent extreme years. It is apparent that the species at the bottom of the fi gure (the earliest species) have more extreme late years and those at the top (the late species) have more extreme early years. A summary of the stepwise regression models is given in Table 2. All but 1 of the 25 models was highly signifi cant (P 0.001). In general, coeffi cients for months close to the mean fl owering date were negative, indicating that warmer temperatures promoted earlier fl owering. At the same time, autumn coeffi cients were generally smaller and positive, indicating that some vernalisation requirement was necessary but also that the autumn infl uence was smaller than that of spring. Whilst the high number of comparisons suggests that some model terms would be included by chance alone, only the model for the autumn crocus looks peculiar, with a strong, positive infl uence of the previous autumn. Th e result of summing all of the regression coeffi cients together (see Table 2) suggests a response to warming of 2–10 days per °C, the greatest response being shown by the “midseason” species. Only the autumn crocus produces a positive response, suggesting that the remaining species would all fl ower earlier, sometimes substantially so, under climate warming. Figure 3 shows the response of all 25 events to the single monthly CET to which they are most closely correlated. Although most regression models included multiple terms, the temperature for a single month is used for simplicity because display against several months simultaneously is not straightforward. Also in Fig. 3, the response of the autumn crocus to the June CET is shown, confi rming that a negative response to summer temperature does exist, albeit apparently overwhelmed by the eff ect of the previous autumn. Finally, in Fig. 3, horsechestnut fl owering times are shown in relation to the mean March–May CET. A comparison with the simpler relationship with the April CET confi rms that relationships are tighter when the temperatures of many months are considered together. B875Chapter03.indd 44 B875Chapter03.indd 44 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA Results — Vocabulary 135 Now do the same in your target articles. We hope you obtain good confi rmation of the model and can answer the three questions at the beginning of this section: • How do I start this section What type of sentence should I begin with • What type of information should be in this section, and in what order • How do I end this section 3.4 Vocabulary In order to complete the information you need to write this section of your paper you now need to fi nd appropriate vocabulary for each part of the model. Th e vocabulary in this section is taken from over 600 research articles in diff erent fi elds, all of which were written by native speakers and published in science journals. Only words/phrases which appear frequently have been included; this means that the vocabulary lists contain words and phrases which are considered normal and acceptable by both writers and editors. In the next section we will look at vocabulary for the following seven areas of the model: 1. REVISITING THE RESEARCH AIM/EXISTING RESEARCH Th is includes ways to remind the reader of what was said earlier. You should signal this (As mentioned earlier,) and then use the same words or phrases that you used originally — probably in the Introduction — to create an ‘echo’ for the reader. 2. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF RESULTS Th is includes ways to introduce the general pattern or trend of your results so that the reader knows what to expect. Phrases like in most cases are common here. 3. INVITATION TO VIEW RESULTS You can’t always write Figure 1 shows… Figures and tables don’t always show things; sometimes they present things or summarise things. B875Chapter03.indd 45 B875Chapter03.indd 45 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA 136 Science Research Writing 4. SPECIFIC/KEY RESULTS IN DETAIL Th e language used to describe specifi c results includes both language which provides an objective description of the results (lower) and subjective, evaluative language (signifi cantly lower/slightly lower). 5. COMPARISONS WITH RESULTS IN OTHER RESEARCH Th is includes the language you may need to compare your results with those of other researchers, to use their results to confi rm/support yours and to compare your results with predictions, models or simulations. Phrases like is in line with and correlate well with are common here. 6. PROBLEMS WITH RESULTS Remember that research is not necessarily invalidated by inappropriate results, provided they are presented in a conventional, professional way. Phrases such as minor defi cit and not within the scope of this study will help you here. 7. POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS OF RESULTS Suggestions about what your results imply are a pivotal point in a paper, and signal the move towards the Discussion/Conclusion. Phrases such as Th is indicated/suggested/implied that and It seems therefore that are useful here; you can add some qualifying language as ‘weakeners’ if you want to reduce your risk and responsibility. 3.4.1 Vocabulary task Look through the Results sections in this unit and in each of your target articles. Underline or highlight all the words and phrases that you think could be used in each of the seven areas given above. A full list of useful language can be found on the following pages. Th is includes all the words and phrases you highlighted from the Results sections in this unit, together with some other common ones which you may have seen in your target articles. Underneath each list you will fi nd examples of how they are used. Read through the list and check the meaning of any you don’t know in the dictionary. Th is list will be useful for many years. B875Chapter03.indd 46 B875Chapter03.indd 46 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA Results — Vocabulary 137 3.4.2 Vocabulary for the Results section 1. REVISITING THE RESEARCH AIM/EXISTING RESEARCH as discussed previously, as mentioned earlier/before, as outlined in the introduction, as reported, in order to…, we examined… it is important to reiterate that… it is known from the literature that… it was predicted that… our aim/purpose/intention was to… since/because…, we investigated… the aforementioned theory/aim/prediction etc. to investigate…, we needed to… we reasoned/predicted that… Here are some examples of how these are used: • Since the angular alignment is critical, the eff ect of an error in orientation was investigated experimentally. • We reasoned that an interaction in one network between proteins that are far apart in the other network may be a technologyspecifi c artifact. • In earlier studies attempts were made to establish degradation rate constants by undertaking ozonation experiments. • Th e main purpose of this work was to test algorithm performance. • As mentioned previously, the aim of the tests was to construct a continuous crack propagation history. • In this work, we sought to establish a methodology for the synthesis of a benzoxazine skeleton. • It was suggested in the Introduction that the eff ective stress paths may be used to defi ne local bounding surfaces. B875Chapter03.indd 47 B875Chapter03.indd 47 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA 138 Science Research Writing GENERAL OVERVIEW OF RESULTS generally speaking, in general, in most/all cases, in the main, in this section, we compare/evaluate/present… it is apparent that in all/most/the majority of cases, it is evident from the results that… on the whole the overall response was… the results are divided into two parts as follows: using the method described above, we obtained… Here are some examples of how these are used: • It is apparent that both films exhibit typical mesoporous structures. • It is evident that these results are in good agreement with their FE counterparts. • In general, coeffi cients for months close to the mean fl owering data were negative. • Our confi dence scores have an overall strong concordance with previous predictions • On the whole, the strains and defl ections recorded from the FE model follow similar patterns to those recorded from the vacuum rig tests. • Levels of weight loss were similar in all cases. INVITATION TO VIEW RESULTS (data not shown) Figure 1: contains (Fig. 1) corresponds (to) (see also Fig. 1) demonstrates (see Fig. 1) displays (see Figs. 1–3) gives according to Fig. 1 illustrates as can be seen from/in Fig.1 lists B875Chapter03.indd 48 B875Chapter03.indd 48 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:46 AMFA Results — Vocabulary 139 as detailed in Fig.1 plots as evident from/in the fi gure presents as illustrated by Fig. 1 provides as indicated in. Fig.1 reports as listed in Fig.1 represents as shown in Fig.1 reveals as we can see from/in Fig.1… shows can be found in Fig.1 summarises can be identifi ed from/in Fig.1 can be observed in Fig. 1 can be seen from/in Figure 1 comparing Figs. 1 and 4 shows that… data in Fig. 1 suggest that… displayed in Fig. 1 evidence for this is in Fig. 1 from Fig. 1 it can be seen that… inspection of Fig. 1 indicates... is/are given in Fig.1 is/are represented (etc.) in is/are visible in Fig. 1 in Fig. 1 we compare/present etc…. results are given in Fig.1 we observe from Fig. 1 that… from means ‘can be deduced/concluded from’ the fi gure/table whereas in means that it actually ‘appears in’ the fi gure/table Here are some examples of how these are used: • Th e stress data in Fig. 18 indicate a more reasonable relationship. • Figure 3 illustrates the fi ndings of the spatial time activity modelling. • Th e overall volume changes are reported in Fig. 6(d). • Similar results were found aft er loading GzmA into the cells (data not shown). • Typical cyclic voltammograms can be seen in Fig. 1. • Comparing Figs. 1 and 4 shows that volumetric strains developed aft er pore pressure had dissipated. B875Chapter03.indd 49 B875Chapter03.indd 49 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AMFA 140 Science Research Writing • Th e rate constants shown in Table 1 demonstrate that the reactivity is much greater at neutral pH. • Th e results are summarised in Table 4. SPECIFIC/KEY RESULTS IN DETAIL When you look at your target articles, you will notice that it is harder to fi nd examples of the language used to provide an objective description of the results than it is to fi nd examples of the language used to provide a subjective description of the results, and that when it does occur, objective language is likely to be modifi ed by a subjective ‘addon’. For example, a phrase like slightly lower or much lower is found more oft en than lower on its own. Th is is because, as mentioned earlier, an objective description of the results does not tell readers anything they don’t already know from looking at the fi gure. If you are having diffi culty seeing the diff erence between objective and subjective language, remember that describing one level or quantity as being higher than another is an objective truth; to describe a level or quantity as high is a subjective evaluation. (i) Objective descriptions accelerate(d) is/are/was/were constant match(ed) all is/are/was/were diff erent none change(d) is/are/was/were equal occur(red) decline(d) is/are/was/were found peak(ed) decrease(d) is/are/was/were higher precede(d) delay(ed) is/are/was/were highest produce(d) drop(ped) is/are/was/were identical reduce(d) exist(ed) is/are/was/were lower remain(ed) constant expand(ed) is/are/was/were present remained the same fall/fell is/are/was/were seen rise/rose fi nd/found is/are/was/were unaff ected sole/ly increase(d) is/are/was/were unchanged vary/varied is/are/was/were uniform Numerical representations of percentages, levels, locations, amounts etc., i.e. a 2 increase are, of course, also ‘objective’. B875Chapter03.indd 50 B875Chapter03.indd 50 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AMFA Results — Vocabulary 141 Here are some examples of how these are used: • Th ere was a lower proportion of large particles present at lower pH. • As can be seen in Fig. 8, there were diff erent horizontal and vertical directional pseudofunctions. • As can be seen, in the second trial the level of switching among uninformed travellers was unchanged. • Th is kind of delamination did not occur anywhere else. • Th e CTOA dropped from its initial high value to a constant angle of 4º. • It eventually levelled off at a terminal velocity of 300 m/s. (ii) Subjective descriptions abundant(ly) imperceptible(ibly) remarkable(ably) acceptable(ably) important(ly) resembling adequate(ly) in particular, satisfactory almost in principle scarce(ly) appreciable(ably) inadequate serious(ly) appropriate(ly) interesting(ly), severe(ly) brief/(ly) it appears that sharp(ly) clear(ly) large(ly) signifi cant(ly) comparable (ably) likelihood similar considerable(ably) low simple(ply) consistent(ly) main(ly) smooth(ly) distinct(ly) marked(ly) somewhat dominant(ly) measurable(ably) steep(ly) dramatic(ally) mild(ly) striking(ly) drastic(ally) minimal(ly) strong(ly) equivalent more or less substantial(ly) essential(ly) most(ly) sudden(ly) excellent negligible(ibly) suffi cient(ly) excessive(ly) noticeable(ably) suitable(ably) exceptional(ly) obvious(ly) surprising(ly) extensive(ly) only tendency extreme(ly) overwhelming(ly) the majority of fair(ly) poor(ly) too + adjective few unexpected(ly) B875Chapter03.indd 51 B875Chapter03.indd 51 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AMFA 142 Science Research Writing general(ly) powerful(ly) unusual(ly) good quick(ly) valuable high(ly) radical(ly) very immense(ly) rapid(ly) virtual(ly) PLUS all the rest of the language from the frequency and quantity lists (Sections 3.2.2 and 3.2.3). Here are some examples of how these are used (including examples from the frequency and quantity lists): • In the majority of cases, SEM analysis revealed a considerably higher percentage of fi ne material. • As can be seen, the higher injection rate gave satisfactory results from all three methods. • Similar behaviour was observed in all cases, with no sudden changes. • It can be seen in Fig. 5 that the Kalman fi lter gives an excellent estimate of the heat released. • Th e eff ect on the relative performance was dramatic. • A striking illustration of this can be seen in Fig. 5. • Comparing Figs. 4 and 5, it is obvious that a signifi cant improvement was obtained in the majority of cases. • It can be observed from Fig. 5 that the patterns are essentially the same in both cases. • Figure 1 shows a fairly consistent material. • It can be observed from Fig. 2 that there was only a very small enhancement when H O was present. 2 2 COMPARISONS WITH OTHER RESULTS If you are referring to other research, make sure that the location of the reference citation or number is accurate or other researchers may end up ‘owning’ your work. Remember that the right place for a research reference is not necessarily at the end of a sentence. B875Chapter03.indd 52 B875Chapter03.indd 52 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AMFA Results — Vocabulary 143 as anticipated is/are better than as expected, is/are in good agreement as predicted by… is/are identical (to) as reported by… is/are not dissimilar (to) compare well with is/are parallel (to) concur is/are similar (to) confi rm is/are unlike consistent with match contrary to prove corroborate refute correlate reinforce disprove support inconsistent with validate in line with verify Many of these can be modifi ed to match the level of certainty you want to express by adding expression such as: It seems that It appears that It is likely that (See Section 3.2.4 for more of these.) Here are some examples of how these are used: • It is evident that the SFS results obtained here are in exceptionally good agreement with existing FE results. • Distributions are almost identical in both cases. • Our concordance scores strongly confi rm previous predictions. • We see that the numerical model tends to give predictions that are parallel to the experimental data from corresponding tests. • Th ese results demonstrate that improved correlation with the experimental results was achieved using the new mesh. • Th is is consistent with results obtained in 1. B875Chapter03.indd 53 B875Chapter03.indd 53 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AMFA 144 Science Research Writing • Th e results are qualitatively similar to those of earlier simulation studies. • Th ese trends are in line with the previously discussed structure of the of the ferrihydrite aggregates. PROBLEMS WITH RESULTS Remember that research is not necessarily invalidated by inappropriate results, provided they are presented in a conventional, professional way. Th e vocabulary below will help you to achieve this. minimise the problem/focus on suggest reasons for the problem good results may/could/might have been (a) preliminary attempt or despite this, was/were: however, immaterial beyond the scope of this study incomplete caused by infi nitesimal diffi cult to (simulate) insignifi cant due to less than ideal hard to (control) less than perfect inevitable (a) minor defi cit/limitation it should be noted that… negligible not attempted nevertheless not examined not always reliable not explored in this study not always accurate not investigated not ideal not the focus of this paper not identical not within the scope of this study not completely clear possible source(s) of error not perfect unavoidable not precise unexpected not signifi cant unfortunately of no consequence unpredictable of no/little signifi cance unworkable only unavailable reasonable results were obtained B875Chapter03.indd 54 B875Chapter03.indd 54 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AMFA Results — Vocabulary 145 room for improvement off er a solution slightly (disappointing) further work is planned (a) slight mismatch/limitation future work should… somewhat (problematic) future work will… (a) technicality in future, care should be taken unimportant in future, it is advised that… Remember that the phrase future work should is used to suggest a direction for the research community, whereas future work will tells readers that this is your next project. Here are some examples of how these are used: • Th e correlation between the two methods was somewhat less in the case of a central concentrated point load. • It should, however, be noted that in FE methods, the degree of mesh refi nement may aff ect the results. • Nevertheless, this eff ect is only local. • Full experimental data was only obtained at one location. • Reasonable results were obtained in the fi rst case, and good results in the second. • It is diffi cult to simulate the behaviour of the joints realistically. • Although this was not obtained experimentally, it can be assumed to exist. • Future work should therefore include numerical diff usion eff ects in the calculation of permeability. • Th is type of control saturation is fairly common and therefore of no signifi cance. Here is an interesting table. It is supposed to be funny, but as you can see, it refl ects a set of shared assumptions and a kind of ‘code’ used in the research community. WHEN YOU WRITE THIS… DO YOU MEAN THIS It has long been known that… I can’t remember the reference Th is is of great theoretical and Th is is interesting to me practical importance B875Chapter03.indd 55 B875Chapter03.indd 55 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AMFA 146 Science Research Writing It has not been possible to Th e experiments didn’t work out provide defi nite answers to these questions High purity/very high purity/ Composition unknown extremely high purity r Th ee of the samples were chosen Th e results of the others didn’t for detailed study make sense, so we ignored them Typical results are shown Only the best results are shown Although some detail has been It is impossible to tell much from lost in reproduction, it appears to the original micrograph be clear from the original micro graph that… Agreement with the predicted Agreement with the predicted curve was: curve was: perfect good excellent fair good poor reasonably good very poor satisfactory awful fair really awful not perfect imaginary as good as can be expected nonexistent Th ese results will be reported at a I might get round to this later date sometime if I don’t change careers It is suggested that… I think that… It is believed that… It seems that… B875Chapter03.indd 56 B875Chapter03.indd 56 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:47 AMFA Results — Vocabulary 147 It is clear that much additional I don’t understand it work is required before a complete understanding can be reached Unfortunately, a quantitative Neither does anyone else theory to account for these eff ects has not yet been formulated Correct within an order of Wrong magnitude It is hoped that this work will Th is paper isn’t very good, but stimulate further research neither is anyone else’s It is obvious …but impossible to prove POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS OF RESULTS At some stage (usually late) in the Results, it is appropriate to provide a general explanation or interpretation of what your results might mean. Th is is oft en the pivotal point in a paper, and signals the move towards the Discussion/Conclusion. Choose your verb tense carefully. You can use the Present Simple or the Past Simple. Because the Present Simple is the tense used to express permanent truths and facts, using the Present Simple will give your sentence the status of a fact. Using the Present Simple therefore ‘unlocks’ your interpretation from your research and enhances its truthvalue (We found that x occurs, which indicate/suggests that y causes z), If you are less confi dent, use the Past Simple (We found that x occurred, which indicated/ suggested that y caused z). Notice how many words from the list of vocabulary used to describe causal relationships are found here (see Section 3.2.4). B875Chapter03.indd 57 B875Chapter03.indd 57 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AMFA 148 Science Research Writing apparently it is logical that could be due to it is thought/believed that could be explained by it seems that could account for it seems plausible (etc.) that could be attributed to likely could be interpreted as may/might could be seen as means that evidently perhaps imply/implies that possibly/possibility indicate/indicating that potentially in some circumstances presumably is owing to probably is/are associated with provide compelling evidence is/are likely seem to is/are linked to suggest(ing) that is/are related to support the idea that it appears that tend to it could be concluded that… tendency it could be inferred that unlikely it could be speculated that there is evidence for it could be assumed that we could infer that it is conceivable that we have confi dence that it is evident that would seem to suggest/indicate could can be replaced by may or might or sometimes can; there is a grammar section on these modal verbs in the next unit. Here are some examples of how these are used: • Th is suggests that silicon is intrinsically involved in the precipitation mechanism. • Th ese curves indicate that the eff ective breadth is a minimum at the point of application of the load. • Empirically, it seems that alignment is most sensitive to rotation in depth. • Only the autumn crocus produced a positive response, suggesting that other species would fl ower earlier under climate warming. B875Chapter03.indd 58 B875Chapter03.indd 58 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AMFA Results — Writing a Results Section 149 • It could be inferred therefore that these may have reacted with ozone to form organic acids, such as formic acid. • Th is indicates that no signifi cant crystalline transformations occurred during sintering. • It is therefore speculated that at pH 7.5 a major part of the reaction was via hydroxyl radical attack. • It is apparent that this type of controller may be more sensitive to plant/model mismatch than was assumed in simulation studies. • Th e results seem to indicate that this causes the behaviour to become extremely volatile. • It is evident that the ψ at midspan increases with the increasing r. In your native language you intuitively choose words and phrases which refl ect exactly the appropriate strength of your claim and the level of risk you want to take in stating it. You need to be able to do this in English, both in this section and in the Discussion/Conclusion. Th e sentence We found that sunbathing causes cancer expresses a very strong claim, but you can communicate a weaker form of it in many diff erent ways. Here are some examples: We found that sunbathing is related to the onset of cancer. We found that sunbathing was related to the onset of cancer. We found that sunbathing may have been related to the onset of cancer. We found evidence to suggest that sunbathing may have been related to the onset of cancer. We found evidence to suggest that in some cases/in many cases, sunbathing may have been related to the onset of cancer. We found evidence to suggest that in some cases, excessive sunbathing may have been related to the onset of certain types of cancer. It is thought that excessive sunbathing may sometimes be considered as contributing to the onset of certain types of cancer. 3.5 Writing a Results Section In the next task, you will bring together and use all the information in this unit. You will write a Results section according to the model, using the grammar and vocabulary you have learned, so make sure that you have the model (Section 3.3.3) and the vocabulary (Section 3.4) in front of you. B875Chapter03.indd 59 B875Chapter03.indd 59 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AMFA 150 Science Research Writing Th roughout this unit you have seen that conventional science writing is easier to learn, easier to write and easier for others to read than direct translations from your own language or more creative writing strategies. You have learned the conventional model of a Results section and collected the vocabulary conventionally used. Your sentence patterns should also be conventional; use the sentences you have read in your target articles and in the Results printed here as models for the sentence patterns in your writing, and adapt them for the task. Follow the model exactly this time. Aft er you have practised it once or twice you can vary it to suit your needs. However, you should always use it to check Results sections you have written so that you can be sure that the information is in an appropriate order and that you have done what your readers expect you to do in this section. Although a model answer is provided in the Key, you should try to have your own answer checked by a native speaker of English if possible, to make sure that you are using the vocabulary correctly. 3.5.1 Write a Results section Imagine that you have just completed a research project which has been investigating a possible link between UFO (Unidentifi ed Flying Object) sightings and earthquake prediction. Th e task in this exercise is to evaluate your data and fi ndings as if you were writing the Results section of a research paper. In your Introduction you stated that various theories have been suggested for the increase in the number of UFO sightings immediately prior to an earthquake. You claim that it is possible that the increase in the number of sightings during the period immediately prior to an earthquake can be used to predict when an earthquake is likely to occur. In your Methodology, you described how you collected data and assessed it on the basis of certain criteria. Now you will present and evaluate this data in the Results. Using Table 1 below, write the Results section of this paper. Th e title of your research paper is Th e earthquake lights theory: an analysis of earthquakerelated UFO sightings. You should write approximately 300– 400 words. If you get stuck and don’t know what to write next, use the model and the vocabulary to help you move forward. Don’t look at the model answer until you have fi nished writing. As usual, you can make up facts and references for this exercise. B875Chapter03.indd 60 B875Chapter03.indd 60 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AMFA Results — Writing a Results Section 151 Table 1: UFO sightings within 300 km of epicentre. Country UFO sightings Earthquake Average Description for 7 days magnitude weekly of UFO prior to UFO earthquake sightings Russia 55 3.2 11 Green ball of light India 15 4.4 18 Fast moving disc Australia 120 6.0 30 White fl ashes of light USA 275 5.6 75 Clusters of highspeed light Canada 42 2.6 6 Bluegreen eggshaped object 3.5.2 Key Here is a sample answer. When you read it, think about which part of the model is represented in each sentence. Results Based on the assumption that the timing of UFO sightings may be 2 of signifi cance, the aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between the number of UFO sightings close to the epicentre during the period immediately prior to an earthquake, and the earthquakes that follow. Th e process of evaluating UFO sightings is complex and timeconsuming. Checks with police, air traffi c control operators B875Chapter03.indd 61 B875Chapter03.indd 61 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AMFA 152 Science Research Writing Table 1: UFO sightings within 300 km of epicentre. Country UFO sightings Earthquake Average Description for 7 days magnitude weekly of UFO prior to the UFO earthquake sightings Russia 44 3.2 11 Green ball of light India 15 4.4 18 Fastmoving disc Australia 90 6.0 30 White fl ashes of light USA 275 5.6 75 Clusters of highspeed light Canada 48 3.6 6 Bluegreen eggshaped object and meteorologists were performed. Where possible, witnesses were interviewed and videos of the area was examined in order to eliminate as many conventional explanations as possible, such as 2,4,11 satellites, meteors, space debris and even bird fl ocks. All the 4 cases were documented using the procedure followed by Vader 11 and results are displayed in Table 1. Th e Richter scale was used to measure magnitude. It is evident from the results that overall, there was a marked increase in sightings during the seven days prior to the earthquake. Th ese results are in line with those of Kenobi et al. 9 (2004), who noted a mean fourfold increase worldwide. In Russia and the USA, for example, the number of sightings increased approximately fourfold during the week preceding the earthquake, and in Canada the increase was even more dramatic. Although the B875Chapter03.indd 62 B875Chapter03.indd 62 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AMFA Results — Writing a Results Section 153 number of sightings is low in Canada, this may have been due to a low national interest in UFOs; in addition, the earthquake took place in a sparselypopulated area of the country. It is signifi cant that almost all the participants in each country gave exactly the same description of ‘their’ UFO, and that these descriptions were noticeably diff erent from those obtained in other countries. It appears from this evidence that the period immediately prior to earthquake activity was associated with an increase in the number of UFO sightings. However, this work represents only a preliminary attempt to establish such a link. Th e actual relationship between the two may be more complex; for example, it is possible that because a Star Wars fi lm was released in the USA during the period under study, the number of sightings was higher that week without any real change in UFO activity. Th ese results nevertheless suggest that monitoring UFO activity may provide useful input for earthquake prediction strategies. B875Chapter03.indd 63 B875Chapter03.indd 63 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AM 12/1/2009 10:44:48 AMFA 154 Unit 4 ✏ Writing the Discussion/Conclusion 4.1 Structure Th e title of this subsection varies from journal to journal. As noted in Unit 3, some journals end with a subsection titled Discussion, some end with a subsection titled Results and Discussion and others end with a subsection titled Conclusions. In the fi rst two cases the elements which need to be included in the Discussion are similar. Where there is a Conclusions section, it is short, usually comprising one or two paragraphs focusing on specifi c aspects of the Discussion. Th e graphic representation at the beginning of each unit is symmetrical because many of the elements of the Introduction occur again in the Discussion/Conclusion in (approximately) reverse order. Th e Introduction moves from a general, broad focus to the narrower ‘report’ section of the paper, and the Discussion/Conclusion moves away from that narrow section to a wider, more general focus. Th e Discussion looks back at the points made in the Introduction on the basis of the information in the central report section. Let us look again at the four components of the Introduction: 1 ESTABLISH THE IMPORTANCE OF YOUR FIELD PROVIDE BACKGROUND FACTS/INFORMATION (possibly from research) DEFINE THE TERMINOLOGY IN THE TITLE/KEY WORDS PRESENT THE PROBLEM AREA/CURRENT RESEARCH FOCUS B875Chapter04.indd 1 B875Chapter04.indd 1 12/11/2009 8:48:41 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:41 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Structure 155 2 PREVIOUS AND/OR CURRENT RESEARCH AND CONTRIBUTIONS 3 LOCATE A GAP IN THE RESEARCH DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM YOU WILL ADDRESS PRESENT A PREDICTION TO BE TESTED 4 DESCRIBE THE PRESENT PAPER When you started the Introduction, you helped your readers move into the research article by establishing that the topic was a signifi cant topic, providing background information and so on. Following the same pattern in reverse, you end the Discussion/Conclusion by helping your readers move out of the article. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION MATERIALS/ METHODS (what you did/used) central report section RESULTS (what you found/saw) DISCUSSION/ CONCLUSION Fig. 1. Th e shape of a research article or thesis. B875Chapter04.indd 2 B875Chapter04.indd 2 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AMFA 156 Science Research Writing In the Introduction, you wrote about the work of other researchers, creating a kind of research map for your readers so that they could see what type of work existed in this fi eld; in the Discussion/Conclusion you locate your study in relation to that research map. You then went on in the Introduction to locate a gap in the research or describe a problem associated with existing research; in the Discussion/Conclusion, you are expected to say to what extent you have responded to that gap or solved that problem. At the end of the Introduction you wrote about the present paper, creating an interface with the content of your own work so that you could move the reader on to the central report section of your paper; in the Discussion/ Conclusion, as we will see, it is common to begin by revisiting some aspect of your work, so as to create that interface in reverse and enable you to move away from the central report section. So as you can see, when we come to ask our three questions: • How do I start the Discussion/Conclusion section What type of sentence should I begin with • What type of information should be in this section, and in what order • How do I end this section although you may think that you have no idea of how to write the Discussion/Conclusion, you actually know a lot about what to include and in what order. Read the Discussion/Conclusion section below. Th e title of the paper is: Cognitivebehavioural stress management (CBSM) skills and quality of life in stressrelated disorders. Don’t worry if the subject matter is not familiar to you or if you have diffi culty understanding some of the words, especially technical terms such as CognitiveBehavioural. Just try to get a general understanding at this stage and familiarise yourself with the type of language used. Cognitivebehavioural stress management (CBSM) skills and quality of life in stressrelated disorders. Discussion 1 Prior work has documented the eff ectiveness of psychosocial intervention in improving quality of life (QoL) and reducing B875Chapter04.indd 3 B875Chapter04.indd 3 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Structure 157 18 stress in patients suff ering from various disorders; Epstein, for example, reports that orthopedic patients participating in a two week multimedia intervention programme improved across several QoL indices, including interpersonal confl ict and mental health. 2 However, these studies have either been shortterm studies or have not focused on patients whose disorder was stressrelated. 3 In this study we tested the extent to which an extended three month stress management programme improved QoL among a group of patients being treated for stressrelated skin disorders such as eczema. 4 We found that in virtually all cases, participation in our threemonth stress management programme was associated with substantial increases in the skills needed to improve QoL. 5 Th ese fi ndings extend those of Kaliom, confi rming that a longer, more intensive period of stressmanagement training tends to produce more eff ective skills than when those skills are input over a shorter period via information transfer media such as leafl ets and presentations (Kaliom et al., 2003). 6 In addition, the improvements noted in our study were unrelated to age, gender or ethnic background. 7 Th is study therefore indicates that the benefi ts gained from stressmanagement intervention may address QoL needs across a wide range of patients. 8 Most notably, this is the fi rst study to our knowledge to investigate the eff ectiveness of extended psychosocial intervention in patients whose disorder is itself thought to be stressrelated. 9 Our results provide compelling evidence for longterm involvement with such patients and suggest that this approach appears to be eff ective in counteracting stress that may exacerbate the disorder. 10 However, some limitations are worth noting. 11 Although our hypotheses were supported statistically, the sample was not reassessed once the programme was over. 12 Future work should therefore include followup work designed to evaluate whether the skills are retained in the long term and also whether they continue to be used to improve QoL. B875Chapter04.indd 4 B875Chapter04.indd 4 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AMFA 158 Science Research Writing 4.2 Grammar and Writing Skills Th is section deals with a complex language area which is important in the Discussion section: MODAL VERBS. Th e modal verbs that are commonly used in science writing are may, might, could, can, should, ought to, need to, have to and must. Modal verbs which are not used in formal science writing, such as the use of can or may for ‘permission’ (e.g. Can I borrow your pen) are not discussed here. Modal verbs are oft en used to modify the ‘truth value’ of a sentence. In a sentence like: Th e drop in pressure was due to a crack in the pipe. there is no modal verb — you are telling your reader what caused the drop in pressure, and you have empirical evidence to prove it. If, however, you write that: Th e drop in pressure may have been due to a crack in the pipe. you are off ering a possible cause for the drop in pressure; perhaps it was due to a crack in the pipe — and perhaps not. If you write Th e drop in pressure must have been due to a crack in the pipe. you are saying that you are virtually certain that the drop in pressure was caused by a crack in the pipe, but you do not actually have evidence to prove it. Being certain that something is true and knowing it to be true are not the same thing at all. For example, you would not look at your watch and say ‘It must be ten o’ clock’ or ‘I’m certain it is ten o’ clock’ — you would simply say ‘It is ten o’ clock’. You would be more likely to say ‘It must be ten o’ clock’ when you aren’t wearing a watch — in other words, if you aren’t really sure, or you lack empirical evidence. Although using the modal verb must seems to give the sentence more power, it also communicates an absence of proof. Modal verbs are particularly useful in the Results and Discussion sections. In these sections you are writing about the reasons, interpretations and implications of your results and you oft en need to communicate that something is a possible reason, or an obvious interpretation or a probable B875Chapter04.indd 5 B875Chapter04.indd 5 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Grammar and Writing Skills 159 implication. Here is a typical sentence from a (combined) Results and Discussion section: Th e kinetics can be described by these equations, suggesting that the electrons are transferred directly. Th is might involve a supercharge mechanism, but the data could also be described by electron transfer via a hopping mechanism. As a short exercise to start thinking about the way these verbs work, try to match the modal verbs in Column A to their meanings in Column B. Most of the modal verbs can be used for more than one meaning. AB ABLE/CAPABLE He … go home by himself. (He is able to go home by himself.) POSSIBLE/OPTIONAL 1. SHOULD He … go home. (It is possible that he will go home.) 2. MUST 3. CAN PROBABLE/LIKELY He … be home soon. 4. OUGHT TO (He will probably be home soon.) 5. MAY VIRTUALLY CERTAIN He … be at home. 6. COULD (It is virtually certain that he is at home.) B875Chapter04.indd 6 B875Chapter04.indd 6 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AMFA 160 Science Research Writing AB 7. NEED TO ADVISABLE He… go home. 8. MIGHT (I advise him to go home.) NECESSARY 9. HAVE TO He … go home. (It is necessary for him to go home.) Now check your answers with this Key: CAN ABLE/CAPABLE (He can go home by himself.) MAY POSSIBLE/OPTIONAL MIGHT (He may/might/could/can be at home,) COULD CAN SHOULD PROBABLE/LIKELY OUGHT TO (He should/ought to be home soon.) MUST VIRTUALLY CERTAIN HAVE TO (He must/has to be at home.) SHOULD ADVISABLE OUGHT TO (He should/ought to go home.) MUST NECESSARY NEED TO (He must/needs to/has to go home.) HAVE TO B875Chapter04.indd 7 B875Chapter04.indd 7 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:46 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Grammar and Writing Skills 161 Th ere are two reasons why these verbs are diffi cult to use. First of all, as you can see, some modal verbs have more than one meaning. Th erefore when you use a verb like should, make sure you know whether you mean that something is likely to happen (or to have happened), or whether you mean that it is advisable for it to happen. Second, most modal verbs do not follow standard grammar rules. Some disappear and others change their meaning in the negative, or in a diff erent tense. For example, He must go home means the same as He has to go home, but He must not go home means that he is not allowed to go home, which is not the same as He doesn’t have to go home. Here is a table showing how each of these modal verbs works in the past tense and in the negative, with examples. Th e table does not deal with every possible use of every modal verb. Th e modal verb may, for example, is also used to request permission (May I borrow your pen) but you are unlikely to need this in science research writing. As the function of this book is to help you write an accurate and acceptable research article, the information in this section has been limited to what you need. 1. ABILITY/CAPABILITY Present CAN Th is soft ware can distinguish Simple between diff erent viruses. Present CANNOT Until 18 months a child cannot use Simple symbols to represent objects. negative Past Simple COULD It was found that the gun could shoot accurately even at 300 meters. COULD HAVE If we had extended the time period we could have produced more crystals. Past Simple COULD NOT 1n 1990, 80 of households could negative not receive digital television. COULD NOT Th e subjects reported that they HAVE could not have fallen asleep without medication. B875Chapter04.indd 8 B875Chapter04.indd 8 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA 162 Science Research Writing Notes: • Th e modal verb can only forms these two tenses when it refers to ABILITY or CAPABILITY. If you need other tenses, you will need to switch to be capable of or be able to, i.e. It is believed that this soft ware will eventually be capable of distinguishing between diff erent viruses. • could means ‘was generally capable of doing/able to do something in the past’, whereas was able to is used in relation to specifi c past events or past occasions, i.e. Th e result suggests that in this case, the viruses were able to multiply freely. If you’re not sure whether to use can or be able to, use be able to — it’s safer. 2. POSSIBILITY/OPTIONS Present MAY A rubber seal Simple MIGHT may/might/could/can be COULD useful at this location. CAN Present MAY NOT A rubber seal may not/might Simple MIGHT NOT not be useful at this location. negative (but not COULD NOT or CANNOT) Past Simple MAY HAVE e fall in p Th ressure may have MIGHT HAVE been/might have been/could COULD HAVE have been caused by leakage. (but not CAN HAVE) Past Simple MAY NOT HAVE e fall in p Th ressure may not Negative MIGHT NOT HAVE have been/might not have (but not COULD NOT been caused by leakage. HAVE or CANNOT HAVE) Notes: • Th e word ‘well’ is sometimes added to communicate a stronger belief in the possibility: Th is may well be due to leakage. B875Chapter04.indd 9 B875Chapter04.indd 9 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Grammar and Writing Skills 163 • might is slightly weaker than may. • Interestingly, can not and cannot don’t mean the same thing at all can not means possibly not in the same way as may not or might not, but it is rarely used except in structures such as ‘this can not only damage the sample, it may even destroy it completely’. cannot, on the other hand, means something completely diff erent: it doesn’t mean possibly not, it means impossible. could not, cannot, could not have and cannot have all fall into this category. In sentences like: We realise that this cannot be due to a change in pressure. We realised that this could not be due to a change in pressure. We realise that this cannot have been due to a change in pressure. We realised that this could not have been due to a change in pressure. Th e writer is not saying ‘possibly not’, s/he is saying ‘impossible’. 3. PROBABILITY/BELIEF/EXPECTATION Present SHOULD Th e material should remain Simple OUGHT TO stable if it is kept below 30°C. Present SHOULD NOT Th e material should not Simple decompose unless heated negative OUGHT NOT TO above 30°C. Past Simple SHOULD HAVE By the time the cobalt is added, the crystals should OUGHT TO HAVE have dissolved. Past Simple SHOULD NOT HAVE is was unexp Th ected; negative OUGHT NOT TO the material should not HAVE have decomposed at this temperature. Note: Although ought to means the same as should, it is less common in science writing, so examples have not been given. B875Chapter04.indd 10 B875Chapter04.indd 10 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA 164 Science Research Writing 4. VIRTUAL CERTAINTY Present MUST Our results indicate that Simple contamination must be due HAVE TO to the presence of sea water in the pipe. Present CANNOT It is clear that contamination Simple cannot/could not be due to negative the presence of sea water in the pipe. Past Simple MUST HAVE Our results indicate that contamination must have been due to the presence of sea water in the pipe. Past Simple CANNOT HAVE It was clear that Negative contamination could not be/ COULD NOT cannot have been/could not have been due to the presence COULD NOT HAVE of sea water in the pipe. Notes: • ‘virtual certainty’ modals communicate the fact that no other explanation is possible. • have to is less common in science writing, so examples have not been given. • must not means ‘not allowed/permitted’, it doesn’t mean ‘not possible’. To separate Categories 2, 3 and 4, imagine that it normally takes Professor Windblast about 20 minutes to walk home from his laboratory. Has he arrived home yet Well, you won’t know unless you call his house and speak to him, but • if he left the lab 18 minutes ago, he may/might/could be home by now (possibly) B875Chapter04.indd 11 B875Chapter04.indd 11 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Grammar and Writing Skills 165 • if he left 30 minutes ago, he should/ought to be home by now (probably) • if he left 50 minutes ago, he must be home by now (almost certainly) • if he left 5 minutes ago he cannot be home yet (almost certainly not) 5. ADVICE/ OPINION Present SHOULD Th e apparatus should be Simple disconnected from the mains OUGHT TO during repairs. Present SHOULD NOT Th is material should not be Simple exposed to sunlight negative OUGHT NOT TO Past Simple SHOULD HAVE Th e apparatus should have been disconnected from the OUGHT TO HAVE mains during repairs. Past Simple SHOULD NOT Th is material should not have Negative HAVE been exposed to sunlight OUGHT NOT TO HAVE Notes: • Although ought to means the same as should, it is less common in science writing, and that is why examples have not been given. • should have /ought to have usually refer to something that didn’t occur and should not have/ought not to have usually refer to something that did. B875Chapter04.indd 12 B875Chapter04.indd 12 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA 166 Science Research Writing 6. NECESSITY/OBLIGATION Present MUST Th e apparatus must/needs to/ Simple NEED TO has to be disconnected from the HAVE TO mains during repairs. Present NEED NOT Th e apparatus need not/does Simple DO NOT NEED TO not need to/does not have to negative DO NOT HAVE TO be disconnected from the mains during repairs. Past Simple NEEDED TO We needed to/had to heat the HAD TO valves before use. Past Simple DID NOT NEED TO We did not need to/did not have negative DID NOT HAVE TO to heat the valves before use. NEED NOT HAVE We need not have heated the valves before use. Notes: • We did not need to/did not have to heat the valves before use does not indicate whether or not you actually heated the valves, whereas we need not have heated the valves before use implies that you did heat them, but that it wasn’t necessary. • Must not means ‘not allowed’, it doesn’t mean ‘not necessary’. MODAL SENTENCES EXERCISE Complete the sentences using could, must, may, should, might, ought to, need to, can, have to. Make sure you use the right tense and don’t forget to use negative forms where necessary. 1. Perhaps the damage was caused by heat exposure. Th e damage 2. We felt sure that the damage was caused by heat exposure. Th e damage 3. No way was the damage caused by heat exposure. Th e damage 4. We don’t expect heat exposure to cause any damage. Heat exposure B875Chapter04.indd 13 B875Chapter04.indd 13 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 167 5. It’s possible that the damage wasn’t caused by heat exposure. Th e damage 6. I advise you to heat it. It 7. I don’t think it was a good idea to expose it to heat. It KEY 1. Th e damage may have been/might have been/could have been caused by heat exposure. 2. Th e damage must have been caused by heat exposure. 3. Th e damage cannot have been/could not have been caused by heat exposure. 4. Heat exposure should not cause any damage. 5. Th e damage may not have been/might not have been caused by heat exposure. 6. It should be heated. 7. It should not have been exposed to heat. 4.3 Writing Task: Build a Model 4.3.1 Building a model You are now ready to begin building a model of this section, First, write a short description of what the writer is doing in each sentence in the space provided below. Th e Key is on the next page. Once you have tried to produce your own model you can use the Key to help you write this section of a research article when you eventually do it on your own. B875Chapter04.indd 14 B875Chapter04.indd 14 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA 168 Science Research Writing GUIDELINES You should spend 30–45 minutes on this task. If you can’t think of a good description of the fi rst sentence, choose an easier one, for example Sentence 3, and start with that. Remember that your model is only useful if it can be transferred to other Discussions/Conclusions, so don’t include content words such as stress or you won’t be able to use your model to generate Discussions/Conclusions in your own fi eld. Remember that one way to fi nd out what the writer is doing in a sentence, rather than what s/he is saying, is to imagine that your computer has accidentally deleted it. What changes for you, as a reader, when it disappears If you press another key on the computer and the sentence comes back, how does that aff ect the way you respond to the information As mentioned in previous sections, another way to fi gure out what the writer is doing in a sentence — rather than what s/he is saying — is to look at the grammar and vocabulary clues. What is the tense of the main verb What is that tense normally used for Is it the same tense as in the previous sentence If not, why has the writer changed the tense What words has the writer chosen to use Don’t expect to produce a perfect model. You will modify your model when you look at the Key, and perhaps again when you compare it to the way Discussion/Conclusion sections work in your target articles. Cognitivebehavioural stress management (CBSM) skills and quality of life in stress related disorders In this sentence, Discussion the writer: 1 Prior work has documented the eff ectiveness 1 of psychosocial intervention in improving quality of life (QoL) and reducing stress in patients suff ering from various disorders; 18 Epstein, for example, reports that orthopedic patients participating in a two week multimedia intervention programme improved across several QoL indices, including interpersonal confl ict and mental health. B875Chapter04.indd 15 B875Chapter04.indd 15 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 169 2 However, these studies have either been short 2 term studies or have not focused on patients whose disorder was stressrelated. 3 In this 3 study we tested the extent to which an extended threemonth stress management programme improved QoL among a group of patients being treated for stressrelated skin disorders such as eczema. 4 We found that in virtually all cases, 4 participation in our threemonth stress management programme was associated with substantial increases in the skills needed to improve QoL. 5 Th ese fi ndings extend those 5 of Kaliom, confi rming that a longer, more intensive period of stressmanagement training tends to produce more eff ective skills than when those skills are input over a shorter period via information transfer media such as leafl ets and presentations (Kaliom et al., 2003). 6 In addition, 6 the improvements noted in our study were unrelated to age, gender or ethnic background. 7 Th is study therefore indicates that the benefi ts 7 gained from stressmanagement intervention may address QoL needs across a wide range of patients. 8 Most notably, this is the fi rst study to our 8 knowledge to investigate the eff ectiveness of extended psychosocial intervention in patients whose disorder is itself thought to be stress related. 9 Our results provide compelling 9 evidence for longterm involvement with such patients and suggest that this approach appears to be eff ective in counteracting stress that may exacerbate the disorder. 10 However, some limitations are worth noting. 10 B875Chapter04.indd 16 B875Chapter04.indd 16 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:47 AMFA 170 Science Research Writing 11 Although our hypotheses were supported 11 statistically, the sample was not reassessed once the programme was over. 12 Future work should 12 therefore include followup work designed to evaluate whether the skills are retained in the long term and also whether they continue to be used to improve QoL. 4.3.2 Key In Sentence 1 ‘Prior work has documented the eff ectiveness of psychosocial intervention in improving quality of life (QoL) and 18 reducing stress in patients suff ering from various disorders; Epstein, for example, reports that orthopedic patients participating in a two week multimedia intervention programme improved across several QoL indices, including interpersonal confl ict and mental health.’ the writer revisits previous research. Why should I begin the Discussion by revisiting previous research Th e start of a subsection should provide an easy entry to that subsection, and two conventional ways of doing this were discussed in the unit on Results: off ering an overview of the section by previewing the content of that subsection with some general statements and referring back to something from the previous sections to link it with the new one. In the Results section, we saw that the writer may begin by summarising or referring to the method or materials used. However, it is almost impossible to give an overview of the Discussion. Th is is because, unlike the Methodology or Results, the Discussion covers a range of areas. As a result, many Discussions/Conclusions begin by referring back to something from the previous sections. Th is can consist of: • revisiting the Introduction to restate the aims of the paper, important background factual information, the original prediction/theory/ assumption or the problem the study was designed to solve B875Chapter04.indd 17 B875Chapter04.indd 17 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 171 • revisiting the Methodology for a reminder of the rationale for the procedures followed or a summary of the procedures themselves • revisiting the Results for a summary of the results obtained by others or by the author Which should I choose One option is to begin by revisiting the most signifi cant aspects of your work. If the most important aspect of your paper is that it provides a strong response to the gap or problem that you set up in the Introduction, fulfi ls your aim and/or actually solves the problem, begin by recalling that gap, aim or problem from the Introduction. If the choice of soft ware you used or the procedure you followed or the modifi cations you made to existing procedures is the most important aspect of your work, begin by revisiting the Methodology. If your results are the most signifi cant aspect of the paper because they provide confi rmation of a theory or reveal something new, begin by revisiting the Results. Th e fi rst sentence should not be a random choice. You can use similar language — even similar sentences — to those in the section you have chosen to revisit. Th is will provide an ‘echo’ for the reader, and will help them recall that section. Here, the writer has responded strongly to the claims made in the literature and so uses language which is similar to the words and phrases used to state those claims in the Introduction. In Sentence 2 ‘However, these studies have either been shortterm studies or have not focused on patients whose disorder was stress related.’ the writer revisits the Introduction to recall specifi c weakness in the methodology used in previous studies. Since the contribution of this paper is the diff erence between the methodology in previous research and that used here, the writer fi rst revisits the gap/problem in the Introduction to recall the weaknesses in previous methodology which have been addressed in the present work, and then moves on to the specifi c diff erences between the methodology in the present work and that of previous work. B875Chapter04.indd 18 B875Chapter04.indd 18 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA 172 Science Research Writing It is also very common to include a repeat of important background factual information at this stage in the Discussion in order to re establish the rationale or motivation for the research. In fact background factual information is a surprisingly common feature throughout the Discussion. In Sentence 3 ‘In this study we tested the extent to which an extended threemonth stress management programme improved QoL among a group of patients being treated for stressrelated skin disorders such as eczema.’ the writer revisits the methodology used in this study. If I revisit the Methodology here, how much detail do I need to provide Using the same language as in the Methodology will help the reader to remember the principles of your method, and it is common to recall signifi cant features of your method here. However, although you can explore details of your method here, do not add new information. If information about your method is important enough to include in your research paper, it should fi rst be given where it belongs, in the Methodology, and just recalled here. What tense should I use to describe my methodology You can use the Past Simple, the Present Simple or the Present Perfect to recall your methodology or results (In the current case HI is used/has been used/was used to defi ne the size and shape of the turbulent structures). If you add a short Conclusion, the Present Perfect or Present Simple are common: We use/have used holographic data to reconstruct the threedimensional structure. In Sentence 4 ‘We found that in virtually all cases, participation in our threemonth stress management programme was associated with substantial increases in the skills needed to improve QoL.’ the writer revisits and summarises the results. B875Chapter04.indd 19 B875Chapter04.indd 19 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 173 Is this the same as an overview of the results If you provided an overview of the results early in the Results section, the content and even the structure of this sentence can be very similar. A sentence like this which summarises the results may also be needed — again using similar language and structure — in the Abstract (see the next unit on Abstracts). So why do I need to revisit or summarise the results here too If you look at the diagram at the start of this section and the reasons why it is symmetrical, you can see that one of the central functions of the Discussion is to go beyond the results, to lead the reader away from a direct and narrow focus on your results towards the conclusions and broader implications or generalisations that can be drawn from those results. Summarising the results provides an appropriate starting point for that process. In Sentence 5 ‘Th ese fi ndings extend those of Kaliom, confi rming that a longer, more intensive period of stressmanagement training tends to produce more eff ective skills than when those skills are input over a shorter period via information transfer media such as leafl ets and presentations (Kaliom et al., 2003).’ the writer shows where and how the present work fi ts into the research ‘map’ of this fi eld. Th is is a feature of the Discussion that has not occurred anywhere else. In the short literature review in the Introduction, you gave your reader a picture of the current state of research in your fi eld. You now need to show your reader how and where your study fi ts into that picture and in what way it changes or aff ects the research ‘map’ in this area. In the Discussion, it is your responsibility to make the relationship between your study and other work explicit. What are the possible ways in which my work could fi t into the picture of existing studies Your work may have used a diff erent method to produce similar results, which would aff ect the perception of existing methods; it may confi rm B875Chapter04.indd 20 B875Chapter04.indd 20 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA 174 Science Research Writing the results obtained in a previous study; it may contradict and therefore discredit results obtained in a previous study; it may off er a completely diff erent or new approach or it may, as in this case, extend the results and therefore confi rm the implications of previous studies. Th ere are many ways in which your work may fi t into the current research map, and these may become clearer when you look at the vocabulary for mapping later in this unit. How do I know which studies to map my work onto Can I mention other studies for the fi rst time in the Discussion Th roughout the Methodology and Results sections you have been comparing your study to existing work, and these studies are the ones you should focus on here. Although you can mention research that you have not mentioned before, it is not common to refer to a large number of studies for the fi rst time in the Discussion. You should determine exactly which studies are aff ected by your work, and keep these in front of your readers at various points in your paper so that you can refer to them again in the Discussion. In Sentence 6 ‘In addition, the improvements noted in our study were unrelated to age, gender or ethnic background.’ the writer recalls an aspect of the results that represents a positive achievement or contribution of this work. Another very important feature of the Discussion is a clear focus on the achievement or contribution of your work. Specify the nature of your achievements, using positive language that clearly presents the benefi ts or advantages. Don’t be shy about stating your achievements. Although you are aware of what is good about the work you have done and the results you have obtained, if you do not state it explicitly, the reader may not realise the value of your achievement. Isn’t it the same as mapping It’s similar in intention, but diff erent in content. Mapping shows where the achievement fi ts into the research picture in this fi eld, but the achievement B875Chapter04.indd 21 B875Chapter04.indd 21 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 175 itself is oft en stated separately so that the reader can see the value of what has been done and found in this study independently of how it aff ects the current state of knowledge. In Sentence 7 ‘Th is study therefore indicates that the benefi ts gained from stressmanagement intervention may address QoL needs across a wide range of patients.’ the writer focuses on the meaning and implications of the achievements in this work. If the implications of the results were already mentioned in the Results section, isn’t this repetitive In the unit on Results, we saw that at a late stage implications begin to be drawn from the results. It was noted that the fi rst comment on these implications (phrases such as suggesting that/indicating that) was described as a pivotal move that develops the direction of the research article away from the central ‘report’ section towards the Discussion/ Conclusion. A common mistake in Discussions is to fail to develop in this direction. It is not suffi cient to present a superfi cial interpretation that simply restates the results in diff erent language. In the Discussion it is your responsibility to suggest why results occurred as they did and off er an explanation of the mechanisms behind your fi ndings and observations. Th ese suggestions, explanations and implications are refi ned, developed and discussed here. One important diff erence between research writing and report writing is that the aim of research is not simply to obtain and describe results; it is to make sense of those results in the context of existing knowledge and to say something sensible and useful about their implications, i.e. what the results mean in that context. How do the results relate to the original question or problem Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results Readers need to know what they can reliably take away from your study, and it is your job to tell them. Saying what your results are is the central function of the Results section; talking about what they mean is the central function of the Discussion. B875Chapter04.indd 22 B875Chapter04.indd 22 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA 176 Science Research Writing What if I’m not sure myself about the implications of my results If you look at the way implications are stated in the Discussion, you will see that the language is exactly the same as the language used to state implications in the Results. It seems that/suggesting that/indicating that are common here, and there is a strong reliance on modal verbs such as may and could. Th is is because science research never reaches an endpoint where everything is known about a particular topic; the next piece of research will refi ne and develop the preceding one, and so on. As a result, most science writers are careful not to make unqualifi ed generalisations, and as you can see from the words in bold below, this writer is no exception. 4 We found that in virtually all cases, participation in our threemonth stress management programme was associated with substantial increases in the skills needed to improve QoL. 5 Th ese fi ndings extend those of Kaliom, confi rming that a longer, more intensive period of stressmanagement training tends to produce more eff ective skills than when those skills are input over a shorter period via information transfer media such as leafl ets and presentations (Kaliom et al., 2003). 6 In addition, the improvements noted in our study were unrelated to age, gender or ethnic background. 7 Th is study therefore indicates that the benefi ts gained from stressmanagement intervention may address QoL needs across a wide range of patients. In Sentence 8 ‘Most notably, this is the fi rst study to our knowledge to investigate the eff ectiveness of extended psychosocial intervention in patients whose disorder is itself thought to be stressrelated.’ the writer notes that one of the achievements or contributions of this work is its novelty. Th is sentence demonstrates that in some cases MAPPING and ACHIEVEMENT are very similar, since one of the signifi cant achievements of this work is precisely the fact that a study of this type has not been done before. It is diffi cult to be absolutely sure that noone has ever done a particular type of study until now, so before you make such a statement B875Chapter04.indd 23 B875Chapter04.indd 23 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 177 you should check as thoroughly as possible. Don’t rely only on the Internet. Th e information you get from the Internet will only be as good as your skill in looking for it, and it is unprofessional to make a mistake in a sentence like this. As we can see in Sentence 8, even aft er every eff ort has been made, the writer nevertheless includes the phrase to our knowledge in case a study has been overlooked accidentally. In Sentence 9 ‘Our results provide compelling evidence for longterm involvement with such patients and suggest that this approach appears to be eff ective in counteracting stress that may exacerbate the disorder.’ the writer refi nes the implications of the results, including possible applications. Developing the implications of your work includes looking at ways in which your results might be implemented or lead to applications in the future. In this case, the results imply that longterm involvement should be an aspect of future treatment. Suppose my work doesn’t have any obvious applications Many research studies don’t have obvious applications. However, it’s a good idea to check in two places before you give up on the idea that your work can be applied or implemented. First, look at the beginning of your Introduction, and the fi rst sentences and paragraphs of related work in your fi eld. Th is may help you see in what way the fi ndings in your paper can be used, because as we saw in the Introduction, the fi rst sentence oft en shows in what way this research area is important or useful. Another possible source is the Discussion section of published work in this fi eld. It is, however, possible that the work you’re involved in doesn’t have a clear application at this stage — or ever. Some fi elds, such as engineering, are more practical than others and research can have many functions — it may be intended to clarify a theory rather than seek an applicable method. You don’t need to search for or try to create applications where there are none. In Sentences 10 and 11 ‘However, some limitations are worth noting. Although our hypotheses were supported statistically, the sample was not reassessed once the programme was over.’ the writer describes the limitations which should direct future research. B875Chapter04.indd 24 B875Chapter04.indd 24 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA 178 Science Research Writing Th is is the third time that I mention limitations — fi rst in the Methodology, then in the Results, and now again here. How do I decide which limitations to focus on here Th e reason for mentioning the limitations of your study in the Discussion is to point out a direction for future work. You should therefore examine your study for limitations which can be addressed in future work, rather than limitations which are inherent to your research fi eld or problems which are unlikely to be solved in the near future. Try to approach this as an invitation to the research community to continue and make progress with the topic you have investigated. Notice that, as on previous occasions where limitations were mentioned, positive outcomes (our hypotheses were supported statistically) are mentioned close to the limitation in order to lessen its negative impact — in this case the positive outcome is mentioned in the same sentence. In Sentence 12 ‘Future work should therefore include followup work designed to evaluate whether the skills are retained in the long term and also whether they continue to be used to improve QoL.’ the writer suggests a specifi c area to be addressed in future work. Notice the use of therefore in Sentence 12 to link the limitation with future research. Why should I try to fi x the direction of future work — why not encourage people to decide for themselves One paper will not answer all possible questions in your research area, so when you are writing the Discussion, you should keep the broader picture in mind. Where should the research go next Th e best studies open up directions for research. Inviting the research community to follow your work in a specifi c way has many functions. First, it provides researchers with a clearly defi ned project, which is more attractive than a vague suggestion and therefore more likely to be carried out. Second, it encourages a line of direct continuity from your research and studies that follow directly from your own will cite your paper, which enhances the status of your study. In addition, a study which responds to the diffi culties B875Chapter04.indd 25 B875Chapter04.indd 25 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 179 or limitations of your work may provide you with useful data for your own current and future work. 4.3.3 Th e model Here are the sentence descriptions we have collected: In Sentence 1 the writer revisits previous research. In Sentence 2 the w riter revisits the Introduction to recall specifi c weakness in the methodology used in previous studies. In Sentence 3 the writer revisits the methodology used in this study. In Sentence 4 the writer revisits and summarises the results. In Sentence 5 the w riter shows where and how the present work fi ts into the research ‘map’ in this fi eld. In Sentence 6 the writer recalls an aspect of the results that represents a positive achievement or contribution of this work. In Sentence 7 the w riter focuses on the meaning and impli cations of the achievements in this work. In Sentence 8 the writer notes that one of the achievements or contributions of this work is its novelty. In Sentence 9 the writer refi nes the implications of the results, including possible applications. In Sentences 10 and 11 the w riter describes the limitations which should direct future research. In Sentence 12 the w riter suggests a specifi c area to be addressed in future work. We can streamline these so that our model has FOUR basic components. 1 REVISITING PREVIOUS SECTIONS SUMMARISING/REVISITING GENERAL OR KEY RESULTS 2 MAPPING (RELATIONSHIP TO EXISITING RESEARCH) B875Chapter04.indd 26 B875Chapter04.indd 26 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA 180 Science Research Writing 3 ACHIEVEMENT/CONTRIBUTION REFINING THE IMPLICATIONS 4 LIMITATIONS CURRENT AND FUTURE WORK APPLICATIONS 4.3.4 Testing the model Th e next step is to look at the way this model works in a real Discussion (but remember it may be called ‘Summary and Conclusions’ instead) and in the target articles you have selected. Here are some fulllength Discussions and Conclusions from real research articles. Read them through, and mark the model components (1, 2, 3 or 4) wherever you think you see them. For example, if you think the fi rst sentence corresponds to number 1 in the model, write 1 next to it, etc. On combining classifi ers 7 CONCLUSIONS Th e problem of combining classifi ers which use diff erent representations of the patterns to be classifi ed was studied. We have developed a common theoretical framework for classifi er combination and showed that many existing schemes can be considered as special cases of compound classifi cation where all the pattern representations are used jointly to make a decision. We have demonstrated that under diff erent assumptions and using diff erent approximations we can derive the commonly used classifi er combination schemes such as the product rule, sum rule, min rule, max rule, median rule, and majority voting. Th e various classifi er combination schemes were compared experimentally. A surprising outcome of the comparative study was that the combination rule developed under the most restrictive assumptions — the sum rule — outperformed other classifi er combinations schemes. To explain this empirical fi nding, we B875Chapter04.indd 27 B875Chapter04.indd 27 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:48 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 181 investigated the sensitivity of various schemes to estimation errors. Th e sensitivity analysis has shown that the sum rule is most resilient to estimation errors and this may provide a plausible explanation for its superior performance. Phosphorus removal by chemical precipitation in a biological aerated fi lter DISCUSSION Chemical dosing onto the top of the BAF produced excellent phosphorus removal effi ciencies compared to the removal obtained by biological uptake. Th e performance of the plant was unaff ected with respect to BOD, COD, suspended solids and TKN. In contrast with previous fi ndings, using an aluminium based reagent (Rogalla et al., 1990), the nitrifi cation process was signifi cantly aff ected. Th e use of spent pickle liquor dosing onto an activated sludge plant for phosphorus removal was also seen to aff ect nitrifi cation, especially at high doses (Bliss et al.,1994) although this waste product may contain contaminants toxic to nitrifying bacteria. Th e resulting reduction in nitrifi cation which occurred during chemical dosing of weight ratio 1:1.14 (P:Fe) coincided 3 per day) and the with the greatest BOD loading (1.74 kg/m 3 highest NH4 loading (0.4 kg/m per day). To achieve complete 3 nitrifi cation an average BOD loading of 1.6 kg/m per day has been suggested (Stensel et al., 1988), which was exceeded during this time. At higher BOD loadings the nitrifying bacteria may be outcompeted by the organisms responsible for carbon oxidation (Metcalf and Eddy Inc., 1979) and higher ammonia loadings can create extra pressure for the nitrifying bacteria. Th ese conditions may also explain the increased oxygen demand. A more extensive study of the eff ects of iron dosing on the nitrifi cation process may be required, although the increased BOD loading most likely accounts for the reduction in this process. Th e optimum chemical dose for phosphorus removal is dependant on the EC limit imposed, the stability of the process B875Chapter04.indd 28 B875Chapter04.indd 28 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA 182 Science Research Writing required and the capital/running costs available. Unfortunately, specifi c weight ratios could not be studied for any signifi cant period of time due to the variable concentration of incoming phosphorus. Th e use of Fuzzy logic systems (Bulgin, 1994), to adjust the chemical dose with respect to the incoming total phosphorus, would have removed this problem. Overall the most stable and eff ective weight ratio was 1:1.50 (P:Fe). Th is is lower than the optimum ferric chloride dose found previously (Stensel et al., 1988) of 1:2.00 (P:Fe), but a comparison of the performances of iron (II) and iron (III) salts would be useful. Although this produced the most stable effl uent quality, its performance was not signifi cantly diff erent from that produced by a dosing ratio of 1:1.25. Providing the iron (II) solution is changed regularly, because it was at the end of each period when the removal effi ciency deteriorated, a chemical dose ratio of 1:1.25 should be suffi cient to meet EC limits of 1 mg/litre. If, however, a limit of 2 mg/litre has to be met, the dosing ratio can be lower; 1:1.00 would be a suitable ratio . This optimum ratio is much lower than for other precipitants and processes. For example, the use of alum for phosphorus removal in aerated lagoons required a dosing ratio of 2.80:1 (weight ratio AI:P). Th is dose produced a 90 reduction of phosphorus on an average infl uent concentration of 4.80 mg/litre (Narasiah et al., 1991). Th e addition of ferric chloride to the aeration basin of an activated sludge plant rarely achieved 0.5 mg/litre phosphorus concentrations in the effl uent with weight ratios as high as 5.4:1 (Fe:P) (Wurhmann, 1968). Finally, the addition of sodium aluminate to the aeration basin of an activated sludge plant required doses of 1.7:1 (weight ratio AI:P) to produce a fi nal effl uent concentration of 1.5 mg/litre (Barth et al., 1968). In accordance with previous fi ndings (Stensel et al., 1988), chemical dosing had no signifi cant eff ect on headloss during operation of the BAF, even at the higher chemical doses. Further research investigating the eff ects of chemical dosing on fullscale BAFs may be benefi cial. Th e use of ferrous salts for phosphorus removal has produced good results on a pilotscale plant. Full scale chemical dosing with these salts has been practised for B875Chapter04.indd 29 B875Chapter04.indd 29 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 183 many years in Finland and Switzerland with similarly good results (Bundegaard and Th olander, 1978). Generalized thermodynamic perturbation theory for polyatomic fl uid mixtures. I. Formulation and results for chemical potentials VIII. CONCLUSIONS We have derived (Sec. III) exact results relating certain background pair correlation functions in a mixture to β∆µe. Th is derivation 13,14 makes contact with earlier results obtained by us, and clarifi es, 4–7 makes rigourous, and extends the approach of Stell and Zhou. Th e results hold for mixtures of arbitrary compositions and for both FHS and nonFHS systems. We have used thermodynamic arguments to develop a general EOS for mixtures of polyatomic molecules and their constituent atoms (Sec. IV), based solely on the idealassociated solution approximation (IASA). When the exact result for βµe ∆ from Sec. III is incorporated, this theory can be seen to be a generalization of the fi rstorder thermodynamic perturbation 2 originally developed for tangent fused theory of Wertheim, hardsphere mixtures. One form of this theory is based upon and requires for its implementation only thermodynamic information for the reference mixture, and the alternative form requires structural information for the reference system in the form of the background correlation function y(1, 2, … , m). Since information of the latter kind is very diffi cult to obtain (apart from the diatomic case), we generally advocate use of the former form of the theory. We note that the generalized theory accounts for diff erences in structural isomers of polymeric species, unlike 17 other approaches. We have demonstrated that alternative implementations of the generalized EOS for fusedhardsphere systems produce slightly diff erent results, depending on the way in which certain quantities are calculated (Sec. V). We showed that, for bonded hardsphere (BHS) systems, the thermodynamically based B875Chapter04.indd 30 B875Chapter04.indd 30 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA 184 Science Research Writing implementation yields results identical to those obtained by using 8 the Boublik–Nezbeda equation of state, and the alternative based upon structural information yields similar, but not exact, results. Th is sheds light on the reason for the accuracy of results obtained 2,9,6 by previous implementations of TPT1 for diatomic systems. We have derived expressions for the excess chemical potentials, consistent with the generalized EOS, for the components of mixtures of homonuclear polyatomic molecules and their constituent atoms (Sec. VI). Since the TPT and its generalizations have the practical drawback of requiring information concerning the properties of a reference mixture system, approximations implementable requiring only accurate knowledge of pure systems are more feasible. We have tested the results of the Lewis–Randall 10 rule approximation against those of other approximations and against some exact and nearexact results. It produces good results overall. We have presented new and more accurate results for the individual βµe and for βµe ∆ for the system of tangent diatomic FHS molecules with size ratio 0.6 (System B), using both conventional NVT Monte Carlo simulations and the reaction ensemble 11 method. For this system, the simulation results show that βµe ∆ is essentially independent of composition. Th e BN EOS was found to predict that β∆µe is exactly independent of composition. We conjecture that this result holds for all BHS systems. Th is result is in agreement with the fundamental approximation of the IASA. Optimal local discrimination of two multipartite pure states 7. Conclusion We have demonstrated that any two multipartite pure states can be inconclusively discriminated optimally using only local operations. We have also shown that this is possible for certain mixed states and certain regimes of conclusive discrimination. We then turned our attention to fi nding sets of entangled states that can be recreated locally, thus allowing any global discrimination fi gure of merit to be achieved locally. We fi nd that this is true for B875Chapter04.indd 31 B875Chapter04.indd 31 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing Task 185 the Schmidt correlated states, and, as a consequence, this is also for any two maximally entangled states. It would be interesting to know if there are many other states which can be locally recreated using other techniques. If this can be shown to apply to any two pure states, then we would know that two pure states can be distinguished optimally under any fi gure of merit using only local operations. Organic vapour phase deposition: a new method for the growth of organic thin fi lms with large optical nonlinearities 4. Conclusions In summary, we have presented a new technique, organic vapour phase deposition, for the growth of extremely pure, strongly NLO active fi lms of DAST via the chemical reaction of two organic vapors in a hotwall reactor. Analysis of the fi lms by NMR, Xray diff raction and second harmonic generation effi ciency indicates that they are chemically pure, crystalline, and exist in the monoclinic structure which has previously been shown to exhibit very large second order nonlinear optical eff ects. By using diff erent reactants, and with the appropriate combinations of bubblers and solid sources, OVPD can be applied to yield thin fi lms of many diff erent highly polar, NLPactive organic and organometallic salts, regardless of the high vapour pressures of the materials involved. To our knowledge, growth of such compounds has not previously been possible by established methods of thin fi lm growth. We expect this technique to open up an entirely new range of materials and numerous novel photonic device applications. Now do the same in your target articles. We hope you obtain good confi rmation of the model and can now answer the three questions at the beginning of this section: • How do I start this section What type of sentence should I begin with B875Chapter04.indd 32 B875Chapter04.indd 32 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA 186 Science Research Writing • What type of information should be in this section, and in what order • How do I end this section 4.4 Vocabulary In order to complete the information you need to write this section of your paper you now need to fi nd appropriate vocabulary for each part of the model. Th e vocabulary in this section is taken from over 600 research articles in diff erent fi elds, all of which were written by native speakers and published in science journals. Only words/phrases which appear frequently have been included; this means that the vocabulary lists contain words and phrases which are considered normal and acceptable by both writers and editors. In the next section we will look at vocabulary for the following areas of the model, apart from: 1. REVISITING PREVIOUS SECTIONS 2. SUMMARISING/REVISITING KEY RESULTS 3. REFINING THE IMPLICATION/S Since most of the vocabulary you need for these can be found in previous sections, there is no need here for additional vocabulary input; you can refer back to the vocabulary sections in the units on Introductions, Materials/ Methods and Results to fi nd the appropriate language. When you are REFINING THE IMPLICATIONS, use the appropriate language from the IMPLICATIONS vocabulary in the Results section and avoid conclusions and implications which are not fully supported by your data. 4. MAPPING (RELATIONSHIP TO EXISTING RESEARCH) Th is includes ways to show the reader where your contribution fi ts into the general research picture. Phrases like consistent with and provides support for are common here. 5. ACHIEVEMENT/CONTRIBUTION Your achievement/contribution is oft en stated in the Present Perfect, especially when you refer to it in the Conclusion. Sentences which begin We have demonstrated/described/investigated/developed/shown/studied/ focused on etc. are common here. B875Chapter04.indd 33 B875Chapter04.indd 33 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Vocabulary 187 6. LIMITATIONS/CURRENT AND FUTURE WORK Th ese oft en occur very close to each other (sometimes even in the same sentence) because the limitations of the present work provide directions and suggestions for future work. Vocabulary to describe LIMITATIONS can be found in previous sections; vocabulary for FUTURE WORK includes phrases such as should be replicated and further work is needed. 7. APPLICATIONS Your work may not have any direct or even indirect applications, but if it does, they are mentioned here. Relevant phrases include have potential and may eventually lead to. Including APPLICATIONS lets you show the value of your work beyond the narrow aims of your specifi c research questions. Both APPLICATIONS and FUTURE WORK provide an interface between your research article and the rest of the world and are therefore conventional ways of ending the research article. 4.4.1 Vocabulary task Look through the Discussions/Conclusions in this unit and in your target articles. Underline or highlight all the words and phrases that you think could be used in the seven areas above. A full list of useful language can be found on the following pages. Th is includes all the words and phrases you highlighted along with some other common ones. Read through them and check the meaning of any you don’t know in the dictionary. Th is list will be useful for many years. 4.4.2 Vocabulary for the Discussion/Conclusion 1. REVISITING PREVIOUS SECTIONS 2. SUMMARISING/REVISITING KEY RESULTS 3. REFINING THE IMPLICATIONS When you revisit these sections, don’t change the words in the sentences unnecessarily; your aim is to create an ‘echo’ that will remind the reader of what you said before, so repeating the same words and phrases is advantageous. If you begin by revisiting the Materials/Methods or the Introduction, you will probably also want to summarise or revisit important results in B875Chapter04.indd 34 B875Chapter04.indd 34 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA 188 Science Research Writing the Discussion/Conclusion. Your results are the key evidence in support of your conclusions, and it is helpful to keep these results clearly in your reader’s view. 4. MAPPING (RELATIONSHIP TO EXISTING RESEARCH) Th e selection of names and studies appearing in the Discussion/Conclusion is very signifi cant to your reader; they need to be able to group research projects together and understand how your study relates to and is diff erent from existing research. You should identify your ‘product’ in terms of the research ‘market’. You may also compare the work/approach of other researchers with yours in order to validate your work — or discredit theirs. Th is/Our study/method/result/ Th is/Our study: approach is: broadens analogous to challenges comparable to compares well (with) compatible with confi rms consistent with contradicts identical (to) corresponds to in contradiction to corroborates in contrast to diff ers (from) in good agreement (with) extends in line with expands signifi cantly diff erent (to/from) goes against the fi rst of its kind lends support to (very/remarkably) similar (to) mirrors unlike modifi es proves provides insight into provides support for refutes supports tends to refute verify B875Chapter04.indd 35 B875Chapter04.indd 35 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Vocabulary 189 Note: Don’t forget that a simple comparative (e.g. stronger/more accurate/ quicker etc.) is an eff ective way to highlight the diff erence between your work and other relevant work. Here are some examples of how these are used: • To the knowledge of the authors, the data in Figs. 4–6 is the fi rst of its kind. • Th e results of this simulation therefore challenge Laskay’s assumption that percentage porosity increases with increasing Mg levels. • Th e GMD method provides results that are comparable to existing clay hydration processes. • Similar fi lms on gold nanoparticles have also been found to be liquidlike. • Using this multigrid solver, load information is propagated faster through the mesh. • Our results are in general agreement with previous morphometric and DNA incorporation studies in the rat 2.6. 5 • Our current fi ndings expand prior work. • Th e system described in this paper is far less sensitive to vibration or mechanical path changes than previous systems. • Unlike McGowan, we did not identify 9cis RA in the mouse lung. 5. ACHIEVEMENT/CONTRIBUTION As you know, science writing does not generally permit the use of the exclamation mark (), but the vocabulary used to state your achievement or contribution can still communicate that the achievement is exciting. Th e vocabulary list has therefore been divided into two sections; the fi rst is a list of substitutes, which can be used when the achievement is very exciting, and the second is a list of slightly ‘cooler’ — but still positive — language. substitutions compelling overwhelming crucial perfect dramatic powerful excellent remarkable exceptional striking exciting surprising B875Chapter04.indd 36 B875Chapter04.indd 36 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA 190 Science Research Writing extraordinary undeniable ideal unique invaluable unusual outstanding unprecedented vital Positive language accurate Useful verbs: advantage appropriate assist attractive compare well with benefi cial confi rm better could lead to clear enable comprehensive enhance convenient ensure convincing facilitate correct help to costeff ective improve easy is able to eff ective off er an understanding of effi cient outperform encouraging prove evident provide a framework exact provide insight into feasible provide the fi rst evidence fl exible remove the need for important represent a new approach to lowcost reveal novel rule out productive solve realistic succeed in relevant support robust yield B875Chapter04.indd 37 B875Chapter04.indd 37 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Vocabulary 191 simple stable straightforward strong successful superior undeniable useful valid valuable Here are some examples of how these are used: • Th e presence of such high levels is a novel fi nding. • We identify dramatically diff erent profi les in adult lungs. • Our results provide compelling evidence that this facilitated infection. • Th ese preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of using hologram based RI detectors. • Our data rule out the possibility that this behaviour was a result of neurological abnormality. • Th e system presented here is a costeff ective detection protocol. • A straightforward analysis procedure was presented which enables the accurate prediction of column behaviour. • Our study provides the framework for future studies to assess the performance characteristics. • We have made the surprising observation that Bro1GFP focus accumulation is also pHdependent. • We have derived exact analytic expressions for the percolation threshold. • Our results provide a clear distinction between the functions of the pathway proteins. 6. LIMITATIONS/CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH You will normally outline the limitations of your own work, but this is not expressed as a problem with your work, rather it provides suggestions for B875Chapter04.indd 38 B875Chapter04.indd 38 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA 192 Science Research Writing future work. Th is invitation to the research community improves the status of your work by communicating that there is much research to be done in this area. Note that using will or the Present Continuous (e.g. we will integrate/we are integrating this technique with the FEM implementations) communicates your own intentions or work in progress; should is used to invite research from others (Th is technique should be integrated with the FEM implementations). a/the need for possible direction at present promising encouraging recommend fruitful remain to be (identifi ed) further investigations research opportunities further work is needed should be explored further work is planned should be replicated future work/studies should should be validated future work/studies will should be verifi ed in future, care should be taken starting point in future, it is advised that… the next stage holds promise urgent interesting worthwhile it would be benefi cial/useful Here are some examples of how these are used: • Our results are encouraging and should be validated in a larger cohort of women. • However, the neural mechanisms underlying these eff ects remain to be determined. • Th is fi nding is promising and should be explored with other eukaryotes. • Future work should focus on the effi cacy of ligands synthesised in the Long group. • An important question for future studies is to determine the antidepressant eff ects of such drugs. B875Chapter04.indd 39 B875Chapter04.indd 39 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:49 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing a Discussion/Conclusion 193 7. APPLICATIONS/APPLICABILITY/IMPLEMENTATION Research work does not always have a clear application. However, in some cases it is clear how the work can be used, particularly if your project has resulted in a device or product of some kind. In such cases, you should indicate possible applications or applicability, and in many cases this can be derived from points made earlier in the Introduction. Don’t forget to use modal verbs such as could, should and may. eventually apply in future have potential soon implement possible lead to produce use utilise Here are some examples of how these are used: • Our technique can be applied to a wide range of simulation applications. • Th e PARSEX reactor therefore could be used for the realistic testing of a wide range of control algorithms. • It should be possible, therefore, to integrate the HOE onto a microchip. • Th is approach has potential in areas such as fl uid density measurement. • Th e solution method could be applied without diffi culty to irregularly shaped slabs. • Our results mean that in dipping reservoirs, compositional gradients can now be produced very quickly. • Th is could eventually lead to the identifi cation of novel biomarkers. 4.5 Writing a Discussion/Conclusion In the next task, you will bring together and use all the information in this unit. You will write a Discussion/Conclusion according to the model, using the grammar and vocabulary you have learned, so make sure that you have B875Chapter04.indd 40 B875Chapter04.indd 40 12/11/2009 8:48:50 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:50 AMFA 194 Science Research Writing both the model (Section 4.3.3) and the vocabulary (Section 4.4) in front of you. In this unit you have seen the conventional model of the Discussion/ Conclusion and the vocabulary conventionally used has been collected. Remember that when you write, your sentence patterns should also be conventional, so use the sentence patterns you have seen in the Discussions/ Conclusions in this unit and in your target articles as models for the sentence patterns in your writing. Follow the model exactly this time, and in future, use it to check the Discussion/Conclusion of your work so that you can be sure that the information is in an appropriate order and that you have done what your readers expect you to do in this section. Although a model answer is provided in the Key, you should try to have your own answer checked by a native speaker of English if possible, to make sure that you are using the vocabulary correctly. 4.5.1 Write a Discussion/Conclusion Imagine that you and your team have designed a machine which can remove chewing gum from fl oors and pavements by treating the gum chemically to transform it into powder and then using vacuum suction to remove it. In the Introduction, you began by saying that chewinggum removal is a signifi cant environmental problem. You then provided factual 1,2 information about the composition of chewing gum and the way in 6 which it sticks to the fl oor. Aft er that, you looked at existing chewinggum 3,4 removal machines and noted that research has shown they are unable 10 to use suction to remove gum without damaging the fl oor surface. You referred to Gumbo et al., who claimed that it was possible to use chemicals 5 to dissolve chewing gum. At the end of the Introduction you announced that you and your research team had designed a chewing gum removal machine (CGRM), which you call GumGone. GumGone sprays a non toxic chemical onto the gum which transforms it to white powder. Th e machine can then remove the gum using suction without damaging the fl oor surface. In the Methodology you described the design and construction of the machine. You compared your CGRM, GumGone, to two existing 3 4 machines, Gumsucker and VacuGum. You then gave details of a set of B875Chapter04.indd 41 B875Chapter04.indd 41 12/11/2009 8:48:50 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:50 AMFA Discussion/Conclusion — Writing a Discussion/Conclusion 195 trials which you conducted to test the effi ciency of the new CGRM and a further set of trials which showed the eff ect of gum removal on the fl oor surface. In the Results section, you showed results of these trials. You compared the performance of GumGone with Gumsucker and VacuGum. Your results were very good, and they can be seen in the tables below. Now write the Discussion/Conclusion. Table 1: Gum removal as a percentage of total sample Gumsucker Vacugum GumGone Wooden fl oor 77 73 80 Stone fl oor 78 78 82 Carpeted fl oor 56 44 79 Table 2: Floor damage/staining Gumsucker Vacugum GumGone Wooden fl oor minimal minimal none Stone fl oor signifi cant some none Carpeted fl oor signifi cant signifi cant minimal Discussion Gum removal technology has traditionally faced the problem of achieving eff ective gum removal with minimal damage to fl oor surfaces. Existing CGRMs such as Gumsucker and VacuGum use steam heat and steam injection respectively to remove gum and although both are fairly eff ective, the resulting staining and damage to fl oor surfaces, particularly carpeted fl oors, is oft en 10 signifi cant. In this study the design and manufacture of a novel CGRM, GumGone, is presented. GumGone reduces the gum to a dry powder using a nontoxic chemical spray and then vacuums the B875Chapter04.indd 42 B875Chapter04.indd 42 12/11/2009 8:48:50 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:50 AMFA 196 Science Research Writing residue, leaving virtually no stain. In trials, GumGone removed a high percentage of gum from all fl oor surfaces without causing fl oor damage. Th e fl oor surfaces tested included carpeted fl oors, suggesting that this technology is likely to have considerable commercial use. Percentage removal levels achieved using GumGone were consistently higher than for existing CGRMs on all types of fl oor surface. Th is was particularly noticeable in the case of carpeted 2 fl oor, where 79 of gum was removed from a 400 m area, as opposed to a maximum of 56 with existing machines. Th is represents a dramatic increase in the percentage amount of gum removed. Our results confi rm the theory of Gumbo et al. that chemicals can be used to dissolve gum into dry powder and make 5 it suitable for vacuuming. Th e greatest advantage over existing CGRMs, however, lies in the combination of the two technologies in a single machine. By reducing the delay period between gum treatment and gum removal, the GumGone system resulted in negligible staining of fl oor surfaces. Th is represents a new approach which removes the need for stain treatment or surface repair following gum removal. As noted earlier, only one wattage level (400 watts of vacuum suction power) was available in the GumGone prototype. Further work is needed to determine the power level at which gum removal is maximised and fl oor damage remains negligible. B875Chapter04.indd 43 B875Chapter04.indd 43 12/11/2009 8:48:50 AM 12/11/2009 8:48:50 AMFA 197 Unit 5 ✏ Writing the Abstract 5.1 Structure Th e structure and content of the Abstract have changed in recent decades. Before online publication databases such as the Science Citation Index, the Abstract was printed at the top of a research article and its function was mainly to encourage the reader to continue reading the article and to facilitate that reading by providing a brief preview. Th e reader and the writer didn’t consider the Abstract of a research article as an independent unit because it was not normally read without reference to the article itself. Th e Internet has infl uenced the way that science research is communicated and the way that scientists access published research. Abstract databases allow scientists to search and scan the scientifi c literature and then decide which research articles they want to read in detail. Some readers simply want to know what is going on in their research area and may not be interested in the details; others may want to know details but are only interested in research articles which are directly relevant to their own research. However, if readers are going to actually read your research article, the Abstract now needs to persuade them to obtain a copy of it, not just encourage them to keep reading a paper they have already accessed. Abstracts compete for attention in online databases. Many more people will read the title than the Abstract, and many more will read the Abstract than the whole paper. Th is means that however ‘good’ and well written the Abstract is, it needs to have independent validity. It should make sense as a standalone, selfcontained description of the research article, and readers should be able to understand the key points and results of the research even if they never see the whole article. Th e Abstract, in this sense, is a representation of the research article. B875Chapter05.indd 1 B875Chapter05.indd 1 12/9/2009 8:47:30 AM 12/9/2009 8:47:30 AMFA 198 Science Research Writing ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY (what you did/used) central report section RESULTS (what you found/saw) DISCUSSION/ CONCLUSION Fig. 1. Th e shape of a research article or thesis. Why does the unit on Abstracts come at the end of this book rather than at the beginning In the fi rst place, the style and the length of the Abstract depend on where you plan to submit it and that decision may be taken late in — or even aft er — the writing process. However, the most important reason for putting this unit on Abstracts at the end of the book is that you are in a better position to create an Abstract aft er you have fi nished writing the other sections of your paper. Th e content of the Abstract is derived from the rest of the article, not the other way around. Although you should not simply cut and paste whole sentences from the body of the article, the Abstract does not contain material which is not already in the paper. Th is means that you don’t need to create completely new sentences; once you have decided what should go in the Abstract you can select material, including parts of sentences and phrases, from the relevant sections of the paper and adapt or modify them to meet the demands of an Abstract. Th is also means that the Abstract is easier to write than the rest of the paper B875Chapter05.indd 2 B875Chapter05.indd 2 12/9/2009 8:47:34 AM 12/9/2009 8:47:34 AMFA Abstract — Structure 199 Does every Abstract follow the same model No, and the title of the Abstract refl ects this. Some are called Summary, some are called Background, some are called Abstract and others have no title at all. Most Abstracts are resultsfocused and there are basic similarities in all Abstracts, but there are two quite distinct models. Th e fi rst model is similar to a summary, and is very structured. It deals with all the main subsections of the research article and can even have subtitles such as Background/Method/Results/Conclusions. Th e second model is more common, and focuses primarily on one or two aspect of the study, usually — but not always — the method and the results. Both models will be discussed here. Note that the models for an Abstract described here are appropriate for articles, papers, theses etc. Abstracts for conferences may not follow either of these models. How do I know which model to choose Th is decision is based on the type of research you have done and the Guide for Authors of the journal where you want to publish your research. Th e decision is normally determined by the journal rather than the author. If the choice is yours, then generally speaking, the more narrow and specifi ed your research topic, the less likely you are to use the summary format. Th is is because in a narrow research fi eld, most readers already know the background. Th e word limit set by each journal also has a signifi cant eff ect on the structure and therefore also on the content of the Abstract. So as you can see, when we come to ask our three questions: • How do I start the Abstract What type of sentence should I begin with • What type of information should be in the Abstract, and in what order • How do I end this section You already know a lot about what the Ab