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How to write research proposal

Developing an implementation research proposal and how to write research proposal background. | Free pdf download
Developing an implementation research proposal Session 2: Research design Learning objectives After completing this session, you will be able to: • Develop a research design outlining your data collection and analyses procedures • Identify the research methods (qualitative, quantitative or mixed) most effective in attaining your research objectives and answering the research question(s) • Describe the participants in your research project • Describe the quality management plan in place to ensure the quality of your research • Explain the steps to ensure all ethical considerations and procedures will be addressed within your IR project Research design Research design includes the following subsections: • Study participants • Research methods • Data collection • Data analysis Research needs and design options Need Design Example Introduction of health insurance in a resource poor setting, Beforeafter or time series Adequacy and examine the impact of health insurance on access to healthcare. Using beforeafter or timeseries design to collect the data for the evaluation. Introduction of a new approach to the improvement of Comparison of intervention to Plausibility maternal healthcare in selected districts. A number of districts control group prepost; with a similar socioeconomic development level were selected as control sites. The impacts or effects of the new Crosssectional studies approach were assessed by a comparison of “new approach – intervention” to “control” districts, using the method of differences in differences, for example. Using mobile phones as a reminder to increase adherence to Clusters RCT; prepost Probability TB treatment. Each district is used as a cluster. Among ten interventions and control sites districts, a cluster randomized controlled trial is employed to test the impact of using mobile phones as a reminder in the five districts randomly selected. The other five districts served as control sites. Using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods to Repeated measures on Explanatory understand and examine change in use of health services by context and mechanisms pensioners after retirement, and analyse main factors resulting in the changes. Design informs methods Study design determines which methods you will use: • Qualitative methods • Quantitative methods • Mixed methods Study participants • A full description of the subjects (sample) or participants involved in the research • How participants will be selected • Criteria for becoming a participant Group activity • Discuss your study design • Draft outline of your participants section Qualitative and quantitative approaches Qualitative Quantitative Social theory Action Structure Methods Observation, interview Experiment, survey Question What is x (classification) How many xs (enumeration) Reasoning Inductive Deductive Sampling Theoretical Statistical Strength Validity Reliability Pope and Mays (1995). Reaching the parts other methods cannot reach: An introduction to qualitative methods in health and health services research. BMJ: 311; No. 6996 Research method: Qualitative • Diversity in research design, researcher roles, and data gathering techniques • Requires the use of a rigorous systematic scientific process • Data are usually in the form of words (rather than numbers) are detailed, often including description and direct quotations • Small number of purposefully selected participants or ‘cases’ • Used to explore values, attitudes, opinions, feelings, and behaviours of individuals • Concerned with individuals’ perceptions of specific topics, issues, or situations and the meanings they assign to their lives • Important for theory generation, policy development, improving educational practice, justifying change or a particular practice, and illuminating social issues • Results are descriptive rather than predictive Qualitative subsections of proposal Proposal should outline: • Rationale • Data collection • Data analysis • Trustworthiness • Participants Rationale • If your research team decides to use qualitative methods in your study, your proposal should describe why qualitative approaches were chosen Qualitative data collection • Preferable to ‘triangulate’ the data, adds rigor to the research • Typically timeconsuming and laborious • Data collection process is emergent and flexible Plan for qualitative data analysis • Data collection and analysis are conducted simultaneously • Data analysis is an ongoing process that begins with the first piece of data collected • Analysis consists of data management, reduction and coding • Goal is to identify patterns (themes) in the data and links between them • Software can help to manage data Trustworthiness Stipulate how your research team will ensure scientific rigour • If possible, have participants review interview transcripts • Member checks • Triangulate data • Report "disconfirming" results Participants • Describe sampling of the study population • Define the number of participants • Participant criteria • Describe selection (age, gender, ethnicity, income bracket, etc.), characteristics related to the disease of interest, etc. • A full description of the participants involved in the research Research method: Quantitative • Determine the relationship between variables or explore differences between two or more groups • Involves the collection and analysis of objective data, often in numerical form • Research design and methods are determined prior to the start of data collection and are not flexible • Types of quantitative research design include: o Quasiexperimental research o Correlational research o Monitoring evaluation Quantitative subsections of a proposal Proposal should outline: • Rationale • Data collection • Data analysis • Reliability and validity • Participants Quantitative data collection • Instrument used (e.g. questionnaires, checklists) • Instruments may be one developed by the researcher or, one that has been previously developed • Instruments need to be tested through pilot studies, for example • Enumerators need to be trained for data collection Plan for quantitative data analysis • Data presented in numerical form • Analysed using descriptive or inferential statistics • Data can be either quantitative or categorical • A variable is measured along a scale and reported in terms of scores • Quantitative data differ in degree and amount • Categorical data differs only in kind, o indicates the number of instances in each category, o are reported as frequencies or percentages Reliability and validity • Tools should be valid and reliable o Considered valid if it measures what it purports to measure o Reliability, refers to the consistency and reproducibility of the results • Internal consistency is the degree to which all items in a domain reflect the same construct • Content, criterion and construct validity Participants • Describe the study population • Define the sample size, unit of analysis, number of units • Documents how participants will be selected and criteria for becoming a participant • Describe selection (age, gender, ethnicity, income bracket, etc.), characteristic related to the disease of interest, study site, or other factors • Indicate whether variables are dependent or independent Research method: Mixed methods • Most IR proposals use mixed methods • Qualitative and quantitative techniques are combined • Under the right circumstances, a mixed methods approach can provide a better understanding of the problem than either a quantitative or qualitative research approach • It could be challenging to create the optimal combination and sequence of both approaches • Appealing for interdisciplinary projects which deal with complex problems Mixedmethods proposal subsections Since mixedmethods involve both qualitative and quantitative methods, components must be included in the proposal: • Rationale (including methods used) • Data collection • Data analysis • Reliability and validity • Trustworthiness • Participants Mixed methods data collection and analysis Elements related to mixed methods that need to be considered in research design: • Timing • Weighting • Mixing • Visual diagrams Data collection and analysis • Indicate data collection strategies and tools you intend to use and why • Outline a plan of data management and analysis Trustworthiness, validity and reliability • Explain how you will address issues of trustworthiness, validity and reliability with data collection and analysis Participants • Ensure that your sample size, recruitment and selection criteria align with your mixed methods (see qualitative and quantitative participants sections) Group activity • Discuss your research design • Determine your research methods Writeshop details • Develop the following parts of your proposal: • Research design • Research methods including: o Stepbystep procedures for your data collection o Data analysis o Trustworthiness, validity, reliability o Participants Quality management • Ensure the research process will meet or exceed scientific, ethical and regulatory research standards • Should be embedded into all research activities • Quality management plan is NOT optional Activities to address quality issues Quality management Some of the activities you can integrate into your proposal to manage quality include: • Protocol review and approval • Documentation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) • Validation of research instruments • Training the project team • Quality control and monitoring • Evaluation of services provided • Evaluation of the performance of service providers • Review of reports Research ethics • Research that collects data from human subjects must undergo an ethics review • Describe how you will ensure the protection, dignity, rights and safety of all research participants Writeshop details • Develop the following components of your proposal: o Data analysis plan o Research ethics • Revisit the Introduction, Research Question(s), Research Method, Participants, Research Design, and Data Collection sections of your IR proposal. o Make any changes necessary to improve, update, or align all sections of your proposal
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Thesis
User Name:
Dr.JohnParker
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Singapore
Uploaded Date:
01-07-2017