How is Scientific Research conducted

What are the types of scientific research and scientific research methods. And it also explain types of scientific research methodology how does scientific research become published
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Dr.JohnParker,Singapore,Researcher
Published Date:01-07-2017
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Types Types Of Of SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Dr. Hanan A. Ezzat Dr. Hanan A. EzzatTypes of Scientific Research Types of Scientific Research • Quantitative Vs Qualitative research. • Quantitative Vs Qualitative research. • Descriptive Vs Explanatory Vs • Descriptive Vs Explanatory Vs Predictive research. Predictive research. • Basic (pure) Vs applied research. • Basic (pure) Vs applied research.Quantitative research: Quantitative research: – It seeks to convert observations to – It seeks to convert observations to numbers. numbers. – Testing of hypotheses based on a sample – Testing of hypotheses based on a sample of observations, and a statistical of observations, and a statistical analysis of the data. analysis of the data. – Attempt to describe relationships among – Attempt to describe relationships among variables mathematically. variables mathematically.Types of questions asked: Types of questions asked: –Often describe variables, –Often describe variables, –Examine relationships among –Examine relationships among variables, and variables, and –determine cause-and-effect –determine cause-and-effect interactions between variables. interactions between variables.Examples of quantitative research Examples of quantitative research questions questions • What support factors in the work What support factors in the work • environment are most important in environment are most important in determining the level of job determining the level of job satisfaction experienced by nurses in satisfaction experienced by nurses in critical care units? critical care units? • What is the relationship between use • What is the relationship between use and need of nursing services in the and need of nursing services in the rural areas? rural areas?Qualitative research: Qualitative research: • Emphasizes verbal descriptions and • Emphasizes verbal descriptions and explanations of human behavior, explanations of human behavior, • The tools for gaining information • The tools for gaining information include: participant observation, in- include: participant observation, in- depth interviews, or an in-depth depth interviews, or an in-depth analysis of a single case. analysis of a single case.Examples of qualitative research Examples of qualitative research questions questions • What is the meaning of the experience of • What is the meaning of the experience of participating in public health education participating in public health education sessions for mental health clients? sessions for mental health clients? • How do nurses handle patients who refuse • How do nurses handle patients who refuse to follow instructions? to follow instructions? • What is it like to be diagnosed with a • What is it like to be diagnosed with a terminal illness? terminal illness?a. Descriptive research a. Descriptive research (Exploratory research) (Exploratory research) • Emphasizes the accurate description of • Emphasizes the accurate description of some aspect of society. some aspect of society. • A researcher assesses specific • A researcher assesses specific characteristics of individuals, groups, characteristics of individuals, groups, situations, or events by summarizing the situations, or events by summarizing the commonalities found in discrete commonalities found in discrete observations. observations.a. Descriptive research a. Descriptive research (Exploratory research): (Cont.) (Exploratory research): (Cont.) • The descriptive research is directed • The descriptive research is directed toward studying "what" and how many toward studying "what" and how many of this “what ”. Thus, it is directed toward of this “what ”. Thus, it is directed toward answering questions such as, "WHAT IS answering questions such as, "WHAT IS THIS?". THIS?".Example of descriptive research Example of descriptive research questions questions • To explore the differences between female students To explore the differences between female students • who initiate smoking in their teen years and female who initiate smoking in their teen years and female students who do not smoke, a researcher would students who do not smoke, a researcher would want to describe the characteristics of the two sets want to describe the characteristics of the two sets of the students. of the students. 1. Are rural students more likely to be 1. Are rural students more likely to be nonsmokers in their teen years? nonsmokers in their teen years? 2. Are young women from higher socioeconomic 2. Are young women from higher socioeconomic levels more likely to initiate smoking during levels more likely to initiate smoking during adolescence? adolescence?b. Explanatory research b. Explanatory research • Its primary goal is to understand or to • Its primary goal is to understand or to explain relationships. explain relationships. • It uses correlations to study • It uses correlations to study relationships between dimensions or relationships between dimensions or characteristics of individuals, groups, characteristics of individuals, groups, situations, or events. situations, or events.b. Explanatory research b. Explanatory research • Explanatory research explains (HOW THE (HOW THE • Explanatory research explains PARTS OF A PHINOMINON ARE RELATED PARTS OF A PHINOMINON ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER). TO EACH OTHER). • Explanatory research asks the "WHY" Explanatory research asks the "WHY" • question. question.Example of explanatory research Example of explanatory research question question • "Why do female students from higher • "Why do female students from higher socioeconomic levels are more likely to socioeconomic levels are more likely to start smoking during teen years than start smoking during teen years than those of lower socioeconomic levels?" those of lower socioeconomic levels?" Here there are two involved questions: Here there are two involved questions: •• W What hat i is t s the he r re ellat atiio on nshi ship p b be et tw we ee en n so soc ciio oe ec co ono nom miic c background and initiation of smoking behavior? background and initiation of smoking behavior? • If there is a relationship, why does it exist? • If there is a relationship, why does it exist?c. Predictive research c. Predictive research • Moves beyond explanation to the • Moves beyond explanation to the prediction of precise relationships prediction of precise relationships between dimensions or between dimensions or characteristics of a phenomenon or characteristics of a phenomenon or differences between groups. differences between groups.Example of predictive research Example of predictive research question question • What are the risk factors for postoperative What are the risk factors for postoperative • pulmonary complications after total pulmonary complications after total abdominal hysterectomy? abdominal hysterectomy? Thus, the aim of this study was to Thus, the aim of this study was to "identify risk factors that could predict "identify risk factors that could predict postoperative pulmonary complications postoperative pulmonary complications after total abdominal hysterectomy". after total abdominal hysterectomy".Basic (pure) Basic (pure) Vs Vs Applied research Applied researcha. Basic research a. Basic research • Focuses on understanding phenomena of interest. Focuses on understanding phenomena of interest. • • Conducted to accumulate information, extending • Conducted to accumulate information, extending the base of knowledge in a discipline to improve the base of knowledge in a discipline to improve understanding, or to formulate a theory. understanding, or to formulate a theory. • It is appropriate for discovering general principles of • It is appropriate for discovering general principles of human behavior and biophysiology processes. human behavior and biophysiology processes.Example of a basic research concern Example of a basic research concern The nurse scientist who accumulate The nurse scientist who accumulate information in order to further our information in order to further our understanding of relationship understanding of relationship between socioeconomic status and between socioeconomic status and the intention to follow a healthy diet the intention to follow a healthy diet is engaging in a basic research. is engaging in a basic research.b. Applied research b. Applied research – Focuses on finding an immediate – Focuses on finding an immediate solution to an existing problem. solution to an existing problem. – Designed to indicate how the principles – Designed to indicate how the principles of human behavior can be used to of human behavior can be used to solve problems in nursing practice. solve problems in nursing practice.Example of an applied research Example of an applied research The nurse researcher may want to The nurse researcher may want to increase attendance at weekly increase attendance at weekly prenatal classes for young- aged prenatal classes for young- aged women, and thus would test the women, and thus would test the effectiveness of an intervention such effectiveness of an intervention such as attending to the hospital at labor as attending to the hospital at labor signs. signs.