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How to Write a Good Postgraduate RESEARCH PROPOSAL
How to Write a Good Postgraduate RESEARCH PROPOSAL
How to Write a Good Postgraduate RESEARCH PROPOSAL Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 2 Introduction This guide intends to provide practical information for students who have been asked to submit a research proposal as part of their application for admission to a research degree. It is also relevant to students who are applying to external bodies for postgraduate research funding. Undertaking a research degree, whether it is a Masters by Research, a PhD, or another type of degree such as a EdD, or DMus, can be one of the best experiences of your life. You will have the opportunity to meet eminent researchers and become part of the research community. It will enable you to develop research skills as well as invaluable transferable skills which you can apply to academic life, your current employment or a variety of professions outside of academia. What you gain along the way will serve you for the rest of your life, if only to make you a more confident and knowledgeable person. Contents 3 Research funding How to identify funding sources Writing your proposal University applications 4 Golden rules for postgraduate research proposals 5 Content and style of your research proposal What to put in your proposal? Writing the proposal Plagiarism Abstract 6 Introduction Main body of text 7 Methodology About you Dissemination Summaries and conclusions 8 The process of applying to external funding providers Rules, guidelines, eligibility and deadlines Screening process The application process Discuss and develop your idea 9 Find a potential research studentship funder Before you start writing Lay summary 10 Training and supervision Dissemination Ethical considerations 11 Other resources Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 3 Research funding Writing your proposal Whether you are limited to one page (as part of a In choosing where to do your research degree, a long list University application form or an enquiry form) or are of factors will come into play: the academic reputation of required to produce something more substantial for an the institution, the research expertise of academic staff, external funder, the rules about writing a good research location, the quality of training offered and the availability proposal are the same. You want to stand out from the of funding. crowd and have the best chance of being selected. This guide highlights the “Golden Rules” and provides tips on There are several types of funding for postgraduate how to write a good research application. Prospective research: your own funds; external funding bodies such as research students may find it useful when asked to provide charities and trusts; national and governmental agencies; a research statement as part of their university application employers and the private sector, and internal sources such as University scholarships, funded studentships and or an informal enquiry form. projects advertised by supervisors. It is a competitive process and will depend on your qualifications, experience and research aspirations. University applications Securing funding does not always guarantee an offer of a If you already have an idea for your research project or place at the university you are applying to. Whether you if you are interested in developing your experience in are applying to conduct your own research or to undertake an area of interest within the expertise of a prospective an advertised project, you will need to apply for a place supervisor, you should consider contacting prospective at the university of your choice before or at the same time supervisors early on to discuss the possibility of doing a as your application for funding. A university application research project under their supervision. for postgraduate study is most likely to include a research proposal and/or a personal statement, even if you are How to identify funding sources applying for a funded project defined by the prospective supervisor. Investigating potential funding sources and preparing postgraduate research applications is a lengthy process, so you should allow plenty of time. It is not unreasonable to start approximately one year before your proposed start date. The University of Edinburgh’s Scholarships and Student Funding Services offers a search facility for prospective and existing students: www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/ student-funding/search-scholarships You should check the websites of individual departments as they may have additional funding resources and this is where you will find details of research projects. There is also funding available from external funding bodies, including trusts and charities, research foundations, government agencies, the private sector or your home government. Search facilities include www.researchresearch.com (available only on campus) and search engines can also be helpful if you are looking for organisations which fund research in your area of interest. If you are responding to an advertisement for a defined project, it does not mean that you should not pay attention to the first contact you make with the principal researcher on the project. Make sure that you highlight how the project fits with your research aspirations and why the chosen academic unit will help you fulfill them.Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 4 Golden rules for postgraduate research proposals Contents: • Be clear, objective, succinct and realistic in your objectives • Ask yourself why this research should be funded and/or why you are the best person to undertake this project • Ask yourself why this research is important and/or timely • State and justify your objectives clearly (“because it is interesting” is not enough!) • Make sure you answer the questions: how will the research benefit the wider society or contribute to the research community? Style: • If space allows, provide a clear project title • Structure your text – if allowed use section headings • Present the information in short paragraphs rather than a solid block of text • Write short sentences • If allowed, provide images/charts/diagrams to help break up the text The process: • Identify prospective supervisors and discuss your idea with them • Avoid blanket general e-mails to several prospective supervisors • Allow plenty of time – a rushed proposal will show • Get feedback from your prospective supervisor and be prepared to take their comments on board • If applying to an external funding agency, remember that the reviewer may not be an expert in your field of research • Stick to the guidelines and remember the deadlineStudent Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 5 Content and style of your research proposal What to put in your proposal? Application processes are different for each University so make sure to follow the relevant guidelines provided by the institution you are applying to. However, if you are not given any guidelines on how to format your research proposal, you could adopt the suggested structure below. This is also relevant if you are applying for external funding or asking your employer to sponsor you to undertake a research degree. Suggested structure for a research proposal: • Title and abstract • Background information/brief summary of existing literature • The hypothesis and the objectives • Methodology • How the research will be communicated to the wider community • The supervisory provision as well as specialist and transferable skills training • Ethical considerations • Summary and conclusions Writing the proposal When writing your proposal, bear in mind that individuals reviewing your application will often have to read a large number of proposals/applications. So, well-presented and clearly written proposals are more likely to stick in the reviewer’s mind. Avoid long and convoluted titles. You will get an opportunity to give more detail in your introduction. Plagiarism Make sure that you acknowledge the authors of ALL publications you use to write your proposal. Failure to do so will be considered as plagiarism. Do not copy word for word what an author has said. You may think that the original author has presented the information using the best possible words in the best format. However, it is best to analyse the information presented and re-write it in your own words. If you absolutely have to quote an author ad verbatim, then make sure that you use quotation marks and italics to indicate it. Abstract An abstract is a brief summary written in the same style as the rest of your application. It will provide the reader with the main points and conclusion of your proposal.Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 6 Introduction A well-written introduction is the most efficient way to hook your reader and set the context of your proposed research. Get your reader’s attention early on and do not waste space with obvious and general statements. The introduction is your opportunity to demonstrate that your research has not been done before and that the proposed project will really add something new to the existing body of literature. Your proposal does not have to be worthy of a Nobel prize but it has to be based on sound hypotheses and reasoning. You should provide background information in the form of a literature review which sets the context for your research to help the reader understand the questions and objectives. You will also be expected to show that you have a good knowledge of the body of literature, the wider context in which your research belongs and that you have awareness of methodologies, theories and conflicting evidence in your chosen field. Research proposals have a limit on words or pages so you won’t be able to analyse the whole existing body of literature. Choose key research papers or public documents and explain clearly how your research will either fill a gap, complete or follow on from previous research even if it is a relatively new field or if you are applying a known methodology to a different field. Journal articles, books, PhD theses, public policies, government and learned society reports are better than non-peer-reviewed information you may find on the internet. The University’s Library hosts online guidance on getting started with researching, managing your sources, and practical information on finding what you need in search engines. • http://libraryblogs.is.ed.ac.uk/infoskills • www.lib.ed.ac.uk/howto/searchstrat.html Suggested format for an introduction: • Introduce the area of research • Review key publications • Identify any gap in the knowledge or questions which have to be answered • Your hypotheses • Your aims and objectives, including a brief description of the methodology • How is your research beneficial and to whom Although you will develop your ideas further in the main body of the text, your introduction may also include a short summary of your aims and objectives, your methodology and the expected outcomes/benefits of your research as well as who it will benefit and who will be able to use it. Main body of text Honesty is one of the most important aspects in proposal development so avoid making over-ambitious claims about the intended research; what is proposed must be realistically achievable. When drafting the proposal, it is worth asking yourself the following questions and trying to answer them in the text: • Why should anyone spend public, charity or corporate funds on my research and my research training? • Who is my research going to benefit (the stakeholders) or be of use to (the end users)? • Stakeholders and end-users include, for example, the research community, a professional body or groups of researchers, a particular group of people such as children, older people or doctors, the government, the industry, health services, social workers…... Try to be specific: stating that your research will benefit the world is perhaps a bit too vague! • Is there evidence, for example in the literature, that my research will fill a gap in knowledge or a market demand? How will it build on the existing body of knowledge? • Is my research timely, innovative and/or responding to a new trend? • How will my research proposal address my training needs as well as, if applicable, the needs of my current employer?Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 7 You should also consider expected outputs to be achieved by the research such as a new database, fundamental knowledge of a new or existing field, publications, attendance at conferences, contribution to a new policy, development of a new technology or service….. It is also very useful to describe the milestones of your research projects (a time plan for every 6 months, for Year 1, 2, 3 or a Gantt chart). This will demonstrate to the reviewer or prospective supervisor that you have really thought of how you intend to conduct your research. But be realistic! Methodology – how will you achieve the research aims? It is important to present the proposed research methodology (e.g. techniques, sample size, target populations, species choice, equipment and data analysis) and explain why it is the most appropriate methodology to effectively answer the research question. If space allows, it may be a good idea to justify the methodology by explaining what alternatives have been considered and why these have been disregarded. You could also point out how your project fits with the research environment of your prospective institution and why this institution is the best place to conduct your research, in particular if this will provide you with access to unique expertise, pieces of equipment or data. About you The quality of your ideas combined with your ability to carry out the project successfully within your chosen Department/ School/Institute will be a useful addition to your research proposal. You may wish to provide a small section/paragraph to present how your research interests, previous achievements, relevant professional experience and qualifications will support the completion of your research project. Remember to highlight any project management, data analysis and critical thinking experience you may have gained previously. You could also highlight how a further period of research training will enhance your personal and professional development. Avoid overly personal or vague statements but do try to point out: • the most important achievements of your (academic) career: degrees you have obtained, your IT skills, societies you were part of, work experience, successful projects you have been involved in and, • your best characteristics, e.g. motivation, enthusiasm, an inquiring mind, ability to carry out analytical work, a keen approach to research or ability to work independently. Dissemination If space allows, indicate how you will be communicating with colleagues and your supervisors as well as with the wider community and, if applicable the funding body supporting your research. Examples of dissemination activities are: • Internal seminars • Regular reporting to stakeholders (e.g. health service, industrial partner) • Publications (e.g. journal articles, reviews, book chapters) • Conference presentations • Exhibitions • Outreach (e.g. Research Communication in Action) and Public engagement events (e.g. Café Scientifique, Biotechnology YES, Edinburgh Science Festival) Summaries and conclusions Well-written summaries and conclusions at the end of the proposal and/or at the end of each section can help a reviewer identify the important information. Make sure these are concise, clear and informative – some reviewers will start by reading the conclusions. Reviewers tend to have a large number of applications to review and/or to be very busy people. As a result, each proposal will only receive a short time. Your proposal has to stand out!Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 8 The process of applying to external funding providers Rules, guidelines, eligibility and deadlines A surprisingly large percentage of proposals are rejected simply because they do not follow the rules and guidelines specified by the funding body. Deadlines are nearly always firm (unless called “rolling”) and it is highly unlik ely that they would be changed for anyone. Follow the rules, guidelines and eligibility criteria to the letter! The funder has produced them for a reason and failure to follow these will almost guarantee the rejection of your proposal. Screening process The most popular funding bodies will have a very strict screening process which will be carried out before the reviewer gets to see the proposals. Any application which does not comply with rules and regulations, including editorial ones such as font size or number of pages will not be accepted. The number of proposals will almost always exceed the number of awards available so do not provide reasons for your application to be rejected on format. The application process Bear in mind that some funders have closing dates early in the year so it is a good idea to start the application as soon as possible (about a year before your proposed start date). External funders will often ask you to have, at least, a conditional offer of admission at the proposed university or to have an endorsement from the university you are planning to go to. Some funding will only be tenable at the university stated in the application so make sure you read all the guidelines. Discuss and develop your idea You may start the funding application process by identifying a suitable supervisor and discussing the idea for your research project with him/her. Your prospective supervisor will be an integral part of your application and should be able to offer further support with your application. You can look for potential supervisors by visiting the prospective University website, review the research expertise which fits your chosen field best and then search for researchers who could be potential supervisors. It is a good idea to have a good general overview of your supervisor’s research expertise as a courtesy to them when you contact them for the first time. This will also allow you to ensure that they are the best person to advise you on your proposal. More information is provided in the previous section on how to write a good research proposal/postgraduate research application. You may wish to send an abstract of your research idea or a draft research proposal to prospective supervisors prior to submitting your application, meeting them or talking to them over the phone or by e-mail. Make sure your draft is of good quality and it is best not to send the same proposal to all potential supervisors. Be prepared to listen to their advice and to answer questions. Critical appraisal is a skill that academic staff have developed over many years so don’t be offended if you get a lot of comments and take advantage of the expertise and experience of your prospective supervisor. Finally and very importantly, do not assume that your prospective supervisor will or should do all the hard work for you. It is YOUR proposal! Fellow students, friends and colleagues can also act as lay readers/ proofreaders and give a different perspective on your proposal, in particular on the aims of your research.Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 9 Find a potential research studentship funder If you are seeking external funding for your own project, the next step is to find the most appropriate funding body and funding stream for your particular research project. Your prospective supervisor and previous undergraduate/Masters study advisors will be excellent sources of knowledge in this area. Other members of staff in university’s scholarships offices, careers services, research support offices or student recruitment and admissions (if they have staff specialising in postgraduate studies) may be able to help you. Before you start developing the research proposal, it is worth researching your chosen funding body (whether it is a university or an external funding agency) and the web is a good source of information). Once an opportunity has been identified, you should ensure that you have checked: • that your research idea is in a research area supported by the prospective funder; • that you are eligible to apply (e.g. nationality, affiliation, qualifications); • that you have allowed sufficient time for drafting the research proposal; • that you understand fully the funder’s selection process; • that you have allowed sufficient time to complete the proposal for the closing date and; • how the application should be submitted to the funder. Some funders (e.g. AHRC and ESRC) require that you register on their system and may require approval from your prospective university. Before you start writing All funders (government funded research councils, universities, research charities, or private companies) have objectives to fulfill set by the people and organisations that they answer to, including stakeholders and financial supporters. When they invest in research, they are looking for that investment to help them achieve those objectives. For private sector employers, it may be to improve their business processes, increase their R&D potential or to train employees. For research charities, it may be to find ways to help particular groups of people such as those in unemployment or those affected by a medical condition. All funders, universities and prospective supervisors want good applicants. However, they will have different ways of reviewing your application and may have strict criteria against which to assess your proposal. Try to be objective. For example, if your research proposal involves a 10-year geological survey, it is unlikely that the funder will want to fund it as a PhD studentship which is set to last for a defined and shorter period of time. Similarly, if your proposal contains too few or too many research activities for the period of proposed research training, they will be reluctant to fund it. The former will not be considered good value for money and the latter will be perceived as having a risk of failure against the objectives planned at the beginning of the project. Make sure you consider how best to present the ideas/objectives of the research project and their value clearly as there is stiff competition for postgraduate research awards. A proposal should not just be “good enough” but one of the best. Lay summary In addition to an abstract and an introduction, you may be asked to produce a lay summary, the impact of which is not to be under-estimated. While funders may use expert panels to assess research proposals, the final decision may rest with individuals (for example: Trustees from a charity) who will not necessarily have the expertise in your proposed field of research. Make sure you “grab” the readers attention by presenting a clear and succinct summary. As an indication, some Research Councils advise that the lay summary be written in a style which should allow reasonable understanding by an interested 14-year old.Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 10 Training and supervision The training and supervision of research students is an important consideration. Prospective postgraduate research students will be expected to gain specialist and transferable skills so, if the funder requires it, indicate what provisions are in place at your proposed university. The University of Edinburgh runs one of the best and most proactive transferable skills programmes, please visit: www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/institute-academic-development Individual university websites will also provide information regarding the facilities and structure of your specialist training e.g. skills in a particular technique, access to archives, a seminar programme (to which you may be asked to contribute), a mentoring scheme (if in place) or access to a Graduate School. Dissemination Funders want the research they support to help and inspire others, therefore proposals which highlight what the expected benefits of the research are and how the research findings will be communicated to the wider community have a greater chance of success. Please note that some funders have strict rules about reporting but it does no harm to indicate that you will comply with that. Other funders such the private sector may sometimes request an embargo period for your research to be published so you must check, with your supervisor, what the terms and conditions are. Examples are provided in the section on dissemination (see page 07) Ethical considerations Funding bodies have strict rules and expectations of the standards with which the research they fund should be carried out. Project proposals must therefore include potential ethical issues raised by the conduct of the research and funders will want to see how these will be addressed should they occur. This is particularly important if your research project is deemed “high risk” i.e. if it involves animals, sensitive materials or vulnerable groups such as children or adults with disabilities. You may also be asked to indicate what the ethical approval system is in your prospective School. Your prospective supervisor will be able to provide you with this information.Student Recruitment & Admissions www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment 11 Other resources • The Postgraduate Companion (2008). Chapters 4-7; Hall G. and Longman J. Eds, Sage Publications London, UK. • The PhD Application Handbook: Revised Edition (2012). Bentley PJ. Eds, Open University Press, Maidenhead, UK. • Vitae (formerly UKGRAD): www.vitae.ac.uk • FindaPhD: www.findaphd.com/advice Produced by The Postgraduate Team, Student Recruitment & Admissions, The University of Edinburgh email@example.com This leaflet is available to download in PDF format on our website: www.ed.ac.uk/studying/postgraduate If you require this document in an alternative format, such as large print, please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in Scotland, with registration number SC005336. ©The University of Edinburgh, 2015
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