Dictionary of information science

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ODLIS: Online Dictionary ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science About the Dictionary Copyright 2002 by Joan M. Reitz. All Rights Reserved. A B C D E F G H I JK L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ A AACR See: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. AACR2 See: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. AACR2-e See: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. AACR2R See: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. AAHSL See: Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. AALL See: American Association of Law Libraries. AAP See: Association of American Publishers. AAS See: American Antiquarian Society. AASL See: American Association of School Librarians. 1 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary AAUP See: American Association of University Professors and Association of American University Presses. ABA See: American Booksellers Association. ABAA See: Antiquarian Booksellers Association of America. AB Bookman’s Weekly A trade publication used mainly by antiquarian booksellers to locate rare, out of print, and difficult to find titles, AB Bookman’s Weekly began as a section of Publisher’s Weekly under the title Antiquarian Bookman. In 1948 it became an independent weekly of the same title published by R. R. Bowker. Publication under the current title began in 1967. abbreviation A shortened form of a word or phrase used for brevity in place of the whole, consisting of the first letter, or the first few letters, followed by a period (full stop), for example, assoc. for association or P.O. for post office. Some terms have more than one abbreviation (v. or vol. for volume). Abbreviated abbr. Also used as an umbrella term for any shortened form of a word or phrase, not an acronym, initialism, or contraction, for example, the postal code CT for Connecticut. The rules governing the use of abbreviations in library catalog entries are given in Appendix B of AACR2. ABC book See: abecedarium and alphabet book. abecedarium A book containing the letters of the alphabet and basic rules of spelling and grammar, used in Europe as a primer before the invention of the printing press. Early printed examples (sometimes in the form of a broadsheet) displayed the alphabet in uppercase and lowercase letters in both roman and gothic type, with separate lists of vowels, dipthongs, and consonants. By 1700, some ABC books included children’s rhymes. Synonymous with abecedary. See also: horn book. abecedarius See: acrostic. aberrant copy A copy of a book containing obvious printing and/or binding errors which are more serious than minor defects. ABF See: Association des bibliothecaires francais. 2 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary aboutness The totality of subjects explicitly or implicitly addressed in the text of a document, including but not limited to the meaning(s) of the title, the stated and unstated intentions of the author, and the ways in which the information may be used by readers. Levels of specificity must be considered in ascertaining the subject(s) of a work. In the case of the hypothetical title The Japanese Teamwork Approach to Improving High School Effectiveness, is the work about: 1. education? 2. educational effectiveness? 3. high school effectiveness? 4. teamwork? 5. a Japanese approach to teamwork? As a general rule, catalogers and indexers assign the most specific subject headings that describe the significant content of the item. In a post-coordinate indexing system such as the one used in ERIC, the descriptors "Educational effectiveness," "High schools," "Japan," and "Teamwork" would probably be assigned to the example given above, but in a pre-coordinate system, such as the Library of Congress subject headings list, the appropriate headings might be "High schoolsJapan," "Teacher effectivenessJapan," and "Teaching teamsJapan." See also: summarization. above the fold The half of a broadsheet newspaper that appears above the horizontal fold. Articles printed near the top have greater prominence because most languages are read from top to bottom of page. abridged See: abridgment. Abridged Decimal Classification (ADC) A shortened version of Dewey Decimal Classification developed for use in small libraries. abridgment A shortened version or edition of a written work, which preserves the overall meaning and manner of presentation of the original but omits the less important passages of text, and usually the illustrations, notes, and appendices. Often prepared by a person other than the original author or editor, an abridged edition is generally intended for readers unlikely to purchase the unabridged version because of its length, complexity, or price (example: The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary). Also spelled abridgement. Abbreviated abr. Synonymous with condensation. Compare with simplified edition. See also: abstract, brief, digest, epitome, summary, and synopsis. absenteeism The failure of an employee to report for work, usually due to illness, accident, family responsibilities, or personal business. A persistently high rate of absenteeism may be a sign of low morale among the staff of a library or library system. See also: burnout. 3 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary absolute humidity See: humidity. absorbency The capacity of paper to absorb and retain moisture, which varies with type of paper, and is of particular importance in printing processes that use liquid ink. See also: water-damaged. absorption The assimilation of one serial by another. The note Absorbed: followed by the title of the assimilated serial is added to the bibliographic record representing the assimilating publication, and the corresponding note Absorbed by: giving the title of the assimilating serial is added to the record for the assimilated publication. Compare with merger. abstract A brief, objective summary of the essential content of a book, article, speech, report, dissertation, or other work, which presents the main points in the same order as the original, but has no independent literary value. An abstract can be indicative, informative, critical, or written from a particular point of view (slanted). In a scholarly journal article, the abstract follows the title and the name(s) of the author(s), and precedes the text. In an entry in a printed indexing and abstracting service or bibliographic database, the abstract accompanies the citation. Compare with summary. See also: author abstract and abstracting journal. abstracting The preparation of a brief, objective statement (abstract) of the content of a written work, to enable the researcher to quickly determine whether reading the entire text might satisfy the specific information need. Abstracting is usually limited to the literature of a specific discipline or group of related disciplines, and is performed by an individual or commercial entity, such as an indexing and abstracting service, that provides abstracts regularly to a list of subscribers. abstracting journal A journal that specializes in providing summaries (called abstracts) of articles and other documents published within the scope of a specific academic discipline or field of study (example: Peace Research Abstracts Journal). Compare with abstracting service. abstracting service A commercial indexing service that provides both a citation and a brief summary or abstract of the content of each document indexed (example: Information Science Abstracts). Numbered consecutively in order of addition, entries are issued serially in print, usually in monthly or quarterly supplements, or in a regularly updated bibliographic database available by subscription. Abstracting services can be comprehensive or selective within a specific academic discipline or subdiscipline. Compare with abstracting journal. 4 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary academic freedom The principle that faculty members employed at institutions of higher education (including librarians with faculty status) should remain free to express their views and teach in the manner of their own choosing, without interference from administration, government, or outside organizations which may have an axe to grind. academic library A library that is an integral part of a college, university, or other institution of post-secondary education, administered to meet the information and research needs of its students, faculty, and staff. In the United States, the professional association for academic libraries and librarians is the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL). Click here to connect to the Libweb list of academic libraries in the United States. Compare with research library. See also: college library, departmental library, graduate library, undergraduate library, and university library. academic press See: university press. academic status Recognition given by an institution of higher education that the librarians in its employ are considered members of the teaching or research staff, but are not entitled to ranks, titles, rights, and benefits equivalent to those of faculty. Compare with faculty status. acanthus A representation of the elegant leaf-form of Acanthus spinosus, a species of herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean region, used by the ancient Greeks to ornament Corinthian capitals, and as a decorative motif in the illuminated initial letters and borders of medieval manuscripts, where it is often found painted in a unrealistic colors (red, yellow, purple, blue). acceptable use policy Guidelines established by a library or library system concerning the manner in which its computer systems and equipment may be used, for example, most public libraries forbid the use of public workstations for commercial or unlawful activities. In most libraries, a printed copy of acceptable use policy is posted near the workstations to which the restrictions apply. Some libraries also make the statement available on their Web site. access The right of entry to a library or its collections. All public libraries and most academic libraries in the United States are open to the general public, but access to certain areas such as closed stacks, rare books, and special collections may be restricted. In a more general sense, the right or opportunity to use a resource which may not be openly and freely available to everyone. See also: accessibility. In computing, the privilege of using a computer system or online resource, usually controlled by the issuance of access codes to authorized users. In a more general 5 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary sense, the ability of a user to reach data stored on a computer or computer system. access code An identification code, such as a username, password, or PIN which a user must enter correctly to gain access to a computer system or network. In most proprietary systems, access codes are tightly controlled to exclude unauthorized users. Synonymous with authorization code. accessibility The ease with which a person may enter a library, gain access to its online systems, use its resources, and obtain needed information regardless of its format. In a more general sense, the quality of being able to be located and used by someone. In information storage and retrieval, the manner in which a computer system retrieves records from a file, which usually depends on the method of their arrangement in or on the storage medium. accession To record in an accession list that a bibliographic item has been added to a library collection. Also refers to the document added. The process of making additions is known as accessions. The opposite of deaccession. Compare with acquisitions. See also: accession number. In archives, the formal act of accepting and documenting the receipt of records taken into custody, part of the process of establishing physical and intellectual control over them. In the case of donated items, a deed of gift may be required to transfer legal title. accession list See: accession record. accession number A unique number assigned to a bibliographic item in the order in which it is added to a library collection, recorded in an accession record maintained by the technical services department. Most libraries assign accession numbers in continuous numerical sequence, but some use a code system to indicate type of material and/or year of accession, in addition to order of accession. See also: Library of Congress Control Number and OCLC control number. accession order The arrangement of books or other documents on shelves in the chronological and numerical order of their addition to a specific category or class, as opposed to an arrangement based entirely on a classification system. accession record A list of the bibliographic items added to a library collection in the order of their addition. Normally such a list includes the accession number, brief bibliographic identification, source, and price paid for each item. Synonymous with accession catalog, accession register, and accession list. 6 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary access point A unit of information in a bibliographic record under which a person may search for and identify items listed in a library catalog or bibliographic database. Access points have traditionally included the main entry, added entries, subject headings, classification or call number, and codes such as the standard number, but with machine-readable cataloging almost any portion of the catalog record (name of publisher, type of material, etc.) can be used as an access point. In the MARC record, most access points are found the following fields, with XX in the range of 00-99: 1XX - Main entries 4XX - Series statements 6XX - Subject headings 7XX - Added entries other than subject or series 8XX - Series added entries In a more general sense, any unique data element that serves as a point of entry to an organized file of information. access policy A formal written statement issued by the person(s) or body responsible for managing archives or special collections, specifying which materials are available for access and by whom, including any conditions or restrictions on use, usually posted or distributed in some manner to users. access services The provision of access to a library’s resources and collections, which includes the circulation of materials (general circulation, reserves, interlibrary loan, document delivery), reshelving, stack maintenance, and security. Large libraries employ an access services librarian to manage these activities. access time The amount of time it takes a computer system to provide stored data to a person who logs on and follows correct procedures for retrieval. Access time may be slower during periods of peak use. accompanying material Related material issued with an item, for example, a floppy disk, CD-ROM, slide set, answer book, teacher’s manual, atlas, or portfolio of prints or plates intended by the publisher to be used and stored with it, often in a pocket inside the cover or loose inside the container. When such an item is cataloged by a library, the presence of accompanying material is indicated in the physical description area of the bibliographic record. accordion fold See: concertina. accountability The extent to which persons in government and the workplace are held answerable 7 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary for their conduct in office, and for the quality of their performance of assigned duties, particularly when incompetence, dereliction, or malfeasance is at issue. See also: performance evaluation. accreditation The regular evaluation process by which an educational or service organization establishes that its program of study or services, or the institution as a whole, meets certain pre-existing standards of quality. In the United States, institutions of higher learning are evaluated by regional accrediting bodies, and academic libraries are evaluated as part of the institutional accreditation process. The formal evaluation of individual competence is called certification. See also: accedited library school and credential. accredited library school In the United States, a library school offering a degree program regularly evaluated by the American Library Association and found to meet established standards of quality, as opposed to an approved library school offering a program recognized or certified by a state board or educational agency as meeting its standards. Some approved library schools are also ALA-accredited. accuracy The quality of correctness as to fact and precision as to detail in information resources and in the delivery of information services. In libraries, it is essential that the resources used by librarians to provide reference service be free of error. Accuracy is also an important criterion in judging the reliability of information provided on the Internet. The accuracy of a statement can be verified by checking other sources that provide the same information. The opposite of inaccuracy (the quality of being incorrect or mistaken). acid-free Materials with a pH value of 7.0 (neutral) or higher (alkaline), preferred in printing and binding to prevent deterioration caused by acid over time. Acid-free papers are often buffered to counteract acids that may develop with age as a result of bleaching and sizing, or be introduced through acid migration or atmospheric pollution. acidic Substances which have a pH value less than 7.0 (neutral). The main source of acid in paper products is lignin contained in wood used for pulp. Because acid causes the paper and board used in printing and binding to deteriorate over time, lignin is removed in all but the lowest-grade papers. A buffer such as calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate may be added in papermaking to neutralize acids that develop or are introduced in paper after it is manufactured. The opposite of alkaline. Compare with acid-free. acid migration The movement of acid from a material containing acid to one that is less acidic, pH neutral, or alkaline. The process can occur through direct contact or vapor transfer. One of the most common problems in document preservation is the migration of acid 8 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary from the boards, endpapers, or paper covers of a book to the less acidic paper of the text block (or vice versa). Acid can also migrate from bookplates, inserts, tissues used in interleaving, and labels that are not acid-free. The result may be discoloration and eventual embrittlement. The process can be arrested by removing the contaminating material and subjecting the sheet(s) or volume to deacidification. Synonymous with acid transfer. See also: buffered paper. acid paper Paper that has a pH value less than 7.0 (neutral). The primary source of acid in paper is lignin, an organic substance contained in untreated wood pulp, but acid can also develop from the addition of certain types of sizing or from residual chlorine used in bleaching. It can also be introduced by acid migration or atmospheric pollution (sulphur dioxide). Because acidity weakens the cellulose in plant fiber, it can cause paper, board, and cloth to yellow and become brittle over time, making it an important factor in the preservation of printed materials. To ensure durability, publishers are encouraged to use acid-free permanent paper in printing trade books. Buffering helps neutralize acids that develop after manufacture. Acid can be removed from fiber-based materials by means of an expensive process called deacidification. acid transfer See: acid migration. acknowledgments The section of the front matter of a book in which the author gives formal recognition to the contributions others have made to the work. The acknowledgments usually follow the preface or foreword and precede the introduction. Some authors include their acknowledgments in the preface. Also spelled acknowledgements. Compare with dedication. acquisition number A unique number used by the acquisitions department of a library to identify a specific bibliographic item on a purchase order. Some libraries use a standard number such as the ISBN (International Standard Book Number) or ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) as the acquisition number. acquisitions The process of selecting, ordering, and receiving materials for library or archival collections by purchase, exchange, or gift, which may include budgeting and negotiating with outside agencies, such as publishers, dealers, and vendors, to obtain resources to meet the needs of the institution’s clientele, in the most economical and expeditious manner. Also refers to the department within a library responsible for selecting, ordering, and receiving new materials, and for maintaining accurate records of such transactions, usually managed by an acquisitions librarian. In small libraries, the acquisitions librarian may also be responsible for collection development, but in most public and academic libraries this responsibility is shared by all the librarians who have an interest in collection building, usually on the basis of their expertise and subject 9 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary specializations. Compare with accessions. See also: ALCTS. For a more detailed description of the responsibilities entailed in acquisitions, please see the entry by Liz Chapman in the International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science (1997) edited by John Feather and Paul Sturges. Click here to connect to the homepage of AcqWeb, an online resource for acquisitions and collection development librarians. ACRL See: Association of College and Research Libraries. Acrobat See: Adobe Acrobat. acronym A new name or word (neologism) that is pronounceable and hence memorable, coined from the first or first few letters or parts of a phrase or compound term (example: ERIC for Educational Resources Information Center). Compare with abbreviation and initialism. Click here to connect to the Yahoo list of online acronym and abbreviation finders. acrostic A verse or list of words composed in such a way that certain letters of each line (usually the first and/or last), when read in order of appearance, spell a word, phrase, or sentence. An abecedarius is an acrostic in which the pattern consists of the letters of the alphabet in traditional order. An acrostic can be single, double, or triple, depending on how many words in each line are composed in this way. As a matter of policy, newspaper and magazine editors routinely check verses for acrostics prior to publication to avoid embarrassment. The following well-known example is an all around acrostic in Latin: R O T A S O P E R A T E N E T A R E P O S A T O R act One of the major divisions in the action of a play, usually marked by the dropping of the curtain, followed by an intermission. In modern drama, most plays are divided into three acts which may be further subdivided into scenes. See also: one-act play. Also refers to a piece of legislation (a bill) after it has been passed into law (example: Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998). Acta Diurna A daily gazette published in ancient Rome from the period of the late Republic onward, devoted primarily to matters of state (official events, public speeches, legal 10 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary proceedings, public building projects, major military actions) and announcements of births, marriages, and deaths. It also contained news of unusual occurrences (earthquakes, strange accidents, portents) and information about the private lives of prominent persons (scandals, divorces, lawsuits). The text was posted on public buildings and copies were made for wealthy Romans living in the city and provinces, or away temporarily on public business. The actuarii responsible for gathering the news were sometimes misled by persons intent on manipulating commodity markets and political events for personal gain. Surviving fragments, preserved in the writings of Petronius, read very much like a modern newspaper. acting edition An edition of a play intended for the use of actors and others directly involved in theater production, which includes fuller stage directions (entrances, exits, stage properties, etc.) than one intended for reading, usually published in limp paper covers and priced lower than other editions of the same work. Compare with script. active records Records required by an agency or individual to function effectively on a daily basis, usually kept close at hand, organized in a manner that renders them readily accessible. Synonymous with current records. The opposite of inactive records. See also: intermediate records. active relation See: semantic relation. ADA See: Americans with Disabilities Act. adaptation A work that has been edited or rewritten, in part or in its entirety, for a new use, audience, or purpose. Also, a work converted to another literary form or artistic medium to serve a different or related purpose, while retaining as much of the action, characters, language, and tone of the original as possible, for example, a novel adapted for performance on the stage, a play adapted for the motion picture screen, or an engraving based on a painting. Under AACR2, adaptations of texts are cataloged under the name of the adapter, or under the title if the adapter is unknown, with a name-title added entry for the original work. Abbreviated adapt. In music, a work which is a distinct alteration of another musical work (example: a free transcription), or that paraphrases parts of various works or imitates the style of another composer, or is somehow based on another musical work (AACR2). ADC See: Abridged Decimal Classification. added copy A copy of an item already owned by a library, added to the collection usually when 11 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary demand warrants. Compare with duplicate. added edition An edition of a work added to a library collection, which is not the same as editions of the same title already owned by the library. added entry An entry in a library catalog other than the main entry, usually one that adds a heading for a joint author, illustrator, translator, series, or subject. Synonymous with secondary entry. See also: name-title added entry and tracings. added title page A title page preceding or following the one that the cataloger uses as the chief source of information in creating the bibliographic description of an item. It can be more general (a series title page) or of equivalent generality (a title page in a different language). addendum Brief printed matter, less extensive than a supplement or appendix, included in a book or other publication after the work has been typeset because it is considered essential to the meaning or completeness of the text, usually printed separately on a slip of paper tipped in at the beginning or end of the text. Plural: addenda. Compare with errata. add note A brief note in the Dewey Decimal Classification schedules instructing the cataloger to append to a given base number one or more numerals found elsewhere in the classification in order to build a class number. For example, the instruction to "add to base number 027.1 (private and family libraries) notation from 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., family libraries in the United Kingdom 027.141." address In computing, a character or set of characters used to identify a specific location in main memory or peripheral storage, usually for the purpose of accessing stored data. See also: Internet address. adhesive A substance applied to a material to make it stick to another surface by chemical or mechanical action. Gummed adhesives require moisture to be effective. Solid at room temperatures, hot-melt adhesives liquify when heated and set up quickly as they cool. Some types of adhesive are pressure-sensitive. Adhesives of various kinds are used extensively in binding and technical processing in libraries. In document conservation, adhesives are often selected for their reversibility. See also: adhesive binding, glair, glue, paste, and polyvinyl acetate. adhesive binding A generic term for binding methods in which the leaves are held together by a strong adhesive applied directly to the back of the text block, usually done after the binding 12 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary edge is milled, but sometimes after the sections are sewn. The most commonly used adhesives are animal glues, hot-melts, and polyvinyl acetate (PVA). Synonymous with threadless binding and unsewn binding. See also: double-fan adhesive binding, notched binding, Otabind, and perfect binding. ad hoc Latin for "to this," used to indicate that something was created or exists for the particular purpose in view at the moment. Also refers to something organized for a specific purpose, for example, an ad hoc committee elected or appointed to address a specific issue or handle an unanticipated contingency, usually dissolved once the need has been met. adjacency See: proximity. adjunct A librarian employed part-time in an academic library at an institution that grants librarians faculty status. Synonymous with part-time faculty. adjustable shelving See: fixed shelving. ad loc. An abbreviation of the Latin phrase ad locum meaning "at the place cited". administration The range of activities normally associated with the management of a government agency, organization, or institution, such as a library or library system. Also refers collectively to the persons responsible for such activity, from director to secretary. See also: library administration. administrative history In archives, the part of a finding aid that provides pertinent information concerning the records it lists and describes, such as the history and organizational structure of the agency (or group of related agencies) that generated them, or significant details in the life and career of the individual or family with which they are associated, usually in the form of a biographical note. administrative value See: archival value. Adobe Acrobat A document exchange program created by Adobe Systems which allows data files created on one software platform (DOS, Windows, Macintosh, etc.) to be displayed and printed on another without loss of text formatting. This capability is particularly important in communication over the Internet which interconnects computers of all types and sizes. Adobe Systems sells the software required to create or convert documents to its Portable Document Format, but does not charge users for the software needed to read PDF documents. The Acrobat Reader program can be 13 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary downloaded directly from the company Web site at: www.adobe.com. See also: plug-in. adult A fully grown, mentally competent person of sufficient age to be considered capable of making mature decisions and held legally accountable for the consequences of his (or her) actions. Libraries operate on the assumption that adult patrons are capable of deciding independently what they wish to read and borrow. Although it is the responsibility of the parent to supervise the actions of a child, it is appropriate for librarians to provide guidance to children in the selection of materials suitable to their age level and interests, if asked to do so. See also: readers’ advisory. adult education Courses designed specifically for adults who have spent their lives outside the system of formal higher education. Because nontraditional students often lack the library skills of students who follow a traditional course of study, they may require more assistance at the reference desk and a more basic level of bibliographic instruction. adult learner A person older than traditional college age, who pursues an independent, organized course of study, usually without the benefit of formal instruction at an established educational institution. When enrolled as a nontraditional student at a college or university, such a person may require reference services and bibliographic instruction at a more basic level than traditional students. adult literacy See: literacy. adult services Materials, services, and programs intended to meet the needs of the adult users of a public library, as opposed to those designed for children and young adults. See also: readers’ advisory. advance copy A copy of a book or other publication bound in advance of the normal press run to enable the publisher to check that all is in order before binding of the edition proceeds. Advance copies are also sent to booksellers, book club selection committees, and reviewers before the announced publication date, sometimes unbound or in a binding other than the publisher’s binding, often with a review slip laid in. Copies sent unbound are known as advance sheets. Synonymous with early copy. Compare with reading copy and review copy. advance on royalty An amount paid to the author(s) of a new book prior to its publication against the royalties it is expected to earn, usually offered as an inducement to sign a book contract with the publisher. Synonymous with author’s advance. See also: publisher’s agreement. 14 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary advance order An order placed for a new book prior to its date of publication, usually in response to prepublication promotion. The number of copies ordered in advance may assist the publisher in determining the size of the first printing, the price, and how much to spend on advertising. advance sheet See: advance copy. advertorial Advertising text written in editorial style and format. To avoid confusion, most magazine publishers add the word "Advertisement" to the running head. adverts Advertisements bound into a book, usually at the end of the back matter. Abbreviated ads or advrts. advocacy See: library advocate. aerial map A map of the earth, or of another planetary body, composed of one or more photographs taken from a position above its surface, usually from a passing aircraft, satellite, or space vehicle. See also: photomosaic. affiliate A separately administered organization closely connected with another by formal agreement, for example, the various organizations affiliated with the American Library Association (ALA). Also refers to the process of forming such a link. See also: affiliated library. affiliated library A library which is, by formal agreement, part of a larger library system but administered independently by its own board or management structure. Medical and law libraries at large universities often fall into this category. Compare with branch library. affirmative action An active effort, begun in the late 1960’s, to enhance opportunities in the United States for minority groups and women, through federal regulations and programs intended to counteract bias and discrimination in government employment and contracting, and in admissions to state-supported educational institutions. Most publicly supported libraries in the U.S. are affirmative action employers. The legality of affirmative action has been called into question by individuals and political groups who believe that legislating equality discourages initiative and results in reverse discrimination. See also: diversity. against the grain A popular expression meaning "contrary to natural inclination" originally used in the 15 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary printing trade to refer to machine-made paper folded across the grain of its fibers. In book production, sheets are printed with the grain running from top to bottom of the leaves, allowing them to flex easily lengthwise after they are bound. When folded with the grain, paper tears easily and cleanly along the fold. When folded across the grain, it cracks and leaves a ragged edge when torn. Against the Grain (ATG) A bimonthly journal providing news about libraries, publishers, book jobbers, and subscription agents, with reports on the issues, literature, and people affecting books and journals. Click here to connect to the ATG homepage. agency For archival purposes, any commercial enterprise, organization, institution, or other corporate body that creates and manages records of its business, activities, or affairs. In very large organizations, subordinate units (sections, departments, offices) may function as separate agencies. In a more general sense, any person (agent) or organization that has the authority to perform a specific function, for example, the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). See also: government agency. agenda A list of topics or issues to be discussed at a meeting, sometimes solicited from prospective attendees in advance by the person who calls or chairs the meeting. It is customary to distribute the agenda before the meeting begins, to allow attendees time to prepare. A hidden agenda is a goal or intention consciously or unconsciously concealed, usually to gain the advantage of surprise, a tactic that often backfires when unsuspecting persons discover that they have been manipulated. agent An individual or company that acts as middle-man between a library or library system and a publisher in the purchase of materials, for example, a subscription service such as EBSCO or FAXON that manages periodical subscriptions for client libraries. See also: literary agent. aggregator A bibliographic service that provides online access to the digital full-text of periodicals published by different publishers. Because aggregator databases can be very large, tracking their coverage is not an easy task for serials librarians. A task group of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) is working on standards for analytic catalog records for serials titles available electronically from aggregator services. Currently, the top three journal aggregators in the United States are EBSCO, Gale Group, and ProQuest. Recently, EBSCO has been building market share by offering higher up-front payments to secure exclusivity from the publishers of certain journals. The effects of this competitive practice on libraries and the end-user are as yet unclear. AI See: artificial intelligence. 16 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary AIGA See: American Institute of Graphic Arts. AIIP See: Association of Independent Information Professionals. AILA See: American Indian Library Association. aisle The space left unoccupied between two parallel bookcases or shelf ranges, or at right angles to a bank of ranges, to allow library patrons and staff to access the stacks. Minimum aisle width is 36 inches in libraries open to the public in the United States. Some types of compact shelving allow staff or users to shift movable ranges, usually along tracks in the floor, opening aisles as needed. See also: cross aisle and range aisle. AJL See: Association of Jewish Libraries. a.k.a. An abbreviation of "also known as." See: allonym, eponym, pen name, and pseudonym. AL See: American Libraries. ALA See: American Library Association. ALA Allied Professional Organization (APA) A separate adjunct organization operating under bylaws approved by the governing Council of the American Library Association at the 2002 Midwinter Meeting, which allows the ALA to conduct activities prohibited under its current 501(c)(3) tax status. In the planning stages since 1996, the APA will be able to offer postgraduate specialty certification, advocate for pay equity, and address other issues related to the professional status of librarians, as a 501(c)(6) entity. Click here to connect to the ALA/APA homepage. ALA/APA See: ALA Allied Professional Association. ALA character set The set of characters defined by the American Library Association for use in the MARC record, including the characters of the Latin alphabet, special characters, diacritics, 14 superscript characters, 14 subscript characters, and 3 Greek letters. ALA Code of Ethics See: code of ethics. 17 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary ALA Editions Established in 1886, the Publishing Section of the American Library Association first evolved into ALA Books and Pamphlets, and then into ALA Editions in 1993. Its roster of first editions includes Reference Books for Libraries (1902), Books for College Libraries (1967), Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (1967), and the Intellectual Freedom Manual (1974). Income from annual sales of over 100,000 copies of titles published by ALA Editions supports ALA’s other programs. Publications currently available from ALA Editions are listed in its trade catalog. Click here to connect to the homepage of ALA Editions. ALA Filing Rules A set of guidelines for determining the order in which entries are to be filed in a library catalog, originally published by the American Library Association in 1942 under the title A.L.A. Rules for Filing Catalog Cards. Revised in 1967 to correspond with Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, the filing rules were expanded and published under the current title in 1980 to cover any form of bibliographic display (print, microform, digital, etc.) and any catalog code. ALA Graphics A marketing section of the American Library Association that sells posters, bookplates, bookmarks, T-shirts, and other graphic materials designed to promote libraries, literacy, and reading. ALA graphics can be ordered from a printed catalog or electronically from the ALA Online Store. album A bound or loose-leaf book containing blank pages for mounting stamps, photographs, poems, quotations, newspaper clippings, or other memorabilia, or for collecting autographs. Also, a book containing a collection of pictures, with or without accompanying text. Also refers to a book of sleeves designed to hold phonograph records, usually enclosed in an illustrated pasteboard cover with a list of the contents and descriptive notes printed on the inside. alcove A semi-private recessed area within a library, formed when two free-standing shelving units are placed at right angles to one or more units of wall shelving, usually large enough to provide access to materials on the shelves and to accommodate a small number of readers, seated at desks or around a study table. The architect Sir Christopher Wren is credited with originating this style of seating in his design of the library at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1676. Synonymous with cell. See also: carrel. ALCTS See: Association for Library Collections and Technical Services. Alexandrian Library Founded by Ptolemy I in about 300 BC, the great library at Alexandria in Egypt became the most important center of Hellenistic culture in antiquity. At its peak, it contained over 500,000 manuscripts, mostly papyrus scrolls, some of which were 18 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary translated into Greek from other languages. The collection was cataloged in the "Pinakes" of Callimachus which included the author’s name and a summary of the content of each item. The main library was part of a museum that functioned as an academy, attracting scholars from all parts of the Mediterranean world. A smaller library was established in the Temple of Serapis by Ptolemy III in about 235 BC. Although the main library was damaged in 47 BC during the siege by Julius Caesar, both libraries flourished under the Romans until the civil war that occurred in the late 3rd century AD under the Emperor Aurelian. The smaller library was destroyed in 391 AD by edict of the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius. In 1987, UNESCO embarked on a project in cooperation with the government of Egypt to revive the Library at Alexandria as a center of culture, science, and academic research. Click here to connect to the Web site of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. See also: Pergamum. algorithm A finite sequence of unambiguous steps or instructions, designed to solve a complex problem or accomplish a specific task in a way that produces at least one output, for example, a formula used to encrypt data. Algorithms can be expressed in natural language (example: a culinary recipe or the instructions for assembling an item shipped in pieces), in a symbolic language such as that used in mathematical logic, or in a computer programming language. One measure of proficiency in programming is the ability to create elegant algorithms that achieve the desired result in a minimum number of ingenious steps. See also: automatic indexing. ALHHS See: Archivists and Librarians in the History of the Health Sciences. alias A shortened form of an e-mail address that allows a computer user to type a brief identifier (example: susan) to send a message to a person whose full e-mail address is much longer (susanmillerlibrary.myuniversity.edu). Compare with macro. Also, an assumed name, especially one adopted by a person engaged in illegal activity to avoid detection and possible prosecution. Compare with pseudonym. Alibris A commercial company that specializes in supplying rare, out of print, and hard-to-find books to bookstores, libraries, and retail customers through a worldwide network of booksellers and distribution capabilities. Click here to connect to the Alibris homepage. alignment In typography, the arrangement of characters in a line of type in such a way that the tops and bottoms form a straight line across the page, parallel with other lines. Also, the setting of type in lines that are even at both right and left margins. Compare in this sense with justification. In a more general sense, the lining up of type or graphic matter in relation to any common horizontal or vertical line for printing on a page. 19 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55ODLIS: Online Dictionary ALISE See: Association for Library and Information Science Education. alkaline Substances with a pH exceeding 7.0 (neutral), for example, calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate added to paper in manufacture as a reserve or buffer to neutralize any acids that might develop with age. Alkaline substances are also used in the deacidification of materials made from acid paper or board. all across See: all along. all along A sewing method used in hand-binding in which each section of the text-block is sewn separately to cords or tapes, from kettle stitch to kettle stitch inside the fold. For the sake of economy or to reduce swell, sections may be hand sewn two on. Synonymous with all across and all on. allegory A narrative that can be interpreted literally, but which also has at least one symbolic meaning, usually expressing or elucidating an abstract idea or moral principle. Also, a form of extended metaphor used primarily in works of fiction and poetry in which an event, idea, thing, or person stands for itself and simultaneously for something else. A dream allegory is a medieval poem or story about a dream that has allegorical significance, for example, King Rene’s Book of Love (Le Cueur d’Amours Espris). See also: beast epic, fable, morality play, and parable. all firsts An expression used in the antiquarian book trade and in library cataloging to indicate that all the items in a group of publications are known to be first editions. Allied Professional Association See: ALA Allied Professional Association. allocation A quantity of time, money, materials, or other resources reserved by an organization for a specific purpose, usually to meet a need essential to realizing its goals and objectives. In most libraries and library systems, funds are allocated in accordance with an annual or biennial budget determined by the availability of funds. all on See: all along. allonym The name of a person known to have existed, assumed as a pen name by another writer, as opposed to a fictional pseudonym. For example, the name "Publius" for the Roman tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher, used by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in writing The Federalist. 20 of 733 31.1.2004 14:55