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Building student success
Building student success 11
Building student success A guide to the Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting FrameworkBuilding student success A guide to the Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Framework ISBN: 978 0 7345 2344 0 © The State of Queensland (Queensland Studies Authority) 2008 Ground floor, 295 Ann Street Brisbane PO Box 307 Spring Hill Queensland 4004 Australia Phone: +61 7 3864 0299 Fax: +61 7 3221 2553 Email: email@example.com Website: www.qsa.qld.edu.au Note: This publication contains images that may cause distress to Indigenous Australians. BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Contents Minister’s message v 4 Assessing for learning 23 Standards 25 Foreword vii Assessable elements 25 Building teachers’ assessment The QCAR Framework: An overview 1 ca ab p ilities 26 Catering for students’ needs 29 1 Setting the scene 3 Consistency of teachers’ judgments 30 Aims of the Framework 3 Key messages 31 The Framework and teachers’ professional capacity 4 5 How to report 33 QSA’s equity principles for students 5 Student achievement and progress 35 An overview of this guide 5 Student achievement within Key messages 7 sc hool-based curriculum 36 Student achievement on the QCATs 37 2 The QCAR Framework 9 Improving student learning 38 Alignment of curriculum, assessment Key messages 39 and reporting 9 Components 10 6 How to plan 41 Benefits 12 Planning considerations 41 Teachers 12 Five processes that guide planning 43 Parents/carers 12 Planning: One teacher’s practice 44 Key messages 13 Auditing current curriculum 46 Planning for the needs of all learners: 3 What to teach 15 Caerin t g for diversity 47 Essential Learnings: An overview 15 Indigenous perspectives in planning 48 Organisation 17 Key messages 49 Learning and assessment focus 18 Assessable elements 18 7 Developing quality school-based Ways of working 18 assessment 51 Knowledge and understanding 19 Features of a good assessment program 51 Information & communication Developing school-based assessment 52 te hno c logies (ICTs) 19 Task-specific assessable elements and Indigenous perspectives 19 descrip53 to rs Languag s e19 Developing a Guide to making judgmen 54 ts The Essential Learnings in operation 19 Using and providing feedback 56 General teaching principles 20 Key messages 57 Key messages 21 Appendixes 59 Glossary 87 References 89 Acknowledgments 90 iii BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Minister’s message The Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting (QCAR) Framework was a Queensland Government education initiative, developed as part of the Smart Queensland: Smart State Strategy 2005–15. It supports teachers across Queensland’s schooling sectors by aligning curriculum with assessment and reporting. The ultimate goal of the Framework is to prepare students for the future by developing the necessary capabilities, including those which I commonly refer to as the 4Cs: competence, creativity, character and citizenship. The Framework, through the Essential Learnings and Standards, clarifies for teachers, parents and the broader community what all students should learn, and the standards of learning expected. Community expectations of consistent teacher judgment, and greater clarity around what teachers are expected to deliver, are met by the Framework. It also ensures reporting of student achievement outcomes in meaningful and explicit ways, not only for students, but also for parents/carers and the broader community. The Framework is underpinned by a commitment to support classroom teachers to improve student learning and build their assessment capability through the Assessment Bank and Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs). The Framework is the culmination of three years of cooperation, consultation and development among the Queensland schooling sectors, individual schools, the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA), the Queensland Government and the Department of Education, Training and the Arts. I encourage teachers to work with each component of the Framework. I hope that it will ins pire and assist teachers to be the very best professional educators they can be. Rod Welford MP Minister for Education and Training Minister for the Arts v BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Foreword The Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting (QCAR) Framework is a quality new resource that supports teachers to achieve the best possible learning outcomes for students. The Framework does this by providing clarity about what to teach, as well as practical ad ic v e on assessment and how to report student achievement to parents/carers in a consistent and meaningful way. For the first time in Queensland, we have statewide standards in the key learning areas. In aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting, we have drawn on evidence-based research, which indicates to us that this is an effective strategy for boosting student performance. However, the Framework does not demand uniformity between schools. By giving sc hools the flexibility to plan their curriculum to suit their individual contexts, it is designed to work in diverse school settings. Many people contributed to the development, trialling and refinement of the Framework. These contributors included practising teachers, schooling sectors and numerous other education stakeholders. I thank them for their partnership and support. The Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) values school-based curriculum and is committed to providing quality resources that support teaching and learning in schools. I hope the Framework and this guide are useful for devising curriculum that best meets all Queensland students’ needs across Years 1–9. Kim Bannikoff Director vii BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting THE QUEENSLAND CURRICULUM, ASSESSMENT AND REPORTING (QCAR) FRAMEWORK An overview The QCAR Framework aligns curriculum, assessment The QSA developed the Framework in partnership and reporting. It supports teachers and teaching with the Department of Education, Training and practices that are tailored to the unique needs of the Arts, and Queensland’s three schooling students. sectors: State (Education Queensland), Catholic (Queensland Catholic Education Commission) and The Framework: Independent (Independent Schools Queensland). • defines what is essential for students to be given This collaborative process ensured that expertise the opportunity to learn and advice from teachers informed the development • promotes standards of student achievement that of each component of the Framework. te achers can use to build a shared understanding This guide supports the work of all teachers in of the qualities of student work, and to Queensland schools to implement the QCAR communicate student achievement to students Framework. This guide examines how the Framework and parents/carers answers the following questions: • supports teachers’ assessment practices • What is taught? • provides advice to schools on reporting to • How are students taught? parents/carers. • How is students’ learning assessed? The Framework has five components that are • How is learning reported? interrelated and designed to work together. These align with, support, and are embed Ch ded in, al apter 1 identifie l s the aims of the Framework, and elements of the teaching and le ho arnin w it g pr sup oc por es ts s. teachers’ professional capacity and builds student success. It also lists QSA’s equity • Essential Learnings — identify what should be principles for students. taught and what is important for students to have opportunities to know, understand and be Chapter 2 outlines how the Framework provides able to do. cl arity and resources for schools and teachers. • Standards — give a common frame of reference Chapters 3–5 present a broad understanding of and a shared language to describe student the Framework and its components, while the achievement. focus Ch of apters 6–7 is the practical application • Assessment Bank — an online collection of of the Framework, i.e. planning curriculum and assessment packages and resources that support assessment. teaching, learning and school-based assessment. Appendixes and a glossary of key terms are also • Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks included. These help teachers to build a deeper (QCATs) in Years 4, 6 and 9 — give teachers understanding of the Framework and provide information about student demonstrations of resources to support planning in schools. learning in a sel Essen ection of tial Learnings, and The audience for this guide includes all Queensland promote consistency of teacher judgments. te achers, curriculum leaders in the schooling • Guidelines for Reporting — support consistency of sectors, as well as pre-service teachers and teacher reporting. educators. The Framework was developed by the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) as part of the Queensland Government’s Smart Queensland: Smart State Strategy 2005–15. The Smart State Strategy has a focus on “… investing in skills and innovation to increase our productivity so that Queenslanders can enjoy the benefits of a strong, prosperous economy and a better quality of life” (p. 4). 1 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Setting the scene 1 CHAPTER 1 Setting the scene Children are the living messages we send to a time we will not see. (Postman 1982, p. xi) A key responsibility of society is to support young people in acquiring the knowledge, skills and capabilities that will give them the best possible opportunities to lead happy, healthy and productive lives. As we approach the end of the first decade of the 21st century, significant educational reform is occurring throughout Australia. In Queensland, this change is being led by the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA), a statutory body of the Queensland Government. The development of the Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting (QCAR) Framework and the introduction of the Preparatory (Prep) Year in 2007 are both part of this reform. The focus is to ensure that students completing 12 years of schooling are broadly educated, prepared for life and ready to move towards their career pathways and life goals. The wellbeing of individuals and groups, as well as society itself, relies upon high- quality education that supports children and young Schooling in Queensland needs to serve a number people to achieve. of broad aims. Current literature about the nature The Framework is designed to align what is taught, of life and work in the 21st century, and the aims of how it is taught and how learning is assessed and schooling, highlight the need for young people to reported in Years 1–9. The Framework supports develop a range of capabilities. schools and teachers to deliver high-quality The capabilities that students require for work schooling. and life relate to personal and social identities, citizenship and responsibility, as well as the knowledge needed for successful and productive Aims of the Framework work and personal futures (QSA 2007). Specifically, The Framework aligns curriculum, assessment and the Framework is designed to support students to reporting to improve student learning outcomes and develop the knowledge, skills and predispositions enhance teachers’ assessment capabilities. to become: The Framework supports Queensland s • kno choo wledg ls t e w o orkers who can work with knowledge focus on: in creative, critical and innovative ways • improving student learning • confident individuals who can interact with others, act autonomously and manage themselves • supporting consistency of teacher judgments • responsible citizens who can work with • providing comparability of student achievement. communities and manage the rights, The Framework is to be the basis of curriculum, responsibilities and duties of citizenship. assessment and reporting for Years 1–9 for Queensland schools. 3 The Framework and teachers’ professional capacity The Framework supports teachers as experienc profession e ric als h and r by ewarding learning programs providing flexibility for schools th to de at hs av ign c e relurric evanc ulum e and application in the real world. that suits their specific contexts. B To meet y pr the div ovidin er g u se l sef earnin ul g needs of all students, and practical resources, the Framew sc ork hoo also sets ls and te out achers have the flexibility to make to build teachers’ professional dec cap iac sion ity s. about how they use and combine the Essential Learnings within and across the key learning The Framework supports teacher professionalism areas (KLAs), as well as across the year levels. The by providing: Standards provide a shared language and a common • flexibility to make decisions about student frame of reference to describe student achievement. le arning in their contexts Teachers’ capacity to develop school-based • scope for school authorities and school priorities assessment is enhanced through access to the to inform practice. Assessment Bank, an extensive online collection of Teachers’ professional capacity is built by providing assessment packages and resources that are linked cl arity for teachers about the focus of teaching and to the Essential Learand nings Standards. Further, learning, and developing increasingly innovative the Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks and relevant forms of assessment to determine (QCATs) support teachers to build professional the quality of student learning. It also requires capacity, provide opportunities for students to partnerships between teachers and school demonstrate their learning in nominated Essential authorities. High levels of professional capacity Learnings at key year-level junctures, and are integral to the provision of a socially just promote consistency of teachers’ judgments — a education for all students, and are underpinned by key attribute of teachers’ professional capacity. a commitment to educational practice in which all Consistency of school and teacher reporting of students can succeed. student achievement is further enhanced through the Guidelines for Reporting. The Essential Learnings provide the basis for teachers to plan, giving opportunities for all learners to 4 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Setting the scene 1 QSA’s equity principles for students The Framework is underpinned b Equity po y the Q licy s SA’s tatement (2006b), which challenges inequities by: • recognising that teaching and learning should be socially and culturally responsive and inclusive • developing an understanding of diversity within and among groups • identifying and minimising structural barriers to access and participation • acknowledging the diversity of students and each individual’s life ci cr umstances, and the need for particular strategies which can enhance engagement and equitable outcomes among all students • recognising and acknowledging the diverse bodies of knowledge and ba kgr counds of all students, including marginalised groups • acknowledging the relationship between valued knowledge and the pa tic r ipation of students in society. These principles need to be enacted in our schools to ensure that all students can succeed. These principles have implications for all students across the schooling sectors. 5 QCAR components building student success Below is a “big picture” view of the Framework, showing how the following components build student success: • Essent Lear ial nings • Standards • Assessment Bank • Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs) • GuidelinesforReporting. Figure 1.1: QCAR Framework: Building student success The Framework supports young people to develop the knowledge, skills and capabilities to become: 1 What are our aims? Knowledge workers Confident individuals Active and responsible citizens who can work with who can interact with others, knowledge in creative, act autonomously and who can work with critical and innovative ways. manage themselves. communities and manage the rights, responsibilities and duties of citizenship. Using the Framework, each Queensland school designs and implements its own curriculum 2 around engaging and real-life challenges that are meaningful for students and for society by aligning: How does the • whatistaught Framework build • howitistaught student success? • howstudentlearningisassessed. Essential Learnings for each key learning area Standards describe the expected qualities of (KLA) include: student work. • aLearningandassessmentfocus • Waysofworking • Knowledgeandunderstanding. Assessable elements provide the connection between Essential Learnings and Standards. Student learning is demonstrated through purposeful assessment that is an integral part of 3 teaching and learning. Quality assessment: How is student Focuses on Essential Includes a balance of Is modelled through the learning Learnings assessable elements Assessment Bank demonstrated? Provides feedback to improve Incorporates a range of student learning evidence collected over time The Assessment Bank and the Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs) model assessment and support consistency of teacher judgment. Reporting of student learning provides evidence and feedback for: 4 • studentstoimprovetheirlearning • parents/carerstosupportstudentlearning How is student • schoolsandschoolingsectorstosupport Standards continuousimprovement,ensuringthat learning reported? are being met. 6 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Setting the scene 1 photoShop numBer oFF lapt op key messages The QCAR Framework: • is a comprehensive framew ork that aligns what is taught, how it is taught, ho w learning is assessed and how learnin g is reported for all students in Years 1–9 • supports schools and teachers to deliver high- quality schooling that helps students become knowledge workers, confident individuals and active, responsible citizens equipped for the future • provides flexibility for s chools and teachers to design and implement curriculum, based around the Essential Le and arnings Standards, that suits their local contexts • builds teachers’ professional capacity in a range of ways (including enh anced assessment approaches through acces s to the Assessment Bank, and greater consistency of teacher judgment through the QCATs) • is underpinned by po the Q licy SA Equity statement, which encaps ulates Queensland’s commitment to a socially just education for all students. 7 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting The QCAR Framework 2 CHAPTER 2 The QCAR Framework Alignment is a commonly identified strategy for improving student performance ... Alignment means that the standards, content, assessment and instruction strategies make a complementary fit. Alignment is sometimes called seamless curriculum. Curriculum planning needs to be thoughtful, with a systematic process for continually checking to ensure that all parts are connected. (Drake 2007, p. 4) This chapter introduces the elements of the QCAR Framework. It shows how the Framework has been designed to help teachers align curriculum, assessment and reporting. Alignment of curriculum, assessment and reporting The Framework supports teaching that is tailored to meet the unique needs of students by giving teachers informed direction and valuable resources. Rather than seeking “sameness”, the Framework presents a way of achieving more cis ommonality in what taught, while supportin it g div is er ts aught ity in . how A key feature of the Framework is alignment. This inv olves powerful connections between curriculum, assessment and reporting. To frame it in a different way: in order to produce the best learning outcomes for students, what is taught must inform how it is taught, how students are assessed and how the learning is reported. What is assessed must relate directly to what students have had the opportunity to learn. What is reported to students, parents/carers and other teachers must align with what has been learnt. Such feedback is essential for students in order for them to improve. In turn, reporting learning provides a basis for decisions about continuous improvement of the curriculum. Alignment is integral to the development and maintenance of a high-quality education system that caters for the diverse range of students and schools within the Queensland schooling community. The Framework is based on the assumption that every child and young person can learn. 9 What is ... ? Curriculum is the sum of the learning and development experiences that are offered by a school, formally and informally, in class and out of class. It is heavily influenced by the philosophy of learning that the school adopts. Curriculum is a school responsibility with the QSA supplying materials that assist schools to plan and deliver their curriculum. Assessment is the purposeful and systematic collection of evidence about students’ achievements. It involves judging which standard on a five-point scale best represents the characteristics of a student’s achievement. Reporting involves the provision of a summary statement (in electronic form or paper copy) that records an individual student’s achievements or groups of students’ achievements. Components The Framework has five components that are interrelated and designed to work together. These support, and are embedded in, all elements of the teaching and learning process. They are: • Essential Learnings, which identify what should be taught and what is important for students to have opportunities to know, understand and be able to do • Standards, which provide a common frame of reference and a shared language to describe student achievement • Assessment Bank, an online collection of The QCAR Framework: Real-life learning assessment packages and resources that support and learning for real life teaching, learning and school-based assessment Teachers and schools use the Framework to design • Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks curriculum around engaging, real-life and relevant issues (QCATs) in Years 4, 6 and 9, which provide and challenges that are meaningful for students and for information to teachers about student society. The Framework supports teachers and schools demonstrations of learning in a selection of to build a culture of high expectations, engaged learning Essential Learnings and promote consistency of and focused teaching. It helps teachers to plan and teacher judgment provide opportunities for students to experience rich and rewarding learning programs that have relevance and • Guidelines for Reporting, which support application in the real world. It also supports students to co s n istency of reporting across Queensland by be active participants in their learning. using a five-point scale to describe the quality of student achievement. 10 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting The QCAR Framework 2 Figure 2.1: QCAR Framework: Answering key questions in relation to what is taught, how it is taught, how it is assessed and how it is reported What is taught? Teachers identify curriculum intent using the Essential Learnings. How is student learning reported? Student needs, Teachers report twice yearly using a five-point scale in relation to the KLAs and annually at Years interests, 4, 6 & 9 in relation to the QCATs. achievements How is students’ learning assessed? How do teachers teach? How do teachers Teachers decide what student learning Teachers sequence teaching strategies and students use they are gathering evidence about and and learning experiences to support feedback to build how that evidence will be collected and achievement of the Essential student success? judged. Teachers can use the Standards, Learnings and Standards. the Assessment Bank and the QCATs. 11 • valuing teacher professionalism and supporting Benefits professional learning The Framework is focused on improving learning for • maintaining Queensland’s commitment all students through: to supporting school-based curriculum • consistency of what is taught, assessed and development. reported across Queensland • consistent judgments about student work against Parents/carers common standards • use of information about student learning to In the past, some parents/carers have found it develop future teaching and learning programs difficult to understand reports, and to know how they can help their child or when to seek extra • feedback to students about their learning support. The Framework gives parents/carers • comparability of student reports to parents/carers assurance that: • continuity across year levels. • the learning their child undertakes is consistent with that of other schools Teachers • the judgments that teachers make about their ch ld’s i performance are made using the same The Framework provides teachers with clarity about Standards as those applied in other Queensland what to teach by: schools. • guiding planning The Framework promotes greater consistency across • helping teachers develop a shared understanding cl assrooms. It also encourages greater continuity about expectations of student performance across year levels in what is taught and how it is • offering access to quality assessment instruments assessed and reported. • providing a common frame of reference and a shared language to describe student achievement 12 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting The QCAR Framework 2 key messages • The QCAR Framework aligns what is taught, how it is taught, how learning is assessed and how learning is reported. • The Framework is based on the assumption that every child and young person can learn. • The components of the Framework are interrelated and work tog ether to support alignment. • Student learning is directed towards real-world challenges and is organised thr ough systemic or school frameworks. 13 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting What to teach 3 CHAPTER 3 What to teach The key task of curriculum development is to identify and articulate the most valuable knowledge (skills and capabilities) available for teaching and assessment. This means drawing on the best of traditional forms, but ensuring that the curriculum responds to the development of new knowledge, skills and understandings. Decisions on what knowledge is most valuable, and should be included, will be determined by the needs of students and the community in light of the demands of a changing social context. (QSA 2007, p. 3) This chapter focuses on the Essential Learnings. in the Essential Lear h nin av gs e been guided by the It shows how they can help teachers to plan teaching knowledge, skills and capabilities that students need and learning that aligns curriculum and assessment. for ongoing learning, social and personal competence, The structure of the Essential Learnings and their and participation in a democratic society. individual components are explored. The nation Statemen al ts of Learning in English, Teachers use the Essentia t l L o align earnings Mathematics, Science, Civics and Citizenship, and curriculum and assessment with their t Information and C eaching and ommunication Technologies (ICTs), learning programs. This alignment depend agreed t s o b on a y all states and territories, have been clear understanding of: embedded in the Essential Learnings. • curriculum intent, including clarity about what Also embedded in the Essential Learnings are st udents need for success in the 21st century ca ab p ilities (see Appendix 1) that support • how assessment can support thi st s udents learnin tg. o become knowledge workers, confident individuals and active and responsible citizens. These are the capabilities for: Essential Learnings: • w orking with knowledge An overview • dev eloping identity and managing self • actin g in the social and political world. The Essential Learnings comprise a rich set of knowledge, skills and capabilities — an agreed core A range of research and literature and curriculum that students are able to access, and which schools maeri t als was used to identify these more generic, can use to generate an engaging, comprehensive cross-curricular capabilities. school curriculum. They identify what should be The Essential Learnings were developed using four taught and what is important for students to have co s n tructs: opportunities to know, understand and be able to do. • Kno wledge and understanding Essential Learnings are specified for each of the eight • Inquirin g KLAs. Languages are specified at stages of learning • R esponding (see p. 19). The Arts, English, Health & Physical Education, Mathematics, Science, Studies of Society • R eflecting. & Environment, and Technology are specified at These constructs have shaped the design and junctures that fall at the end of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. specifications of the a Es n sen d tia resul l Leart nings Queensland’s eight KLA syllabuses were the primary in connections across the KLAs that help teachers information source for the Essential Learnings. plan integrated and connected curriculum programs. Teachers in schools across the three schooling They also help students move between and across sectors worked with the QSA to identify the areas of learning and courses. For example, although essential knowledge, skills and capabilities of the learning how to investigate in Science requires a KLA syllabuses and to trial and refine the Essential specific set of skills, these are transferable and can Learnings. Discussions about what has been included help students in Mathematics investigations. 15 Essential Learnings support the development The Es of: sential Learnings pro vide schools with the flexibility to organise their curriculum in ways that • processes that students use to demonstrate their are responsive to the needs, interests, previous understandings achievements and backgrounds of students, and • deep understandings of key disciplinary balanced by systemic and community values, and concepts, facts and procedures school priorities. • capabilities needed now and in the future. Figure 3.1: QCAR Framework: Focusing on what is to be taught The Essential Learnings form the basis of the Teachers identify curriculum curriculum in Years 1–9. intent using the Essential Learnings. They provide: • clarityforteachersabout what to teach • assuranceforteachers that the essential elements of each KLA are being covered, and that their students are learning what the wider community values • assuranceforparents/ carers that a core Student needs, curriculum will be offered in all Queensland schools. interests, achievements Teachers sequence teaching Teachers decide what evidence strategies and learning demonstrates student learning experiences to support and how that evidence will be achievement of the Essential collected and judged. Learnings and Standards. A key focus at our school is to constantly explore ways in which we can challenge our students intellectually. We are firmly committed to embedding the QCAR Framework into our context, and giving all of our students the opportunity to succeed in terms of intellectually rigorous tasks. The first step in the process is for us to engage with and fully understand what the Essential Learnings offer. The second part is to ensure that our pedagogy acts as the conduit between the Essential Learnings and the individual needs of the learner. (Principal at a special education school) 16 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting What to teach 3 Organisation Essential Learnings incorporate: • a Learning and assessment focus • Ways of working • Knowledge and understanding. Each of these builds in complexity across Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Figure 3.2: Year 5 Science: Essential Learnings Ways of working Describe the essential processes that students use to engage in learning, and to develop and demonstrate their knowledge and understanding. Learning and assessment focus They include higher-order thinking skills, and the capabilities Describes the focus of learning and assessment that students need for ongoing learning, social and personal for the KLA within the year-level juncture. competence, and participation in a democratic society. Assessable elements are used to make judgments Knowledge and Examples clarify about the quality of student achievement. understanding the intent of the statements and the Describes the essential intended depth and concepts, facts and level of complexity. procedures of the KLA. The organiser and conceptual statement describe the focus and essential concepts, or big ideas, of the KLA. 17 This information is then used to make judgments Learning and assessment focus about the quality of student achievement. They The Learning and assessment focus increases in provide the link between the Essential Learnings complexity across each year-level juncture within and the Stan in dards assessment. Chapters 4 and 7 each of the KLAs, and emphasises the importance of: explore the assessable elements in more detail. • using the Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding together Ways of working • actively engaging students in learning and assessing — providing opportunities for students Ways of working describe the processes that to learn and be assessed through doing, in students use to develop and demonstrate their contexts that are relevant and meaningful knowledge and understanding. They reflect the skills and capabilities that are important to work • integrating information and communication with knowledge effectively in each KLA, e.g. working te hno c logies (ICTs) as tools for learning mathematically, working scientifically or working • recognising the value of Indigenous knowledge technologically. They include higher-order thinking and embedding Indigenous perspectives in skills that support the development of deep students’ learning and assessment. understanding and the capabilities that students need to acquire. These processes also increase in complexity across year-level junctures. Assessable elements The Ways of working are organised around three broad Assessable elements of each KLA are specified in co s n tructs: inquiring, responding and reflecting. the Learning and assessment focus, and identify An example from Year 7 Mathematics is in Table 3.1. the valued features of the KLA about which evidence The Ways of working across the KLAs for all junctures of student learning is collected and assessed. are presented in Appendixes 2–5 and 10. Table 3.1: Examples of constructs for the Ways of working Ways of working constructs Mathematics BytheendofYear7:Waysofworking Inquiring Pose questions that draw on familiar examples to clarify thinking and support predictions Analysing, reasoning, arguing and evaluating to develop depth and coherence of understanding Plan activities and investigations to explore concepts through selected pathways, and plan strategies to solve mathematical questions, problems and issues Responding Communicate thinking and justify reasoning and generalisations, using mathematical language, representations Communicating ideas and information across a range of new and technologies products and performances Planning, designing and producing Making personal meanings from socially shared perceptions Reflecting Reflect on and identify the contribution of mathematics to their life Critically examining own and others’ ideas, experiences, Reflect on learning, apply new understandings and identify future applications products and performances 18 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reportingWhat to teach 3 purposes of planning and assessment, the Essential Knowledge and understanding Learnings relate to stages of learning in the language Knowledge and understanding describes essential rather than to specific year levels. These three stages concepts, facts and procedures of the KLA. These are of language learning are: Beginner, Elementary and presented under “organisers” that relate to the broad Lower intermediate. It is recognised that students conceptual categories that are the focus of the KLA. will follow various pathways in their languages depending on the school’s structure and each The conceptual statements across the KLAs for all student’s entry level when introducing the language. junctures are presented in Appendixes 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11. To succeed in an area of learning, students must The Essential Learnings develop a foundation of information and ideas, in operation and also a conceptual framework that relates them. Concepts take on meaning through multiple The Essential Learnings specify what students will representations that are rich in detail when applied know, understand and be able to do as a result of in purposeful contexts. Building conceptual learning. They promote the development of key knowledge helps students relate information and concepts, facts and procedures that will allow ideas in meaningful ways, and organise knowledge students to apply their knowledge in increasingly in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. diverse, fluid and changing contexts. While the Essential Lear do not nings prescribe specific teaching and learning approaches and Information & communication strategies, they provide opportunities for students technologies (ICTs) to actively engage in their own learning. The two dimensions — Ways of working and Knowledge and Students live in a technological world where understanding — go beyond an exclusive emphasis information and communication technologies (ICTs) on cognition to include capabilities that students are an integral part of everyday living. ICTs are a need for lifelong learning. cross-curricular priority within the Framework. ICTs include the hardware, software, peripheral For students to develop deep understandings, devices and digital systems that enable data and knowledge should be presented in problem- information to be managed, stored, processed and solving contexts and students need to be given the communicated. opportunity to evaluate claims and assumptions through critical reflection. True learning leads to Applying ICTs as a tool for learning helps students the ability to adapt and apply knowledge in the become competent, discriminating, creative and face of new tasks, problems and situations. This productive users. ICTs can be integrated in a variety view is relevant both to the disciplinary traditions of of ways within and across all KLAs to support learning and to newer, more generic formulations of thinking, learning, collaboration and communication. competences and capabilities. Schools and teachers can access the ICTs cross- curriculum priorities on the QSA website. These statements describe what students are expected to be able to do by the end of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Indigenous perspectives Indigenous perspectives have been embedded in the Essential Learnings. Indigenous perspectives refer to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ways of knowing, viewing and relating to the world. These perspectives acknowledge the viewpoints of Indigenous people on time, place and people within local, regional, national and global contexts. Individual and community experiences, learning, cultural beliefs and values underpin these viewpoints. Languages Essential Learnings for Languages are structured according to stages of language learning. For the 19 General teaching principles to access, participate in and experience success Develop teaching and learning programs in learning Ways of working and Knowledge and that are inclusive and socially and culturally understanding. Adjustments can include “breaking responsive. up” or “chunking” the Essen int tial Le o arnings Students bring to the classroom preconceptions meaningful conceptual knowledge and ways of about the world. If new understandings are not working in familiar contexts. In this way, there linked to these preconceptions, students can fail will be explicit connections to additional learning to grasp the new concepts and information, or they opportunities, and teachers can provide further may learn them in a superficial or recitative fashion prompts and time to access and complete the (aimed, for instance, at completing a test), but revert learning experiences. to their preconceptions outside the classroom. Consequently, teaching and learning are best linked Provide practical and different ways for all to prior learning, and should take account of the students to demonstrate what they know and personal and cultural experiences of different groups can do, and to experience success in learning. of learners and provide opportunities for students If students are to learn effectively, learning to explore ideas and knowledge that challenge their experiences and teaching strategies need to own and others’ thinking in depth. be selected and sequenced to support active engagement in learning and intellectual challenge. Make adjustments to how learners can It is important to actively engage students in access Ways of working and Knowledge and learning that is relevant and of interest to them. understanding. The focus or context for learning should connect with Students’ needs and abilities should be considered issues of personal or social relevance to students, when planning to ensure optimum engagement e.g. healthy lifestyles, sustainability and community and success in learning. Teachers therefore plan to pa tic r ipation. Where appropriate, contexts for make adjustments for individual and/or small group learning may be negotiated with students to ensure learning. Such adjustments ensure that students that the contexts are relevant and authentic. with disabilities or learning difficulties are able 20 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting What to teach 3 key messages • Essential Learnings: — identify what should be taught and what is important for students to have op portunities to learn — describe the focus of teaching and learning in the eight KLAs — incorporate a Learning and assessment focus, and the two dimensions: Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding. • Ways of working describe the pr ocesses important in the KLA, while Knowledge and under standing describes essential concepts, facts and procedures of the KLA. • The assessable elements in the KLAs provide the pivotal link between the Essential Learnings and assessment. • Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a key cross-curricular priority w ithin the Framework. • Teachers make decisions about the particular teaching approaches and strategie s that will best support individual students and groups of students to achieve the Essential Learnings and Standards. • Essential Learnings are to be the core of curriculum for Queensland schools. Teachers m ay include additional learnings as part of their school-based curriculum. 21 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Assessing for learning 4 CHAPTER 4 Assessing for learning From their very earliest school experiences, our students draw life-shaping conclusions about themselves as learners on the basis of the information we provide to them as a result of their teachers’ classroom assessments. As that evidence accumulates over time, they decide if they are capable of succeeding or not. They decide whether the learning is worth the commitment it will take to attain it. They decide if they should have confidence in themselves as learners and in their teachers — that is, whether to risk investing in the schooling experience. These decisions are crucial to their academic wellbeing. Depending on how they decide, their teachers may or may not be able to influence their learning lives. (Stiggins & Chappuis 2005, p. 1, emphasis added) This chapter presents an overview of the assessment A key premise of the Framework is that, to improve components of the QCAR Framework, with a focus on student learning, priority should be given to how these components can support assessment for enhancing the capacity of teachers to develop learning and improve learning outcomes. quality assessments that students will engage with. The Framework supports this through: The Framework informs the ways that students are • the Essential Learnings, which help teachers assessed. It puts teachers’ professional knowledge to align curriculum with assessment through and practice at the heart of aligning what is taught, connections between Ways of working and how it is taught, how student learning is assessed Knowledge and understanding, and the and how learning is reported. assessable elements Assessment is the purposeful and systematic • Standards for Years 1–9, which reflect the two collection of evidence about students’ achievements, dimensions of Ways of working and Knowledge and has a pivotal role in supporting student learning. and understanding An increasing body of research confirms the central • an online Assessment Bank that provides models role of assessment in improving learning (Earl 2003). of assessment instruments that align the Essential An awareness of what learning is assessed and how it Learnings, assessable elements to and Standards is assessed helps both students and parents/carers support consistency of teacher judgments develop an understanding of what is valued and where to focus attention. • Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs) in English, Mathematics and Science Participating in assessment can have a profound at Years 4, 6 and 9. QCATs provide models influence on the motivation and self-esteem of of assessment tasks aligned to the Essential students (Stiggins & Chappuis 2005). How students Learnings and Standards and help promote are assessed, and the judgments that are made about consistency of teacher judgments. what they can and cannot do, can have a deep effect on their sense of self-esteem and their e Within the Fr xpect amew ation ork, as s sessment for learning: for success and failure (Harlen & Deakin-Crick 2003). • is planned, engaging and ongoing Assessment can motivate or discourage students • focuses attention on the Essential Learnings from further learning. It serves to guide students • is standards-based as they plan their learning strategies, and can • provides information that supports teaching and encourage or discourage students to develop as le arning independent learners. • provides feedback to students about how they can improve their learning. 23 Figure 4.1: QCAR Framework: Answering questions with a focus on assessment The Standards connect the Essential Learnings to assessment and reporting practices. The Standards: • indicatehowwellastudenthas Teachers identify curriculum achieved the Essential Learnings intent using the Essential acrosstheWaysofworkingand Learnings. Knowledge and understanding • arelinkedtotheassessable elements • describetheexpectedqualitiesof student work •provide abasisforjudginghow well a student has demonstrated what they know, understand and can do • arethesameforallKLAsandyear levels. Student needs, interests, achievements Teachers decide what the Teachers sequence teaching evidence is that demonstrates strategies and learning student learning and how that experiences to support evidence will be collected achievement of the Essential and judged. Learnings and Standards. Teachers need the freedom to make definitive evidence-based judgments on their students’ work according to established standards and a quality framework that guarantees the dependability of teacher-led assessments. (Klenowski 2008, p. 150) 24 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Assessing for learning 4 Figure 4.2: Standards Standards The Framework pro Stv anide dards t s o describe how well a student has demonstrated their learning. The Standards connect Essential Learnings to assessment and reporting practices. The Standards are reference points that describe how well a student has achieved in both dimensions of the Essential Learnings: Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding. The are s Standar ucds cinct summary statements used to inform students of their progress. Specifically, the Standards: • are referred to as “achievement standards” because they distinguish between the degrees of quality evident in student work • provide students, teachers and parents/carers with a common language to describe the quality of student achievement • describe the features of performance for the A–E gr ades • can be used as “reporting standards” to report st udent achievement. Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding are embedded in the Standards, shown in Figure 4.2. Knowledge and understanding Ways of working Assessable elements The first assessable element for each KLA relates to the Knowledge and understanding dimension of the Essential Learnings. The subsequent assessable elements relate to the Ways of working dimension. There are some commonalities in the assessable elements across KLAs (see Table 4.1). These commonalities help teachers make links across KLAs when planning teaching, learning and assessment in integrated units of work. The assessable elements can be used together or independently in assessments. The assessable elements are used by teachers as the focus for developing assessments and for making judgments. Table 4.1: Assessable elements for three KLAs Science Studies of Society & Environment Languages Knowledge and understanding Knowledge and understanding Knowledge and understanding Investigating Investigating Comprehending texts Communicating Communicating Composing texts Participating Intercultural competence Reflecting Reflecting Reflecting 25 Figure 4.3: The Arts: Assessable elements and descriptors of quality for A–E This figure identifies the assessable elements of the KLA and indicates the degrees of quality. It can be used to support teachers to make judgments using the Guide Stan s to dards and to develop task-specific makingjudgments. Assessable elements: Descriptors: • identifythevaluedfeatures • identify ofthe thequalitiesassociatedwith KLA, about which evidence of student each assessable element learning is collected and assessed • describethequalitiesforeach • supportteacherstomake A–E grade judgments about the quality of student • helpdevelopconsistencyof achievement. teachers’ judgments. Building teachers’ assessment capabilities Two of the Framework components, the As The Asse se s s sment sment Bank generally presents Bank and the QCATs, provide examp as les se of ssment packages that include a Student assessment instruments that s booklet uppor , Tet ac a her s guide ses linsment es, Guide to making for learning and consistency of judgmen teac ts, her an s’ judgments. Indicative A response and Sample student responses (see Figures 4.4–4.6). These Assessment Bank components of the packages work together to demonstrate alignment. They model for teachers The Assessment Bank is an online collection of how assessment can be used to improve student assessment packages and resources for Years learning. Teachers have professional flexibility to 1–9 that are linked to the and Essential Learnings use the materials in the packages directly or to Standards. Specifically, Assessment Bank items adapt them to meet local needs. show the use of task-specific assessable elements (developed from the Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding) incorporated into meaningful assessments within authentic learning contexts. 26 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Assessing for learning 4 Figure 4.4: Assessment Bank package: Student booklet The assessment as presented to students Figure 4.5: Assessment Bank package: Teacher guidelines Sequence learning Make judgments Identify curriculum Develop assessment Use feedback 27 Figure 4.6: Assessment Bank package: Guide to making judgments Assessable elements Task-specific assessable elements Provision for feedback Task-specific descriptors that signpost the discernible differences in the quality of student performance along a continuum • Sample responses — demonstrates the Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks characteristics of typical student responses (QCATs) for each assessable element at each of the five QCATs are designed to provide evidence of what grades (A–E). The student work samples are students know, understand and can do in relation sourced from field trials. Annotations for each to a selection of Essential Learnings for English, student work sample explain how it demonstrates Mathematics and Science in Years 4, 6 and 9. the qualities in task-specific descriptors. Achievement in the QCATs is reported by schools to st udents and parents/carers using five grades from A to E. Assessment of student learning can take many Figure 4.7: The assessment continuum forms, most of which are familiar to teachers. These assessment forms can be represented on a continuum from most structured to least structured. The QCATs Student portfolio are classified as being most like performance-based, authentic tasks (see Figure 4.7). Rich tasks A QCAT package includes: • Student booklet — an authentic, performance- Performance-based authentic tasks based assessment with one or more products (one booklet per student) • Teacher guidelines — informs teachers about QCATs administrative procedures necessary to complete the assessment under comparable conditions Extended-answer test (constructed response) • Guide to making judgments — assessable elements, task-specific descriptors and a facility Short-answer test (constructed response) to record the overall grade achieved (included in the Student booklet and Teacher guidelines) Multiple-choice test 28 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting THE ASSESSMENT CONTINUUM Assessing for learning 4 QCATs: • supportteachingandlearning • helpstudents Standards tounderstandthe • providefeedbackthathelpsimprovestudents’learning • promoteconsistencyofteachers’judgments • modelqualityassessment • supportschool-andsystem-levelplanningbyproviding information about student achievement. QCATs are different from other centrally devised assessments because: • schoolsare Essential Learnings advised and ofthe assessable elements that will be the focus of the assessment in the year preceding implementation. QCATs: An overview Schools have the flexibility to consider the best possible QCATs are authentic, performance-based assessment way to implement QCATs as part of an authentic and tasks that: comprehensive assessment program • involvestudentssolvingameaningfulproblem • schoolshaveflexibilitytochoosewhentoimplementthe • emphasisecriticalthinkingandreasoning QCATs within an eight-week period •providestudentswithopportunitiestodotheirbestwork • teacherscanbecomefamiliarwithallelementsofthe • arestandards-based assessment package before implementation •produceevidenceofwhatstudentsknow,understandand • theassessmenttasksareimplementedandgradedby can do in relation to a selection of Essential Learnings. teachers at the school. Catering for diversity Schools are responsible for ensurin The Q g th SA w at eb s s t it udents e gives more specific advice are provided with an appropriat on a e progr dju am. stments Students and equity. Teachers should should have the opportunity to p alar so r tic ef ip er t at o an e in s y sy cs hoo tem po l- licies in relation to based assessment. the application of equity principles and to the Australian Gov Dis ernment’s ability Standards for The QCATs are designed to be part of a classroom Education (2006) to ensure that all students have assessment program in order that principles of opportunities to be assessed and receive accurate participation and equity apply. The QSA offers this reports on their achievement. general advice about including all students: The QCATs assess students’ knowledge, • Students who have been identified as having understanding and processes in relation to their specific educational needs, may be assisted using performance on a centrally devised task involving a those adjustments and supports usually available selection of Essential Learnings in specific KLAs at in the classroom. To make participation possible particular year levels. The QCATs are also used to in all or part of the assessment task, such help promote consistency of teacher judgment. Reporting may be in the form of assistive technologies, based on school-based curriculum will present a teacher-aide time or reading support. more comprehensive picture of student achievement, • Students for whom English is not their first progress and areas for improvement, especially for lan guage, and who are assessed as not achieving students who have special needs. a reading level appropriate to complete the task, may be assisted by an interprF et or al er or educ l students ation it i al s important to remember that devices (e.g. pictures, electronic the r whit epor e t bo car ar d i ds, s only one source of information on interactive devices) to allow p st ar udent ticip ac ation in al hievement l or and progress. Schools may part of the task. choose to include further information about student achievement. School communities are encouraged to • In exceptional circumstances where undertaking consider the range of reporting forms that will support the task may be a traumatic experience for a ongoing learning. For example, brief digital portfolios student, the principal (in consultation with may be used to show what students know, understand specialist and support staff and parents/carers) and can do in relation to their individual plans. may make a decision regarding the participation of that student in the tasks. 29 Consistency of teachers’ judgments The most effective way to build c Thr on ough pr sisof tency ession of al dialogue, shared teacher judgment about the quality under of st s andin tudent gs w ar ork e built that can enhance classroom is for them to look at, discuss and an practic alyse s e and s tudent upport alignment of curriculum and work together in a partnership or t as ese am s ssment ituation. . These professional discussions will QCATs and the Assessment Bank pr help dev ovide re elop an u sources nderstanding of the connections to support teachers’ discussion betw s, e. een g. centr Standar al ds and s ly tudent work. devised common assessments. The Framework provides models of standards-based QCATs provide opportunities for t as e se ac s her sment s to en that gag demon e strate the connections in focused discussions, as part betw of a moder een what ation students are expected to know process, during which they can cand do onsider the , and how their responses are judged to different task-specific descript demon ors, and ho strate the quality w closely of their learning. This gives the evidence in the student work te m ac at her che s and s s them. tudents opportunities to engage in discussions about the evidence in student work. When teachers apply the Standards through this These discussions can assist students to gain a process, they increase their awareness about the better understanding of how to evaluate their own variety of ways in which students may respond to responses and achievements, and identify how they an assessment instrument. In this way, teachers can progress their learning. gain valuable insights into what students need to learn for each level of achievement Developin . They al g c so mo ons v i e stency of teachers’ judgments will towards a common understanding of the application ta e time a k s students, teachers and parents/carers of the Standards. become familiar with the Standards that are used to make judgments about student achievement. Three models to develop consistency of teachers’ judgments Calibration model • Teachersreviewjudgmentsabouttheirpreviouslygraded student responses, applying the shared understanding • Afacilitatorselectssamplesdeemedtobeofacertain achieved through this conferencing process. standard to be used in the calibration process. • Teachersindividuallygrade Expert model thesamplesandthencompare their judgments with the grade nominated for the sample. • Teachersgradeallstudentresponsesandthensubmit • Task-specific descriptors form the basis for common and selected samples that are representative of their application explicit language that teachers use in their discussions or understanding of the A–E qualities to an expert. about the quality of student performance. Discussions are • Adviceisprovidedbytheexpert,confirmingwhetherthere based on evidence provided in student responses. is consistency in the way the standards are interpreted •Teachersaimtoadjusttheirinterpretation and applied, or whether the teachers need to adjust their andapplicationof standards to reach consensus about the quality of the sample understanding, and why. with this process repeated for all the student samples. • Thisadviceisusedbyteacherswhenreviewingjudgments • Teachersindividuallygrade about their previously graded student responses. allstudentresponses,applying the shared understanding achieved through this calibration process. Conferencing model • Teachersgradestudentresponsesindividuallyandthen select student samples representative of the A–E qualities. • Ameetingisconvenedinwhichaconferencingprocess is used to enable teachers to share samples and discuss judgments. •Task-specific descriptors form the basis for common and explicit language that teachers use in their discussions about the quality of student performance. Discussions are based on evidence provided in student responses. • Teachersaimtoreachconsensusontheinterpretationand application of the standards. 30 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Assessing for learning 4 key messages • Improving student learnin g is the key focus of assessment within the Framework. • Worthwhile assessment engages and motivates students to learn. • Quality school-based as sessment requires teacher assessment capability. QCATs and the Assessment Bank help bui ld this and model quality assessment. • Standards are used within the Framework to describe the expected qualitie s of student work and provide a basis f or judging how well students have demonstrated what they know, understand and can do. • Assessment within the Framework involves the application of the Standards and the awarding of A–E grades of quality. • Assessable elements form the basis for clarifyin g what is valued in the learning in relation to the two dimensions of the Essential Learnings: Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding. • Calibration, conferencin g and expert models are three of the ways that schools and teachers can develop consistency of teacher judgment. 31 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting How to report 5 CHAPTER 5 How to report School reporting is part of a cooperative relationship between the school, parents and students, which involves mutual responsibility, respect and trust. This chapter focuses on the reporting component of the QCAR Framework and presents advice about reporting practices for schools. It also discusses how reporting on student achievement and progress using the Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs) can improve student learning. Reporting is communicating information on student learning to a range of audiences, in differing forms, for various purposes. The key purpose of reporting student achievement and progress within the Framework is to improve student learning. As a result, reporting to individual students and their parents/carers is critical. Quality feedback about students’ achievements and progress helps them make choices about their future learning goals. Teachers and schools also need accurate information about student learning to plan effectively for the future. The federal and state governments require schools to be accountable by providing parents/carers with a report card containing information on their child’s individual achievement at least twice each year. This ensures that parents/carers receive a timely summary of student achievement. In most schools, this takes place at the end of each semester. Teachers have a professional and legal obligation to provide these reports. 33 Figure 5.1: QCAR Framework: Focusing on reporting practices Reporting: Teachers identify curriculum • providesteacherswith intent using the Essential accurate information about Learnings. student learning • providesasummaryof student achievement for studentsandparents/carers • providesinformationto support planning for future learning •ispresented avariety inof forms. Student needs, Teachers report twice yearly using a five-point scale in relation to the interests, KLAs, and annually at Years 4, 6 & 9 in relation to the QCATs. achievements Teachers decide what Teachers sequence teaching evidence demonstrates strategies and learning How do teachers and student learning and how that experiences to support students use feedback to evidence will be collected and achievement of the Essential build student success? judged. Learnings and Standards. Principles underpinning school-based reporting School-based reporting within the Framework aligns with Australian Government requirements, identified through a consultation process initiated by the (former) Department of Education and the Arts in 2004 and confirmed during the development of the Framework. 1. School reporting is part of a cooperative relationship betweenschoolstaff,parents/carers,studentsandthe community, which involves mutual responsibility, respect and trust. 2. Allstudentsandparents/carersareentitledtoconfidential formal and informal school reporting that is responsive to individual needs and used to plan future learning. 3. School reporting acknowledges student achievement over the reporting period. 4. School reporting identifies students’ strengths and areas for improvement across a broad range of indicators including curricular, other activities and social development. 5. Allparents/carersshouldhavetheopportunitytobeinvolved in developing and reviewing reporting practices at their child’s school. 6. Allparents/carersshouldreceiveregularandclearreportson their child’s achievements, and have opportunities to discuss that progress with teachers from early in the school year. DETA 2004a, Schools Reporting: consultation paper, April. DETA 2004b, Changes to School Reporting, October. 34 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting How to report 5 Student achievement and progress Student achievement and progre• s s the QCA can be r T-tepor arget t ed ed Essentia in the l Learnings in many different ways. The partic En u gli lar method sh, Mathematics and Science KLAs (only selected depends on the audienc in e, the p Years 4, 6 and 9; r urpose and eported at the end of the the nature of the information. semester in which the QCATs are undertaken). Information about student achiev Within the Fr ement and pr amew ogr ork, c ess onsistency of reporting might take the form of report card relie s, as s se on a c ssment ommon five-point reporting scale feedback, interviews and conver (A–E) and c sations, phone c ommon int al erpr ls, etation of that scale. digital portfolios and internet For thi acces ss re t a o s son, the Fr tudent amework provides a set of records. Teachers and administrat Stan or dar s ds ar (A–E) th e encour at ag sed uccinctly describe levels of to reflect on the range of reportin s g pr tudent actic ac es hiev that ement. Standards are constructed best serve the needs of students, p so th ar at ents/c a teac arher c ers an report, in summary, how well and other interested parties, and m the s ak t e inf udent ormed has achieved in relation to the two decisions to modify their practic dimen es s wher ions e nec of the ess Es ar sen y tia . l Learnings (Knowledge and understanding and Ways of working). The Framework enhances the quality of twice- ye arly reporting by promoting cons Impor ist t ency antly ac , sr c o hoo ss ls have scope to report on the state, and aligning reportin other a g with the f spects oc of us schooling, such as behaviour of learning and assessment. It iand att s recommended, endance. In addition, there may be specific therefore, that report cards prov requir ide a s ements ummary t of o incorporate systemic or local student achievement at the end of prioritie each seme s. ster in relation to: Parents/carers and students need quality reports in • the school-based curriculum (that incorporates clear and appropriate language. the Essential Learnings) Who needs reports of student learning? Reporting usually means communicating information on student achievement and progresstoarangeofaudiences,indifferingforms,forvariouspurposes.Whatis reported and how it is reported varies according to the audience. Students need to receive regular reports on their achievement and progress so that they know: • whattheyhaveachieved Essential Learnings in and relation Standards tothe • specificareasinwhichtheyneedtoimprove. A report card is a summary statement of an individual student’s achievements. Regularreportshelpparents/carersunderstandhowwelltheirchildren are performing in relation to the expectations of their year level. Teachers and schools need access to systematically collected and meaningful information about student achievement and progress in order to plan future teaching and learning. * DETA 2004a, Schools Reporting: consultation paper, April (adaptation). 35 Student achievement within school-based curriculum To make judgments for reporting purpo It is se impor s, tet ac ant her th s at this on-balance judgment be consider a selection of evidenc ma de ac e of s ro t s udent s the a les arnin sess g, able elements, rather than provided through student respon bein ses t g b o a ased on a f ssessment ormu . la of averaging a grade Teachers then make an on-balance judgment across diff about erent pieces of assessment. Ideally, the quality of the evidence ac a dec ross the a ision w sse is ll be m saba le de by the teacher, or group elements. An on-balance judgment of in tv eo ac lvher es m s, about aking what will constitute sufficient a decision about the standard th evidenc at bes e of t mat lec arnin hes the g and achievement across the quality of student work. assessable elements during the reporting period. The assessable elements and deT s e c ac ript her or ss m t ay ab dec les ide to moderate the evidence of for each KLA are designed to help teachers make st udent learning and compare their judgments in on-balance judgments to determine s order t tudents’ o promote consistency across the school. achievement. These tables can support teachers’ This will provide parents/carers with confidence that judgments on a particular assessment, a the grade s w s el alw a ar s ded are an accurate assessment across a collection of evidence. of students’ achievements, and that the report is meaningful, professional and consistent. Therefore, For example, a student may have provided, with the report is a professional judgment made by va y ring degrees of success, a range of evidence teachers, backed up with professional knowledge during a semester. To take account of progress, a of what evidence constitutes the standards that are teacher will consider the evidence and decide which shared by the profession. assessable element and descriptor for the KLA best describes the overall quality of Sc st hoo udent ls repor work, b t tw ased ice yearly using A–E levels of on the most recent evidence. achievement in all KLAs or subjects offered as part of a school’s curriculum program. In addition, reports The on-balance judgment best represents the may also contain information on: st udent’s achiev at the time of r ement eporting. • student participation and skills in school-based For example, if student work is graded as a C extra-curricular activities grade across the assessable elements early in the semester, but subsequent work pro• v ide student s con attrib sistent utes, such as effort, punctuality, evidence of a B grade across the a and soc ssessab ial le and behavioural skills elements, a B standard could be awarded for the • student attendance reporting period. To show student progress, the • other school or system priorities. latest evidence needs to be considered in relation to the assessable elements. 36 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting How to report 5 Student achievement on the QCATs In addition to reporting student achievement in the school-based curriculum, schools also report student achievement in Years 4, 6 and 9 QCATs. This provides the student and their parents/carers with information about the student’s achievement on a targeted selection of the Essential Learnings and assessable elements in English, Mathematics and Science. For student achievement on the QCATs in Years 4, 6 and 9, reports will: • describe the requirements of the assessment, and the Essential Lear and a nings ssessable elements assessed in each task • describe how judgments were made on the quality of a student response • provide an overall grade indicating student achievement against the Standards. From 2009, the QSA will provide a short text that teachers can insert into school reports to support reporting on the QCATs (see Table 5.1). Table 5.1: Example for reporting student achievement on QCATs Year level and KLA Year 4 English The Year 4 English QCAT assessment targeted a selection of the Essential Learnings that students are expected to know or be able to do from the end of Year 3. Brief description of the requirements Students were asked to interpret the content in a piece of writing and then to compare within the assessment two other pieces of writing to find similarities and differences. Students then prepared a report for a school newsletter. Brief description of how judgments Judgments were made on your child’s performance using a marking guide that was were made available to students before doing the assessment. Overall grade B — Evidence in your child’s work demonstrates a high level of knowledge and understanding of concepts, facts and procedures, and application of processes. 37 Improving student learning Reporting’s key role in improving s A d t at udent abase (av learnin ai g lable from the QSA website) will help is emphasised within the Framew sc hoo ork. The r ls an epor alyse their o ting wn student achievement data, of student learning, with its foc en us ab on the quality ling teachers of to note trends in performance, learning in relation to the and Essential L c eomp arnings are performance across classes and break Standards, provides useful information t down the d o students, ata into particular target groups. Also, the parents/carers, teachers and scd hoo atab ls. ase can be used to analyse the performance of male and female students, or different classes within Schools and teachers will have access to information the school, using questions such as: on students’ performance in the QCATs. This will • Are there significant differences in the support them to target strategies for improvement. performance of students? To help teachers improve teaching/learning, the QSA will provide an analytical report of • Ho s w do tudent you ac res c pon ount se f s. or any differences noted? Gathering information related to student achievement • Are these trends apparent in other evidence of on the QCATs requires the following processes: st udent performance? • After implementing the QCATs, schools need to • Are there differences in performance in the KLAs reurn their d t ata to QSA. (male/female, different classes, ESL/non-ESL)? • The QSA will conduct a random sampling process • In which KLAs are there the greatest differences in to collect student responses. st udents’ achievements? • The QSA will analyse student responses and • Is there any anecdotal evidence available that generate a view of the trends (e.g. after viewing adds to an understanding of these results? students’ responses to questions, statements will Tog ether, the analytical report and school-based be made about general performance). data can be used to improve teaching and learning The QSA will provide teachers with some inf programs. ormation about trends in consistency of teacher judgments. This will support teachers to have professional conversations about their own school data and the way grades have been allocated. 38 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting How to report 5 key messages • Reporting student achiev ement and progress is critical for students, p arents/carers, teachers, schools and sc hooling authorities, as well as the broader community. • Student achievement and progress in relation to the Essential Learnings and Standards in the KLAs is reported twice yearly. • Student achievement of the Essential Learnings targeted in the QCATs in Years 4, 6 and 9 is reported in the relevant reporting period. • Reporting student achiev ement and progress provides key information to improve learning. 39 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting How to plan 6 CHAPTER 6 How to plan I feel as if I’m a better teacher. I understand what I’m teaching better, and I certainly have come to understand the students I teach more fully. I no longer see my curriculum as a list to be covered and I spend more time thinking about how to help each of my students achieve. (Teacher involved in QCAR Framework trial) This chapter explores key issues associated with planning. It discusses planning considerations, gives an overview of processes to guide planning and provides insights into collaborative planning. Specific strategies associated with planning for the diverse range of learners in all classrooms are also considered. The teacher quoted in the chapter opening above understands that student needs, interests, achievements and backgrounds are at the centre of planning teaching, learning, assessment and reporting. This student-centred focus is served well by aligning what is taught, what students have opportunities to learn, how the material is taught and how student learning is assessed and reported. Planning considerations The value of the QCAR Framework is enhanced when teachers and administrators have a clear understanding of the whole school’s curriculum, and how their own planning contributes to broader curriculum aims. Curriculum planning within schools occurs at several levels: whole-school, juncture and year levels (see Figure 6.1). Considerations for planning include: • understanding the community and its strengths • knowing student needs, interests, achievements and backgrounds, and having the capacity to provide opportunities for students • being a to dev ware of elop int cross-c o urricular priorities knowledge workers, confident indivand per iduals and spectives, e.g. ICTs and Indigenous active and responsible citizen per s spectives • using the Ways of working and Kno • wl kno edg win e and g systemic priorities, e.g. financial understanding across the junctlit ures er and acy y , s eu ar l st ev ain els ability • devising meaningful and efficient • res c pondin ombination g to dat s a collected about student achievement, e.g. QCATs and National of Essential Learnings with thoughtful focus on student achievement across allAs KLAs sessment Program — Literacy and Numeracy. 41 Figure 6.1: Planning levels and key milestones Teachers determine the best way to plan and make decisions about the various levels and degrees of specificity of planning that is shared by school staff. Planned curriculum can be enhanced by teachers planning collaboratively and considering the interrelationship of planning across levels, e.g. whole-school and year-level. Whole-school Juncture Year ESSENTIAL LEARNINGS by the end of Year 9 Year 9 Years 8 9 Year 8 ESSENTIAL LEARNINGS by the end of Year 7 Year 7 Years 6 7 Year 6 ESSENTIAL LEARNINGS by the end of Year 5 Year 5 Years 4 5 Year 4 ESSENTIAL LEARNINGS by the end of Year 3 Year 3 Years 1 3 Year 2 Year 1 Prep Prep KEY Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs) in English, Mathematics and Science National Assessment Program — Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) Early Years Diagnostic Net 42 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Whole school: Prep Year 9 How to plan 6 Five processes that guide planning Figure 6.2: Five QCAR planning processes Identify curriculum Use feedback Develop assessment Make judgments Sequence teaching & learning An overview FAQs Teachers and groups of teachers: Q: Can I use the five processes in any order to guide • Identify curriculum — select the Essential planning? Learnings, school priorities and context for A: Yes, the five processes can be used in any learning sequence. Although the processes are not • Develop assessment — p lan a variety of hierarchical, they all need to be considered when assessment instruments to collect comprehensive planning units of work. and meaningful evidence of learning Q: Are there considerations specific to each • Sequence teaching and learning — plan teaching KLA that I need to take into account? st at r egies and learning experiences to respond to A: Yes,eachKLAcontainsWaysofworking,aswell the needs and interests of the learners as Knowledge and understanding, that are specific to that area of learning, even though there are • Make judgments — use the evidence in student commonalities and overlaps. In order for students responses and consider how judgments will be to receive a broad education that will support them made about the quality of learning to be knowledge workers, confident individuals and • Use feedback — consider how and when to responsible citizens, each KLA needs to be included provide feedback. in students’ learning. TheWaysofworkingandKnowledgeandunderstanding To guide the planning, development and revision in each KLA provide a basis for developing meaningful of new units of work, schools may choose to audit and relevant contexts for learning. their current curriculum before using these five processes. 43 Planning: One teacher’s practice Lien* is a Year 4 teacher at Pinehi At lls her s Stat c e hoo Schoo l, one t l* in eacher within a year level acts regional Queensland. She needs to pr as the “p epare a u lannin nit of g leader” for each unit. This teacher work for next semester and is star doe tin s some initi g with the five al planning based on input from the processes from the Framework. year-level team and then leads the team through the five processes in relation to the unit. Team members Lien knows that she and the three other Year 4 have lively discussions and share their ideas about teachers at her school must plan for the diverse sequencing teaching and learning, with variations learners in their classes. In her class there are about how this occurs in each class, and also about several children for whom English is a second how they will use feedback to inform future work. language, and three children who have significant reading and writing difficulties. She ap Based on their s preciates chool curriculum plan, and that every student in her class h spec as uni ificque ab ally on their p ilities lan for the Year 4–5 juncture, and talents, and she sees the need t Lien and the other o build on Year 4 teachers know which areas those strengths. As she starts t of o p Kno lan, Lien k wledge and u eeps nderstanding they need to focus this information in mind, as wel on thi l as the e s seme xten st s er iv . In r e elation to the Ways of working, knowledge she has about the commu the t nity e in whic achers re h gularly work on these, incorporating she teaches and the students’ ac them int hievements. o their planned and assessed curriculum. * Names used in this example are fictitious. 44 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting How to plan 6 Figure 6.3: How Lien and her team use the five processes to guide planning Wedecidedup-frontthatweneededtofocusonthe English Essential Learnings and gather evidence of student learning in this unit for the assessable elements — Knowledge and understanding, constructing texts, andappreciating texts. WeselectedtheKnowledgeand understanding to cover in this Year 4 unit, and thought Identify an appropriate unit context would be to have the curriculum students construct and publish a narrative. Our main investigativequestion anarrative could and be:Whatis Use what role do narratives play in our lives? feedback NB: This is the first unit where we have identified which Essential Learnings we should target — and My Develop then shaped up the unit. Previously we’ve thought students assessment first about feedback from students on previous units, an assessment we wanted to do, an event Make coming up, etc. judgments I presented my initial ideas at our planning meeting. My colleague suggested we integrate some Essential Sequence Learnings fromTheArts.We’llidentifytherelevant teaching & Essential Learnings — we’re thinking that the students learning could demonstrate dramatic action through storytelling or roleplay based on their narrative. As always, we’ll discuss these ideas with all the Year 4 students soon, and again when the unit starts, to see what direction they’dliketotak ke Essential ye.We’llhavethe Learnings firmed up by then, but there’ll be room for Our Year 4 classes have just completed collaboration — we always make sure of that. theunit. Wepublishedthenarratives in a book which we “launched” at our celebration evening. Students performed a range of dramatic actions and we had Our assessment for this unit needs to be closely models on display of settings in some of linked to our curriculum intent — supporting students thenarratives.We’reallworkingwithour to understand what a narrative is by writing one. students to use the feedback we have My intent is also to support student knowledge and gathered on individual achievement to understanding about the role that narratives play in improve their learning of the Essential their lives — but I will propose (at the next meeting) Learnings. that we only assess this formatively. Using feedback from this unit is the main Wehaveconfirmedthatwewilltargettheassessable discussion item for our next planning elements in English and The Arts in this unit. meeting.Wanumber e’vegot ofstrategies It looks as if we’ll have two assessment pieces: the inplacetoevaluatetheunit.We’re narrativeandsomeform Wewill ofdramaticaction. getting better at planning — particularly check the Assessment Bank to get ideas. It may also collaborative planning — all the time. have some resources to support teaching and learning in this unit. My notes on developing the Guide to making judgments* for the narrative assessment: Whenassessingstudents,Iwasabletouse • checkoutthe“a and ssessableelements the task-specific descriptors to make an descriptors of quality” for English — these give on-balance judgment of the standards that an overall idea of levels of quality because the my students had achieved. This helped descriptors are developed from the Standards to make my assessment more useful for • write“task-specificdescriptors”fortheassessable improving learning. elements(WaysofworkingandKnowledgeand NB: We have scheduled a moderation understanding). meeting this afternoon to discuss NB: Talk to colleagues about different formats for the student work samples. Guide to making judgments — there isn’t just one way but I like the “continua” model as students’ work doesn’t fit neatly into boxes. Wonder what others think about this …? Now we’ve identified the Essential Learnings and developed the assessments, it’s time to sequence the teaching and learning with our ownclasses. Weareconfidentweareall heading in the same direction — our common curriculum intent and planned assessment ensures that. * See page 54. 45 Auditing current curriculum FAQ In relation to the Framework, “auditing” can mean Q: Can we continue to plan integrated curriculum? different things, including: A: Yes, integrated or connected curriculum often • auditing the current units of work against the provides the most meaningful learning opportunities Essential Learnings forstudents.Whileitispreferabletolookforways to integrate or connect the Essential Learnings within • auditing assessment tasks for quality and across the KLAs, it is important not to include • auditing a school curriculum to ensure alignment. too many processes and concepts as the focus of the unit. Doing so could result in the teaching and To help determine which particular Essential learning becoming superficial, making alignment Learnings are the focus in units of work, visit the QSA between what is taught and assessed difficult to website to download APEL: Auditing and planning for achieve. The Essential Learnings identified should Essential Learnings (a QSA electronic tool). relate to the context for learning that is based on issues of personal or social relevance to students. Sustainability, healthy lifestyles, community participation and global issues are examples of meaningful contexts for learning for young people. WhenplanningaunitofworkacrossKLAs,consider: • theLearningandassessmentfocus,Waysof working and Knowledge and understanding • possibleconnectionsacrossKLAs,e.g.intheWays of working investigating, drawing conclusions, communicating and reflecting are common to both Science and Studies of Society & Environment • howtheunitcanprovideforrich,relevantanddeep learning rather than superficial coverage of the Essential Learnings • howacontextcanbedevelopedtoengage students in active learning that is responsive to their needs and interests •howthe contextcanbeshapedtostronglyreflect the Essential Learnings that have been selected as the focus of the unit of work • howtheteachingandlearningsequenceprovides opportunities for students to develop the Essential Learnings that have been selected as the focus of the unit of work • thattheteachingstrategiesandlearning experiences should align with the Essential Learnings that have been selected as the focus of the unit of work. 46 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting How to plan 6 Planning for the needs of all learners Equity considerations that support student Questions to ask when making adjustments achievement of the Es and sential Learnings for students Standards are a key aspect of planning for the • Which of the Essentiafr l Leom the r arnings elevant needs of all learners. year level is the particular student reasonably The Essential Learnings form the basis of school able to access, engage and succeed in, while curriculum planning for all students. In particular, maintaining high expectations for all students? students with disabilities, or those who experience • Is the learning context age-appropriate? learning difficulties, should have the same • Can the student Ways of ac work c in e g and ss opportunities, course choices, and use of facilities Knowledge and understanding as they are and services, that other students do. To ensure described, or part/s of these? optimum engagement and success in learning, • How can the teaching and learning be adjusted students’ needs and abilities should be taken into to help students access the Essential Learnings? account when planning. A fundamental principle of education in Australia is th• at Wh t at eac adju hers s m tments ake can be made to support the reasonable adjustments where nec le arnin essarg need y to help al s of s l tudents with disabilities and students to learn. provide for the needs of different learning styles, e.g. increase font size, add illustrations and prompt icons, make connections explicit, or reorganise the sequence of learning. • Is it appropriate for students to access the Essential Learnings in the year levels before or following? 47 Image needs Photoshopping (deep etch along top of image + mask/feather) Indigenous perspectives in planning The Framework provides for plannin Sc g th hoo at: ls and teachers can access a range of Indigenous perspectives support materials from the • acknowledges Aboriginal people and Torres Strait QSA website. These include: Isl ander people as the Indigenous peoples of Australia • Indigenous Perspectives Policy • enables all Queensland students • t Indigenous o hav Le ac anguage c se Po s licy s to v alued Indigenous knowledges that exist • resources related to various topics, e.g. culture, throughout Australia Indigenous knowledges, history and Indigenous • presents a balanced representation of contribution cultural, s social, spiritual and political beliefs, respectful of • guidelines on issues, e.g. evaluating resources the diversity of Indigenous histories and peoples. and terminology Planning within the Framework also ac • prot kno oc wledg ols, e. es g. Welcome to Country, accessing that the success of Aboriginal st sa udents red s c it and es and en Torres gaging with communities Strait Islander students is supported by successful • readings, e.g. contributions from the community, embedding of Indigenous perspectives into the st udents, teachers and Indigenous education curriculum and assessment of student achievement. workers, and academic readings. 48 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting How to plan 6 key messages • Student needs, interests, achievements and backgrounds are at the centr e of all levels of planning within the Framework. • Planning considerations need to be taken into account at several levels: whole-school, juncture, year and individual classroom. • The Essential Learnin (gs Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding) for al l eight KLAs are the basis of school curriculum planning for all students, w ith adjustments to be made to promote optimum access, engagement and success in learning. • Five processes have been identified to guide planning. These processes can be used in flexible ways to suit school and teacher planning needs. • Integrated curriculum p lannin g is valued within the Framework as it can pro vide students with in-depth learning that is personally and socially meaningful and relevant . The design of the Essential Learnings and assessab le elements supports this type of c urriculum planning. 49 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Developing quality school-based assessment 7 CHAPTER 7 Developing quality school-based assessment The Framework recognises the central role of teachers’ everyday classroom assessment in providing authentic and valid feedback for ongoing improvement in teaching and student learning. (Department of Education and the Arts 2005, p. 7) This chapter provides advice about how to develop Teachers consider how students will best be able to quality assessment that is aligned with the demonstrate what they know, understand and can Essential Learnings and Standards. It then explores do, and select the assessment instrument that fits the features of quality, school-based assessment. the purpose. They identify the assessable elements How the assessable elements and descriptors can that are valued in the KLA and how the evidence of be used to develop a Guide to making judgments student learning is to be collected. and support consistency in teachers’ judgments is also considered. Features of a good assessment There are several features of quality assessment that need to be considered when m program aking decisions about the focus of assessment. Assessment and A worthwhile assessment program: assessment instruments must: • includes a range and balance of assessment • be purposeful ins truments that are engaging and motivating • focus on students’ demonstrations of learning • ensures that the assessments provide evidence of • assess what they are intended to assess st udent learning of the assessable elements for the KLA within a reporting period, e.g. semester • be an integral part of the teaching and learning process • ensures that coverage of the assessable elements is balanced • provide opportunities for students to take responsibility for their own learning and monitor • allows for the collection of evidence of student their own progress le arning over time • reflect principles of equity. • is used to provide feedback to students and te achers about learning. The quality of school-based assessment aligned to the Essential Learnin and gs Standards is enhanced It is important to ensure there is a range and when teaching and learning are planned at the same ba anc l e of assessment instruments and assessable time as assessment. elements across all KLAs and year levels. Recording and auditing planned assessment as part of a curriculum/assessment program or plan is an effective strategy to achieve this. 51 Developing school-based assessment Teachers can use the following bro •a As d pr a b oc a e s s i se s f s or dev to eloping a Guide to making develop assessment: judgments: – select a format, e.g. checklist, matrix or • Identify curriculum using the Essential Learnings. continua, that best matches the purpose of the • Select Ways of working, Knowledge and assessment understanding and assessable elements within – develop task-specific assessable elements that the KLA that are to be the focus of assessment. reflect the valued features of the assessment • Select the type of assessment instrument that will – develop task-specific descriptors of quality on co llect the required evidence. an A–E scale for each element. • Develop the assessment instrument. Table 7.1 provides examples of a range of possible • Develop a Guide to making judgmen (ref ts er to assessment modes (practical, written, oral) and the assessable elements and descriptors table for techniques. Teachers are encouraged to select the the KLA). mode and technique that will provide opportunities for all students to best demonstrate what they know, understand and can do. Table 7.1: Assessment modes and techniques Practical Written (or technologically assisted) Oral Performances including arts works, Tests including short response, extended Speech game play response and stimulus response Movement sequences, Reports including research Debate created and performed investigations Event staging Project Interview Enterprise Essay Narration Stall organisation Assignment Promotional talk Film Sketches and drawing Structured discussion Performance on camp Poster Guided tour facilitation Documentary Brochure Visual folios Concept map Experimental design Action plan Lesson Log books Roleplay Webpagedesign Multimedia presentation Illustrated book Computer-generated presentation Peer tutoring Multi-step plan Product design and construction Itinerary Static display Data presentation and analysis Field work Marketing plan Music composition Retrieval chart Experiment design Campaign Set design and construction Journal Observation Storyboard Promotional literature Script Choreography 52 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Developing quality school-based assessment 7 Task-specific assessable elements and descriptors Teachers make judgments about how well a student has learned by focusing on the evidence in student work through the lens of the assessable elements. Teachers use task-specific assessable elements and descriptors to communicate the expectations of the assessment. When the assessable elements for making judgments on a single assessment have been identified, teachers may develop task-specific assessable elements that more precisely describe what is required in student work. For example, in a Year 7 Science unit called Food webs (Figure 7.1), one of the targeted assessable elements investigatin is g. Figure 7.1 shows the process of developing a task-specific assessable element. It clearly identifies the evidence expected in the student response. The task-specific descriptors identify the degree of quality expected for each A–E grade. Figure 7.1: Process of developing task-specific assessable elements and descriptors of quality Science KLA Assessment: Task-specific descriptors 1 2 3 assessable element Food webs A C Investigating Task-specific assessable element: Insightful conclusions Relevant conclusions Draws conclusions about the effects and about the effects and about the effects and causes of changes causes of changes causes of changes Task-specific assessable elements Tab and de le 7.2 off scer ript s a r or an s ge of qualitative descriptors help teachers build consistency th in their judgments, at teachers can use when developing task-specific and identify for students the e de xpect script ation ors. s of standards and quality. Table 7.2: Descriptive words for features of quality for each grade A B C D E Comprehensive Thorough Satisfactory Narrow Rudimentary Insightful Thoughtful Suitable Variable Minimal Proficient Logical Competent Disjointed Unclear Discerning Coherent Relevant Superficial Cursory Well-reasoned Effective Credible Vague Clear Logical Sound Perceptive Purposeful Appropriate Controlled Informed Functional Skilful Proficient Accurate Significant Well-justified 53 Developing a Guide to making judgments The Guide to making judgments gives teacher The s: Guide to making judgments: • a tool for making a standards-ba • sed judgment specifies the task-specific assessable elements and descriptors — the relationship between the • a focal point for discussing student responses task-specific descriptors and student responses • a tool to help provide feedback to students. must be obvious and strong When developing a Guide to making judgments • clarifies the curriculum expectations for learning for an individual assessment instrument, teachers at each of the five grades (A–E) and shows the select the format that best suits the purpose of connections between what students are expected the assessment and that enables effective and to know and do, and how their responses should consistent judgments Guide to tmakin o be g made. A be judged using the descriptors derived from the judgments can be prepared in a variety of forms Standards including matrix, checklist and continua. • increases the likelihood of students communicating For full page view Guide to s of making judgments confidently about their achievement with teachers documents, please see Appendixes 13–15. and parents/carers, and asking relevant questions about their own progress • supports evidence-based discussions to help st udents gain a better understanding of how they can critique their own responses and achievements, and identify the qualities needed to improve • provides a basis for conversation among te achers, students and parents/carers about the quality of student work • encourages communication with students and parents/carers regarding curriculum expectations and related standards. Figure 7.2 explains the features of a Guide to making judgments. The example provided is of a continua model. 54 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reportingDeveloping quality school-based assessment 7 Figure 7.2: Explanation of the Guide to making judgments Making judgments 1. Guide to making judgments A judgment is recorded on each continuum. A recording device which informs teachers, students andparents/carers valued about instudents’ whatis To make judgments: demonstrations of learning. • matchevidenceinastudentresponsetoatask-specific The process of making a judgment begins with looking descriptor — look for the best match between the for a match between the evidence in the student’s work student response and the task-specific descriptors and the task-specific descriptors of quality for each • makeanon-balancejudgmentaboutthequalityof assessable element. student achievement. 2. Assessable elements 3. Task-specific assessable elements The valued features of the KLA being These identify significant and discrete aspects of the assessable assessed. element that are valued in the assessment. They identify what to look for in student work. 4. Task-specific descriptors 5. Signposting the 6. Continuum discernible differences Statements that convey Graduated shading from expected qualities evident in A descriptor will signpost the E–A suggests the improving student responses. discernible differences in the qualities expected in the task- quality of student performance specific assessable elements. The qualities are derived as it appears along the A–E from the expectations of the continuum. Standards. 7. Overall grade An overall on-balance judgment across all the assessable elements is recorded as a single letter grade. The judgment is made in the context of the strength of the contribution of each assessable element to the purpose of the assessment. 55 Using and providing feedback Assessment alone will not contrib Feedb ute s ac ignific k shou antly ld come fr to om a range of sources and improved learning. It is what teac be pr hers e and s sented in a tudents variety of forms. Some feedback do with the assessment information th sources ar at e de mak se cs ribed belo the w. difference. Providing quality and useful feedback is • Teachers can ask questions or make comments a crucial step in using assessment information to that help students reflect on their learning. support future learning. The goal of feedback is to Dinham (2008, p. 22) proposes key questions inspire students to become better learners through that learners need answered: encouraging independent learning and providing the 1. What can I do? necessary motivation for them to improve. 2. What can’t I do? Assessment feedback goes beyond a simple mark 3. How can I do better? or grade. Comments on the strengths of students’ • Students should have opportunities to record achievements, and on areas for improvement, their own progress and monitor their own provide quality feedback within an assessment for learning. learning approach. Assessment feedback is most • Peers can be encouraged to comment on helpful if the specific elements of the knowledge cl assmates’ work using feedback frameworks and and skills are identified and specific suggestions are questionnaires. provided. The assessable elements with task-specific descriptors provide for such opportunities. Quality feedback to students on an assessment: • focuses on their achievement in relation to the assessable elements • identifies areas for improvement • identifies possible approaches for improvement. 56 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Developing quality school-based assessment 7 key messages • Assessment instruments need to be considered at the same time as planning teaching and learning. • Worthwhile assessment programs include a range and balance of asse ssment instruments across KLAs and year levels. • The Guide to making judgments clarifie s for teachers, students and parents/carers the features of quality expected in student responses. • Quality feedback help s improve student learning. 57 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendixes 1 Capabilities 60 2 Ways of working By the end of Year 3 62 3 Ways of working By the end of Year 5 64 4 Ways of working By the end of Year 7 66 5 Ways of working By the end of Year 9 68 6 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements by the end of Year 3 70 7 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements by the end of Year 5 72 8 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements by the end of Year 7 74 9 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements by the end of Year 9 76 10 Ways of working — Languages 78 11 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements — Languages 79 12 Assessable elements 80 13 Guide to making judgments — Matrix 81 14 Guide to making judgments — Continua 82 15 Guide to making judgments — Observation record 83 16 Participating schools 84 Glossary 87 References 89 Acknowledgments 90 59 Appendix 1 Capabilities The term “capabilities” describes psychosocial abilities that support students to mobilise resources in particular contexts. These capabilities include a range of performative, interactive and problem-solving knowledge and skills that enable students to draw on, organise and apply their knowledge and understandings. These capabilities are embedded across the set of the Essential Learnings. Category Capabilities Developed through Working Interactively using a range of with • Acquiringandtransformingknowledgethroughanalysis,inquiry,problem- solving, decision-making and concept development knowledge thinking strategies and skills in critical and creative ways • Planning,enacting,monitoringandadjustingtheirownlearning • Makingandassessingargumentswithregardtotheaccuracy,validity and/orworthofanypositionorsource • Generatingideasandnew/insightfulmeaningsandrelationships Using the tools of language, • Understandingthenatureofthetoolsandtheirpotential symbols, technologies • Controllingandexploitingavarietyofrepresentationalforms and texts interactively to • Constructingmeaningsthroughexchangesinavarietyofinterpersonal communicate ideas and contexts information • Takingintoaccountinteractionswithotherpeopleinsocialenvironments in evaluating and justifying positions Interacting critically with • Engagingwithandreflectingonsocialandculturalmeaningsinpersonal experiences and knowledge sociocultural environments • Examiningandreflectingonbeliefs,practicesandvalues • Engagingwithculturaldiversityanddominantandnon-dominantcultural perspectives • Evaluatingchangesinbeliefs,practicesandvaluesfromhistoricaland economic perspectives Developing Workingwithothers • Actingcollaboratively identity and • Negotiatingandresolvingconflictsacrossarangeofcontexts managing self • Presentingideasandinformationandactivelylisteningtoothers • Respondingtodiversityanddifferencebysupportingtherightsand feelings of others Acting within a social • Actingindividuallyandcollectivelyinwaysthatenhancethevaluesof fairness and care context • Makingjudgmentsaboutpersonalactions,behavioursandlifestyleswith consideration for the consequences to others • Expressingthecontextsandreasonsfortheiractionsandbehaviourswith reference to personal and social values, attitudes and beliefs • Examiningandreflectingonhowrights,responsibilities,dutiesand obligations in society impact on behaviours and actions Managing the personal self • Exercisingrespect,thoughtfulness,andresponsibilityforothersin their actions • Settingandmonitoringgoals,managingemotions,changeandstress • Appropriatelyexpressingandsharingtheiremotionsandactions • Criticallyreviewingassumptionsandactionsinthelightofsocialand cultural experiences and knowledge 60 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 1: Capabilities Category Capabilities Developed through Acting in the Workingwithcommunities • Networkingwithvariousstakeholders social and • Operatingandbrokeringacrossissues,interests,agreementsand political world disagreements of various stakeholders • Facilitatingopportunitiesfordiverseanddifferentgroups’interestsand needs to be recognised in decision-making processes • Dealingwiththeideasandinformationofvariousstakeholdersina trustworthy and fair manner and effectively representing their position Acting in the wider world • Actingininformedwaystoachievesociallyjustchange • Evaluatingcommunity,economicandpoliticalinstitutionswithreference to achieving the common good • Representingavarietyofpositionsonthecurrent,possibleanddesirable ways of creating communities in the nation state • Criticallyengagingwithhowtherolesandactionsofcitizensarepromoted or limited through the rights, responsibilities, duties and obligations of society Managing rights, • Understanding,participatingandshapingcommunity,economicand responsibilities and duties political life of citizenship • Engagingwitharangeofculturalandinstitutionaltextsofvaryingtypes in order to take up their rights, responsibilities and duties as a citizen • Expressingapositionandconstructingargumentsthatcontributetothe public dialogue • Criticallyreviewingunderstandingsofcitizenshipinlightoftherangeof cultures and customs that characterise Australia 61 Appendix 2 Ways of working By the end of Year 3 English Mathematics Students are able to: Students are able to: • identifyaudience,purposeand • identify texttype mathematicsineverydaysituations • identifymainideasandthe•sequence posebasic ofmathematical events,andmakquestions e andidentifysimple simple inferences strategies to investigate solutions • recogniseandselectvocabulary •planto activities describeand subject investigationstoexploremathematical matter concepts, questions, issues and problems in familiar situations • interprethowpeople,characters,places,eventsand things have been represented • useeverydayandmathematicallanguage,mental computations, representations and technology to generate • constructsimpleliteraryandnon-literarytextsby solutions and check for reasonableness of the solution planning and by using prior knowledge and experience to match an audience and purpose •makestatementsanddecisionsbasedoninterpretations of mathematical concepts in familiar everyday situations • makejudgmentsandjustifyopinionsabouttheir enjoyment and appreciation of texts using personal •evaluatetheirownthinkingandreasoning,giving knowledge, experiences and direct references to the texts consideration to how mathematical ideas have been applied • reflectonandidentifyhowlanguageelementsintexts represent people, characters, places, events and things in •communicatethinkingandreasoning,usingeveryday similar and different ways and mathematical language, concrete materials, visual representations, and technologies • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandings. •reflectonandidentifythecontributionofmathematicsto everyday situations • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandings. Health & Physical Education The Arts Students are able to: Students are able to: • posequestionsandplansimple • select activities ideasand forartsworks,consideringparticular investigations audiences and particular purposes, using arts elements and languages • identifyandcollectinformationandevidence • createandshapeartsworksbycombiningartselements • drawconclusionsandmakedecisions to express personal ideas, feelings and experiences • proposeandtakeactiontopromotehealthandwellbeing, • practiseartsworks,usinginterpretiveandtechnicalskills movement capacities and personal development • presentartsworkstofamiliaraudiences,usingarts • applyfundamentalmovementskillswhenparticipatingin techniques, skills and processes physical activities • followguidelinestoapplysafepractices • createandsequencesimplemovementpatternsin response to stimuli • respondtoartsworksanddescribeinitialimpressions and personal interpretations, using arts elements and • applypersonaldevelopmentskillswheninteractingwith languages others • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandings. • followguidelinestoapplysafepractices • reflectonandidentifyhowbehaviours,skillsandactions influence health and wellbeing, movement capacities and personal development • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandings. 62 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 2: Ways of working — By the end of Year 3 Science Studies of Society & Environment Students are able to: Students are able to: • posequestionsandmakepredictions • posequestionsforinvestigations • planactivitiesandsimpleinvestigations, • plansimpleinvestigations andidentify basedonquestions elements of a fair test •identify collect andinformationandevidencefrom • identifyandcollectdata,information narratives and familiar sources andevidence • makejudgmentsabouttheusefulness •makejudgments about ofthe the data, usefulnessoftheinformation information and evidence and evidence • useidentifiedtools,technologies • drawconclusions andmaterials andgiveexplanations,usinginformation and evidence • drawconclusionsandgiveexplanations,usingdata, information and evidence •communicatesocialandenvironmentalideas,usingtexts and terminology to match audience and purpose • communicatescientificideas,data,information and evidence, using terminology, illustrations or • shareideas,andplanandenactresponsestogroupor representations community issues • followguidelinestoapplysafe • participate practicesingroupdecisionmakingtoachievegoals • reflectonandidentifyother •reflect points andidentify on ofviewrelating valuesassociated to withfairness, science in everyday situations protecting the environment and behaving peacefully • reflectonlearningtoidentify • reflect newunderstandings. onlearningtoidentifynewunderstandings. Technology Languages Students are able to: Essential Learnings for Languages have been specified for three stages of language learning: Beginner, Elementary and • identifythepurposefordesignideas Lower intermediate. • generatesimpleideasfordesigns Please see Appendix 10. • communicatemajorfeaturesoftheirdesigns,using2Dor 3D visual representations and words • selectresources,simpletechniquesandtoolstomake products • planandsequencemainstepsinproductionprocedures • makeproductsbyfollowingproductionproceduresto manipulate and process resources • followguidelinestoapplysafepractices • evaluateproductsandprocessesbyidentifyingwhat worked well, what did not and ways to improve • reflectontheusesoftechnologyanddescribetheimpact in everyday situations • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandings. 63 Appendix 3 Ways of working By the end of Year 5 English Mathematics Students are able to: Students are able to: • identifytherelationshipbetween • identify audience, mathematics purposeinand everydaysituations text type •posebasicmathematicalquestionsandidentifysimple • identifymainideasandthesequence strategies to investigate solutions ofevents,andmake inferences •planactivitiesandinvestigationstoexploremathematical • recogniseandselectvocabulary concepts, questions, anddistinguish issues and problems in familiar between literal and figurative language situations • interprethowpeople,characters, • useeveryday places,events andmathematical and language,mental things have been represented and whether aspects of the computations, representations and technology to generate subject matter have been included or excluded solutions and check for reasonableness of the solution • constructliteraryandnon-literary •makestatements textsbyand planning decisions andbasedoninterpretations developing subject matter, using personal, cultural and of mathematical concepts in familiar everyday situations social experiences that match an audience and purpose •evaluatetheirownthinkingandreasoning,giving • makejudgmentsandjustifyopinions consideration to howusing mathematicalinformation ideas have been and ideas from texts, and recognise aspects that applied contribute to enjoyment and appreciation •communicatethinkingandreasoning,usingeveryday • reflectonanddescribetheeffectiveness and mathematical language, concrete of materials, language visual elements and how the language choices represent people, representations, and technologies characters, places, events and things in particular ways •reflectonandidentifythecontributionofmathematicsto • reflectonlearningtoidentify everyday situations newunderstandingsand future applications. • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandings. Health & Physical Education The Arts Students are able to: Students are able to: • poseandrefinequestionsor• issues, selectand andplan develop activities ideasforartsworks,considering different audiences and different purposes, using arts • collect,organiseandevaluateinformationandevidence elements and languages • drawconclusionsandmakedecisionsbyidentifying • createandshapeartsworksbyorganisingartselements connections to express personal and community values, beliefs and • propose,justifyandimplementsimpleplansoractionsto observations promote health and wellbeing, movement capacities, and • rehearseandreworkartsworks,usinginterpretiveand personal development technical skills • applyfundamentalandsimplespecialisedmovement • presentartsworkstoinformalandformalaudiences, skills when participating in physical activities using arts techniques, skills and processes • createandperformmovementsequencesbyselecting • identifyandapplysafepractices and combining movement skills • respondtoartsworksbyidentifyingandinterpretingthe • applypersonaldevelopmentskillsandstrategiesinteam influences of social, cultural and historical contexts, using and group situations arts elements and languages • identifyandapplysafepractices • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandingsand •reflectonandidentifyhowtheirownandothers’ future applications. behaviours, skills and actions influence health and wellbeing, movement capacities and personal development •reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandingsand future applications. 64 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 3: Ways of working — By the end of Year 5 Science Studies of Society & Environment Students are able to: Students are able to: • poseandrefinesimplequestions, • poseand andmak refine epredictions questionsto forinvestigations be tested • planinvestigationsbasedonquestionsandinquirymodels • planactivitiesandinvestigations,identifyingandusing • collectandorganiseinformationandevidence elements of a fair test • evaluatesourcesofinformationandevidenceto • collectandorganisedata,informationandevidence determine different perspectives, and distinguish facts • evaluateinformationandevidence from opinions tosupportdata gathered from activities and investigations • drawandjustifyconclusionsbasedoninformationand • selectandusetools,technologies evidence andmaterialssuitedto the activities and investigations • communicatedescriptions,decisionsandconclusions, • drawconclusionsthataresupported using text types selected to match audience and purpose byevidence, reproducible data and established scientific concepts • shareopinions,identifypossibilitiesandproposeactions • communicatescientificideas, to respond to findings dataandfindings,using scientific terminology and formats appropriate to context • applystrategiestoinfluencedecisionsorbehavioursand and purpose to contribute to groups • identifyandapplysafepractices • reflectonandidentifypersonalactionsandthoseof • reflectonandidentifydifferent others to clarify values associated with social justice, the pointsofviewand consider other people’s values relating to science democratic process, sustainability and peace • reflectonlearningtoidentify • reflect newunderstandings onlearningtoand identifynewunderstandingsand future applications. future applications. Technology Languages Students are able to: Essential Learnings for Languages have been specified for three stages of language learning: Beginner, Elementary and • identifyandanalysethepurposeandcontextfordesignideas Lower intermediate. • generatedesignideasthatmatchrequirements Please see Appendix 10. • communicatethedetailsoftheirdesignsusing2Dor3D visual representations • selectresources,techniquesandtoolstomakeproducts • planproductionproceduresbyidentifyingandsequencing steps • makeproductstomatchdesignideasbymanipulating and processing resources • identifyandapplysafepractices • evaluateproductsandprocessestoidentifystrengths, limitations, effectiveness and improvements • reflectonandidentifytheimpactsofproductsand processes on people and their communities • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandingsand future applications. 65 Appendix 4 Ways of working By the end of Year 7 English Mathematics Students are able to: Students are able to: • identifyanddemonstratethe • relationship analysesituations between toidentifymathematicalconceptsand audience, subject matter, purpose and text type the relationships between key features and conditions necessary to generate solutions • identifymainideasandthesequenceofevents,make inferences and draw conclusions based on ideas and • posequestionsthatdrawonfamiliarexamplestoclarify information within and across texts thinking and support predictions • recogniseandselectvocabulary • plan and activities interpretand theinvestigations effect toexploreconcepts of literal and figurative language through selected pathways, and plan strategies to solve mathematical questions, problems and issues • interpretandidentifythatreaders/viewers/listenersare positioned by aspects of texts • selectandusesuitablementalandwrittencomputations, estimations, representations and technologies to generate • constructliterarytextsbyplanninganddeveloping solutions and to check for reasonableness subject matter, using dialogue, description and evaluative language • developargumentstojustifypredictions,inferences, decisions and generalisations from solutions • constructnon-literarytextstoexpressmeaningsand messages, to identify causes and effects, and to state • evaluatethinkingandreasoning,todeterminewhether positions supported by evidence mathematical ideas, strategies and procedures have been applied effectively • makejudgmentsandjustifyopinionsusinginformation and ideas from texts, and identify how aspects of texts • communicatethinkingandjustifyreasoningand contribute to enjoyment and appreciation generalisations, using mathematical language, representations and technologies • reflectonandcomparehowthelanguagechoicesmade across texts include and exclude certain groups and • reflectonandidentifythecontributionofmathematicsto individuals their life • reflectonlearning,applynew • reflect understandings onlearning and,identify applynewunderstandingsandidentify future applications. future applications. Health & Physical Education The Arts Students are able to: Students are able to: • identifyissuesandplaninvestigations • selectanddevelop andactivities ideasforartsworks,considering intended audiences and intended purposes, and make • collect,analyseandevaluateinformationandevidence decisions about arts elements and languages • drawconclusionsandmakedecisionssupportedby • createandshapeartsworksbymodifyingartselements information and evidence to express purpose and to include influences from their • propose,justify,implementandmonitorplansoractions own and other cultures and times to promote health and wellbeing, movement capacities • modifyandpolishartsworks,usinginterpretiveand and personal development technical skills • applymovementconceptsandmakepurposeful • presentartsworkstoinformalandformalaudiences refinements to movement skills for intended purposes, using arts techniques, skills and • createandperformmovementsequencesthrough processes modifying and combining movement skills and applying • identify,applyandjustifysafepractices movement concepts • respondbyanalysingandevaluatingartsworksinsocial, • identifyrisksandjustifyandapplysafepractices cultural, historical and spiritual contexts, using arts • selectanddemonstrateappropriatepersonaldevelopment elements and languages skills and strategies in team and group situations • reflectonlearning,applynewunderstandingsandidentify • reflectonandidentifytheimpactofdiverseinfluenceson future applications. health and wellbeing, movement capacities and personal development, including the best use of positive influences • reflectonlearning,applynewunderstandingsandidentify future applications. 66 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 4: Ways of working — By the end of Year 7 Science Studies of Society & Environment Students are able to: Students are able to: • identifyproblemsandissues, • identify andformulate issues testable andusecommonandownfocusquestions scientific questions • planinvestigationsusinginquirymodels • planinvestigations,includingidentifyingconditionsfora • collectandanalyseinformationandevidencefrom fair comparison, variables to be changed and variables to primary and secondary sources be measured • evaluatesourcesofinformationandevidencefor • collectandanalysefirst-andsecond-handdata, relevance, reliability, origins and perspective information and evidence • drawconclusionsandmakedecisionsbasedon • evaluateinformationandevidenceandidentifyand information and evidence by identifying patterns and analyse errors in data connections • selectandusescientifictoolsandtechnologiessuitedto • communicatedescriptions,decisionsandconclusions, the investigation using different text types for specific purposes and the • drawconclusionsthatsummarise conventions of research-based texts andexplainpatterns in data and are supported by experimental evidence and • respondtoinvestigationfindingsandconclusionsby scientific concepts planning and implementing actions • communicatescientificideas,dataandevidence,using • applystrategiestocontributeeffectivelytorepresentative scientific terminology suited to the context and purpose groups and to participate in civic activities • identify,applyandjustifysafepractices • reflectonandidentifydifferentperspectives,and • reflectondifferentpoints recognise and clarify beliefs and values relating to social ofview,andrecogniseand clarify people’s values relating to the applications and justice, the democratic process, sustainability and peace impacts of science • reflectonlearning,applynewunderstandingsandidentify •reflectonlearning,applynew future applications. understandingsandidentify future applications. Technology Languages Students are able to: Essential Learnings for Languages have been specified for three stages of language learning: Beginner, Elementary and • investigateandanalysethepurpose,context, Lower intermediate. specifications and constraints for design ideas • generateandevaluatedesign Please see Appendix 10. ideasanddetermine suitability based on purpose, specifications and constraints • communicatethedetailsofdesignsshowingrelative proportion,usinglabelleddrawings,modelsand/orplans • selectresources,techniquesandtoolstomakeproducts that meet specifications • planandmanageproductionproceduresandmodifyas necessary • makeproductstomeetspecificationsbymanipulating and processing resources • identifyrisksandjustifyandapplysafepractices • evaluatethesuitabilityofproductsandprocessesforthe purpose and context, and recommend improvements • reflectonandidentifytheimpactsofproducts and processes on people, their communities and environments • reflectonlearning,applynewunderstandingsandidentify future applications. 67 Appendix 5 Ways of working By the end of Year 9 English Mathematics Students are able to: Students are able to: • demonstrateandanalysethe• relationship analysesituations between kemathematical y toidentifythe audience, subject matter, purpose and text type features and conditions, strategies and procedures that may be relevant in the generation of a solution • identifymainideasandthesequenceofevents,make inferences and draw conclusions based on their • poseandrefinequestionstoconfirmoralterthinkingand understanding of the reliability of ideas and information develop hypotheses and predictions across texts • planandconductactivitiesandinvestigations,usingvalid • recogniseandselectvocabulary strategies and procedures to solve problems andinterpretandapply literal and figurative language • selectandusementalandwrittencomputations, • interpretandanalysehowlanguage estimations, representations and technologies to generate elementsandother aspectsoftextspositionreaders/viewers/listeners solutions and to check for reasonableness of the solution • constructliterarytextsby• planning usemathematical anddeveloping interpretationsandconclusionsto subject matter, and manipulating language elements to generalise reasoning and make inferences present particular points of view • evaluatetheirownthinkingandreasoning,considering • constructnon-literarytexts their application of mathematical ideas, the efficiency of byplanningandorganising subject matter according to specific text structure and their procedures and opportunities to transfer results into referring to other texts new learning •makejudgments andjustifyopinionsabout • communicate howthe thinking,andjustifyandevaluatereasoning qualities of texts contribute to enjoyment and appreciation and generalisations, using mathematical language, representations and technologies • reflectonandanalysehowlanguagechoicesposition readers/viewers/listenersin• particular reflectonways andidentify fordifferent thecontributionofmathematicsto purposes and can exclude information their own and other people’s lives • reflectonlearning,applynew • reflect understandings onlearning and,justify applynewunderstandingsandjustify future applications. future applications. Health & Physical Education The Arts Students are able to: Students are able to: • identifyissuesandinequities • mak and edecisions planinvestigations aboutartselements, and languagesand activities cultural protocols in relation to specific style, function, audience and purpose of arts works • research,analyseandevaluatedata,informationand evidence • createandshapeartsworksbymanipulatingarts elements to express meaning in different contexts • drawconclusionsandmakedecisionstoconstruct arguments • modifyandrefinegenre-specificartsworks,using interpretive and technical skills • propose, ,implement justifyandmonitorplansoractionsto achieve goals, address inequities and promote health and • presentartsworkstoparticularaudiencesforaspecific wellbeing, movement capacities and personal development purpose, style and function, using genre-specific arts techniques, skills, processes and cultural protocols • refinemovementskillsandapplymovementconcepts, and the principles of training • identifyrisksanddeviseandapplysafepractices • createandperformmovement• sequences respondby bydeconstructing manipulating artsworksinrelationtosocial, and combining movement skills and applying movement cultural, historical, spiritual, political, technological and concepts economic contexts, using arts elements and languages • identifyrisksanddeviseand • reflect applysafe onlearning practices ,applynewunderstandingsandjustify future applications. • selectandapplypositive,respectfulandinclusive personal development skills and strategies • reflectonhealthinequities,andidentifytheimpactof diverse influences on health and wellbeing, movement capacities and personal development, and the best use of positive influences • reflectonlearning,applynewunderstandingsandjustify future applications. 68 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 5: Ways of working — By the end of Year 9 Science Studies of Society & Environment Students are able to: Students are able to: • identifyproblemsandissues, • identify formulateascientific researchfocusfrombroadtopicsanddesign questions and design investigations focus questions and sub-questions • planinvestigationsguided• byplan scientific investigations, conceptsusing and discipline-specificinquiry design and carry out fair tests models and processes • researchandanalysedata,information • researchand andanalyse evidencedata,informationandevidencefrom primary and secondary sources • evaluatedata,informationandevidencetoidentify connections, construct arguments and link results to theory • evaluatesourcesofdata,informationandevidencefor relevance, reliability, authenticity, purpose, bias and • selectandusescientificequipmentandtechnologiesto perspective enhance the reliability and accuracy of data collected in investigations • drawconclusionsandmakedecisionssupportedby interpretations of data, information and evidence • conductandapplysafetyauditsandidentifyandmanage risks • communicatedescriptions,decisionsandconclusions, using text types specific to the context and purpose and • drawconclusionsthatsummariseandexplainpatterns, the conventions of research-based texts and that are consistent with the data and respond to the question • respondtolocalandglobalissuesbytakingactionin planned and enterprising ways • communicatescientificideas,explanations,conclusions, decisions and data, using scientific argument and • applystrategiesformakinggroupdecisionsandfortaking terminology, in appropriate formats informed social and environmental action • reflectondifferentperspectives • reflect andonevaluate different theperspectives,andrecogniseandevaluate influence of people’s values and culture on the the influence of values and beliefs in relation to social applications of science justice, the democratic process, sustainability and peace • reflectonlearning,applynew • reflect understandings onlearning and,justify applynewunderstandingsandjustify future applications. future applications. Technology Languages Students are able to: Essential Learnings for Languages have been specified for three stages of language learning: Beginner, Elementary and • investigateandanalysespecifications,standardsand Lower intermediate. constraints in the development of design ideas • consult,negotiateandapplyethicalprinciplesandcultural Please see Appendix 10. protocols to investigate, design and make products • generateandevaluatedesignideasandcommunicate research, design options, budget and timelines in design proposals • selectresources,techniquesandtoolstomakeproducts that meet detailed specifications • plan,manageandrefineproductionproceduresfor efficiency • makeproductstomeetdetailedspecificationsby manipulating or processing resources • identify,applyandjustifyworkplacehealthandsafety practices • evaluatethesuitabilityofproductsandprocessesagainst criteria and recommend improvements • reflectonandanalysetheimpactsofproducts and processes on people, their communities and environments • reflectonlearning,applynewunderstandingsandjustify future applications. 69 Appendix 6 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements By the end of Year 3 English Mathematics Speaking and listening Number Wholenumbers,simplefractionsandthefouroperationsare Speaking and listening involve using oral, aural and gestural used to solve problems. elements to interpret and construct texts that achieve purposes in familiar contexts. Algebra Relationships between objects or numbers can be described Reading and viewing using patterns and simple rules. Reading and viewing involve using a range of strategies to interpret and appreciate written, visual and multimodal texts Measurement in familiar contexts. Unique attributes of shapes, objects and time can be identified and described using standard and non-standard units. Writing and designing Writinganddesigninginvolve Chance and data usinglanguageelementsto construct literary and non-literary texts for familiar contexts. Chance events can be explored using predictions and statements. Data can be collected, organised and explored. Language elements Interpreting and constructing texts involve exploring and Space using grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, audio and visual Geometric properties can be used to describe, sort and elements, in print-based, electronic and face-to-face modes explore 2D shapes and 3D objects. Maps and plans provide (speaking and listening, reading and viewing, writing and information about an environment. designing) in familiar contexts. Literary and non-literary texts Exploring literary and non-literary texts involves developing an awareness of purpose, audience, subject matter and text structure. Health & Physical Education The Arts Health Dance Dance involves using the human body to express ideas, Health is multidimensional and influenced by everyday considering particular audiences and particular purposes, actions and environments. through dance elements in movement phrases. Physical activity Drama Fundamental movement skills are foundations of physical Drama involves using dramatic elements and conventions activity. to express ideas, considering particular audiences and Personal development particular purposes, through dramatic action based on real Personal identity, self-management and relationships or imagined events. develop through interactions in family and social contexts Media and shape personal development. Media involves constructing meaning by using media languages and technologies to express representations, considering particular audiences and particular purposes. Music Music involves singing, playing instruments, listening, moving, improvising and composing by using the music elements to express ideas, considering particular audiences and particular purposes, through sound. Visual Art Visual Art involves using visual arts elements, concepts, processes and forms (both 2D and 3D) to express ideas, considering particular audiences and particular purposes, through images and objects. 70 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 6: Knowledge and understanding — Conceptual statements by the end of Year 3 Science Studies of Society & Environment Science as a human endeavour Time, continuity and change Science is a part of everyday activities and experiences. Changes and continuities are identified through events, people’s contributions and the stories of local communities. Earth and beyond Changes in the observable environment influence life. Place and space Local natural, social and built environments are defined by Energy and change specific features and can be sustained by certain activities. Energy can be used for different purposes. Culture and identity Life and living Local communities have different groups with shared values Needs, features and functions of living things are related and and common interests. change over time. Political and economic systems Natural and processed materials Communities have systems to make rules and laws, govern, Materials have different properties and undergo different and manage the production and consumption of goods and changes. services. Technology Languages Essential Learnings for Languages have been specified for Technology as a human endeavour three stages of language learning: Beginner, Elementary and Technology is part of our everyday lives and activities. Lower intermediate. Information, materials and systems Resources are used to make products for particular Please see Appendix 11. purposes and contexts. Information & Communication Technologies Inquiring with ICTs Creating with ICTs Communicating with ICTs Ethics, issues and ICTs Operating ICTs 71 Cross curriculum priorityAppendix 7 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements By the end of Year 5 English Mathematics Speaking and listening Number Speaking and listening involve using oral, aural and gestural Wholenumbers,simpleanddecimalfractionsandarange elements to interpret and construct texts that achieve of strategies are used to solve problems. purposes in personal and community contexts. Algebra Reading and viewing Patterns and relationships can be identified, described and Reading and viewing involve using a range of strategies to applied with the conventions of the four operations. interpret and appreciate written, visual and multimodal texts Measurement in personal and community contexts. Length, area, volume, mass, time and angles can be Writing and designing estimated, measured and ordered, using standard and non- Writinganddesigninginvolve standard units of measure. usinglanguageelementsto construct literary and non-literary texts for audiences in Chance and data personal and community contexts. Chance events have a range of possible outcomes that can Language elements be described using predictions. Data can be collected to Interpreting and constructing texts involve making choices support or adjust predictions. about grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, audio and visual Space elements in print-based, electronic and face-to-face modes Geometric features are used to group shapes and guide the (speaking and listening, reading and viewing, writing and accuracy of representation of 2D shapes and 3D objects. designing) in personal and community contexts. Mapping conventions apply to the structure and use of Literary and non-literary texts maps and plans. Making choices about literary and non-literary texts involves identifying the purpose, audience, subject matter and text structure. Health & Physical Education The Arts Health Dance Health is multidimensional and influenced by individual and Dance involves using the human body to express ideas, group actions and environments. considering different audiences and different purposes, by selecting dance elements in short movement sequences. Physical activity Fundamental and simple specialised movement skills are Drama elements of physical activity. Drama involves selecting dramatic elements and conventions to express ideas, considering different Personal development audiences and different purposes, through dramatic action Personal identity, relationships and self-management are based on real or imagined events. influenced by beliefs, behaviours and social factors, and shape personal development. Media Media involves selecting media languages and technologies to create representations and construct meaning, considering different audiences and different purposes. Music Music involves singing, playing instruments, listening, moving, improvising and composing by selecting the music elements to express ideas, considering different audiences and different purposes, through sound. Visual Art Visual Art involves selecting visual arts elements, concepts, processes and forms (both 2D and 3D) to express ideas, considering different audiences and different purposes, through images and objects. 72 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 7: Knowledge and understanding — Conceptual statements by the end of Year 5 Science Studies of Society & Environment Science as a human endeavour Time, continuity and change Science relates to students’ own experiences and activities Changes and continuities are represented by events and in the community. people’s contributions, and are viewed differently by different people. Earth and beyond Changes and patterns in different environments and space Place and space have scientific explanations. Environments are defined and changed by interactions between people and places. Energy and change Actions of forces, and forms and uses of energy, are evident Culture and identity in the everyday world. Communities contain cultures and groups that contribute to diversity and influence cohesion. Life and living Living things have features that determine their interactions Political and economic systems with the environment. Communities have developed decision-making systems that include principles and values formed over time. Natural and processed materials Properties, changes and uses of materials are related. Technology Languages Essential Learnings for Languages have been specified for Technology as a human endeavour three stages of language learning: Beginner, Elementary and Technology influences and impacts on people, their Lower intermediate. communities and environments. Information, materials and systems Please see Appendix 11. The characteristics of resources are matched with tools and techniques to make products to meet design challenges. Information & Communication Technologies Inquiring with ICTs Creating with ICTs Communicating with ICTs Ethics, issues and ICTs Operating ICTs 73 Cross curriculum priorityAppendix 8 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements By the end of Year 7 English Mathematics Speaking and listening Number Speaking and listening involve using oral, aural and gestural Numbers, key percentages, common and decimal fractions elements to interpret and construct texts that achieve and a range of strategies are used to generate and solve purposes across wider community contexts. problems. Reading and viewing Algebra Reading and viewing involve using a range of strategies Algebraic expressions and equations can be applied to to interpret, evaluate and appreciate written, visual and describe equivalence and solve problems. multimodal texts across wider community contexts. Measurement Writing and designing Relationships between units of measure and the attributes Writinganddesigninginvolve of length, area, volume, mass, time and angles are used to usinglanguageelementsto construct literary and non-literary texts for audiences across calculate measures that may contain some error. wider community contexts. Chance and data Language elements Probability of events can be calculated from experimental Interpreting and constructing texts involve selecting and data. Data can be summarised and represented to support controlling choices about grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, inferences and conclusions. audio and visual elements, in print-based, electronic and face- Space to-face modes (speaking and listening, reading and viewing, Geometric conventions can be used to classify, represent writing and designing) across wider community contexts. and manipulate geometric shapes. Mapping conventions can Literary and non-literary texts be applied in the construction and use of maps and plans. Evaluating literary and non-literary texts involves understanding the purpose, audience, subject matter and text structure. Health & Physical Education The Arts Health Dance Health is multidimensional and influenced by individual, Dance involves using the human body to express ideas, group and community actions, and environments. considering intended audiences and intended purposes, by modifying dance elements in movement sequences. Physical activity Fundamental and specialised movement skills, movement Drama concepts, tactics and strategies are elements of physical Drama involves modifying dramatic elements and activity. conventions to express ideas, considering intended audiences and intended purposes, through dramatic action Personal development based on real or imagined events. Beliefs, behaviours and social and environmental factors influence relationships and self-management and shape Media personal development. Media involves constructing meaning, considering intended audiences and intended purposes, by modifying media languages and technologies to create representations. Music Music involves singing, playing instruments, listening, moving, improvising and composing by modifying the music elements to express ideas, considering intended audiences and intended purposes, through sound. Visual Art Visual Art involves modifying visual arts elements, concepts, processes and forms (both 2D and 3D) to express ideas, considering intended audiences and intended purposes, through images and objects. 74 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 8: Knowledge and understanding — Conceptual statements by the end of Year 7 Science Studies of Society & Environment Science as a human endeavour Time, continuity and change Science impacts on people, their environment and their Changes and continuities are linked to particular events communities. and the achievements of individuals and groups that attract different interpretations. Earth and beyond Interactions and changes in physical systems and Place and space environments can be explained and predicted. Environments are defined by physical characteristics and processes, and are connected to human activities and Energy and change decisions about resource management. Forces and energy can be identified and analysed to provide explanations that benefit community lifestyles and decision Culture and identity making. Cultures and identities consist of material and non-material elements and are affected by cross-cultural contacts. Life and living Living things have structures that enable them to survive Political and economic systems and reproduce. Societies and economies have systems and institutions based on principles and values. Natural and processed materials Properties, changes and uses of substances and mixtures are related to their particular composition. Technology Languages Essential Learnings for Languages have been specified for Technology as a human endeavour three stages of language learning: Beginner, Elementary and Technology influences and impacts on people, their Lower intermediate. communities and environments. Information, materials and systems Please see Appendix 11. The characteristics of resources are matched with tools and techniques to make products to meet design challenges. Information & Communication Technologies Inquiring with ICTs Creating with ICTs Communicating with ICTs Ethics, issues and ICTs Operating ICTs 75 Cross curriculum priorityAppendix 9 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements By the end of Year 9 English Mathematics Speaking and listening Number Speaking and listening involve using oral, aural and gestural Number properties and operations and a range of strategies elements to interpret and construct texts that achieve can be applied when working with integers and rational purposes across local, national and global contexts. numbers. Reading and viewing Algebra Reading and viewing involve using a range of strategies Variables, algebraic expressions and equations, relationships to interpret, analyse and appreciate written, visual and and functions can be described, represented and interpreted. multimodal texts across local, national and global contexts Measurement Writing and designing Units of measure, instruments, formulas and strategies Writinganddesigninginvolve canusing be used to estimate language and calculate measurement elements and to construct literary and non-literary texts for audiences across consider reasonable error. local, national and global contexts. Chance and data Language elements Judgments can be based on theoretical or experimental Interpreting and constructing texts involve manipulating probability. Data can be displayed in various ways and grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, audio and visual analysed to make inferences and generalisations. elements, in print-based, electronic and face-to-face modes Space (speaking and listening, reading and viewing, writing and Geometric conventions can be used to describe, represent, designing) across local, national and global contexts. construct and manipulate a range of complex geometric Literary and non-literary texts shapes. Mapping conventions can be used to represent Manipulating literary and non-literary texts involves analysing location, distance and orientation in maps and plans. the purpose, audience, subject matter and text structure. Health & Physical Education The Arts Health Dance Health is multidimensional and dynamic, and influenced by Dance involves using the human body to express ideas, actions and environments. considering specific audiences and specific purposes, by manipulating dance elements in genre-specific dance Physical activity sequences. Regular active and purposeful participation in physical activity promotes health and wellbeing, and supports the Drama achievement of goals. Drama involves manipulating dramatic elements and conventions to express ideas, considering specific Personal development audiences and specific purposes, through dramatic action Diverse social, cultural and environmental factors, values, based on real or imagined events. beliefs and behaviours influence relationships and self- management, and shape personal development. Media Media involves constructing meaning, considering specific audiences and specific purposes, by manipulating media languages and technologies to shape representations. Music Music involves singing, playing instruments, listening, moving, improvising and composing by manipulating the music elements to express ideas, considering specific audiences and specific purposes, through sound. Visual Art Visual Art involves manipulating visual arts elements, concepts, processes and forms (both 2D and 3D) to express ideas, considering specific audiences and specific purposes, through images and objects. 76 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 9: Knowledge and understanding — Conceptual statements by the end of Year 9 Science Studies of Society & Environment Science as a human endeavour Time, continuity and change Responsible and informed decisions about real-world issues Social, political, economic and cultural changes and are influenced by the application of scientific knowledge. continuities are connected to particular events, ideas and contributions, and can be interpreted from different Earth and beyond perspectives. Events on earth and in space are explained using scientific theories and ideas, including the geological and Place and space environmental history of the earth and the universe. Environments are defined by spatial patterns, human and physical interactions, and sustainable practices can balance Energy and change human activity and environmental processes. Forces and energy are identified and analysed to help understand and develop technologies, and to make Culture and identity predictions about events in the world. Cultures and identities are shaped by a range of factors, and societies promote cohesion and diversity in different ways. Life and living Organisms interact with their environment in order to Political and economic systems survive and reproduce. Societies consist of interconnected decision-making systems, institutions and processes based on principles and values. Natural and processed materials The properties of materials are determined by their structure and their interaction with other materials. Technology Languages Technology as a human endeavour Essential Learnings for Languages have been specified for Technology influences and impacts on people, their three stages of language learning: Beginner, Elementary and communities and environments in local and global contexts. Lower intermediate. Information, materials and systems Please see Appendix 11. Resources originate from different sources, exist in various forms and are manipulated to meet specifications and standards to make products. Information & Communication Technologies Inquiring with ICTs Creating with ICTs Communicating with ICTs Ethics, issues and ICTs Operating ICTs 77 Cross curriculum priority Appendix 10 Ways of working Languages Beginner Students are able to: • identifythepurposeormaintopicinsimplespokenandwrittentexts,usingvisualandverballanguage • respondtofamiliarstatementsandquestions kewords, y in phrases simpleand conversationsanddiscussions,using memorised material • identifyandusenon-verbalcommunicationstrategiesinfamiliarcontexts • constructsimplespokenandwrittentextsinfamiliarcontexts • noticeandcompareaspectsofthetargetlanguageandEnglishand/orotherfamiliarlanguages • noticeandcompareaspectsoftheirownculturesandofthetargetcultures • reflectonandevaluatethesuitabilityoflanguagechoicesinfamiliarcontexts • reflectonlearningtoidentifynewunderstandingsandfutureapplications. Elementary Students are able to: • interpretarangeofspokenandwrittentextsindifferentcontextswherefamiliarandsomeunfamiliarlanguageisused • interpretandrespondbymanipulatingsomeelementsoflanguagetocontributetoconversationsfordifferentpurposes, contexts and audiences • recogniseanduseappropriateverbalandnon-verballanguagetosupportthedevelopmentofcommunicativecompetence • selectandapplystrategiestoadjustverbalandnonverballanguageforavarietyofpurposes,contextsandaudiences,and respond appropriately to feedback • constructsimple,cohesivespokenandwrittentextsfordifferentcontexts,displayingsomeconceptofregister • noticeandcomparesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenthetargetlanguageandEnglishand/orotherfamiliarlanguages • noticeandcomparetheirownbeliefs,attitudesandpracticesandthosereflectedinthetargetculture • reflectonandevaluatethesuitabilityoflanguagechoicesforpurpose,contextandaudience • reflectonlearning,applynewunderstandingsandidentifyfutureapplications. Lower intermediate Students are able to: • interpretideasandinformationinspokenandwrittentextsandmakejudgmentsaboutthewaysthatpeople,places,events and things are represented • locate,analyseandrespondinthetargetlanguagetoinformationontopicsandissuesofsignificancetomembersofthetarget cultures of a similar age • plan,monitorandadjustverbalandnon-verballanguagetosuittherole,purpose,contextandaudience • constructspokenandwrittentextsthatpresentanargument,perspectiveoropinion • recognisethattextsareculturallyconstructed,andanalyseembeddedculturalinformation • noticeandcomparesimilaritiesanddifferencesintextformats,languageandstylebetweensimilartextsinthetargetlanguage andEnglish,and/orotherfamiliarlanguages,toinforminterculturalcommunication • noticeandcomparebeliefs,valuesandpractices purposeand inaudience targetlanguagetextstoidentifytheauthor’s • reflectonandevaluatetheappropriatenessoftheirownandothers’languagechoicesintargetlanguagetextsforpurpose, context and audience • reflectonandevaluatelearningtoevaluateandapplynewunderstandingsandfutureapplications. 78 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 11: Knowledge and understanding — Conceptual statements — Languages Appendix 11 Knowledge and understanding Conceptual statements — Languages Beginner Comprehending and composing in the target language Comprehending and composing skills are used to understand language input, to convey information and to express ideas in response to needs and interests. Intercultural competency and language awareness Noticing and comparing similarities and differences between languages and cultures informs intercultural communication. Elementary Comprehending and composing in the target language Comprehending and composing skills are used to understand language input, to convey information and express ideas and opinions, and to engage in interactions in the target language for different purposes, contexts and audiences. Intercultural competency and language awareness Intercultural competence and knowledge of languages and cultures allow for exploration of different ways of experiencing and acting in the world. Lower intermediate Comprehending and composing in the target language Comprehending and composing texts for particular purposes, contexts and audiences requires knowledge about the interrelations among purpose, text type, audience, mode and medium. Intercultural competency and language awareness Intercultural competence and knowledge of languages and cultures allow for differing ways of experiencing, acting in and viewing the world. 79 80 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 12 Assessable elements Studies of Health & English Mathematics Science Society & Physical The Arts Technology Languages Environment Education Knowledge and Knowledge and Knowledge and Knowledge and Knowledge and Knowledge and Knowledge and Knowledge and understanding understanding understanding understanding understanding understanding understanding understanding Investigating and Interpreting texts Thinking and reasoning Investigating Investigating Investigating Creating Comprehending texts designing Constructing texts Communicating Communicating Communicating Planning Presenting Producing Composing texts Implementing and Intercultural Appreciating texts Participating Responding Evaluating applying competence Reflecting Reflecting Reflecting Reflecting Reflecting Reflecting Reflecting Reflecting Appendix 13: Guide to making judgments — Matrix Appendix 13 Guide to making judgments — Matrix 81 Appendix 14 Guide to making judgments — Continua 82 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 15: Guide to making judgments — Observation record Appendix 15 Guide to making judgments — Observation record 83 Appendix 16 Participating schools The following schools have participated in the QCAR Framework trial and consultations. The QCAR project team sincerely thanks them for their contributions to the development and refinement of QCAR products and services. Partner schools All Hallows School Forest Lake State High School St Joseph’s Catholic Primary School Arundel State School Gladstone South State School St Joseph’s School Bellevue Park State School Guardian Angels Catholic Primary School St Mary’s Catholic College Biloela State High School KawanaWatersStateCollege St Peters Lutheran College Buddina State School Mudgeeraba Special School Stanthorpe State Primary School Bundaberg South State School Our Lady of the Angels School Toowoomba State High School Burnett Heads State School Pine Rivers Special School TownsvilleWestStateSchool Chancellor State College Robina State High School Townview State School Clover Hill State School Southport State High School Tullawong State High School Dalby South State School Spinifex State College (Junior Campus) Upper Coomera State College Dalby State High School St John’s Lutheran Primary School Trial schools All Saints Anglican School Elanora State School Mount Alvernia College Applethorpe State School Emmanuel Catholic Primary School Mount Larcom State School Aquinas College Fairview Heights State School Mount Maria College Ashmore State School Faith Lutheran College Mount Murchison State School Ballandean State School Farnborough State School Mourilyan State School Beaconsfield State School Fitzgerald State School Mudgeeraba Creek State School Beenleigh State School Forest Lake College Mudgeeraba State School Benowa State High School Genesis Christian College Murgon State School Benowa State School Gilroy Santa Maria College Musgrave Hill State School Berrinba East State School Glen Aplin State School Northern Peninsula Area College Bollon State School Good Shepherd Catholic Community School Our Lady of Mt Carmel School Bowen State High School Good Shepherd Lutheran College Our Lady’s College Bowen State School Harris Fields State School Pacific Lutheran College Brigidine College Hillview State School Proserpine State School Broadbeach State School Holy Spirit College Prospect Creek State School Burdekin Catholic High School Homebush State School Queens Beach State School Burleigh Heads State School Iona College Redeemer Lutheran College Burrowes State School Jambin State School Robina State School Byfield State School Kimberley Park State School San Sisto College CairnsWestStateSchool Kingaroy State High School Sarina State School Canterbury College Kingaroy State School Shailer Park State School Capricornia School of Dist Ed Kingston College Slacks Creek State School Carbrook State School Kumbia State School Southern Cross Catholic College Chatswood Hills State School Labrador State School Springbrook State School Chinchilla State High School Laidley District State School Springwood Central State School Chinchilla State School Lockhart River State School Springwood Road State School Clairvaux MacKillop College Loganholme State School Springwood State High School Cooktown State School Mackay Christian College St Andrew’s Catholic College Coolabunia State School Mackay North State Primary School St Anne’s School Coppabella State School Marsden State High School St Anthony’s Catholic College Crawford State School Marsden State School St Clare’s School Crestmead State School Marymount College (Secondary) St Edmund’s College St George State High School Dalveen State School Merinda State School St George State School Dirranbandi State School Middlemount Community School St Hilda’s School Dows Creek State School Mirani State High School St Joseph’s School Dundula State School Moranbah East State School St Laurence’s College Durong South State School Moranbah State School St Mary’s School Dysart State School Moreton Bay College St Michael’s College Eagleby State School Mother of Good Counsel School 84 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Appendix 16: Participating schools St Paul’s School Texas State School WhitfieldStateSchool St Teresa’s School Thangool State School WhitsundayAnglicanSchool St Thomas More College Tingoora State School WindarooStateSchool St Thomas More Primary School Trinity Catholic College WindarooValleyStateHighSchool St Ursula’s College Trinity Lutheran College WoodridgeNorthStateSchool Stanthorpe State High School Tully State High School WooloowinStateSchool Surfers Paradise State School Valkyrie State School WooroolinStateSchool Swayneville State School Varsity College WorongaryStateSchool Taabinga State School Victoria Park State School Yeppoon State High School Tagai State College — Yorke Island Campus WaterfordWestState Yeppoon State School School Tamborine Mountain State School WesternCapeCollege Taranganba State School WestsideChristianCollege Consultative schools Abergowrie State School Caloundra State School Everton Park State High School Acacia Ridge State School Capalaba State College (Junior) Everton Park State School Aldridge State High School Capella State High School Farleigh State School Alexandra Hills State High School Capella State School Finch Hatton State School Alexandra Hills State School Cawarral State School Flagstone State School Algester State School Cedar Creek State School Flying Fish Point State School Alloway State School Centenary Heights State High School Forrest Beach State School Amberley State School Central Queensland Christian College Freshwater State School Amiens State School Charleville State High School Gabbinbar State School Andergrove State School Charters Towers Central State School Gargett State School Annandale State School Charters Towers School of Distance Gatton State School Ashwell State School Education Gin Gin State High School Aspley East State School Charters Towers State High School Gin Gin State School Aspley State School Chelona State School Gladstone State High School Atherton State High School Chevallum State School Glenella State School Atherton State School Childers State School Glenvale State School Auburn River State School Christ the King School Golden Beach State School Ayr State High School Clare State School Good Counsel College Balaclava State School Claremont Special School Goodna State School Bald Hills State School Clarke Creek State School Goondi State School Banksia Beach State School Clayfield College Goondiwindi State High School Barcaldine State School Clermont State School Gordonvale State School Bargara State School Cleveland State School Grace Lutheran College Barkly Highway State School Clifton State School Grace Lutheran Primary School Beenleigh Special School Collingwood Park State School Grandchester State School Bethany Lutheran Primary School Concordia Primary School Granville State School BiggeraWatersState Coningsby State School School Greenlands State School Birkdale South State School Coolnwynpin State School Gumlu State School Bluewater State School Coolum State High School Gympie South State School Bohlevale State School Coolum State School Haigslea State School Boonah State High School Coopers Plains State School Halifax State School Boonah State School Cooroora Secondary College Happy Valley State School Bowenville State School Coowonga State School Harlaxton State School Bracken Ridge State High School Crows Nest State School Harrisville State School Bramble Bay Cluster Currimundi State School Healy State School Brassall State School Daintree State School Heatley State School Bray Park State High School Darling Heights State School Helensvale State High School Bribie Island State School Darra-Jindalee Catholic School Helidon State School Brigalow State School Dayboro State School Hendra Secondary College Bucasia State School Dimbulah P–10 State School Herberton State School Bullyard State School Disability Services Support Unit Highfields State School Bundaberg East State School Djarragun College Hilliard State School Bundaberg Special School Drayton State School Hills International College Bundaberg State High School Edge Hill State School Homestead State School Bungunya State School Eimeo Road State School Hopeland State School Bunkers Hill State School Elliott Heads State School Hopevale State School Burnside State School Emu Park State School Immanuel Lutheran College Burra Burri State School Enoggera State School Indooroopilly State High School Cairns State High School Eton North State School Ingham State High School Caloundra Coalition of State Schools Eton State School Ingham State School Caloundra State High School Eungella State School Inglewood State School 85 Innisfail Inclusive Education Centre Mount Archer State School St Joseph’s Primary School Innisfail State High School Mount Fox State School St Joseph’s School Ipswich Central State School Mount Isa Central State School St Kevin’s Catholic School Ipswich East State School Mount Isa State Special School St Margaret’s Anglican Girls School Ipswich Grammar School Mount Marrow State School St Mark’s School Irvinebank State School Mount Ommaney Special School St Monica’s College James Nash State High School Mount Perry State School St Stephen’s College Jandowae State School Mount St Bernard College Stafford Heights State School Jarvisfield State School MountWarrenParkState Stafford State School School Jimboomba State School Mundoo State School Stuartholme School Jimbour State School Nanango State School Sunbury State School Kaimkillenbun State School Nashville State School Sunnybank State School Kairi State School Nebo State School Sunset State School Kalbar State School Nerimbera State School Sunshine Beach State High School Kalkie State School Newtown State School Sunshine Coast Grammar School Kawungan State School Noosa Pengari Steiner School Sunshine Coast South Curriculum Kelvin Grove State College Noosaville State School Coordinators Network Kenilworth State Community College North Rockhampton State High School Taigum State School Kenmore State High School Northern Beaches State High School Talara Primary College Keppel Sands State School Nyanda State High School Tallebudgera State School Kilcummin State School Oakenden State School Talwood State School Kindon State School Osborne State School Tannum Sands State High School Kingston State School Our Lady of the Rosary School Tara Shire State College Kioma State School Pallara State School Thabeban State School Kogan State School Palm Beach State School The Cathedral College Kruger State School Palmerston East State School The Escarpment Cluster Kuraby Special School Palmwoods State School The Summit State School Kuranda District State School Parramatta State School TheWillowsStateSchool Kuranda State High School Peak Crossing State School Thulimbah State School Lakeland State School Pentland State School Tieri State School Laura State School Pialba State Primary School Tinana State School LDC — Gladstone District Initiative Pilton State School Tolga State School Leichhardt State School Pine Rivers State High School Toowoomba East State School Living Faith Lutheran Primary School Pinnacle State School Toowoomba South State School Lochington State School Pittsworth State School Toowoomba State High School Lowood State High School Pomona State School Townsville State High School Lucinda Point State School Pozieres State School Trebonne State School Lundavra State School Prince of Peace Lutheran School Upper Barron State School Mabel Park State High School Pullenvale State School Urangan State High School MacGregor State High School Raceview State School Vale View State School MackayWestStateSchool Ramsay State School Victoria Plantation State School Macknade State School Rangeville State School ViennaWoodsStateSchool Maidavale State School Redbank Plains State School WalkaminStateSchool Malanda State School Redbank State School WalkerstonStateSchool Marburg State School Redlands College WalkervaleStateSchool Marian State School Richmond Hill State School WallangarraStateSchool Maroochydore State High School Roadvale State School WallavilleStateSchool Maroondan State School Rochedale State School WalloonStateSchool Maryborough Central State School Rocklea State School WarraStateSchool Maryborough Special School Rolleston State School WarwickStateHighSchool Maryborough State High School Rollingstone State School WatsonRoadStateSchool MaryboroughWestState Roma State College School WeirStateSchool McDowall State School Rosewood P–12 Education Community WellcampStateSchool McIlwraith State School Rosewood State School WellingtonPointStateHighSchool Mena Creek State School Runcorn State High School WestmarStateSchool Meridan State College Salisbury State School WilsontonStateSchool Middle Ridge State School Sandgate State School WoodcrestCollege Millaroo State School Seaforth State School WoodridgeStateHighSchool Millchester State School Severnlea State School WoodstockStateSchool Mirani State School Silkwood State School WoongarraStateSchool Moggill State School Somerset Hills State School WoreeStateHighSchool Mooloolah State School South Johnstone State School WoreeStateSchool Moonie State School Southport State School WyreemaStateSchool Morayfield State High School Special Education Curriculum Cluster Yelarbon State School Morayfield State School (SECC) Yorkeys Knob State School Moresby State School St Andrews Lutheran College Yugumbir State School Morningside State School St Augustine’s Marist Brothers College Yungaburra State School Mossman State School St Francis Xavier School Zillmere State School 86 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Glossary Glossary Achievement: The extent to which a student creat h e a pr as oduct or a response to a meaningful demonstrated knowledge, skills, value pr s o and attit blem or issue. udes as the result of the teaching/learning process. . . . technique: The method used to gather evidence about student achievement. Assessable element: The valued features of the KLA about which evidence of student learning is Comparability: The consistent application of collected and assessed. standards across Queensland so that student performances of equivalent standards are Assessment (noun): The purposeful and systematic recognised as such. collection of evidence about students’ achievements. Consistency (of teacher judgment): The common . . . authentic: Involves students applying and interpretation by teachers over time, at both an using relevant knowledge and theoretical and individual and collective level, of the match between practical skills to create a product or a response the evidence in student work and the Standards. to a meaningful problem or issue. . . . continuous: The process of gathering evidence Curriculum (experienced): The sum of the learning about students’ achievements throughout a and development experiences that are offered by a course of study. school, formally and informally, in class and out of class. . . . diagnostic: Used to determine the nature of students’ learning difficulties as a basis for Essential Learnings: Describe the Knowledge and providing appropriate feedback or intervention. understanding and Ways of working needed for . . . formative: Assessment that occurs during ongoing learning, social and personal competence the teaching and learning process that provides and participation in a democratic society. They feedback to students and teachers about the identify what students should be taught and what progress of student learning. is important for them to have opportunities to know and be able to do by the end of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 in . . . performance-based: Involves students the key learning areas (KLAs). demonstrating their skills and knowledge in response to a task-based assessment instrument. Grade: A code representing the standard of student . . . school-based: Devised, administer ac ed hievement. and marked by teachers as part of the school Guide to making judgments: A recording device that curriculum. informs teachers and students about what is valued . . . standards-based/-referenced: Judges the in students’ responses. quality of student performance with reference to Indicative response: A model student response that pre-stated standards. is typical of a designated standard. . . . summative: Indicates the achievement status Key learning area (KLA): The eight broad areas into or standards achieved at particular points of which the curriculum for Years 1–9 is organised schooling. (The Arts, English, Health & Physical Education, Assessment (adjective) Languages, Mathematics, Science, Studies of . . . instrument: A tool or device for gathering Society & Environment, Technology). information about student achievement. Knowledge and understanding: Essential concepts, . . . item: A subset or part of an assessment facts and procedures of the KLA. instrument. Learning experience: The activities that teachers . . . plan: A proposal, usually submitted by a plan for students to achieve objectives/outcomes. school, that outlines the way/s that the school will collect evidence of student Moder ac ation: hiev A prement ocess in that ensures teachers’ a selection of Essential Learnings (for school- judgments of standards achieved by students are devised Queensland Comparable As comp se ar s ab sment le within and between schools. Ta sks (QCATs)). . . . (internal): The procedures administered by . . . task: A type of assessment instrument that a school to ensure that teachers’ judgments involves students applying and using relevant about standards within an area of learning are knowledge and theoretical and practical skills to comparable. 87 On-balance judgment: The decision as to the Report: A summary statement (electronic or paper) standard that is the best matc th h t at o the s record t s udent the ac work. hievements of an individual or a group of students. Overall grade: Grade assigned to indicate the quality of student achievement based on an on-b Special consideration: al A anc vari e ation of assessment judgment. conditions permitted for students with identified special needs. Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs): Authentic, performance-based a St s and se ars d (of ac sments hievement): Describe the expected des igned to provide students in qualitie Years 4, 6 and 9 w s of sith tudent work and provide a basis for the opportunity to demonstrate wh judgin at they g how w kno ell s w t , udents have demonstrated what understand and can do in a sel Essential ection of they know, understand and can do. Learnings in English, Mathematics and Science. Standards: Descriptions of the expected qualities of . . .(centrally devised): Developed by the Q st Sudent A, work. with common requirements and parameters, and Task-specific assessable element: Significant and marked according to a common Guide to making dis crete aspects of the assessable elements that are judgments. identified for the purpose of making an assessment . . .(school-devised): Developed by schoo judgment ls . in accordance with a design brief and an Task-specific descriptors: The statements for each assessment plan. task-specific assessable element that convey the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA): A statutory expected qualities of student responses at each authority with responsibilitie ss t f and or c ar urric d. ulum, assessment and certification from Preparatory to Ways of working: Processes drawn from the KLA and Year 12. including higher-order thinking skills. 88 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting References References Australian Government, 2006, Disability Standards for Education 2005, Canberra, accessed 4 Sept 2008,
or search from the home page. Department of Education and the Arts 2004a, Schools Reporting Consultation Paper, Qld Dept of Education and the Arts, Brisbane. Department of Education and the Arts 2004b, Changes to Schools Reporting, Qld Dept of Education and the Arts, Brisbane, accessed 4 Sep 2008,
. Department of Education and the Arts 2005, Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Framework (policy statement), Qld Dept of Education and the Arts, Brisbane. Department of Education, Training and the Arts 2008, P–12 Curriculum Framework: Policy and guidelines for Queensland state schools (draft), Qld Dept of Education, Training and the Arts, Brisbane. Department of the Premier and Cabinet 2005, Smart Queensland: Smart State Strategy 2005–2015, Dept of the Premier and Cabinet, Brisbane. Dinham, S 2008, “Feedback on feedback”, Teacher, no. 191, May, pp. 20–23. Drake, SM 2007, Creating Standards-Based Integrated Curriculum: Aligning Curriculum, Content, Assessment, and Instruction, Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA. Earl, L 2003, Assessment as Learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student learning, Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA. Education Queensland 2000, New Basics Project technical paper (draft), Qld Dept of Education and the Arts, Brisbane. Fogarty, R 2005, How to Integrate the Curricula, 2nd edn, Hawker Brownlow Education, Moorabbin, Vic. Harlen, W & Deakin-Crick, R 2003, “Testing and motivation for learning”, Assessment in Education, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 169–179. Klenowski, V 2008, “A Call to Honour: Teacher professionalism in the context of standards referenced assessment reform”, commissioned paper in A Luke, K Weir & A Woods, Development of a Set of Principles to Guide a P–12 Syllabus Framework: A report to the Queensland Studies Authority, QSA, Brisbane. Nayler, J 2008, “The QCAR Framework: A vehicle for responding to middle phase learners”, workshop presented to QCAR Conference, Brisbane, 31 Mar – 1 Apr 2008. Postman, N 1982, The Disappearance of Childhood, Delacorte Press, New York, NY. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, The 10 Principles: Assessment for learning, London, accessed 4 Jun 2008,
. Queensland Studies Authority 2006a, Technical Paper: Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Framework Stage 1, QSA, Brisbane. Queensland Studies Authority 2006b, Equity (policy statement), QSA, Brisbane, accessed 3 May 2008,
. Queensland Studies Authority 2007, Essential Learnings and Standards: Position paper, QSA, Brisbane, accessed 3 May 2008,
. Reid, A 2004, Towards a Culture of Inquiry in DECS, Occasional Paper Series no. 1, Department of Education and Children’s Services, Adelaide, SA. Stiggins, R & Chappuis, J 2005, “Using student-involved classroom assessment to close achievement gaps”, Theory into Practice, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 11–18. 89 Acknowledgments Many key groups made sustained and dedicated contributions to develop the Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting (QCAR) Framework. This Framework set out to provide teachers with direction and valuable resources to support their everyday work. QSA officers, seconded teachers and other specialist educators helped to generate and implement innovative and informed ideas as part of the development and trialling of the Framework. A wide range of materials were panelled, tested and trialled in schools from the three schooling sectors, as lis ted in Appendix 16. Staff from these partner, trial and consultative schools liaised extensively with QCAR project team members. Without these ongoing, vital school-based contributions, the project could not have delivered high-quality outcomes. Regardin Buildin g g student success: A guide to the Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Framework, the QCAR project team extends special thanks to Dr Jenny Nayler, contributing author. It also acknowledges the member Building studen s of t succ the ess project team: • Yvana Jones, Deputy Director, Teaching and Learning Division • Janina Drazek, Assistant Director, Assessment Resources Branch • Judith Gardiner, Assistant Director, P–9 Curriculum Resources Branch • Kathryn Holzheimer, Manager, Curriculum Development • Robyn Rosengrave, A/Manager, Curriculum Development. Additional contributions The support and expertise of the QSA Publishing Unit are greatly appreciated. Photographs from a range of Queensland schools help make this guide highly accessible and relevant to te achers and educators. We thank these schools for their kind cooperation. 90 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Queensland Studies Authority Ground floor, 295 Ann Street Brisbane. PO Box 307 Spring Hill Queensland 4004 Australia. Phone: +61 7 3864 0299 Fax: +61 7 3221 2553 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.qsa.qld.edu.au
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