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Engineering: Issues Challenges and Opportunities for Development

Engineering: Issues Challenges and Opportunities for Development 27
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Published Date:03-07-2017
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ENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT Th is is the fi rst report at the international level on engineer- addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation, and ing, and the fi rst with a specifi c focus on engineering in the the reduction of poverty. As a problem-solving profession, context of human, social, economic and cultural development engineering needs to focus on these issues in a rigorous, in developed/industrial countries and particularly in lower- problem-solving approach. In an attempt to understand how income, developing countries. it might do this better in the future, this Report also consid- ers engineering education suggesting that it might benefi t from less formulaic and more problem-based, project-based Engineering has given us the world we live in. It is an incred- and just-in-time approaches in order that the next genera- ibly diverse activity covering many diff erent areas and levels. tion of engineer can rise to the challenges and opportunities Engineering is regarded diff erently in diff erent places and at that they are inheriting. diff erent times. Th is diversity, and the constraints of size and the resources available to produce this fi rst Report, requires that such a potentially comprehensive study must have a cer- To examine these issues and challenges, a wide variety of peo- tain focus. ple were invited to contribute to this Report, including engi- neers, economists, scientists, politicians, policy-makers and planners, from the public and private sectors, and from the Th e Report is therefore intended as a platform for the bet- ter understanding of engineering around the world, and was profession and universities. Amid busy lives, almost all invited contributors responded to our requests for shorter contribu- conceived to meet this urgent and overdue need. Th e Report is a health-check rather than a ‘state of the profession’ review tions, which they wrote on a voluntary basis. Th is Report is a tribute to their commitment to engineering and a testament with refl ections from more than one hundred distinguished to their shared, heartfelt need for such a document. engineers and engineering organizations from around the world. It highlights the links between engineering, economic growth and human development, and aims to bring engi- Given the issues and challenges facing the Report itself, while neering out of the shadows for policy-makers and the public. many issues and challenges facing engineering have been iden- It positions engineering as a central actor in the global issues tifi ed and discussed, others have only become more apparent. and challenges – such as poverty reduction, climate change As the Director-General observes, this Report raises almost as and the need for sustainable development – that we face many questions as it answers. around the world. Technology is often emphasized by world leaders as providing the solutions to global problems; engi- Th ere is, in particular, a need for improved statistics and indi- neers need to get involved in the conversation and help to cators on engineering. It was hoped, for example, to compare put words into practice. Governments for example, might be the number of engineers per capita around the world, as can encouraged to have chief engineering advisors. be done for doctors and teachers. Rather surprisingly, this was not possible due to fact that such data collected at the inter- Another idea behind the Report was to present engineering national level aggregates ‘scientists and engineers’ together as a human and social as well as a scientifi c, technological (although such data does exist at the national level in some and innovative activity, in social, economic and cultural con- countries). UNESCO data shows that developed, industrialized texts; engineering is one of the few activities that connects countries have between twenty and fi fty scientists and engi- with almost all others. It is intended to be a human rather neers per 10,000 population, compared to around fi ve scien- than a technical report on engineering. It aims to discuss tists and engineers on average for developing countries, down human as well as engineering issues and to try to under- to one or less for some poorer African countries. Given the stand and address some perceptions about engineering importance of engineering, science and technology in devel- such as engineering is a boring and diffi cult subject which opment, this lack of information is a serious constraint to the is poorly paid and environmentally negative. Th ese are vital development and future of developing countries. issues and engineering is vital in sustainable development,  Blériot XI. Th is Report therefore highlights that there is a clear need for the introduction of disaggregated data for engineering as an input to policy making and planning, together with diff er- ent types and levels of engineer (for which clearer defi nitions would also be useful). Th ere is also a need for better data on the important contribution of engineering to innovation, and the importance of engineering, innovation and entrepreneur- ship to development. Th is would be of particular relevance for developing countries given the estimate that around 90 per cent of the world’s engineers work for 10 per cent of the world’s population (the richest 10 per cent). 16 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 16 14/09/10 15:34:00 © Wikimedia commons/ Deutsches BundesarchivINTRODUCTION now playing, and will increasingly play, so predominant a part in all human civilization.’ Engineering was also included from the beginning; this Conference took place at the Institution of Civil Engineers in London, with Julian Huxley becoming the fi rst Director-General and Joseph Needham becoming the fi rst Head of the Natural Sciences Section of UNESCO. Needham, a biochemist, is best known for his Science and Civilisation in China series that began in 1954 and is now in twenty-seven volumes, and includes engineering and technology as a central component of science and civilization. Without Needham and Huxley this Report may not have been possible. Th e need for a UNESCO Report on engineering is based on  Th e Airbus A380 – the world’s largest passenger aircraft. the importance of engineering in social, economic and human development, the particular importance of engineering in p overty reduction, sustainable development, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and the importance of better Th is Report appears at an important time of need, challenge communicating this to policy-makers, decision-takers and and opportunity for engineering. Th is is refl ected in the pro- the wider public audience. Th is need increases as these issues posal for an International Engineering Programme that was increase in importance, and as the pace of change in engi- adopted at UNESCO’s Executive Board and General Confer- neering also increases; the rate of knowledge production and ence in October 2009. In this new decade it is hoped that this application has increased dramatically in terms of the amount Report will help to mobilize interest in fi nding answers to the of knowledge created and the speed of application. From the questions it poses, to emphasize the need for future editions fi rst wave of the Industrial Revolution from 1750–1850, to the of this UNESCO Report on engineering, to renew awareness of fourth wave when we went from early steam to internal com- the importance of engineering in development, and to help bustion engines and the crossing of the 34 km of the English fi nd solutions to the problems of human development itself. Channel by Louis Bleriot in his 20 kW monoplane in 1909. Sixty years later, in 1969, the 140,000,000 kW Saturn V rocket took Background the Apollo 11 mission across 400,000 km of space – a giant Th e idea for a UNESCO report on engineering, developed leap for mankind, and for engineering. Th e 230,000 kW Airbus through the 1990s and into the 2000s, was partly a response A380 was introduced thirty years later in 2009, and routinely to calls from the engineering community regarding the need carries up to 850 passengers a distance of 15,000 km taking for such a report, and partly to comments from the engineer- people of all backgrounds across continents at 900 km/h. ing and broader science and technology communities that the World Science Report (published by UNESCO in 1993, 1996, And yet, despite such achievements and feats, engineering 1998 and superseded by the UNESCO Science Report in 2005) is routinely overlooked in many countries around our world. contained very little reference to engineering and technol- Why is there such a poor general understanding and percep- ogy. Th ese calls reinforced the need for a specifi c report on tion of engineering around the world, and what impact is engineering by UNESCO as the United Nations organization this having? Is this perhaps even related to the awe-inspiring responsible for science, including engineering. It was regarded impact of engineering as a complicated, sometimes fearful that the founders of UNESCO intended the ‘S’ in UNESCO to entity, appealing to complicated people? Perhaps engineering be a broad defi nition of science, including engineering and also needs to become more human and humane to develop technology, and therefore that UNESCO should report on the a wider appeal. Th is is at a time when there is an urgent need whole of this noble knowledge enterprise. for engineers to develop the technologies that will be essential in the next wave of innovation based on environmentally sus- Th is refl ects the decision of a United Nations Conference for tainable ‘green’ engineering and technology that we will need the establishment of an educational and cultural organiza- if we are to address climate change mitigation and adaptation tion (ECO/CONF) convened in London in November 1945, – if we are to save spaceship Earth. where thirty-seven countries signed the constitution that founded the United Nations Educational, Scientifi c and Cul- tural Organization that came into force after ratifi cation in Following the development of the idea for such a report on November 1946. In November 1945, this Conference accepted engineering in the 1990s and into the 2000s, as mentioned science in the title of the organization and in the content of above, the Executive Board of the World Federation of Engi- its programmes, refl ecting the proposal of Joseph Needham, neering Organizations ( WFEO) – the main international supported by Julian Huxley, that ‘science and technology are umbrella organization for national engineering organizations 17 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 17 14/09/10 15:34:01 © GFDL - Wikimedia - LoverOfDubai)ENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT Production and presentation of the Report based at UNESCO and established at UNESCO in 1968 – dis- cussed the idea of an engineering report with the UNESCO An Editorial Board and Advisory Committee for the Report Engineering Programme in 2005, and a proposal for such a were formed, with meetings in March 2007 in Paris and in report was prepared by the Engineering Programme. Th is November 2007 in Delhi. Th ese soon merged into an Edito- proposal was presented to the (then) UNESCO Director- rial Advisory Committee. Th e outline of the Report was devel- General, Koïchiro Matsuura, in October 2005, with the ini- oped, with particular reference to the contents and possible tial response that the next UNESCO Science Report could contributors. It was decided that the Report be as compre- perhaps include a chapter on engineering. Th e President hensive as possible, covering the many fi elds of engineering of WFEO, Kamel Ayadi, then requested a meeting with the around the world, with a particular emphasis on issues, chal- Director-General, whom he met in March 2006. Following lenges and opportunities for development – using the term further discussions, and the submission of a revised pro- development in a broad sense to refer to both national and posal, production of the Report was approved in October international development, and the development of engineer- 2006 with work beginning in January 2007. Th is Report is an ing itself. Th is decision in favour of a thematic focus was also attempt to address the above needs, and to at least begin to in response to the regional reports focus of the UNESCO World fi ll a critical gap at the international level. Science Report. In view of the desire to be as comprehensive  Girl at rope well. as possible, and cognisant of the limited human and fi nancial resources available to produce the Report, it was also decided to invite relatively short voluntary contributions from around one hundred contributors in diff erent fi elds and areas of engi- neering around the world in order to produce a Report of around 250 printed pages. An initial round of one hundred contributions and potential contributors were identifi ed by December 2007 and they were invited to contribute in early 2008. By mid-2008, a total of 115 contributions had been iden- tifi ed and collected, with eighty contributions received and twenty promised contributions in the pipeline. For the remainder of 2008 and into 2009, contributions were reviewed to check for gaps in content to see where further contributions were required. Gaps were identifi ed, further contributions invited and remaining contributions encour- aged. Th e Report was presented at a soft launch at the World Engineers Convention in Brasília in December 2008. A fi rst draft of the Report was prepared in June 2009. In all, a total of over 120 contributions have been made. Only three invited contributors were unable to contribute, due to time pressure and other activities. Th is underlines the commitment of the engineering community around the world to this Report, and the rather ambitious initial schedule given the scale of the project. In November to December 2009 a second draft was prepared for copy-editing, design, layout and printing in time for publication in mid-2010 and a planned launch at the UNESCO Executive Board in October 2010. Th e range of perspective and variety of approach of over 120 contributions has enabled a richness and depth that would not have been achieved with fewer contributors. Contributions for example include both personal refl ections and academic presentations. A greater eff ort has been needed in editing to consider a length, consistent style, overlap and balance, whilst at the same time attempting to retain the original fl avour of the contributions, allowing for some overlap. Th is approach has also restricted the space available for reporting at regional and national levels, with a focus on some national perspec- © EWB-UK 18 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 18 14/09/10 15:34:01INTRODUCTION tives rather than full country reports. Th e diverse availability technicians. Th e second chapter focuses on engineering and of comparable statistics and indicators also occasioned this hum an development and includes sections on the history of approach. It is to be hoped that these issues – especially the engineering and engineering at UNESCO: engineering, inno- need for better statistics and indicators on engineering – will vation, social and economic development; engineering, tech- be addressed in forthcoming editions of the Report. However, nology and society; engineers and social responsibility, and this fi rst Report would not have been possible without such includes a review of the big issues and pieces on engineering an approach, and the contributors are to be warmly thanked and social responsibility and corporate social responsibility. for their commitment and contributions, with apologies for Th e third chapter examines engineering and emerging issues the limited time available for feedback and discussion in the and challenges and includes sections on foresight and forecasts editing process. of the future, emerging and future areas of engineering and engineers of the future, getting the engineering message across Objectives of the Report and engineering and technology in the third millennium. Th e overall objectives of the Report are to identify and explore the main issues and challenges facing engineering around the Th e fourth chapter is one of the main chapters and attempts to world, with particular reference to issues and challenges for development, and the opportunities for engineering to face give an overview of engineering. It begins with a review of sta- and address them. External issues and challenges facing engi- tistics and indicators on engineering followed by fi eld reviews neering include: the need for better public and policy-level covering civil, chemical, environmental, agricultural and medi- understanding of what engineering is and what engineers do; cal engineering. Th e engineering profession and its organiza- how engineering and technology drive development; how tion is then discussed, with reference to the organization of the many engineers a country or industry needs and in what areas profession, in ternational cooperation and reference to leading and levels; why young people are turning away from engineer- organizations including the World Federation of Engineering ing; what the consequences are of not having enough engineers; Organizations (WFEO), t he International Council of Acade- and why it is that engineering is so often overlooked. Th ese mies of Engineering and Technological Sciences ( CAETS), the external factors link to internal issues and challenges within International Federation of Consulting Engineers ( FIDIC), the engineering, including such questions as how can engineers European Federation of National Engineering Associations promote public awareness and understanding of engineering, (FEANI), the Federation of Engineering Institutions of Asia and how does this refl ect the changing needs for engineering and the Pacifi c (FEIAP), the Association for Engineering Education need for engineering and engineering education to change, in Southeast and East Asia and the Pacifi c (AEESEAP), the Asian regenerate and transform, and what can we do. Th ese external and Pacifi c Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) and the and internal factors are further linked – the poor public per- African Network of Scientifi c and Technological Institutions ception of engineering refl ects the urgent need to understand (ANSTI). International development and engineering organi- and address these issues and challenges as well as the need for zations are discussed in sections on Practical Action, Engineers engineering to face the challenge of change. Failure to do so Without Borders, Engineers Against Poverty and Engineers for will have obvious impacts on capacity and the application of a Sustainable World. Th e following section introduces engi- engineering and technology for development. neering studies and gives an overview of engineering, science and technology policy and the transformation of national sci- The main target audience for the Report includes policy- ence and engineering systems, with reference to New Zealand makers and decision takers, the engineering community, the and South Africa. Key issues of engineering ethics and anti- wider public and young people. Th e Report is intended to corruption eff orts are described, with the concluding section share information, experience, practical ideas and examples focusing on women and gender issues in engineering. with policy-makers, planners and governments, and promote the engagement and application of engineering to important global challenges of poverty reduction, sustainable develop- Th e fi fth chapter presents perspectives of engineering around ment and climate change. Th ese are connected, and provide the world. It begins with an introductory overview and an opportunity for change and the engagement of young peo- regional perspectives on Africa, the Arab States, Asia and ple, who are concerned about such issues and are attracted to the Pacifi c, Europe, the Americas and the Caribbean. Several the engineering challenge to address them. country perspectives are off ered from Africa in Côte d’Ivoire, Uganda, Ghana and Nigeria; from the Arab States in Tunisia, Layout of the Report Lebanon and Jordan; from Asia and the Pacifi c in China, India, In addition to this introduction on the background, main focus, Malaysia, Japan, Australia and the South Pacifi c; from Europe in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Russia and Poland, objectives and target audience of the Report, the fi rst chapter includes discussion of what engineering is and what engineers and from the Americas and the Caribbean in the USA, Canada, do, and the diff erences between engineers, technologists and Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina and the Caribbean. 19 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 19 14/09/10 15:34:02ENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT Th e sixth chapter is a more in-depth look at the main theme of ticularly on ‘technology’ stocks and suff ered large losses. this report – engineering for development – with reference to Th ere were also broader consequent impacts on economies development applications and infrastructure. Engineering and around the world with the possibility that the burden of the Millennium Development Goals and related international economic impact will fall particularly – directly and indi- development goals, including particular references to: poverty rectly – on poorer people and countries. As noted in the reduction (with a case study from South Africa); sustainable discussion of science and engineering policy, many bank development (and study on the MDGs, sustainable develop- loans, especially smaller loans by development banks and ment and standards); climate change technology, mitigation, other forms of microfi nance in developing countries, are for adaptation; disaster risk reduction; engineering in emergencies; technology such that a decline in the fi nance available for and appropriate technology (with a case study on appropriate these loans would have a particular impact on development building t echnologies). Sections on engineering infrastructure in developing countries. Th is Report therefore provides sup- include water and sanitation, energy, transportation, commu- port for the view that, at a time of economic downturn, it nications, asset management and maintenance, and infrastruc- is important for all countries to invest in technology and ture development in developing countries as well as a look at innovation. Infras tructure Report Cards (with case studies on South Africa, USA and Australia). Th e underlying cause of the crisis relates to increasingly com- plex fi nancial ‘ innovations’ and derivatives, and by changing Th e seventh and last substantive chapter is on engineering attitudes toward risk based on mathematical modeling that capacity in education, training and mobility, and begins with is increasingly undertaken by young people using tools which a discussion of engineering education. Th e discussion of engi- are less well understood by senior bankers. Young engineers neering capacity includes an introductory discussion of needs in particular were attracted into the fi nancial sector; leading and numbers (demand and supply of engineers), followed by to an impact on engineering in terms of the brain drain. Fol- lowing the initial emergency response and support for bank contributions on: technical capacity-building and the WFEO; capacity-building for sustainability in Africa; a case study on bailouts or quantitative easing, attention focused on engineer- needs and numbers in civil engineering in South Africa; enrol- ing as regards longer term solutions to the economic crisis. In ment and capacity in Australia; and continuing engineering the ‘American Recovery and Reinvestment Act’ of 2009, Presi- educ ation, professional development and the brain drain, gain, dent Barack Obama – in one of his fi rst actions as President circulation and the diaspora. A section on the transformation – emphasized the importance of investing in infrastructure of engineering education includes contributions on: problem- for economic recovery and growth with a total infrastructure investment of US80.9 billion, with particular importance in based learning; sustainability and the engineering curriculum in Australia; rapid curriculum renewal; and the evolution of engineering. President Obama’s action was echoed around environmental education in engineering and research in engi- the world. United States and European governments spent neering education. A section on engineering education for US4.1 trillion on bank bailouts giving these companies forty- development includes case studies on centres for engineering fi ve times more funding than the US90.7 billion that US and and technology for international development in Australia, European governments spent on aid to all developing countries 1 B otswana and Ghana. Th is chapter concludes with a discus- in 2007 (Institute for Policy Studies, 2008) – about the same order of magnitude to the US135–195 billion per year that is sion on engineering accreditation, standards, and mobility of engineers, with particular reference to the Washington Accord, estimated by Jeff rey Sachs to be required over the next twenty Engineers Mobility Forum, AP EC Engineer and European per- years to end extreme poverty, although there is a debate on 2 spective on the Eur Ing and Bologna Accord. Sachs’ ‘costing’ of poverty (Th e End of Poverty, 2005 ). Recent issues and challenges - economic crisis and A FIDIC survey of economic stimulus packages around the climate Change world, reported in the introduction to chapter six estimates an additional demand of US20 billion for engineering con- Since this Report was conceived and many contributions sultancy services were invited and submitted, the world was overtaken by the fi nancial and economic crisis. Th is began with the col- As regards climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on lapse of a housing bubble, peaking in the United States in 2006 fuelled by the easing of credit and sub-prime lending, Climate Change (IPCC) has emphasized the importance of technology and investment in response to climate change deregulation and the increasing complexity of fi nancial mar- kets. Th e fi nancial crisis peaked in September and October mitigation and adaptation that echoes the emphasis on engi- 2008 with immediate impacts on fi nancial institutions and the banking sector. Th e NASDAQ, the largest trading stock 1 Institute for Policy Studies, 2008 exchange in the world (originally, the National Association 2 Jeff rey D. Sachs. 2005. Th e End Of Poverty, Economic Possibilities For Our Time. Penguin of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations), is based par- Press, 416p. 20 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 20 14/09/10 15:34:02INTRODUCTION neering in the context of investment in infrastructure in the Engineering is one of the most important activities in the con- recovery from the fi nancial and economic crisis. Th e major and text of climate change mitigation and adaptation and, as noted agreed fi ndings of the IPCC are as follows: elsewhere, one of the major areas of need and growth for engi- neering is in the area of sustainable or green engineering. Many ■ Th e planet has warmed countries have already introduced policies and initiatives for ■ Most warming is due to greenhouse gases clima te change mitigation and adaptation prior to the 2009 ■ Greenhouse gases will continue to increase through the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, twenty-fi rst century and together with the specifi c outcomes of COP15, this will be one of the areas of greatest demand and challenge that engi- Th e IPCC also recognizes that climate models have greatly neering has ever faced. One of the fi rst challenges is to make improved, and estimates a rise in the average global tempera- sure that there will be enough appropriately qualifi ed and ture of 1.8 – 4.0°C over the twenty-fi rst century, and warns experienced engineers to meet this demand – this will require that a temperature rise of anything over 2.0°C is likely to be the development of new courses, training materials and sys- catastrophic for the world. Immediate action is therefore tems of accreditation. Th is will also hopefully encourage young needed to prevent catastrophic and irreversible change to the people into engineering. world’s climate.  Isambard Kingdom Brunel – a founding father of modern engineering. 21 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 21 15/09/10 16:38:48 Photo by Robert Howlett1 What is Engineering? 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 23 14/09/10 15:34:03ENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT 1.1 What engineering is, what engineers do Tony Marjoram and Yixin Zhong Engineering esis, experimentation and theory regarding these phenomena, While meanings change, the concept of engineering derives and the production of knowledge upon which predictions or predictable outcome may be based, i.e. the scientifi c method, from the dawn of human history as our ancestors developed and designed tools that were essential for their survival. Indeed, dating from the early 1600s and largely accredited to Francis human beings are defi ned by their tool-making, designing and Bacon (who died of pneumonia after testing the hypothesis engineering skills, and the socialization and communication that it may be possible to preserve a chicken by stuffi ng it with that facilitated the invention, innovation and transfer of tech- snow). In this broad sense, science includes engineering as a nology such as the axe, hammer, lever, wedge, pulley, wheel highly skilled technique or practice, and also includes much of and so on. Although based on trial and error, this activity is what many scientists also do today. In a narrower, contempo- rary sense, science is diff erentiated into the basic and applied similar to the modern idea of engineering where trial and error is still an important part of innovation. sciences, following the linear model of innovation – that research in the basic sciences leads through applied research Engineering is the fi eld or discipline, practice, profession and and development in engineering to technological application, art that relates to the development, acquisition and applica- innovation and diff usion. As discussed elsewhere, while this tion of technical, scientifi c and mathematical knowledge about model endures with scientists and policy-makers on grounds the understanding, design, development, invention, innovation of simplicity and funding success, many observers regard the ‘linear model’ as descriptively inaccurate and normatively and use of materials, machines, structures, systems and proc- esses for specifi c purposes. Th ere are of course many defi ni- undesirable partly because many innovations were neither tions. Th e term ‘engineering’ derives from the word ‘engineer’ based on nor the result of basic science research. Th e social used in the 1300s for a person who operated a military engine and human sciences emulate the natural sciences in the use or machine – such as a catapult or, later, a cannon. Th e word of empirical scientifi c methods. Technological change and ‘engine’ in turn derives from the Latin ingenium for ingenuity innova tion is one of the major drivers of economic, social and or cleverness and invention. Th e terms ‘art’ and ‘technical’ are human change, so engineering and technology and the social sciences are more closely connected. important because engineering also arranges elements in a way that may, or may not, appeal to human senses or emotions, Engineers and relates also to the Greek technikos relating to art, craft, skill and practical knowledge and language regarding a mechanical People who are qualified in or practice engineering are or scientifi c subject. Prior to the development of the diff erent described as engineers, and may be licensed and formally des- fi elds of engineering, engineering and ‘technical’ were originally ignated as professional, chartered or incorporated engineers. closely connected,. Th e military connotation declined giving As noted above, the broad discipline of engineering includes way to civil engineering, mechanical, chemical, electrical and a range of specialized disciplines or fi elds of application and electronic and later, fi elds that continue to develop with the particular areas of technology. Engineering itself is also dif- development of knowledge (apart from some curious excep- ferentiated into engineering science and diff erent areas of tions such as the Army Corps of Engineers in the USA). professional practice and levels of activity. Th e engineering profession, as with other professions, is a vocation or occupa- While meanings change, the fact that engineering in the mod- tion based upon specialized education and training, as pro- ern sense also relates to art, even though engineering may not viders of professional advice and services. Other features that commonly be regarded as artistic, can be appreciated in the defi ne occupations as professions are the establishment of creativity and elegance of many engineered objects and struc- training and university schools and departments, national and tures (witness the increasing appearance of such objects and international organizations, accreditation and licensing, ethics structures as art exhibitions in galleries). As noted elsewhere and codes of professional practice. Surveying is closely profes- in this Report, humans live in engineered economies, socie- sionally connected to engineering, especially civil engineering, ties and technocultures. Almost every area of human interest, and it is interesting to note that George Washington, Th omas activity and endeavour has a branch of engineering associated Jeff erson and Abraham Lincoln were all surveyors before going with it. into politics. Engineering also connects to the natural sciences, and to the Apart from a degree or related qualifi cation in one of the engi- social and human sciences. Science, from the Latin scientia for neering disciplines and associated skill sets, which includes knowledge, relates broadly to a systematic approach to the design and drawing skills – now usually in computer-aided observation of phenomena and the development of hypoth- design (CAD) and continued professional development ( CPD) 24 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 24 14/09/10 15:34:04WHAT IS ENGINEERING? and awareness of new techniques and technologies – engi- neering education also seeks to develop a logical, practical, Needs problem-solving methodology and approach that includes Science soft social as well and technical skills. Th ese include motiva- Th eories Resources and tion, the ability to perform, rapid understanding, communica- Needs tion and leadership under pressure, and social-technical skills Society and Engineering in training and mentoring. Nature Products and Tools Benefi ts Engineering is one of the oldest professions, along with divin- Technology ity, medicine and law. While the linear model has lead to the perception of engineers as applied scientists, this is a further Needs distortion of reality related to this model, as engineering is dis- tinct from but related to science, and in fact predates science Chemical engineering in the use of the scientifi c method – engineers were the fi rst ■ Analysis, synthesis and conversion of raw materials into scientists. This debate is, however, rather misleading and usable commodities. diverts attention away from the need for a better public and ■ Biochemical engineering – biotechnological processes on policy understanding of the role of engineering and science in an industrial scale. the knowledge society and economy. Science and engineering are essentially part of the same spectrum of activity and need Civil engineering to be recognized as such. Engineers use both scientifi c knowl- ■ Design and construction of physical structures and infra- edge and mathematics on the one hand to create technolo- structure. gies and infrastructure to address human, social and economic ■ Coastal engineering – design and construction of coastline issues, and challenges on the other. Engineers connect social structures. needs with innovation and commercial applications. Th e rela- ■ Construction engineering – design, creation and manage- tionship among science, technology and engineering can be roughly described as shown in the fi gure below. ment of constructed structures. ■ Geo-engineering – proposed Earth climate control to Fields of engineering address global warming. ■ Geotechnical engineering – behaviour of earth materials Th ere are a diverse and increasing range of areas, fi elds, dis- and geology. ciplines, branches or specialities of engineering. Th ese devel- ■ Municipal and public works engineering – for water supply, oped from civil, mechanical, chemical, electrical and electronic sanitation, waste management, transportation and com- engineering, as knowledge developed and diff erentiated as munication systems, hydrology. subjects subdivided, merged or new subjects arose. Th e emer- ■ Ocean engineering – design and construction of off shore gence of new branches of engineering is usually indicated by structures. the establishment of new university departments, new profes- ■ sional engineering organizations or new sections in existing St ructural engineering – design of structures to support or organizations. resist loads. ■ Earthquake engineering – behaviour of structures subject to seismic loading. To illustrate the scope and diversity of engineering, it is useful 3 ■ to conclude this section with a list of engineering branches Transportation engineering – effi cient and safe transporta- tion of people and goods. illustrating various disciplines and sub-disciplines in engineer- ing; an important presentation of the diversity of engineer- ■ Traffi c engineering – t ransportation and planning. ing that space dictates can only appear once in the Report. ■ Wind engineering – analysis of wind and its eff ects on the Th e list is intended to be illustrative rather than exhaustive or built environment. defi nitive, as descriptions and defi nitions diff er from country to country, often overlapping and changing over time. Further Computer and systems engineering suggestions will, no doubt, be forthcoming. ■ Research, design and development of computer, computer systems and devices. Agricultural engineering Electrical engineering and electronic engineering ■ Engineering theory and applications in agriculture in such fi elds as farm machinery, power, bioenergy, farm structures ■ Research, design and development of electrical systems and and natural resource materials processing. electronic devices. ■ Power systems engineering – bringing electricity to people 3 Source: and industry. 25 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 25 14/09/10 15:34:04ENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT ■ ■ Signal processing – statistical analysis and production of sig- Biomechanical engineering – design of systems and devices nals, e.g. for mobile phones. such as artifi cial limbs Environmental engineering Mechatronics ■ ■ Engineering for environmental protection and enhance- Combination of mechanical, electrical and software engi- ment. neering for automation systems. ■ Water engineering – planning and development of water Medical and biomedical engineering resources and hydrology ■ Increasing use of engineering and technology in medicine  Medical use of engineering. Fire protection engineering and the biological sciences in such areas as monitoring, arti- ■ Protecting people and environments from fi re and smoke. fi cial limbs, medical robotics. Genetic engineering Military engineering ■ ■ Design and development of weapons and defence systems. Engineering at the biomolecular level for genetic manipula- tion. Mining engineering Industrial engineering ■ Exploration, extraction and processing of raw materials ■ from the earth. Analysis, design, development and maintenance of indus- trial systems and processes. Naval engineering and architecture Instrumentation engineering ■ Research, design, construction and repair of marine vessels. ■ Design and development of instruments used to measure Nanotechnology and nanoengineering and control systems and processes. ■ New branch of engineering on the nanoscale. Integrated engineering Nuclear engineering ■ Generalist engineering field including civil, mechanical, ■ electrical and chemical engineering. Research, design and development of nuclear processes and technology. Maintenance engineering and asset management Production engineering ■ Maintenance of equipment, physical assets and infrastruc- ■ ture. Research and design of production systems and processes related to manufacturing engineering. Manufacturing engineering Software engineering ■ Research, design and planning of manufacturing systems ■ and processes. Research, design and development of computer software ■ Component engineering – assuring availability of parts in systems and programming. manufacturing processes Sustainable engineering Materials engineering ■ Developing branch of engineering focusing on sustainability ■ Research, design, development and use of materials such as and climate change mitigation. ceramics and nanoparticles. Test Engineering ■ Ceramic engineering – theory and processing of oxide and non-oxide ceramics. ■ Engineering validation and verifi cation of design, produc- ■ Textile engineering – the manufacturing and processing of tion and use of objects under test. fabrics Transport Engineering Mechanical engineering ■ Engineering relating to roads, railways, waterways, ports, ■ Research, design and development of physical or mechani- harbours, airports, gas transmission and distribution, pipe- cal systems such as engines. lines and so on, and associated works. ■ Automotive engineering – design and construction of ter- Tribology restrial vehicles. ■ ■ Aerospace engineering – design of aircraft, spacecraft and Study of interacting surfaces in relative motion including air vehicles. friction, lubrication and wear. 26 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 26 14/09/10 15:34:04 © UNESCOWHAT IS ENGINEERING? 1.2 Engineers, t echnologists and technicians Ron Watermayer Engineering encompasses a vast diversity of fields. It also All these forms of regulation are linked to codes of conduct. encompasses a diversity of types and levels of engineer – from Serious breaches of a code of conduct can lead to the with- engineers in universities more concerned with research and drawal of a license, the loss of a title or the removal of the teaching what is sometimes described as the ‘engineering sci- transgressor’s name from a specialist list, either on a temporary ences’ (rather than engineering practice), to practicing, profes- or permanent basis. sional and consulting engineers, to engineering technologists and technicians. These are fluid concepts. As engineering Engineering qualifi cations and professional registration with changes, so does the idea and defi nition of what it means to be regulatory bodies may in many countries be categorized as an engineer. Th ere is also a signifi cant overlap; many involved falling into one of three generic tracks, namely: ■ in the engineering sciences also practice and consult. Defi ni- Engineer ■ tions of engineers, technologists and technicians also diff er Engineering Technologist ■ around the world. Engineering Technician In the United Kingdom, for example, the UK Inter Professional Th e precise names of the titles awarded to registered persons Group defi nes a profession as ‘an occupation in which an indi- may diff er from country to country, e.g. the Engineering Coun- vidual uses an intellectual skill based on an established body cil UK registers the three tracks as Chartered Engineer, Incor- of knowledge and practice to provide a specialised service in a porated Engineer and Technician Engineer, whereas Engineers defi ned area, exercising independent judgment in accordance Ireland registers Chartered Engineer, Associate Engineer and with a code of ethics and in the public interest.” Th e engineer- Engineering Technician. In some countries, only the engineer ing profession shapes the built environment, which may be or the engineer and engineering technologist tracks are regis- defi ned as “the collection of man-made or induced physical tered. In others, the registration of engineering technicians has 4 objects located in a particular area or region.’ It creates the only recently been embarked upon. physical world that has been intentionally created through sci- ence and technology for the benefi t of mankind. Other approaches can also be taken. Researchers at Duke Uni- 6 versity in the USA have put forward a slightly diff erent view Th e UK Institution of Civil Engineers reports that the purpose regarding engineering tracks: of regulating a profession is ‘to assure the quality of professional ■ services in the public interest. Th e regulation of a profession Dynamic Engineers: those capable of abstract thinking, solv- involves the setting of standards of professional qualifi cations ing high level-problems using scientifi c knowledge, thrive in and practice; the keeping of a register of qualifi ed persons and teams, work well across international borders, have strong the award of titles; determining the conduct of registrants, the interpersonal skills and are capable of leading innovation. investigation of complaints and disciplinary sanctions for pro- 5 ■ fessional misconduct.’ Transactional Engineers: possess engineering fundamen- tals but are not seen to have the experience or expertise to Th ere are a number of approaches to the regulation of a pro- apply this knowledge to complex problems. fession around the world. Broadly speaking, these include: Th e Duke University researchers observed that one of the key ■ Licensing: to authorize eligible persons to practise in a spe- diff erentiators of the two types of engineers is their education. cifi c area. Most dynamic engineers have as a minimum a four-year engi- neering degree from nationally accredited or highly regarded ■ Registration: to recognize demonstrated achievement of a institutions whereas transactional engineers often obtain a defi ned standard of competency. sub-baccalaureate degree (associate, technician or diploma awards) rather than a Bachelor’s degree, in less than four years ■ Specialist lists: to indicate peer-recognized competence in but in more than one. Th ey do however point out that edu- a particular area. cational background is not a hard and fast rule because in the 6 Report on Framing the Engineering Outsourcing Debate: Placing the U.S. on a Level 4 ISO 15392 Playing Field with China and India, 2005. 5 Study Group on Licensing, Registration and Specialist Lists (2005) papers_outsourcing.php (Accessed: 10 August 2010) 27 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 27 14/09/10 15:34:04ENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT last fi fty years a number of science and technology leaders Th ree main approaches to professional have emerged with little or no traditional education. regulation: How many engineers, technologists and engineers does a 1) Licensing: In this approach, an area of engineering country require? work is linked to those persons who have demonstrated Th e engineering profession plays a major role not only in the competence to perform such work. Licensing on a statu- growth and development of a country’s economy but also in tory basis prohibits unlicensed persons from performing improving the quality of life for its citizens. Th e engineering such work. Non-statutory licensing provides the public profession is also playing an ever-increasing role in enabling a with lists of persons competent to perform work within country to participate in the global economy and in the pro- an area of engineering, which may also be undertaken by tection of the environment. Th e linkage between a country’s non-licensed persons. indigenous engineering capacity and its economic develop- 2) Registration: In this approach, those persons who ment is understood. It is also understood that more engineering demonstrate their competence against a standard and professionals will be required to address the sustainable devel- undertake to abide by a code of conduct, are awarded opment issues of the day – for example, the development of titles and are admitted to a register. Such registration may r enewable energy sources, advancements in technology, solu- be governed by the laws of a country (statutory register) tions for sustaining the environment and improving healthcare. or the regulations or the rules set by the governing body What is not understood is how many engineers, technologists of the profession, which oversees the registration proc- and technicians are required to drive economic growth and ess and maintains the register (non-statutory register). sust ainable development objectives within a country. Where governing bodies operate non-statutory registra- tion, they may only use civil action to prevent non-reg- Th ere is no simple answer to this question as it is not simply istrants from using the title and are not empowered to a numbers game; more engineering professionals are needed restrict any area of work to registrants. (Statutory regis- if the number of engineers, engineering technologists and tration linked to the reserving of an area of work for regis- engineering technicians per capita is below the fi gures of a tered persons has the same eff ect as statutory licensing.) country’s competitors. Furthermore, increasing the number of engineering graduates is not necessarily a solution as there 3) Specialist lists: In this approach, a professional or may be a shortfall in the job market for such graduates or the trade body administers a non-statutory voluntary list- attractiveness of other non-engineering professions requiring ing of professionals who have met a defi ned standard of problem-solving skills might entice graduates away from engi- competence in a specialist area. neering. Th ese issues are discussed later in this Report. Engineering professional tracks Th e ‘engineer’ track is typically aimed at those Th e ‘engineering technologist’ track is typically The ‘engineering technician’ track is typically who will: aimed at those who will: aimed at those who are involved in applying ■ ■ use a combination of general and specialist exercise independent technical judgement at proven techniques and procedures to the solu- engineering knowledge and understanding an appropriate level; tion of practical engineering problems. Th ey: ■ ■ to optimize the application of existing and assume responsibility, as an individual or as carry supervisory or technical responsibility; ■ emerging technology; a member of a team, for the management of are competent to exercise creative aptitudes ■ aply appropriate theoretical and practical resources and / or guidance of technical staff ; and skills within defi ned fi elds of technology; ■ ■ methods to the analysis and solution of engi- design, develop, manufacture, commission, contribute to the design, development, manu- neering problems; operate and maintain products, equipment, facture, commissioning, operation or mainte- ■ provide technical, commercial and managerial processes and services; nance of products, equipment, processes or ■ leadership; actively participate in fi nancial, statutory and services; and ■ ■ undertake the management of high levels of commercial considerations and in the creation create and apply safe systems of work. risk associated with engineering processes, sys- of cost eff ective systems and procedures; and ■ tems, equipment, and infrastructure; and undertake the management of moderate levels ■ perform activities that are essentially intellec- of risks associated with engineering processes, tual in nature, requiring discretion and judge- systems, equipment and infrastructure. ment. 28 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 28 14/09/10 15:34:042 Engineering and Human Development 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 29 14/09/10 15:34:06ENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT The development and application of knowledge in engi- ral Sciences Sector at UNESCO, but declined with the rise of neering and technology underpins and drives sustainable the environmental sciences, and is now hopefully poised for social and economic development. Engineering and tech- a resurgence in recognition of the importance of engineering nology are vital in addressing basic human needs, poverty as a core and underpinning an area of knowledge application reduction and sustainable development, and to bridge the and innovation in such areas as climate change mitigation and ‘knowledge divide’. Th is chapter focuses on the vital role of adaptation. Th is chapter includes sections on engineering, engineering and innovation in human, social and economic technology and society, engineers and their social responsibil- development. It includes a very short history of engineering, ity in such areas as military technology and pollution on the referring particularly to engineering education and how the one hand, and the design and construction of environmen- history of engineering has aff ected its future. Th e history of tally sustainable infrastructure, living and working spaces on engineering at UNESCO discusses how the engineering sci- the other, as well as the broader corporate social responsibil- ences programme was once the largest activity in the Natu- ity of engineers and engineering. 2.1 History of engineering; engineering at UNESCO Tony Marjoram Steam Age and Information Age all relate to engineering and 2.1.1 A very short history of innova tion shaping our interaction with the world; ‘the Stone engineering Age did not end because we ran out of stones’ Th e Pyramids, Borobudur, El Mirador, the civilizations linked to metal smelt- Th e history of engineering in the context of the way we live, ing at Zimbabwe and water engineering at Angkor, the medi- and interact with nature and each other is very much the eval cathedrals and Industrial Revolution are all testament to history and pre-history of humanity itself. Human beings are the engineering skills of past generations. Engineering is also partly defi ned as tool designers and users, and it is this inno- vital in the surveying and conservation of our cultural heritage; vation and the design and use of tools that accounts for so the famous work of UNESCO in conserving Borobudur and much of the direction and pace of change of history. Most of Abu Simbel were essentially engineering projects. the broader history of civilization, of economic and social rela- tions, is also the history of engineering, engineering applica- tions and innovation. Th e Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Th e history of engineering as a profession, where payment is made in cash or kind for services, began with tool- and Figure 1: Waves of Innovation weapon-making over 150,000 years ago – indicating that engi- neering is one of the oldest professions. Military engineering 6th wave was soon joined by civil engineering in the quest for defence and development of early infrastructure. Th e professionaliza- tion of engineering is illustrated by Imhotep who built the Step Pyramid at Saqqara in 3000 BC and was one of the few com- 5th wave moner mortals to be accorded divine status after his death. Engineering professionalization continued with the develop- ment of craft and guild knowledge, and the formalization of 4th wave Sustainability associated knowledge and education. Simple patriarchal forms Radical resource productivity of engineering education existing in ancient societies devel- Whole system design 3rd wave Biomimicry oped into vocational technical schools of diff erent types in the Green chemistry Industrial ecology Middle Ages and particularly during the Renaissance and the Renewable energy Green Scientifi c Revolution of the sixteenth and seventeeth centuries. nanotechnology 2nd wave Leonardo da Vinci, for example, had the offi cial title of Ingeg- Digital Networks nere Generale and his notebooks reveal an increasing engineer- Petrochemicals Biotechnology Electricity Electronics Software 1st wave ing interest in how things worked. Galileo Galilei developed Aviation Chemicals Information Steam power Space Internal technology Railroad Iron the scientifi c approach and method to the understanding of combustion Steel Water power engine Cotton Mechanisation the natural world and analysis of practical problems – a land- Textiles Commerce © Th e Natural Edge Project 2004 mark in the development of engineering, mathematical repre- 1785 1845 1900 1950 1990 2020 sentation, structural analysis and design that continued into 30 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 30 14/09/10 15:34:07 InnovationENGINEERING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT the Industrial Revolution – and the replacement of muscle by Stuttgart, Hanover and Darmstadt between 1799 and 1831. In machines in the production process. Russia, similar schools of technology were opened in Moscow (1825) and St. Petersburg (1831) based on a system of military engineering education. Th e fi rst technical institutes appeared Engineering powered the so-called Industrial Revolution at the same time in the USA including West Point in 1819 that really took off in the United Kingdom in the eighteenth (modelled on the École Polytechnique), the Rensselaer School century spreading to Europe, North America and the world, in 1823 and Ohio Mechanics Institute in 1828. In Germany, replacing muscle by machine in a synergistic combination polytechnic schools were accorded the same legal founda- between knowledge and capital. Th e fi rst Industrial Revolu- tions as universities. tion took place from 1750–1850 and focused on the textile industry. Th e second Industrial Revolution focused on steam and the railways from 1850–1900 and the third Industrial Rev- In Britain, however, engineering education was initially based olution was based on steel, electricity and heavy engineering on a system of apprenticeship with a working engineer follow- from 1875–1925. Th is was followed by the fourth Industrial ing the early years of the Industrial Revolution when many Revolution based on oil, the automobile and mass production, engineers had little formal or theoretical training. Men such as taking place between 1900–1950 and onward, and the fi fth Arkwright, Hargreaves, Crompton and Newcomen, followed by phase was based on information and telecommunications and Telford, George and Robert Stephenson and Maudslay, all had  Engineering constructs and the post-war boom from 1950. Th ese waves of innovation and little formal engineering education but developed the tech- preserves our heritage, as at industrial development have become known as Kondratiev nologies that powered the Industrial Revolution and changed Abu Simbel. waves, K-waves, long waves, supercycles or surges, and relate the world. In many fi elds, practical activity preceded scientifi c to cycles in the world economy of around fi fty years dura- understanding; we had steam engines before thermodynam- tion consisting of alternating periods of high and low sectoral ics, and ‘rocket science’ is more about engineering than sci- growth. Most analysts accept the ‘Schumpeter-Freeman-Perez’ ence. Britain tried to retain this lead by prohibiting the export paradigm of fi ve waves of innovation since the fi rst Industrial of engineering goods and services in the early 1800s, which Revolution, although the precise dates, phases, causes and is why countries in continental Europe developed their own eff ects of these major changes are hotly debated, as is the engineering education systems based on French and German nature of the sixth wave based on new knowledge production models with a foundation in science and mathematics rather and application in such fi elds as IT, biotechnology and mate- than the British model based on artisanal empiricism and lais- rials beginning around 1980, and the possible seventh wave sez-faire professional development. Th rough the nineteenth based on sustainable ‘green’ engineering and technology seen and into the twentieth centuries however, engineering educa- to have begun around 2005. tion in Britain also changed toward a science- and university- based system and the rise of the ‘engineering sciences’, partly A very short history of engineering education in recognition of the increasingly close connection between Th e most crucial period in the development of engineering engineering, science and mathematics, and partly due to fears were the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries particularly the that Britain was lagging behind the European model in terms Iron and Steam Ages the second Kondratiev wave of inno- of international competition. vation and successive industrial revolutions. Early interest in the development of engineering education took place in Germany in the mining industry, with the creation in 1702 By the end of the nineteenth century, most of the now industri- of a school of mining and metallurgy in Freiberg. One of the alized countries had established their own engineering educa- oldest technical universities is the Czech Technical University tion systems based on the French and German ‘Humboldtian’ in Prague founded in 1707. In France, engineering education model. In the twentieth century, the professionalization of developed with the creation of the École Nationale des Ponts engineering continued with the development of professional et Chaussées (1747) and École des Mines (1783). Th e École Poly- societies, journals, meetings, conferences, and the professional technique, the fi rst technical university in Europe teaching the accr editation of exams, qualifi cations and universities, facili- foundations of mathematics and science, was established in tating education, the fl ow of information and continued pro- 1794 during the French Revolution – the revolution in engi- fessional development. Th ese processes will continue with the neering education itself began during a ‘revolution’. Under development of international agreements relating to accredita- Napoleon’s infl uence, France developed the system of formal tion and the mutual recognition of engineering qualifi cations schooling in engineering after the Revolution, and engineer- and professional competence, which include the Washington ing education in France has retained a strong theoretical and Accord (1989), Sydney Accord (2001), Dublin Accord (2002), military character. Th e French model infl uenced the devel- APEC Engineer (1999), Engineers Mobility Forum (2001) and opment of polytechnic engineering education institutions the Engineering Technologist Mobility Forum (2003), and the around the world at the beginning of the nineteenth century, 1999 Bologna Declaration relating to quality assurance and especially in Germany in Berlin, Karlsruhe, Munich, Dresden, ac creditation of bachelor and master programmes in Europe. 31 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 31 14/09/10 15:34:07 © HochtiefENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT How engineering’s history aff ects its future able development and poverty reduction is demonstrated by Th e Humboldtian model is also, ironically, one of the factors the growth of Engineers Without Borders and similar groups that lead to the contemporary decline of interest in engineer- around the world, and such activities as the Daimler-UNESCO ing at university level; the fact that the mathematical base is Mondialogo Engineering Award, which attract students regarded as too abstract, out of touch, hard work and boring through its connection to poverty reduction and sustainable by many young people. Th is is turn has lead to a questioning development and appeals to the urge of youth to ‘do some- of the Humboldtian model and increasing interest in prob- thing’ to help those in need. University courses can be made lem- and activity-based learning. Th e Humboldtian model also more interesting through the transformation of curricula and underpins the linear model of innovation. Th e linear model of pedagogy using such information and experience in more innova tion is the fi rst and major conceptual model of the rela- activity-, project- and problem-based learning, just-in-time tion between science and technology, and economic devel- approaches and hands-on application, and less formulaic opment. Th is model has become the accepted worldview of approaches that turn students off . In short, relevance works innovation and is at the heart of science and technology policy, Science and engineering have changed the world, but are pro- although the linear model of innovation overlooks engineer- fessionally conservative and slow to change. We need innova- ing, to the continued discredit of engineering in the context tive examples of schools, colleges and universities around the of science and technology policy. Th e model is based on the world that have pioneered activity in such areas as problem- Humboldtian notion that pure, disinterested, basic scientifi c based learning. Th e future of the world is in the hands of young r esearch, followed by applied research and development, leads engineers and we need to give them as much help as we can in to knowledge applications, production and diff usion. While facing the challenges of the future. the precise origins of the model are unclear, many accredit Vannevar Bush’s Science: Th e Endless Frontier published in 1945. Th is refl ects particularly on the role of science (rather than 2.1.2 Engineering at UNESCO engineering) in wartime success, underpinned by statistics Engineering was part of UNESCO from the beginning. It was based on and reinforcing the linear model. Th is became the the intention of the founders of UNESCO that the ‘S’ refer model for peacetime economic development as embodied in to science and technology, and that this include the applied the Marshall Plan and later the OECD and its work on Science sciences, technological sciences and engineering. Th e engi- and Technology indicators, despite various criticisms (e.g. that neering and technological sciences have always played a signif- the linear model overlooks engineering), modifi cations, alter- icant role in the Natural Sciences Sector at UNESCO. Indeed, native models and claims that the linear model is dead (Godin, 1 UNESCO was established during a conference that took place 2005). in London in November 1945 at the Institution of Civil Engi- neers – the oldest engineering institution in the world. Th is Engineering therefore has a particular need to overcome the refl ects the stark realization and emphasis of the importance Humboldtian notions underlying the ‘fundamentals’ approach of science, engineering and technology in the Second World to education and linear model of innovation, and to position War when many new fi elds and applications were developed itself more eff ectively in the development dialogue and bring in such areas as materials, aeronautics, systems analysis and fun into the fundamentals of engineering education through project management, as well as the success of the Marshall such approaches as problem-based learning. For the future of Plan to rebuild capacity and infrastructure after the war. Th is engineering, an obvious goal is the need to focus specifi cally on emphasis was mirrored in the support for programme activi- the important role engineering will play in addressing the UN ties at UNESCO by other UN agencies of the basic, applied and Mille nnium Development Goals, especially poverty reduction engineering sciences and technology (before the development and sustainable development, and the vital role of engineering of operational activities by UNDP in the mid-1980s). in climate change mitigation and adaptation in the develop-  Mondialogo Engineering ment of sustainable, green, eco-engineering and associated Background Award project from Japan and design, technology, production and distribution systems and Nepal on low-cost food. In the history of the engineering and technological sciences infras tructure. Fortunately, the promotion of public under- standing and interest in engineering is facilitated by present- at UNESCO, it is interesting to note the similarities and reso- nances between the programme priorities in engineering ing engineering as a part of the problem-solving solution to sus tainable development and poverty reduction. today and those of the 1960s, 1970s and intervening years. It is also interesting to note the importance of engineering in those Th e usefulness of promoting the relevance of engineering to earlier years when engineering was the biggest activity in the Science Sector – in terms of personnel and budget – before address contemporary concerns and help link engineering the rise of the environmental sciences. Th ere has also been with society in the context of related ethical issues, sustain- long-term interest in renewable energy, beginning with an international congress in 1973. Th ere has been close coopera- 1 B. Godin. 2005. Measurement and Statistics on Science and Technology: 1920 to the Present, London: Routledge. tion with the social sciences in the fi eld of science and society © Mondialogo 32 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 32 14/09/10 15:34:08ENGINEERING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Engineering programme with the journal Impact of Science on Society, which was pub- lished from 1967–1992. Th e reform of engineering education Th e engineering programme at UNESCO, as the main pro- and the need for greater interdisciplinarity and intersectoral gramme in the Science Sector until the 1980s, has been cooperation, women and gender issues in engineering, inno- active in a diverse range of initiatives and include the imple- vation and the development of endogenous technologies are mentation of multi-million dollar projects supported by UN other recurrent themes, and are as important today as they special funds, project development and fund raising, network- were in the 1970s. It is also interesting to note that programme ing, cooperation and support of international professional activities appear to have been more interdisciplinary twenty organizations and NGOs, conferences and symposia, training, years ago than they are today. workshops and seminars, information and publications, con- sultancy and advisory activities and programme activity areas (including engineering education and energy). Th e primary  Mondialogo Engineering Apart from these similarities, there are of course diff erences focus of the engineering programme, until the late 1980s, was Award project from Malaysia between programme activities over the last forty years and on core areas of engineering education (what would now be and India on bio-solar also diff erences in defi nition and context over time and in dif- called human and institutional capacity-building), where the technology. ferent places, for example the meaning behind ‘engineering’, emphasis turned increasingly toward renewable energy (see the ‘engineering sciences’ and ‘technology’ (which today is later). Th e focus on core areas of engineering education and often narrowly regarded as synonymous with Information and capacity-building is presently returning with the new millen- C ommunication Technologies, ICTs). Th e diffi culties of defi n- nia (albeit with much less human and fi nancial resources). ing ‘engineering’ and ‘engineering science’, and of engineers, Much of this activity was conducted in close cooperation with t echnologists and technicians, is illustrated by the discussions the fi ve main science fi eld offi ces, which were established to over the Bologna Accord in 1999 regarding the harmonization facilitate implementation of projects supported by the UNDP of graduate and postgraduate education in Europe by 2010 (in special funds. With the decline of funds in the 1990s, the fi eld Germany, for example, there are over forty defi nitions of an network has declined with fewer specialists in engineering in engineer). Th is problem is therefore not unique to UNESCO the fi eld and at headquarters. but is faced by society and governments around the world. Th e fi eld of energy was an increasing emphasis in the engineer- The context of ‘development’ has also changed, although ing programme that developed in the late 1970s and 1980s. development specialists continue generally to overlook the Energy activity at UNESCO began eff ectively in the early 1970s role of engineering and technology in development at all levels with the International Congress on the ‘Sun in the Service of at the macroeconomic level and at the grass roots where small, Mankind’, held in Paris in 1973, organized by UNESCO with aff ordable technologies can make a tremendous diff erence to WMO, WHO and ISES (the International Solar Energy Soci- people’s lives and poverty reduction. Th is, again, is not unique ety), when the International Solar Energy Commission was to UNESCO. Most development specialists have a background also created. In the late 1980s and 1990s interest on renew- in economics and continue to view the world in terms of the able energy continued with the creation of the World Solar three classical factors of production: capital, labour and natu- Programme (WSP), during the 1996–2005, and associated ral resources, where knowledge, in the form of engineering, World Solar Commission (WSC), which clearly borrowed from science and technology, are not easily accommodated. Th is the earlier activity of ISES. It is useful to note that WSP/WSC is unfortunate given the obvious importance of engineer- activity accounted for a total of over US4 million of UNESCO ing, science and technology in development, particularly in funds, with over US1 million alone supporting WSP/WSC the Industrial Revolution for example, as recognized by some activity in Zimbabwe, including the World Solar Summit held commentators at the time and in the work of economists such in Harare in 1996 that lead to the creation of the World Solar as Schumpeter and Freeman on the role of knowledge and Programme and World Solar Commission chaired by President innova tion in economic change, and the fact that we now live Mugabe. Declining funds in the late 1980s and 1990s gave rise in ‘knowledge societies’. to increasing creativity. Unfortunately, the historical record for the World Solar Programme and World Solar Commission Th e context of UNESCO has also changed from the early days is lost as all programme fi les disappeared at the end of 2000. when engineering was the main activity area in the Science Sec- Th is is discussed in Sixty Years of Science at UNESCO 1945–2005 2 tor (largely supported by UNDP special funding) to the decline (UNESCO, 2006). of such funding for engineering and the sector in terms of both personnel and budget. UNESCO faced a crisis from the mid- From the early 1960s until the late 1980s the engineering 1980s with the decline of UN funding and the withdrawal of programme – the largest of the three activity areas of in the the United States and UK in 1984, and the consequent budget Natural Sciences Sector – peaked with over ten staff at head- cut of 25 per cent. UNESCO has not really recovered from this cut as the budget has remained constant, even with the return of the UK in 1997 and the United States in 2003. 2 Go to: (Accessed: 29 May 2010) 33 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 33 14/09/10 15:34:08 © MondialogoENGINEERING: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT interest, and the university-industry-science partnership (UNISPAR) programme was created by the engineering pro- gramme in 1993. Th is activity included an innovative Inter- national Fund for the Technological Development of Africa (IFTDA), which was established with an investment of US1 million and supported the development of many small-scale innova tions before the IFTDA project was closed as the capital was required for other priorities. Networking, international professional organizations and NGOs Th e engineering programme has been continuously active in the development and support of networking, international organizations and NGOs in engineering, and helped create  Adobe building is an early example of civil engineering. the World Federation of Engineering Organizations, the main ‘umbrella’ organization for national and regional engineering institutions and associations in 1968. UNESCO also helped create such regional organizations as the Federation of Engi- quarters, another ten staff in fi ve main regional fi eld offi ces neering Institutions in SE Asia and the Pacifi c (FEISEAP, which that were developed over this period, and a budget of up to continues as FEIAP), the Association of Engineering Education US30 million per biennium. A diverse range of activities and in South East Asia and the Pacifi c (AEESEAP) and the Afri- initiatives were implemented, including the establishment and can Network of Scientifi c and Technical Institutions (ANSTI) support of engineering departments at universities, research in 1979. Network support activity continues with UNESCO centres, standards institutions and similar bodies in numer- supporting networking activities for technology and develop- ous countries. Most of this activity is what we would now call ment, Engineers Without Borders, Engineers Against Poverty, human and institutional capacity-building. It is therefore inter- Engineering for a Sustainable World and the International Net- esting to refl ect on the current emphasis on technical capac- work for Engineering Studies. ity-building and the lessons we may learn from the past. Conferences and symposia, workshops and seminars Engineering programme activities Th e organization and support of various international and Th e engineering programme at UNESCO has focused essen- regional conferences and symposia is an important and long- tially on two areas of activity: engineering education and term activity of the engineering programme, usually in cooper- capacity-building, and the application of engineering and ation with WFEO. Most recently the programme was involved technology to development, including such specifi c issues as in organizing and supporting the 2008 World Engineers’ Con- the Millennium Development Goals (especially poverty reduc- vention (WEC 2008) in Brazil. Th is followed on from WEC tion and sustainable development) and, most recently, climate 2004 in Shanghai and the fi rst World Engineers’ Convention, change mitigation and adaptation. Overall activities include WEC 2000, in Hanover. Th e engineering programme was par- networking, cooperation and the support of joint activities ticularly active in the organization and presentation of training with international professional organizations and NGOs, and and seminars in the 1960s–1980s with UNDP Special Funds. the organization, presentation and support of conferences and Although this activity has inevitably declined since those symposia, workshops and seminars, as well as the production golden years, there has been a recent resurgence that includes of information and learning/teaching materials, identifi cation conferences and workshops on engineering and innovation, and commissioning of publications, project development and sustainable development, poverty reduction, engineering fundraising. policy and planning, gender issues in engineering, standards and accreditation. Activities are being planned on technology Other programme activities that have continued since the and climate change mitigation and adaptation, and an inter- establishment of engineering in UNESCO include expert advi- national engineering congress is to be held in Buenos Aires in sory and consultancy services. In recent times this includes 2010 and the 2011 World Engineers’ Convention (WEC 2011) participation in the UN Millennium Project Task Force 10 on ‘Engineers Power the World: Facing the Global Energy Chal- Science, Technology and Innovation, and a contribution to the lenge’ is to be held in Geneva. TF10 report Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development. Pilot projects have also been supported, most notably relat- Information and publications ing to energy, with mixed results. Interest in the promotion of university-industry cooperation and innovation developed Th e production of information and publications, in hard at UNESCO in the early 1990s refl ecting increasing academic cover and electronic formats, is a vital part of capacity-build- 34 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 34 14/09/10 15:34:08 © EWB-UKENGINEERING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ing, and the engineering programme continues to be very Khartoum and a model for the Sudanese Universities Virtual active in this domain. Important early activities included the Library. Several publications are in press, including forthcom- ing titles on technology policy and poverty reduction, inno- development of the UN Information System for Science and vation and development. Technology (UNISIST) programme, based at UNESCO, publi- cation of the fi rst international directory of new and renew- able energy information sources and research centres in 1982, Project development and fundraising and the UNESCO Energy Engineering Series with John Wiley Engineering programme staff have long been active in the beginning in the 1990s (some titles are still in print and oth- development of new project proposals; in the earlier days ers have been reprinted). More recent publications include primarily for UNDP funding. More recent project develop- Small is Working: Technology for Poverty Reduction and Rays ment activity includes the Daimler-UNESCO Mondialogo of Hope: Renewable Energy in the Pacifi c, which also included Engineering Award – one of the three pillars of the UNESCO short fi lm productions. UNESCO toolkits of learning and partnership with Daimler to promote intercultural dialogue, teaching materials also published by UNESCO Publishing in this case between young engineers and the preparation of include Solar Photovoltaic Project Development and Solar project proposals to address poverty reduction, sustainable Photovoltaic Systems: Technical Training Manual, Technology development and the MDGs. Proposals that did not go for- Business Incubators (this has proved so popular it has almost ward include a low-orbit satellite project designed to promote sold out and has been translated and published in Chinese, education in Africa using Russian military rockets to launch Japanese and Farsi) and Gender Indicators in Science, Engineer- satellites (an idea borrowed from Volunteers in Technical ing and Technology. Th e establishment of the Sudan Virtual Assistance in the USA, which they continued to develop with Engineering Library project at the University of Khartoum limited success, leading to the near collapse of VITA in 2001 has also been most successful; serving as a mirror service for and transformation into the Volunteers for Prosperity initia- the MIT Open Courseware project in Sudan, forming part tive in 2003 under President Bush), and a proposal for a World  Easter Island is also an of the open courseware programme of the University of Technological University. engineering achievement. 35 1035_ENGINEERING_INT .indd 35 14/09/10 15:34:08 © GFDL - Wikimedia