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Lecture notes for Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

lecture notes for advanced microprocessor and microcontroller and microprocessor and microcontroller question bank with answer for cse and microprocessors and microcontrollers applications pdf free download
Microprocessors and Microcontrollers Syllabus Microprocessors and Microcontrollers Module 1: Architecture of Microprocessors (6) General definitions of mini computers, microprocessors, micro controllers and digital signal processors. Overview of 8085 microprocessor. Overview of 8086 microprocessor. Signals and pins of 8086 microprocessor Module 2: Assembly language of 8086 (6) Description of Instructions. Assembly directives. Assembly software programs with algorithms Module 3: Interfacing with 8086 (8) Interfacing with RAMs, ROMs along with the explanation of timing diagrams. Interfacing with peripheral ICs like 8255, 8254, 8279, 8259, 8259 etc. Interfacing with key boards, LEDs, LCDs, ADCs, and DACs etc. Module 4: Coprocessor 8087 (4) Architecture of 8087, interfacing with 8086. Data types, instructions and programming Module 5: Architecture of Micro controllers (4) Overview of the architecture of 8051 microcontroller. Overview of the architecture of 8096 16 bit microcontroller Module 6: Assembly language of 8051 (4) Description of Instructions. Assembly directives. Assembly software programs with algorithms Module 7: Interfacing with 8051 (5) Interfacing with keyboards, LEDs, 7 segment LEDs, LCDs, Interfacing with ADCs. Interfacing with DACs, etc. Module 8: High end processors (2) Introduction to 80386 and 80486 M Krishnakumar/IISc, Bangalore V1/1.04.2004/1 Microprocessors and Microcontrollers Syllabus Lecture Plan: Module Learning Units Hours Total 1. Architecture of 1. General definitions of mini computers, Microprocessors microprocessors, micro controllers and digital 1 signal processors 6 2. Overview of 8085 microprocessor 1 3. Overview of 8086 microprocessor 2.5 4. Signals and pins of 8086 microprocessor 1.5 2.Assembly 5. Description of Instructions 2.5 language of 8086 6. Assembly directives 0.5 6 7. Algorithms with assembly software programs 3 3. Interfacing with 8. Interfacing with RAMs, ROMs along with the 2 8086 explanation of timing diagrams 8 9. Interfacing with peripheral ICs like 8255,8254, 8279, 8259, 8259, key boards, LEDs, LCDs, 6 ADCs, DACs etc. 4. Coprocessor 10. Architecture of 8087, interfacing with 8086 2 4 8087 11. Data types, instructions and programming 2 5. Architecture of 12. Overview of the architecture of 8051 2 Micro controllers microcontroller. 4 13. Overview of the architecture of 8096 16 bit 2 microcontroller 6. Assembly 14.Description of Instructions 2 language of 8051 5 15.Assembly directives 1 16. Algorithms with assembly software programs 2 7. Interfacing with 17. Interfacing with keyboards, LEDs, 7 segment 4 4 8051 LEDs, LCDs, ADCs, DACs 8. High end 18. Introduction to 80386 and 80486 2 2 processors M Krishnakumar/IISc, Bangalore V1/1.04.2004/1 Intel C8085 40pin ceramic DIP Purple ceramic/black top/tin pins 8085 Microprocessor • The salient features of 8085 µp are : • It is a 8 bit microprocessor. • It is manufactured with NMOS technology. • It has 16 bit address bus and hence can address upto 16 2 = 65536 bytes (64KB) memory locations through A A . 0 15 • The first 8 lines of address bus and 8 lines of databus are multiplexed AD –AD . 0 7• Data bus is a group of 8 lines D –D . 0 7 • It supports external interrupt request. • A 16 bit program counter (PC) • A 16 bit stack pointer (SP) • Six 8bit general purpose register arranged in pairs: BC, DE, HL. • It requires a signal +5V power supply and operates at 3.2 MHZ single phase clock. • It is enclosed with 40 pins DIP ( Dual in line package ).Memory: • Program, data and stack memories occupy the same memory space. The total addressable memory size is 64 KB. • Program memory program can be located anywhere in memory. Jump, branch and call instructions use 16bit addresses, i.e. they can be used to jump/branch anywhere within 64 KB. All jump/branch instructions use absolute addressing. • Data memory the processor always uses 16bit addresses so that data can be placed anywhere. • Stack memory is limited only by the size of memory. Stack grows downward. • First 64 bytes in a zero memory page should be reserved for vectors used by RST instructions.Interrupts • The processor has 5 interrupts. They are presented below in the order of their priority (from lowest to highest): • INTR is maskable 8080A compatible interrupt. When the interrupt occurs the processor fetches from the bus one instruction, usually one of these instructions: • One of the 8 RST instructions (RST RST ). The 0 7 processor saves current program counter into stack and branches to memory location N 8 (where N is a 3bit number from 0 to 7 supplied with the RST instruction). • CALL instruction (3 byte instruction). The processor calls the subroutine, address of which is specified in the second and third bytes of the instruction. • RST5.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 2CH (hexadecimal) address. • RST6.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 34H (hexadecimal) address. • RST7.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 3CH (hexadecimal) address. • TRAP is a nonmaskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 24H (hexadecimal) address. • All maskable interrupts can be enabled or disabled using EI and DI instructions. RST 5.5, RST6.5 and RST7.5 interrupts can be enabled or disabled individually using SIM instruction.Reset Signals • RESET IN : When this signal goes low, the program counter (PC) is set to Zero, µp is reset and resets the interrupt enable and HLDA flipflops. • The data and address buses and the control lines are 3 stated during RESET and because of asynchronous nature of RESET, the processor internal registers and flags may be altered by RESET with unpredictable results. • RESET IN is a Schmitttriggered input, allowing connection to an RC network for poweron RESET delay. • Upon powerup, RESET IN must remain low for at least 10 ms after minimum Vcc has been reached.• For proper reset operation after the power – up duration, RESET IN should be kept low a minimum of three clock periods. • The CPU is held in the reset condition as long as RESET IN is applied. Typical Poweron RESET RC values R = 1 75KΩ, C = 1µF. 1 • RESET OUT: This signal indicates that µp is being reset. This signal can be used to reset other devices. The signal is synchronized to the processor clock and lasts an integral number of clock periods. Serial communication Signal • SID Serial Input Data Line: The data on this line is loaded into accumulator bit 7 when ever a RIM instruction is executed. • SOD – Serial Output Data Line: The SIM instruction loads the value of bit 7 of the accumulator into SOD latch if bit 6 (SOE) of the accumulator is 1.DMA Signals • HOLD: Indicates that another master is requesting the use of the address and data buses. The CPU, upon receiving the hold request, will relinquish the use of the bus as soon as the completion of the current bus transfer. • Internal processing can continue. The processor can regain the bus only after the HOLD is removed. • When the HOLD is acknowledged, the Address, Data RD, WR and IO/M lines are 3stated.• HLDA: Hold Acknowledge : Indicates that the CPU has received the HOLD request and that it will relinquish the bus in the next clock cycle. • HLDA goes low after the Hold request is removed. The CPU takes the bus one half clock cycle after HLDA goes low.• READY : This signal Synchronizes the fast CPU and the slow memory, peripherals. • If READY is high during a read or write cycle, it indicates that the memory or peripheral is ready to send or receive data. • If READY is low, the CPU will wait an integral number of clock cycle for READY to go high before completing the read or write cycle. • READY must conform to specified setup and hold times.Registers • Accumulator or A register is an 8bit register used for arithmetic, logic, I/O and load/store operations. • Flag Register has five 1bit flags. • Sign set if the most significant bit of the result is set. • Zero set if the result is zero. • Auxiliary carry set if there was a carry out from bit 3 to bit 4 of the result. • Parity set if the parity (the number of set bits in the result) is even. • Carry set if there was a carry during addition, or borrow during subtraction/comparison/rotation. General Registers: • 8bit B and 8bit C registers can be used as one 16bit BC register pair. When used as a pair the C register contains loworder byte. Some instructions may use BC register as a data pointer. • 8bit D and 8bit E registers can be used as one 16bit DE register pair. When used as a pair the E register contains loworder byte. Some instructions may use DE register as a data pointer. • 8bit H and 8bit L registers can be used as one 16bit HL register pair. When used as a pair the L register contains loworder byte. HL register usually contains a data pointer used to reference memory addresses. • Stack pointer is a 16 bit register. This register is always decremented/incremented by 2 during push and pop. • Program counter is a 16bit register.Instruction Set • 8085 instruction set consists of the following instructions: • Data moving instructions. • Arithmetic add, subtract, increment and decrement. • Logic AND, OR, XOR and rotate. • Control transfer conditional, unconditional, call subroutine, return from subroutine and restarts. • Input/Output instructions. • Other setting/clearing flag bits, enabling/disabling interrupts, stack operations, etc. Addressing modes: • Register references the data in a register or in a register pair. Register indirect instruction specifies register pair containing address, where the data is located. Direct, Immediate 8 or 16bit data. 8086 Microprocessor • It is a 16 bit µp. 20 • 8086 has a 20 bit address bus can access upto 2 memory locations ( 1 MB) . • It can support upto 64K I/O ports. • It provides 14, 16bit registers. • It has multiplexed address and data bus AD AD 0 15 and A –A . 16 19 Next Page• It requires single phase clock with 33 duty cycle to provide internal timing. • 8086 is designed to operate in two modes, Minimum and Maximum. • It can prefetches upto 6 instruction bytes from memory and queues them in order to speed up instruction execution. • It requires +5V power supply. • A 40 pin dual in line package. Next PageMinimum and Maximum Modes: • The minimum mode is selected by applying logic 1 to the MN / MX input pin. This is a single microprocessor configuration. • The maximum mode is selected by applying logic 0 to the MN / MX input pin. This is a multi micro processors configuration.Intel C8086 Intel C8086 5 MHz 40pin ceramic DIP Rare Intel C8086 processor in purple ceramic DIP package with sidebrazed pins. Internal Architecture of 8086 • 8086 has two blocks BIU and EU. • The BIU performs all bus operations such as instruction fetching, reading and writing operands for memory and calculating the addresses of the memory operands. The instruction bytes are transferred to the instruction queue. • EU executes instructions from the instruction system byte queue. Next Page• Both units operate asynchronously to give the 8086 an overlapping instruction fetch and execution mechanism which is called as Pipelining. This results in efficient use of the system bus and system performance. • BIU contains Instruction queue, Segment registers, Instruction pointer, Address adder. • EU contains Control circuitry, Instruction decoder, ALU, Pointer and Index register, Flag register. Next Page• BUS INTERFACR UNIT: • It provides a full 16 bit bidirectional data bus and 20 bit address bus. • The bus interface unit is responsible for performing all external bus operations. Specifically it has the following functions: • Instruction fetch, Instruction queuing, Operand fetch and storage, Address relocation and Bus control. • The BIU uses a mechanism known as an instruction stream queue to implement a pipeline architecture. Next Page• This queue permits prefetch of up to six bytes of instruction code. When ever the queue of the BIU is not full, it has room for at least two more bytes and at the same time the EU is not requesting it to read or write operands from memory, the BIU is free to look ahead in the program by prefetching the next sequential instruction. • These prefetching instructions are held in its FIFO queue. With its 16 bit data bus, the BIU fetches two instruction bytes in a single memory cycle. • After a byte is loaded at the input end of the queue, it automatically shifts up through the FIFO to the empty location nearest the output. Next Page• The EU accesses the queue from the output end. It reads one instruction byte after the other from the output of the queue. If the queue is full and the EU is not requesting access to operand in memory. • These intervals of no bus activity, which may occur between bus cycles are known as Idle state. • If the BIU is already in the process of fetching an instruction when the EU request it to read or write operands from memory or I/O, the BIU first completes the instruction fetch bus cycle before initiating the operand read / write cycle. Next Page• The BIU also contains a dedicated adder which is used to generate the 20bit physical address that is output on the address bus. This address is formed by adding an appended 16 bit segment address and a 16 bit offset address. • For example: The physical address of the next instruction to be fetched is formed by combining the current contents of the code segment CS register and the current contents of the instruction pointer IP register. • The BIU is also responsible for generating bus control signals such as those for memory read or write and I/O read or write. Next Page• EXECUTION UNIT : The Execution unit is responsible for decoding and executing all instructions. • The EU extracts instructions from the top of the queue in the BIU, decodes them, generates operands if necessary, passes them to the BIU and requests it to perform the read or write bys cycles to memory or I/O and perform the operation specified by the instruction on the operands. • During the execution of the instruction, the EU tests the status and control flags and updates them based on the results of executing the instruction. Next Page• If the queue is empty, the EU waits for the next instruction byte to be fetched and shifted to top of the queue. • When the EU executes a branch or jump instruction, it transfers control to a location corresponding to another set of sequential instructions. • Whenever this happens, the BIU automatically resets the queue and then begins to fetch instructions from this new location to refill the queue.COMMON SIGNALS COMMON SIGNALS Name Function Type Bidirectional AD AD –A –AD D Add Address ress/ / Data Bu Data Bus s 15 15 0 0 3 3s stta atte e A/S S –A – A /S Address / / Status O Output utput 3 3 State State 19 6 6 16 3 Bus High Enable / / Output Output BHE BHE / / S S 7 7 Status Status 3 3 S St ta at te e MN / MN / MX MX Minimum / / Input Input Maximum Mode Control RD RD Read Control O Output 3 utput 3 State State TEST TEST Wait On Test Control Wait On Test Control I Input nput READY READY Wait State Controls Wait State Controls Input Input RESET RESET S System Reset ystem Reset I Input nput Non Maskable NMI Input NMI Input Interrupt Request Input Input INTR INTR Interrupt Request Interrupt Request Input CLK CLK S System Clock ystem Clock Vcc Vcc Input + 5 + 5 V V GND GroundMinimum Mode Signals ( / ( MN / MX= = Vcc ) ) Name Function Type HOLD Hold Request Input HL HLDA DA Output Hold Acknowledge Output , WR , Write Control Write Control 3 state M/ M/I IO O , , Memory or IO Control Output 3 State Output , , Data Transmit / DT DT/ /R R 3 3 S St ta at te e Receiver Output , , Date Enable DEN DEN 3 3S St ta at te e Address Latch Enable Output ALE ALE Output INTA INTA Interrupt AcknowledgeMaximum mode signals ( MN / MX = GND ) Name Function Type Request / Grant Bus Bidirectional RQ / GT1, 0 Access Control Output, LOCK Bus Priority Lock Control 3 State Output, Bus Cycle Status S –S 2 0 3 State Output QS1, QS0 Instruction Queue StatusMinimum Mode Interface • When the Minimum mode operation is selected, the 8086 provides all control signals needed to implement the memory and I/O interface. • The minimum mode signal can be divided into the following basic groups : address/data bus, status, control, interrupt and DMA. • Address/Data Bus : these lines serve two functions. As an address bus is 20 bits long and consists of signal lines A 0 through A . A represents the MSB and A LSB. A 20bit 19 19 0 address gives the 8086 a 1Mbyte memory address space. More over it has an independent I/O address space which is 64K bytes in length. Next Page• The 16 data bus lines D through D are actually 0 15 multiplexed with address lines A through A 0 15 respectively. By multiplexed we mean that the bus work as an address bus during first machine cycle and as a data bus during next machine cycles. D is the MSB and D LSB. 15 0 • When acting as a data bus, they carry read/write data for memory, input/output data for I/O devices, and interrupt type codes from an interrupt controller. Next PageVcc GND INTR A A ,A /S –A /S 0 15 16 3 19 6 INTA Interrupt Address / data bus interface TEST D –D 0 15 NMI 8086 ALE RESET MPU BHE / S 7 M / IO Memory HOLD I/O controls DMA DT / R interface RD HLDA WR Vcc DEN Mode select READY MN / MX Next Page CLK clock Block Diagram of the Minimum Mode 8086 MPU• Status signal : The four most significant address lines A 19 through A are also multiplexed but in this case with 16 status signals S through S . These status bits are output on 6 3 the bus at the same time that data are transferred over the other bus lines. • Bit S and S together from a 2 bit binary code that 4 3 identifies which of the 8086 internal segment registers are used to generate the physical address that was output on the address bus during the current bus cycle. • Code S S = 00 identifies a register known as extra 4 3 segment register as the source of the segment address. Next PageS S Segment Register 4 3 Extra 00 1 Stack 0 Code / none 10 Data 11 Memory segment status codes. Next Page• Status line S reflects the status of another internal 5 characteristic of the 8086. It is the logic level of the internal enable flag. The last status bit S is always at the 6 logic 0 level. • Control Signals : The control signals are provided to support the 8086 memory I/O interfaces. They control functions such as when the bus is to carry a valid address in which direction data are to be transferred over the bus, when valid write data are on the bus and when to put read data on the system bus. Next Page• ALE is a pulse to logic 1 that signals external circuitry when a valid address word is on the bus. This address must be latched in external circuitry on the 1to0 edge of the pulse at ALE. • Another control signal that is produced during the bus cycle is BHE bank high enable. Logic 0 on this used as a memory enable signal for the most significant byte half of the data bus D through D . These lines also serves a 8 1 second function, which is as the S status line. 7 • Using the M/IO and DT/R lines, the 8086 signals which type of bus cycle is in progress and in which direction data are to be transferred over the bus. Next Page• The logic level of M/IO tells external circuitry whether a memory or I/O transfer is taking place over the bus. Logic 1 at this output signals a memory operation and logic 0 an I/O operation. • The direction of data transfer over the bus is signaled by the logic level output at DT/R. When this line is logic 1 during the data transfer part of a bus cycle, the bus is in the transmit mode. Therefore, data are either written into memory or output to an I/O device. • On the other hand, logic 0 at DT/R signals that the bus is in the receive mode. This corresponds to reading data from memory or input of data from an input port. Next Page• The signal read RD and write WR indicates that a read bus cycle or a write bus cycle is in progress. The 8086 switches WR to logic 0 to signal external device that valid write or output data are on the bus. • On the other hand, RD indicates that the 8086 is performing a read of data of the bus. During read operations, one other control signal is also supplied. This is DEN ( data enable) and it signals external devices when they should put data on the bus. • There is one other control signal that is involved with the memory and I/O interface. This is the READY signal. Next Page• READY signal is used to insert wait states into the bus cycle such that it is extended by a number of clock periods. This signal is provided by an external clock generator device and can be supplied by the memory or I/O sub system to signal the 8086 when they are ready to permit the data transfer to be completed. • Interrupt signals : The key interrupt interface signals are interrupt request (INTR) and interrupt acknowledge ( INTA). • INTR is an input to the 8086 that can be used by an external device to signal that it need to be serviced. Next Page• Logic 1 at INTR represents an active interrupt request. When an interrupt request has been recognized by the 8086, it indicates this fact to external circuit with pulse to logic 0 at the INTA output. • The TEST input is also related to the external interrupt interface. Execution of a WAIT instruction causes the 8086 to check the logic level at the TEST input. • If the logic 1 is found, the MPU suspend operation and goes into the idle state. The 8086 no longer executes instructions, instead it repeatedly checks the logic level of the TEST input waiting for its transition back to logic 0. Next Page• As TEST switches to 0, execution resume with the next instruction in the program. This feature can be used to synchronize the operation of the 8086 to an event in external hardware. • There are two more inputs in the interrupt interface: the nonmaskable interrupt NMI and the reset interrupt RESET. • On the 0to1 transition of NMI control is passed to a nonmaskable interrupt service routine. The RESET input is used to provide a hardware reset for the 8086. Switching RESET to logic 0 initializes the internal register of the 8086 and initiates a reset service routine. Next Page• DMA Interface signals :The direct memory access DMA interface of the 8086 minimum mode consist of the HOLD and HLDA signals. • When an external device wants to take control of the system bus, it signals to the 8086 by switching HOLD to the logic 1 level. At the completion of the current bus cycle, the 8086 enters the hold state. In the hold state, signal lines AD through AD , A /S through A /S , 0 15 16 3 19 6 BHE, M/IO, DT/R, RD, WR, DEN and INTR are all in the high Z state. The 8086 signals external device that it is in this state by switching its HLDA output to logic 1 level. Next PageMaximum Mode Interface • When the 8086 is set for the maximummode configuration, it provides signals for implementing a multiprocessor / coprocessor system environment. • By multiprocessor environment we mean that one microprocessor exists in the system and that each processor is executing its own program. • Usually in this type of system environment, there are some system resources that are common to all processors. • They are called as global resources. There are also other resources that are assigned to specific processors. These are known as local or private resources. Next Page• Coprocessor also means that there is a second processor in the system. In this two processor does not access the bus at the same time. • One passes the control of the system bus to the other and then may suspend its operation. • In the maximummode 8086 system, facilities are provided for implementing allocation of global resources and passing bus control to other microprocessor or coprocessor. Next PageINIT Multi Bus S BUSY 0 S CBRQ 1 S BPRO 8289 Bus 2 LOCK arbiter BPRN CRQLCK RESB BREQ CLK SYSB/RESB Vcc GND BCLK CLK AEN IOB ANYREQ CLK AEN INTR LOCK IOB S 0 MRDC CLK TEST AEN IOB MWTC S S 1 0 NMI AMWC S IORC 1 8288 Bus S 2 RESET IOWC S controller 2 AIOWC DEN INTA DT/ R MCE / PDEN 8086 MPU ALE DEN DT / R ALE A A , 0 15 A /S A /S 16 3 19 6 MN/MX D –D 0 15 BHE RD READY QS , QS 1 0 Local bus control RQ / GT RQ / GT 1 0 8086 Maximum mode Block Diagram • 8288 Bus Controller – Bus Command and Control Signals: 8086 does not directly provide all the signals that are required to control the memory, I/O and interrupt interfaces. • Specially the WR, M/IO, DT/R, DEN, ALE and INTA, signals are no longer produced by the 8086. Instead it outputs three status signals S , S , S prior to the initiation 0 1 2 of each bus cycle. This 3 bit bus status code identifies which type of bus cycle is to follow. •S S S are input to the external bus controller device, the 2 1 0 bus controller generates the appropriately timed command and control signals. Next PageStatus Inputs CPU Cycles 8288 S S S Command 2 1 0 Interrupt Acknowledge 0 0 0 INTA Read I/O Port IORC 0 0 1 IOWC, AIOWC 0 1 0 Write I/O Port None 0 1 1 Halt MRDC 0 1 0 Instruction Fetch MRDC 1 0 1 Read Memory 1 MWTC, AMWC Write Memory 1 0 1 None 1 Passive 1 Bus Status Codes Next Page• The 8288 produces one or two of these eight command signals for each bus cycles. For instance, when the 8086 outputs the code S S S equals 001, it indicates that an I/O 2 1 0 read cycle is to be performed. • In the code 111 is output by the 8086, it is signaling that no bus activity is to take place. • The control outputs produced by the 8288 are DEN, DT/R and ALE. These 3 signals provide the same functions as those described for the minimum system mode. This set of bus commands and control signals is compatible with the Multibus and industry standard for interfacing microprocessor systems. Next Page• 8289 Bus Arbiter – Bus Arbitration and Lock Signals : This device permits processors to reside on the system bus. It does this by implementing the Multibus arbitration protocol in an 8086based system. • Addition of the 8288 bus controller and 8289 bus arbiter frees a number of the 8086 pins for use to produce control signals that are needed to support multiple processors. • Bus priority lock ( LOCK) is one of these signals. It is input to the bus arbiter together with status signals S 0 through S . 2 Next Page• The output of 8289 are bus arbitration signals: bus busy (BUSY), common bus request (CBRQ), bus priority out (BPRO), bus priority in (BPRN), bus request (BREQ) and bus clock (BCLK). • They correspond to the bus exchange signals of the Multibus and are used to lock other processor off the system bus during the execution of an instruction by the 8086. • In this way the processor can be assured of uninterrupted access to common system resources such as global memory. Next Page• Queue Status Signals : Two new signals that are produced by the 8086 in the maximummode system are queue status outputs QS and QS . Together they form a 2bit queue 0 1 status code, QS QS . 1 0 • Following table shows the four different queue status. Next PageQS QS Queue Status 1 0 No Operation. During the last clock cycle, nothing was 0 0 (low) taken from the queue. First Byte. The byte taken from the queue was the first 01 byte of the instruction. 1 (high) Queue Empty. The queue has been reinitialized as a result 0 of the execution of a transfer instruction. Subsequent Byte. The byte taken from the queue was a 11 subsequent byte of the instruction. Queue status codes Next Page• Local Bus Control Signal – Request / Grant Signals: In a maximum mode configuration, the minimum mode HOLD, HLDA interface is also changed. These two are replaced by request/grant lines RQ/ GT and RQ/ GT , 0 1 respectively. They provide a prioritized bus access mechanism for accessing the local bus.Internal Registers of 8086 • The 8086 has four groups of the user accessible internal registers. They are the instruction pointer, four data registers, four pointer and index register, four segment registers. • The 8086 has a total of fourteen 16bit registers including a 16 bit register called the status register, with 9 of bits implemented for status and control flags. Next Page• Most of the registers contain data/instruction offsets within 64 KB memory segment. There are four different 64 KB segments for instructions, stack, data and extra data. To specify where in 1 MB of processor memory these 4 segments are located the processor uses four segment registers: • Code segment (CS) is a 16bit register containing address of 64 KB segment with processor instructions. The processor uses CS segment for all accesses to instructions referenced by instruction pointer (IP) register. CS register cannot be changed directly. The CS register is automatically updated during far jump, far call and far return instructions. Next Page• Stack segment (SS) is a 16bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program stack. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by the stack pointer (SP) and base pointer (BP) registers is located in the stack segment. SS register can be changed directly using POP instruction. • Data segment (DS) is a 16bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program data. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by general registers (AX, BX, CX, DX) and index register (SI, DI) is located in the data segment. DS register can be changed directly using POP and LDS instructions. Next Page• Extra segment (ES) is a 16bit register containing address of 64KB segment, usually with program data. By default, the processor assumes that the DI register references the ES segment in string manipulation instructions. ES register can be changed directly using POP and LES instructions. • It is possible to change default segments used by general and index registers by prefixing instructions with a CS, SS, DS or ES prefix. • All general registers of the 8086 microprocessor can be used for arithmetic and logic operations. The general registers are: Next Page• Accumulator register consists of two 8bit registers AL and AH, which can be combined together and used as a 16 bit register AX. AL in this case contains the loworder byte of the word, and AH contains the highorder byte. Accumulator can be used for I/O operations and string manipulation. • Base register consists of two 8bit registers BL and BH, which can be combined together and used as a 16bit register BX. BL in this case contains the loworder byte of the word, and BH contains the highorder byte. BX register usually contains a data pointer used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing. Next Page• Count register consists of two 8bit registers CL and CH, which can be combined together and used as a 16bit register CX. When combined, CL register contains the loworder byte of the word, and CH contains the high order byte. Count register can be used in Loop, shift/rotate instructions and as a counter in string manipulation,. • Data register consists of two 8bit registers DL and DH, which can be combined together and used as a 16bit register DX. When combined, DL register contains the loworder byte of the word, and DH contains the high order byte. Data register can be used as a port number in I/O operations. In integer 32bit multiply and divide instruction the DX register contains highorder word of the initial or resulting number. Next Page• The following registers are both general and index registers: • Stack Pointer (SP) is a 16bit register pointing to program stack. • Base Pointer (BP) is a 16bit register pointing to data in stack segment. BP register is usually used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing. • Source Index (SI) is a 16bit register. SI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a source data address in string manipulation instructions. Next Page• Destination Index (DI) is a 16bit register. DI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a destination data address in string manipulation instructions. Other registers: • Instruction Pointer (IP) is a 16bit register. • Flags is a 16bit register containing 9 one bit flags. • Overflow Flag (OF) set if the result is too large positive number, or is too small negative number to fit into destination operand. Next Page• Direction Flag (DF) if set then string manipulation instructions will autodecrement index registers. If cleared then the index registers will be autoincremented. • Interruptenable Flag (IF) setting this bit enables maskable interrupts. • Singlestep Flag (TF) if set then singlestep interrupt will occur after the next instruction. • Sign Flag (SF) set if the most significant bit of the result is set. • Zero Flag (ZF) set if the result is zero. Next Page• Auxiliary carry Flag (AF) set if there was a carry from or borrow to bits 03 in the AL register. • Parity Flag (PF) set if parity (the number of "1" bits) in the loworder byte of the result is even. • Carry Flag (CF) set if there was a carry from or borrow to the most significant bit during last result calculation. Addressing Modes • Implied the data value/data address is implicitly associated with the instruction. • Register references the data in a register or in a register pair. • Immediate the data is provided in the instruction. • Direct the instruction operand specifies the memory address where data is located. • Register indirect instruction specifies a register containing an address, where data is located. This addressing mode works with SI, DI, BX and BP registers. • Based : 8bit or 16bit instruction operand is added to the contents of a base register (BX or BP), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides. Next Page• Indexed : 8bit or 16bit instruction operand is added to the contents of an index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides. • Based Indexed : the contents of a base register (BX or BP) is added to the contents of an index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides. • Based Indexed with displacement : 8bit or 16bit instruction operand is added to the contents of a base register (BX or BP) and index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides. Memory • Program, data and stack memories occupy the same memory space. As the most of the processor instructions use 16bit pointers the processor can effectively address only 64 KB of memory. • To access memory outside of 64 KB the CPU uses special segment registers to specify where the code, stack and data 64 KB segments are positioned within 1 MB of memory (see the "Registers" section below). • 16bit pointers and data are stored as: address: loworder byte address+1: highorder byte Next Page• 32bit addresses are stored in "segment: offset" format as: address: loworder byte of segment address+1: highorder byte of segment address+2: loworder byte of offset address+3: highorder byte of offset • Physical memory address pointed by segment: offset pair is calculated as: • address = (segment 16) + offset Next Page• Program memory program can be located anywhere in memory. Jump and call instructions can be used for short jumps within currently selected 64 KB code segment, as well as for far jumps anywhere within 1 MB of memory. • All conditional jump instructions can be used to jump within approximately +127 to 127 bytes from current instruction. • Data memory the processor can access data in any one out of 4 available segments, which limits the size of accessible memory to 256 KB (if all four segments point to different 64 KB blocks). Next Page• Accessing data from the Data, Code, Stack or Extra segments can be usually done by prefixing instructions with the DS:, CS:, SS: or ES: (some registers and instructions by default may use the ES or SS segments instead of DS segment). • Word data can be located at odd or even byte boundaries. The processor uses two memory accesses to read 16bit word located at odd byte boundaries. Reading word data from even byte boundaries requires only one memory access. Next Page• Stack memory can be placed anywhere in memory. The stack can be located at odd memory addresses, but it is not recommended for performance reasons (see "Data Memory" above). Reserved locations: • 0000h 03FFh are reserved for interrupt vectors. Each interrupt vector is a 32bit pointer in format segment: offset. • FFFF0h FFFFFh after RESET the processor always starts program execution at the FFFF0h address. Interrupts The processor has the following interrupts: • INTR is a maskable hardware interrupt. The interrupt can be enabled/disabled using STI/CLI instructions or using more complicated method of updating the FLAGS register with the help of the POPF instruction. • When an interrupt occurs, the processor stores FLAGS register into stack, disables further interrupts, fetches from the bus one byte representing interrupt type, and jumps to interrupt processing routine address of which is stored in location 4 interrupt type. Interrupt processing routine should return with the IRET instruction. Next Page• NMI is a nonmaskable interrupt. Interrupt is processed in the same way as the INTR interrupt. Interrupt type of the NMI is 2, i.e. the address of the NMI processing routine is stored in location 0008h. This interrupt has higher priority then the maskable interrupt. • Software interrupts can be caused by: • INT instruction breakpoint interrupt. This is a type 3 interrupt. • INT interrupt number instruction any one interrupt from available 256 interrupts. • INTO instruction interrupt on overflow Next Page• Singlestep interrupt generated if the TF flag is set. This is a type 1 interrupt. When the CPU processes this interrupt it clears TF flag before calling the interrupt processing routine. • Processor exceptions: Divide Error (Type 0), Unused Opcode (type 6) and Escape opcode (type 7). • Software interrupt processing is the same as for the hardware interrupts.Minimum Mode 8086 System • In a minimum mode 8086 system, the microprocessor 8086 is operated in minimum mode by strapping its MN/MX pin to logic 1. • In this mode, all the control signals are given out by the microprocessor chip itself. There is a single microprocessor in the minimum mode system. • The remaining components in the system are latches, transreceivers, clock generator, memory and I/O devices. Some type of chip selection logic may be required for selecting memory or I/O devices, depending upon the address map of the system.• Latches are generally buffered output Dtype flipflops like 74LS373 or 8282. They are used for separating the valid address from the multiplexed address/data signals and are controlled by the ALE signal generated by 8086. • Transreceivers are the bidirectional buffers and some times they are called as data amplifiers. They are required to separate the valid data from the time multiplexed address/data signals. • They are controlled by two signals namely, DEN and DT/R.• The DEN signal indicates the direction of data, i.e. from or to the processor. The system contains memory for the monitor and users program storage. • Usually, EPROM are used for monitor storage, while RAM for users program storage. A system may contain I/O devices.• The clock generator generates the clock from the crystal oscillator and then shapes it and divides to make it more precise so that it can be used as an accurate timing reference for the system. • The clock generator also synchronizes some external signal with the system clock. The general system organisation is as shown in below fig. • It has 20 address lines and 16 data lines, the 8086 CPU requires three octal address latches and two octal data buffers for the complete address and data separation.• The working of the minimum mode configuration system can be better described in terms of the timing diagrams rather than qualitatively describing the operations. • The opcode fetch and read cycles are similar. Hence the timing diagram can be categorized in two parts, the first is the timing diagram for read cycle and the second is the timing diagram for write cycle. • The read cycle begins in T with the assertion of address 1 latch enable (ALE) signal and also M / IO signal. During the negative going edge of this signal, the valid address is latched on the local bus.• The BHE and A signals address low, high or both bytes. 0 From T to T , the M/IO signal indicates a memory or I/O 1 4 operation. •At T , the address is removed from the local bus and is 2 sent to the output. The bus is then tristated. The read (RD) control signal is also activated in T . 2 • The read (RD) signal causes the address device to enable its data bus drivers. After RD goes low, the valid data is available on the data bus. • The addressed device will drive the READY line high. When the processor returns the read signal to high level, the addressed device will again tristate its bus drivers.• A write cycle also begins with the assertion of ALE and the emission of the address. The M/IO signal is again asserted to indicate a memory or I/O operation. In T , after 2 sending the address in T , the processor sends the data to 1 be written to the addressed location. • The data remains on the bus until middle of T state. The 4 WR becomes active at the beginning of T (unlike RD is 2 somewhat delayed in T to provide time for floating). 2 • The BHE and A signals are used to select the proper byte 0 or bytes of memory or I/O word to be read or write. • The M/IO, RD and WR signals indicate the type of data transfer as specified in table below.M / IO RD WR Transfer Type 0 1 I / O read 0 I/O write 1 0 0 1 Memory read 1 0 1 1 0 Memory write Data Transfer tableClk T T T T T 1 2 3 W 4 ALE BHE ADD / STATUS S –S A –A 7 3 19 16 Bus reserved A –A ADD / DATA D –D 15 0 for data in 15 0 RD DEN DT / R Read Cycle Timing Diagram for Minimum ModeT T T T T T 1 2 3 W 4 1 Clk ALE BHE S –S ADD / STATUS A –A 7 3 19 16 ADD / DATA A –A Valid data D –D 15 0 15 0 WR DEN DT / R Write Cycle Timing Diagram for Minimum Mode• Hold Response sequence: The HOLD pin is checked at leading edge of each clock pulse. If it is received active by the processor before T of the previous cycle or during T 4 1 state of the current cycle, the CPU activates HLDA in the next clock cycle and for succeeding bus cycles, the bus will be given to another requesting master. • The control of the bus is not regained by the processor until the requesting master does not drop the HOLD pin low. When the request is dropped by the requesting master, the HLDA is dropped by the processor at the trailing edge of the next clock.Clk HOLD HLDA Bus Request and Bus Grant Timings in Minimum Mode SystemMaximum Mode 8086 System • In the maximum mode, the 8086 is operated by strapping the MN/MX pin to ground. • In this mode, the processor derives the status signal S , S , 2 1 S . Another chip called bus controller derives the control 0 signal using this status information . • In the maximum mode, there may be more than one microprocessor in the system configuration. • The components in the system are same as in the minimum mode system.• The basic function of the bus controller chip IC8288, is to derive control signals like RD and WR ( for memory and I/O devices), DEN, DT/R, ALE etc. using the information by the processor on the status lines. • The bus controller chip has input lines S , S , S and CLK. 2 1 0 These inputs to 8288 are driven by CPU. • It derives the outputs ALE, DEN, DT/R, MRDC, MWTC, AMWC, IORC, IOWC and AIOWC. The AEN, IOB and CEN pins are specially useful for multiprocessor systems.• AEN and IOB are generally grounded. CEN pin is usually tied to +5V. The significance of the MCE/PDEN output depends upon the status of the IOB pin. • If IOB is grounded, it acts as master cascade enable to control cascade 8259A, else it acts as peripheral data enable used in the multiple bus configurations. • INTA pin used to issue two interrupt acknowledge pulses to the interrupt controller or to an interrupting device.• IORC, IOWC are I/O read command and I/O write command signals respectively . These signals enable an IO interface to read or write the data from or to the address port. • The MRDC, MWTC are memory read command and memory write command signals respectively and may be used as memory read or write signals. • All these command signals instructs the memory to accept or send data from or to the bus. • For both of these write command signals, the advanced signals namely AIOWC and AMWTC are available. • They also serve the same purpose, but are activated one clock cycle earlier than the IOWC and MWTC signals respectively. • The maximum mode system timing diagrams are divided in two portions as read (input) and write (output) timing diagrams. • The address/data and address/status timings are similar to the minimum mode. • ALE is asserted in T , just like minimum mode. The only 1 difference lies in the status signal used and the available control and advanced command signals.Add bus Clk DEN S DT/ R Control bus 0 S IORC 1 8288 IOWTC S 2 MWTC AEN S Reset 0 Reset IOB Clk S MRDC ALE 1 CEN Clk Generator S 2 8284 + 5V RDY Ready 8086 CLK AD AD 6 15 A/D Address bus Latches A A 16 19 DT/R A BHE 0 DIR Data CS0 CS0 RD H L CS WR RD WR buffer DEN G Peripherals Memory Data bus Maximum Mode 8086 System.• Here the only difference between in timing diagram between minimum mode and maximum mode is the status signals used and the available control and advanced command signals. •R , S , S are set at the beginning of bus cycle.8288 bus 0 1 2 controller will output a pulse as on the ALE and apply a required signal to its DT / R pin during T . 1• In T , 8288 will set DEN=1 thus enabling transceivers, and 2 for an input it will activate MRDC or IORC. These signals are activated until T . For an output, the AMWC or 4 AIOWC is activated from T to T and MWTC or IOWC is 2 4 activated from T to T . 3 4 • The status bit S to S remains active until T and become 0 2 3 passive during T and T . 3 4 • If reader input is not activated before T , wait state will be 3 inserted between T and T . 3 4• Timings for RQ/ GT Signals :The request/grant response sequence contains a series of three pulses. The request/grant pins are checked at each rising pulse of clock input. • When a request is detected and if the condition for HOLD request are satisfied, the processor issues a grant pulse over the RQ/GT pin immediately during T (current) or T 4 1 (next) state. • When the requesting master receives this pulse, it accepts the control of the bus, it sends a release pulse to the processor using RQ/GT pin.One bus cycle T T T T T 1 2 3 4 1 Clk ALE Inactive S –SActive Active 2 0 Add/Status BHE, A –A S –S 19 16 7 3 Add/Data A –A D –D 15 0 15 0 MRDC DT / R DEN Memory Read Timing in Maximum ModeOne bus cycle T T T T T 1 2 3 4 1 Clk ALE Inactive S –SActive Active 2 0 ADD/STATUS BHE S –S 7 3 A A ADD/DATA Data out D –D 15 0 15 0 AMWC or AIOWC MWTC or IOWC high DT / R DEN Memory Write Timing in Maximum mode.Clk RQ / GT Another master CPU grant bus Master releases bus request bus access RQ/GT Timings in Maximum Mode.M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 1™™™™ Contents General definitions Overview of 8085 microprocessor Overview of 8086 microprocessor Signals and pins of 8086 microprocessor M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 2¾ Overview of 8085 microprocessor 8085 Architecture • Pin Diagram • Functional Block Diagram M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 3Pin Diagram of 8085 X 40 Vcc 1 1 X 39 HOLD 2 2 DMA RESET OUT 3 38 HLDA 4 CLK ( OUT) SOD 37 Serial i/p, o/p signals 5 RESET IN SID 36 6 READY TRAP 35 7 IO / M RST 7.5 34 S RST 6.5 8 1 33 RST 5.5 8085 A 9 32 RD INTR 10 31 WR INTA 11 ALE 30 AD 12 0 S0 29 AD 1 13 A 15 28 AD 2 A 14 14 27 AD A 3 15 26 13 AD A 4 25 12 16 AD A 5 24 11 17 A AD 10 18 23 6 AD 19 22 A 7 9 A V 20 21 8 SS M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 4Signal Groups of 8085 + 5 V GND XTAL V V X X cc ss 1 2 A 15 SID 5 High order Address bus A 8 SOD 4 Multiplexed address / data bus TRAP AD 7 RESET 7.5 RESET 6.5 AD 0 ALE RESET 5.5 S 1 INTR READY S 0 HOLD IO / M RESET IN HLDA RD WR INTA REST OUT CLK OUT M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 5RES RES RES TRAP SID INTA SIO 5 . 5 6 . 5 7 . 5 INTR INTERRUPT CONTROL SERIAL I / O CONTROL 8 BIT INTERNAL DATA BUS INSTRUCTION TEMP REG (8) ACCUMULATOR MULTIPLXER REGISTER ( 8 ) (8) R W ( 8 ) E TEMP . REG. C REG ( 8 ) B REG ( 8 ) G FLAG . D REG ( 8 ) ( 5) E REG ( 8 ) S FLIP FLOPS H REG ( INSTRUCTION L REG ( 8 ) E ARITHEMETIC 8 ) DECODER LOGIC UNIT ( ALU) STACK POINTER ( 16 ) AND MACHINE L ENCODING PROGRAM COUNTER ( 16 ) E (8) +5V INCREAMENT / DECREAMENT ADDRESS C LATCH ( 16 ) T GND TIMING AND CONTROL X 1 CLK ADDRESS BUFFER DATA / ADDRESS GEN ( 8 ) BUFFER X 2 STATUS ( 8 ) CONTROL DMA CLK RESET IN A A 15 – 8 OUT S S AD –AD ADDRESS / BUFFER 0 1 7 0 HOLD READY RD WR ALE IO / M HLDA RESET OUT ADDRESS BUS BUSFlag Registers D D D D D D D D 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 SZ AC P CY General Purpose Registers INDIVIDUAL B, C, D, E, H, L COMBININATON B C, D E, H L M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 7¾ Overview of 8086 Microprocessor 8086 Architecture • Pin Diagram • Functional Block Diagram M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 8AH AL ADDRESS BUS BH BL ∑ ( 20 ) CH CL BITS GENERAL DH DL REGISTERS SP DATA BUS BP ( 16 ) SI BITS DI ES CS SS DS ALU DATA BUS IP 8 16 BITS 0 BUS 8 TEMPORARY REGISTERS 6 CONTRO L LOGIC B U S EU ALU INSTRUCTION QUEUE CONTROL Q BUS SYSTEM 1 23 4 5 6 8 BIT FLAGS BUS INTERFACE UNIT ( BIU) EXECUTION UNIT ( EU )Pin Diagram of 8086 GND 40 V 1 CC AD 14 39 AD 2 15 AD 3 38 A S 13 16 / 3 4 AD 37 A / S 12 17 4 A / S 5 18 5 AD 36 11 6 A /S AD 35 19 6 10 7 AD 34 BHE / S 9 7 AD 8 8 8086 33 MN/MX AD 7 9 32 RD AD 6 10 31 ( HOLD) RQ / GT CPU 0 AD 5 11 30 ( HLDA) RQ / GT 1 AD 4 12 29 LOCK (WR) AD 3 13 (M / IO ) 28 S 2 AD 2 14 (DT / R) 27 S 1 AD 1 15 26 S (DEN) 0 AD 25 0 QS (ALE) 16 0 NMI QS 24 1 (INTA) 17 INTR 18 23 TEST CLK 19 22 READY GND 20 21 RESET M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 10V GND CC A A15, A / S –A /S 0 16 3 19 6 INTR INTA ADDRESS / DATA BUS INTERRUPT INTERFACE TEST D D 0 15 NMI 8086 ALE MPU RESET BHE / S 7 M / IO MEMORY I / O DT / R HOLD DMA CONTROLS RD INTERFACE HLDA WR V CC DEN MODE SELECT READY MN / MX 11 CLK Signal Description of 8086 • The Microprocessor 8086 is a 16bit CPU available in different clock rates and packaged in a 40 pin CERDIP or plastic package. • The 8086 operates in single processor or multiprocessor configuration to achieve high performance. The pins serve a particular function in minimum mode (single processor mode ) and other function in maximum mode configuration (multiprocessor mode ). • The 8086 signals can be categorised in three groups. The first are the signal having common functions in minimum as well as maximum mode. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 12• The second are the signals which have special functions for minimum mode and third are the signals having special functions for maximum mode. • The following signal descriptions are common for both modes. • AD AD : These are the time multiplexed memory I/O 15 0 address and data lines. • Address remains on the lines during T state, while the data is 1 available on the data bus during T , T , T and T . 2 3 w 4 • These lines are active high and float to a tristate during interrupt acknowledge and local bus hold acknowledge cycles. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 13• A /S ,A /S ,A /S ,A /S : These are the time multiplexed 19 6 18 5 17 4 16 3 address and status lines. • During T these are the most significant address lines for 1 memory operations. • During I/O operations, these lines are low. During memory or I/O operations, status information is available on those lines for T ,T ,T and T . 2 3 w 4 • The status of the interrupt enable flag bit is updated at the beginning of each clock cycle. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 14• The S and S combinedly indicate which segment register is 4 3 presently being used for memory accesses as in below fig. • These lines float to tristate off during the local bus hold acknowledge. The status line S is always low . 6 • The address bit are separated from the status bit using latches controlled by the ALE signal. S S Indication 4 3 Alternate Data 0 0 Stack 0 1 Code or none 1 0 Data 1 1 M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 15• BHE/S : The bus high enable is used to indicate the transfer 7 of data over the higher order ( D D ) data bus as shown in 15 8 table. It goes low for the data transfer over D D and is used 15 8 to derive chip selects of odd address memory bank or peripherals. BHE is low during T for read, write and interrupt 1 acknowledge cycles, whenever a byte is to be transferred on higher byte of data bus. The status information is available during T , T and T . The signal is active low and tristated 2 3 4 during hold. It is low during T for the first pulse of the 1 interrupt acknowledge cycle. BHE A Indication 0 Whole word 0 0 Upper byte from or to odd address Upper byte from or to even address 0 1 Lower byte from or to even address 1 0 11 None M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 16• RD – Read : This signal on low indicates the peripheral that the processor is performing s memory or I/O read operation. RD is active low and shows the state for T , T , T of any read 2 3 w cycle. The signal remains tristated during the hold acknowledge. • READY : This is the acknowledgement from the slow device or memory that they have completed the data transfer. The signal made available by the devices is synchronized by the 8284A clock generator to provide ready input to the 8086. the signal is active high. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 17• INTRInterrupt Request : This is a triggered input. This is sampled during the last clock cycles of each instruction to determine the availability of the request. If any interrupt request is pending, the processor enters the interrupt acknowledge cycle. • This can be internally masked by resulting the interrupt enable flag. This signal is active high and internally synchronized. • TEST : This input is examined by a ‘WAIT’ instruction. If the TEST pin goes low, execution will continue, else the processor remains in an idle state. The input is synchronized internally during each clock cycle on leading edge of clock. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 18• NMI Nonmaskable interrupt : This is an edge triggered input which causes a Type 2 interrupt. The NMI is not maskable internally by software. A transition from low to high initiates the interrupt response at the end of the current instruction. This input is internally synchronized. • RESET : This input causes the processor to terminate the current activity and start execution from FFF0H. The signal is active high and must be active for at least four clock cycles. It restarts execution when the RESET returns low. RESET is also internally synchronized. • Vcc +5V power supply for the operation of the internal circuit. • GND ground for internal circuit. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 19• CLK Clock Input : The clock input provides the basic timing for processor operation and bus control activity. Its an asymmetric square wave with 33 duty cycle. • MN/MX : The logic level at this pin decides whether the processor is to operate in either minimum or maximum mode. • The following pin functions are for the minimum mode operation of 8086. • M/IO – Memory/IO : This is a status line logically equivalent to S in maximum mode. When it is low, it indicates the CPU 2 is having an I/O operation, and when it is high, it indicates that the CPU is having a memory operation. This line becomes active high in the previous T and remains active till final T of 4 4 the current cycle. It is tristated during local bus “hold acknowledge “. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 20• INTA – Interrupt Acknowledge : This signal is used as a read strobe for interrupt acknowledge cycles. i.e. when it goes low, the processor has accepted the interrupt. • ALE – Address Latch Enable : This output signal indicates the availability of the valid address on the address/data lines, and is connected to latch enable input of latches. This signal is active high and is never tristated. • DT/R – Data Transmit/Receive: This output is used to decide the direction of data flow through the transreceivers (bidirectional buffers). When the processor sends out data, this signal is high and when the processor is receiving data, this signal is low. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 21• DEN – Data Enable : This signal indicates the availability of valid data over the address/data lines. It is used to enable the transreceivers ( bidirectional buffers ) to separate the data from the multiplexed address/data signal. It is active from the middle of T until the middle of T . This is tristated during ‘ 2 4 hold acknowledge’ cycle. • HOLD, HLDA Acknowledge : When the HOLD line goes high, it indicates to the processor that another master is requesting the bus access. • The processor, after receiving the HOLD request, issues the hold acknowledge signal on HLDA pin, in the middle of the next clock cycle after completing the current bus cycle. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 22• At the same time, the processor floats the local bus and control lines. When the processor detects the HOLD line low, it lowers the HLDA signal. HOLD is an asynchronous input, and is should be externally synchronized. • If the DMA request is made while the CPU is performing a memory or I/O cycle, it will release the local bus during T 4 provided : 1. The request occurs on or before T state of the current cycle. 2 2. The current cycle is not operating over the lower byte of a word. 3. The current cycle is not the first acknowledge of an interrupt acknowledge sequence. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 234. A Lock instruction is not being executed. • The following pin function are applicable for maximum mode operation of 8086. • S , S , S –Status Lines : These are the status lines which 2 1 0 reflect the type of operation, being carried out by the processor. These become activity during T of the previous 4 cycle and active during T and T of the current bus cycles. 1 2 S S S Indication 2 1 0 0 Interrupt Acknowledge 00 0 Read I/O port 0 1 0 1 0 Write I/O port 0 1 1 Halt 1 0 0 Code Access 1 0 1 Read memory 1 1 0 Write memory Passive 1 11 11 M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 24• LOCK : This output pin indicates that other system bus master will be prevented from gaining the system bus, while the LOCK signal is low. • The LOCK signal is activated by the ‘LOCK’ prefix instruction and remains active until the completion of the next instruction. When the CPU is executing a critical instruction which requires the system bus, the LOCK prefix instruction ensures that other processors connected in the system will not gain the control of the bus. • The 8086, while executing the prefixed instruction, asserts the bus lock signal output, which may be connected to an external bus controller. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 25• QS , QS – Queue Status: These lines give information about 1 0 the status of the codeprefetch queue. These are active during the CLK cycle after while the queue operation is performed. • This modification in a simple fetch and execute architecture of a conventional microprocessor offers an added advantage of pipelined processing of the instructions. • The 8086 architecture has 6byte instruction prefetch queue. Thus even the largest (6bytes) instruction can be prefetched from the memory and stored in the prefetch. This results in a faster execution of the instructions. • In 8085 an instruction is fetched, decoded and executed and only after the execution of this instruction, the next one is fetched. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 26• By prefetching the instruction, there is a considerable speeding up in instruction execution in 8086. This is known as instruction pipelining. • At the starting the CS:IP is loaded with the required address from which the execution is to be started. Initially, the queue will be empty an the microprocessor starts a fetch operation to bring one byte (the first byte) of instruction code, if the CS:IP address is odd or two bytes at a time, if the CS:IP address is even. • The first byte is a complete opcode in case of some instruction (one byte opcode instruction) and is a part of opcode, in case of some instructions ( two byte opcode instructions), the remaining part of code lie in second byte. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 27• But the first byte of an instruction is an opcode. When the first byte from the queue goes for decoding and interpretation, one byte in the queue becomes empty and subsequently the queue is updated. • The microprocessor does not perform the next fetch operation till at least two bytes of instruction queue are emptied. The instruction execution cycle is never broken for fetch operation. After decoding the first byte, the decoding circuit decides whether the instruction is of single opcode byte or double opcode byte. • If it is single opcode byte, the next bytes are treated as data bytes depending upon the decoded instruction length, otherwise, the next byte in the queue is treated as the second byte of the instruction opcode. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 28• The second byte is then decoded in continuation with the first byte to decide the instruction length and the number of subsequent bytes to be treated as instruction data. • The queue is updated after every byte is read from the queue but the fetch cycle is initiated by BIU only if at least two bytes of the queue are empty and the EU may be concurrently executing the fetched instructions. • The next byte after the instruction is completed is again the first opcode byte of the next instruction. A similar procedure is repeated till the complete execution of the program. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 29• The fetch operation of the next instruction is overlapped with the execution of the current instruction. As in the architecture, there are two separate units, namely Execution unit and Bus interface unit. • While the execution unit is busy in executing an instruction, after it is completely decoded, the bus interface unit may be fetching the bytes of the next instruction from memory, depending upon the queue status. QS QS Indication 1 0 No operation 0 0 First byte of the opcode from the queue 1 0 Empty queue 1 0 Subsequent byte from the queue 11 M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 30• RQ/GT , RQ/GT – Request/Grant : These pins are used 0 1 by the other local bus master in maximum mode, to force the processor to release the local bus at the end of the processor current bus cycle. • Each of the pin is bidirectional with RQ/GT having higher 0 priority than RQ/GT . 1 • RQ/GT pins have internal pullup resistors and may be left unconnected. • Request/Grant sequence is as follows: 1. A pulse of one clock wide from another bus master requests the bus access to 8086. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 312. During T (current) or T (next) clock cycle, a pulse one clock 4 1 wide from 8086 to the requesting master, indicates that the 8086 has allowed the local bus to float and that it will enter the ‘hold acknowledge’ state at next cycle. The CPU bus interface unit is likely to be disconnected from the local bus of the system. 3. A one clock wide pulse from the another master indicates to the 8086 that the hold request is about to end and the 8086 may regain control of the local bus at the next clock cycle. Thus each master to master exchange of the local bus is a sequence of 3 pulses. There must be at least one dead clock cycle after each bus exchange. • The request and grant pulses are active low. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 32• For the bus request those are received while 8086 is performing memory or I/O cycle, the granting of the bus is governed by the rules as in case of HOLD and HLDA in minimum mode. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 33General Bus Operation • The 8086 has a combined address and data bus commonly referred as a time multiplexed address and data bus. • The main reason behind multiplexing address and data over the same pins is the maximum utilisation of processor pins and it facilitates the use of 40 pin standard DIP package. • The bus can be demultiplexed using a few latches and transreceivers, when ever required. • Basically, all the processor bus cycles consist of at least four clock cycles. These are referred to as T , T , T , T . The 1 2 3 4 address is transmitted by the processor during T . It is present 1 on the bus only for one cycle. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 34• During T , i.e. the next cycle, the bus is tristated for changing 2 the direction of bus for the following data read cycle. The data transfer takes place during T , T . 3 4 • In case, an address device is slow ‘NOT READY’ status the wait status T are inserted between T and T . These clock w 3 4 states during wait period are called idle states (T ), wait states i (T ) or inactive states. The processor used these cycles for w internal housekeeping. • The address latch enable (ALE) signal is emitted during T by 1 the processor (minimum mode) or the bus controller (maximum mode) depending upon the status of the MN/MX input. M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 35• The negative edge of this ALE pulse is used to separate the address and the data or status information. In maximum mode, the status lines S , S and S are used to indicate the type of 0 1 2 operation. • Status bits S to S are multiplexed with higher order address 3 7 bits and the BHE signal. Address is valid during T while 1 status bits S to S are valid during T through T . 3 7 2 4 M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 36Memory read cycle Memory write cycle T T T T T T T T T T 1 2 3 w 4 1 2 3 w 4 CLK ALE S –S 2 0 A A S S A A S S 19 16 3 7 19 16 3 7 Add/stat BHE BHE Bus reserve Add/data for Data In Data Out D –D 15 0 A A D D A A D D 0 15 15 0 0 15 15 0 RD/INTA Ready Ready READY DT/R Wait Wait DEN WR Memory access time General Bus Operation Cycle in Maximum Mode M. Krishna Kumar MAM/M7/MKK18/V1/2004 378085 Microprocessor Contents ™ General definitions ™ Overview of 8085 microprocessor ™ Overview of 8086 microprocessor ™ Signals and pins of 8086 microprocessor • The salient features of 8085 µp are: • It is a 8 bit microprocessor. • It is manufactured with NMOS technology. • It has 16bit address bus and hence can address up to 216 = 65536 bytes (64KB) memory locations through A A . 0 15 • The first 8 lines of address bus and 8 lines of data bus are multiplexed AD – AD . 0 7 • Data bus is a group of 8 lines D – D . 0 7 • It supports external interrupt request. • A 16 bit program counter (PC) • A 16 bit stack pointer (SP) • Six 8bit general purpose register arranged in pairs: BC, DE, HL. • It requires a signal +5V power supply and operates at 3.2 MHZ single phase clock. • It is enclosed with 40 pins DIP (Dual in line package). Overview of 8085 microprocessor ¾ 8085 Architecture • Pin Diagram • Functional Block Diagram X 40 Vcc 1 1 X 2 39 HOLD 2 DMA RESET OUT 3 38 HLDA 4 CLK ( OUT) SOD 37 Serial i/p, o/p signals RESET IN 5 SID 36 6 READY TRAP 35 IO / M 7 RST 7.5 34 S 1 RST 6.5 8 33 RST 5.5 8085 A RD 9 32 INTR 10 31 WR INTA 11 ALE 30 AD 0 12 S0 29 AD 1 13 A 15 28 AD 2 A 14 14 27 AD 3 A 13 15 26 AD A 4 25 12 16 AD 5 A 11 24 17 A 10 AD 6 18 23 AD 19 22 7 A 9 A 8 V 20 21 SS Pin Diagram of 8085 + 5 V GND XTAL V V cc ss X X 1 2 A 15 SID 5 High order Address bus A 8 SOD 4 TRAP AD 7 RESET 7.5 RESET 6.5 AD 0 ALE RESET 5.5 S 1 INTR READY S 0 HOLD IO / M RESET IN RD HLDA WR INTA REST OUT CLK OUT Signal Groups of 8085 RES RES RES TRAP SID INTA SIO 5 . 5 6 . 5 7 . 5 INT INTERRUPT CONTROL SERIAL I / O 8 BIT INTERNAL DATA BUS INSTRUCTIO TEMP (8) ACCUMULATO MULTIPLXER N REGISTER ( 8 ) (8) R W ( 8 ) E TEMP . G REG B REG ( 8 ) C REG ( . FLAG D REG ( 8 S E REG ( 8 ( 5) E FLIP H REG INSTRUCTIO L REG ( 8 L ARITHEMETIC (8 ) N DECODER E STACK POINTER LOGIC UNIT ( ( 16 ) AND C PROGRAM COUNTER ( MACHINE T (8) +5V INCREAMENT / DECREAMENT ADDRESS LATCH ( 16 ) GND X TIMING AND CONTROL 1 CLK ADDRESS BUFFER DATA / ADDRESS GEN (8) BUFFER X 2 CONTRO STATUS DMA (8) CLK RESET A A 15 – 8 OUT S S AD – AD ADDRESS / 0 1 7 0 HOLD READY R WR AL IO / M HLDA RESET ADDRESS BUFFER BUS Block Diagram Flag Registers D D D D D D D D 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 S Z AC P CY General Purpose Registers INDIVIDUAL B, C, D, E, H, L COMBININATON B C, D E, H L Memory • Program, data and stack memories occupy the same memory space. The total addressable memory size is 64 KB. • Program memory program can be located anywhere in memory. Jump, branch and call instructions use 16bit addresses, i.e. they can be used to jump/branch anywhere within 64 KB. All jump/branch instructions use absolute addressing. • Data memory the processor always uses 16bit addresses so that data can be placed anywhere. • Stack memory is limited only by the size of memory. Stack grows downward. • First 64 bytes in a zero memory page should be reserved for vectors used by RST instructions. Interrupts • The processor has 5 interrupts. They are presented below in the order of their priority (from lowest to highest): • INTR is maskable 8080A compatible interrupt. When the interrupt occurs the processor fetches from the bus one instruction, usually one of these instructions: • One of the 8 RST instructions (RST RST ). The processor saves current 0 7 program counter into stack and branches to memory location N 8 (where N is a 3bit number from 0 to 7 supplied with the RST instruction). • CALL instruction (3 byte instruction). The processor calls the subroutine, address of which is specified in the second and third bytes of the instruction. • RST5.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 2CH (hexadecimal) address. • RST6.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 34H (hexadecimal) address. • RST7.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 3CH (hexadecimal) address. • TRAP is a nonmaskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 24H (hexadecimal) address. • All maskable interrupts can be enabled or disabled using EI and DI instructions. RST 5.5, RST6.5 and RST7.5 interrupts can be enabled or disabled individually using SIM instruction. Reset Signals • RESET IN: When this signal goes low, the program counter (PC) is set to Zero, µp is reset and resets the interrupt enable and HLDA flipflops. • The data and address buses and the control lines are 3stated during RESET and because of asynchronous nature of RESET, the processor internal registers and flags may be altered by RESET with unpredictable results. • RESET IN is a Schmitttriggered input, allowing connection to an RC network for poweron RESET delay. • Upon powerup, RESET IN must remain low for at least 10 ms after minimum Vcc has been reached. • For proper reset operation after the power – up duration, RESET IN should be kept low a minimum of three clock periods. • The CPU is held in the reset condition as long as RESET IN is applied. Typical Poweron RESET RC values R1 = 75KΩ, C1 = 1µF. • RESET OUT: This signal indicates that µp is being reset. This signal can be used to reset other devices. The signal is synchronized to the processor clock and lasts an integral number of clock periods. Serial communication Signal • SID Serial Input Data Line: The data on this line is loaded into accumulator bit 7 whenever a RIM instruction is executed. • SOD – Serial Output Data Line: The SIM instruction loads the value of bit 7 of the accumulator into SOD latch if bit 6 (SOE) of the accumulator is 1. DMA Signals • HOLD: Indicates that another master is requesting the use of the address and data buses. The CPU, upon receiving the hold request, will relinquish the use of the bus as soon as the completion of the current bus transfer. • Internal processing can continue. The processor can regain the bus only after the HOLD is removed. • When the HOLD is acknowledged, the Address, Data RD, WR and IO/M lines are 3stated. • HLDA: Hold Acknowledge: Indicates that the CPU has received the HOLD request and that it will relinquish the bus in the next clock cycle. • HLDA goes low after the Hold request is removed. The CPU takes the bus one halfclock cycle after HLDA goes low. • READY: This signal Synchronizes the fast CPU and the slow memory, peripherals. • If READY is high during a read or write cycle, it indicates that the memory or peripheral is ready to send or receive data. • If READY is low, the CPU will wait an integral number of clock cycle for READY to go high before completing the read or write cycle. • READY must conform to specified setup and hold times. Registers • Accumulator or A register is an 8bit register used for arithmetic, logic, I/O and load/store operations. • Flag Register has five 1bit flags. • Sign set if the most significant bit of the result is set. • Zero set if the result is zero. • Auxiliary carry set if there was a carry out from bit 3 to bit 4 of the result. • Parity set if the parity (the number of set bits in the result) is even. • Carry set if there was a carry during addition, or borrow during subtraction/comparison/rotation. General Registers • 8bit B and 8bit C registers can be used as one 16bit BC register pair. When used as a pair the C register contains loworder byte. Some instructions may use BC register as a data pointer. • 8bit D and 8bit E registers can be used as one 16bit DE register pair. When used as a pair the E register contains loworder byte. Some instructions may use DE register as a data pointer. • 8bit H and 8bit L registers can be used as one 16bit HL register pair. When used as a pair the L register contains loworder byte. HL register usually contains a data pointer used to reference memory addresses. • Stack pointer is a 16 bit register. This register is always decremented/incremented by 2 during push and pop. • Program counter is a 16bit register. Instruction Set • 8085 instruction set consists of the following instructions: • Data moving instructions. • Arithmetic add, subtract, increment and decrement. • Logic AND, OR, XOR and rotate. • Control transfer conditional, unconditional, call subroutine, return from subroutine and restarts. • Input/Output instructions. • Other setting/clearing flag bits, enabling/disabling interrupts, stack operations, etc. Addressing mode • Register references the data in a register or in a register pair. Register indirect instruction specifies register pair containing address, where the data is located. Direct, Immediate 8 or 16bit data. 8086 Microprocessor •It is a 16bit µp. 20 •8086 has a 20 bit address bus can access up to 2 memory locations (1 MB) . •It can support up to 64K I/O ports. •It provides 14, 16 bit registers. •It has multiplexed address and data bus AD AD and A – A . 0 15 16 19 •It requires single phase clock with 33 duty cycle to provide internal timing. •8086 is designed to operate in two modes, Minimum and Maximum. •It can prefetches upto 6 instruction bytes from memory and queues them in order to speed up instruction execution. •It requires +5V power supply. •A 40 pin dual in line package Minimum and Maximum Modes: •The minimum mode is selected by applying logic 1 to the MN / MX input pin. This is a single microprocessor configuration. • The maximum mode is selected by applying logic 0 to the MN / MX input pin. This is a multi micro processors configuration. Pin Diagram of 8086 GND 40 V 1 CC AD 14 AD 39 15 2 AD 3 38 A S 13 16 / 3 4 AD 37 A / S 12 17 4 A / S 18 5 5 AD 36 11 6 A /S AD 35 19 6 10 BHE / S 7 AD 7 34 9 MN/MX AD 8 8 8086 33 AD 7 9 32 RD CPU AD 6 10 RQ / GT 0 ( HOLD) 31 AD 5 11 RQ / GT 1 ( HLDA) 30 AD 4 12 29 LOCK (WR) AD 3 13 (M / IO ) S 2 28 AD 2 (DT / R) S 14 1 27 AD 1 15 26 S (DEN) 0 AD 0 25 QS (ALE) 0 16 NMI QS (INTA) 24 1 17 INTR 18 23 TEST CLK 19 22 READY GND 20 21 RESET V GND CC A A15, A / S – A /S 0 16 3 19 6 INTR INTA ADDRESS / DATA BUS INTERRUPT INTERFACE TEST D D 0 15 8086 NMI ALE MPU BHE / S RESET 7 M / IO MEMORY DT / R I / O HOLD DMA CONTROLS RD INTERFACE HLDA WR V CC DEN MODE SELECT READY MN / MX CLK Signal Groups of 8086 AH AL ADDRESS BH BL ∑ ( 20 ) CH CL BITS GENERAL DH DL REGISTERS SP DATA BUS BP ( 16 ) SI BITS DI ES CS SS DS ALU DATA IP 8 16 BITS 0 8 BUS 6 TEMPORARY CONTR B U OL S EU ALU INSTRUCTION CONTRO Q L 1 23 4 5 6 8 BIT FLAGS BUS INTERFACE UNIT ( BIU) EXECUTION UNIT ( EU ) Block Diagram of 8086 Internal Architecture of 8086 •8086 has two blocks BIU and EU. •The BIU performs all bus operations such as instruction fetching, reading and writing operands for memory and calculating the addresses of the memory operands. The instruction bytes are transferred to the instruction queue. •EU executes instructions from the instruction system byte queue. •Both units operate asynchronously to give the 8086 an overlapping instruction fetch and execution mechanism which is called as Pipelining. This results in efficient use of the system bus and system performance. •BIU contains Instruction queue, Segment registers, Instruction pointer, Address adder. •EU contains Control circuitry, Instruction decoder, ALU, Pointer and Index register, Flag register. •BUS INTERFACR UNIT: • It provides a full 16 bit bidirectional data bus and 20 bit address bus. •The bus interface unit is responsible for performing all external bus operations. Specifically it has the following functions: •Instruction fetch, Instruction queuing, Operand fetch and storage, Address relocation and Bus control. •The BIU uses a mechanism known as an instruction stream queue to implement a pipeline architecture. •This queue permits prefetch of up to six bytes of instruction code. When ever the queue of the BIU is not full, it has room for at least two more bytes and at the same time the EU is not requesting it to read or write operands from memory, the BIU is free to look ahead in the program by prefetching the next sequential instruction. •These prefetching instructions are held in its FIFO queue. With its 16 bit data bus, the BIU fetches two instruction bytes in a single memory cycle. •After a byte is loaded at the input end of the queue, it automatically shifts up through the FIFO to the empty location nearest the output. •The EU accesses the queue from the output end. It reads one instruction byte after the other from the output of the queue. If the queue is full and the EU is not requesting access to operand in memory. •These intervals of no bus activity, which may occur between bus cycles are known as Idle state. •If the BIU is already in the process of fetching an instruction when the EU request it to read or write operands from memory or I/O, the BIU first completes the instruction fetch bus cycle before initiating the operand read / write cycle. •The BIU also contains a dedicated adder which is used to generate the 20bit physical address that is output on the address bus. This address is formed by adding an appended 16 bit segment address and a 16 bit offset address. •For example: The physical address of the next instruction to be fetched is formed by combining the current contents of the code segment CS register and the current contents of the instruction pointer IP register. •The BIU is also responsible for generating bus control signals such as those for memory read or write and I/O read or write. •EXECUTION UNIT The Execution unit is responsible for decoding and executing all instructions. •The EU extracts instructions from the top of the queue in the BIU, decodes them, generates operands if necessary, passes them to the BIU and requests it to perform the read or write bys cycles to memory or I/O and perform the operation specified by the instruction on the operands. •During the execution of the instruction, the EU tests the status and control flags and updates them based on the results of executing the instruction. •If the queue is empty, the EU waits for the next instruction byte to be fetched and shifted to top of the queue. •When the EU executes a branch or jump instruction, it transfers control to a location corresponding to another set of sequential instructions. •Whenever this happens, the BIU automatically resets the queue and then begins to fetch instructions from this new location to refill the queue. Signal Description of 8086 •The Microprocessor 8086 is a 16bit CPU available in different clock rates and packaged in a 40 pin CERDIP or plastic package. •The 8086 operates in single processor or multiprocessor configuration to achieve high performance. The pins serve a particular function in minimum mode (single processor mode ) and other function in maximum mode configuration (multiprocessor mode ). •The 8086 signals can be categorised in three groups. The first are the signal having common functions in minimum as well as maximum mode. •The second are the signals which have special functions for minimum mode and third are the signals having special functions for maximum mode. •The following signal descriptions are common for both modes. •AD AD : These are the time multiplexed memory I/O address and data lines. 15 0 • Address remains on the lines during T state, while the data is available on the data bus 1 during T , T , T and T . 2 3 w 4 • These lines are active high and float to a tristate during interrupt acknowledge and local bus hold acknowledge cycles. •A /S ,A /S ,A /S ,A /S : These are the time multiplexed address and status lines. 19 6 18 5 17 4 16 3 • During T these are the most significant address lines for memory operations. 1 •During I/O operations, these lines are low. During memory or I/O operations, status information is available on those lines for T ,T ,T and T . 2 3 w 4 • The status of the interrupt enable flag bit is updated at the beginning of each clock cycle. •The S and S combinedly indicate which segment register is presently being used for 4 3 memory accesses as in below fig. •These lines float to tristate off during the local bus hold acknowledge. The status line S 6 is always low . •The address bit are separated from the status bit using latches controlled by the ALE signal. S S Indication 4 3 Alternate Data 0 0 Stack 0 1 Code or none 1 0 Data 1 1 •BHE/S : The bus high enable is used to indicate the transfer of data over the higher 7 order ( D D ) data bus as shown in table. It goes low for the data transfer over D D 15 8 15 8 and is used to derive chip selects of odd address memory bank or peripherals. BHE is low during T for read, write and interrupt acknowledge cycles, whenever a byte is to be 1 transferred on higher byte of data bus. The status information is available during T , T 2 3 and T . The signal is active low and tristated during hold. It is low during T for the first 4 1 pulse of the interrupt acknowledge cycle. Whole word 0 0 Upper byte from or to even address Upper byte from or to odd address 0 1 Lower byte from or to even address 1 0 •RD – Read : This signal on low indicates the peripheral that the processor is performing s memory or I/O read operation. RD is active low and shows the state for T , T , T of 2 3 w any read cycle. The signal remains tristated during the hold acknowledge. •READY : This is the acknowledgement from the slow device or memory that they have completed the data transfer. The signal made available by the devices is synchronized by the 8284A clock generator to provide ready input to the 8086. the signal is active high. •INTRInterrupt Request : This is a triggered input. This is sampled during the last clock cycles of each instruction to determine the availability of the request. If any interrupt request is pending, the processor enters the interrupt acknowledge cycle. •This can be internally masked by resulting the interrupt enable flag. This signal is active high and internally synchronized. •TEST : This input is examined by a ‘WAIT’ instruction. If the TEST pin goes low, execution will continue, else the processor remains in an idle state. The input is synchronized internally during each clock cycle on leading edge of clock. •CLK Clock Input : The clock input provides the basic timing for processor operation and bus control activity. Its an asymmetric square wave with 33 duty cycle. •MN/MX : The logic level at this pin decides whether the processor is to operate in either minimum or maximum mode. •The following pin functions are for the minimum mode operation of 8086. •M/IO – Memory/IO : This is a status line logically equivalent to S in maximum mode. 2 When it is low, it indicates the CPU is having an I/O operation, and when it is high, it indicates that the CPU is having a memory operation. This line becomes active high in the previous T and remains active till final T of the current cycle. It is tristated during 4 4 local bus “hold acknowledge “. •INTA – Interrupt Acknowledge : This signal is used as a read strobe for interrupt acknowledge cycles. i.e. when it goes low, the processor has accepted the interrupt. •ALE – Address Latch Enable : This output signal indicates the availability of the valid address on the address/data lines, and is connected to latch enable input of latches. This signal is active high and is never tristated. •DT/R – Data Transmit/Receive: This output is used to decide the direction of data flow through the transreceivers (bidirectional buffers). When the processor sends out data, this signal is high and when the processor is receiving data, this signal is low. •DEN – Data Enable : This signal indicates the availability of valid data over the address/data lines. It is used to enable the transreceivers ( bidirectional buffers ) to separate the data from the multiplexed address/data signal. It is active from the middle of T until the middle of T . This is tristated during ‘ hold acknowledge’ cycle. 2 4 •HOLD, HLDA Acknowledge : When the HOLD line goes high, it indicates to the processor that another master is requesting the bus access. •The processor, after receiving the HOLD request, issues the hold acknowledge signal on HLDA pin, in the middle of the next clock cycle after completing the current bus cycle. •At the same time, the processor floats the local bus and control lines. When the processor detects the HOLD line low, it lowers the HLDA signal. HOLD is an asynchronous input, and is should be externally synchronized. •If the DMA request is made while the CPU is performing a memory or I/O cycle, it will release the local bus during T provided : 4 1.The request occurs on or before T state of the current cycle. 2 2.The current cycle is not operating over the lower byte of a word. 3.The current cycle is not the first acknowledge of an interrupt acknowledge sequence. 4. A Lock instruction is not being executed. •The following pin function are applicable for maximum mode operation of 8086. •S , S , S – Status Lines : These are the status lines which reflect the type of operation, 2 1 0 being carried out by the processor. These become activity during T of the previous cycle 4 and active during T and T of the current bus cycles. 1 2 S S S Indication 2 1 0 0 Interrupt Acknowledge 0 0 0 Read I/O port 0 1 0 1 0 Write I/O port 0 1 1 Halt 1 0 0 Code Access 1 0 1 Read memory 1 1 0 Write memory Passive 1 1 1 1 1 •LOCK : This output pin indicates that other system bus master will be prevented from gaining the system bus, while the LOCK signal is low. •The LOCK signal is activated by the ‘LOCK’ prefix instruction and remains active until the completion of the next instruction. When the CPU is executing a critical instruction which requires the system bus, the LOCK prefix instruction ensures that other processors connected in the system will not gain the control of the bus. • The 8086, while executing the prefixed instruction, asserts the bus lock signal output, which may be connected to an external bus controller. •By prefetching the instruction, there is a considerable speeding up in instruction execution in 8086. This is known as instruction pipelining. •At the starting the CS:IP is loaded with the required address from which the execution is to be started. Initially, the queue will be empty an the microprocessor starts a fetch operation to bring one byte (the first byte) of instruction code, if the CS:IP address is odd or two bytes at a time, if the CS:IP address is even. •The first byte is a complete opcode in case of some instruction (one byte opcode instruction) and is a part of opcode, in case of some instructions ( two byte opcode instructions), the remaining part of code lie in second byte. •The second byte is then decoded in continuation with the first byte to decide the instruction length and the number of subsequent bytes to be treated as instruction data. •The queue is updated after every byte is read from the queue but the fetch cycle is initiated by BIU only if at least two bytes of the queue are empty and the EU may be concurrently executing the fetched instructions. •The next byte after the instruction is completed is again the first opcode byte of the next instruction. A similar procedure is repeated till the complete execution of the program. •The fetch operation of the next instruction is overlapped with the execution of the current instruction. As in the architecture, there are two separate units, namely Execution unit and Bus interface unit. •While the execution unit is busy in executing an instruction, after it is completely decoded, the bus interface unit may be fetching the bytes of the next instruction from memory, depending upon the queue status. QS QS Indication 1 0 No operation 0 0 First byte of the opcode from the queue 1 0 Empty queue 1 0 Subsequent byte from the queue 1 1 •RQ/GT , RQ/GT – Request/Grant : These pins are used by the other local bus master 0 1 in maximum mode, to force the processor to release the local bus at the end of the processor current bus cycle. •Each of the pin is bidirectional with RQ/GT having higher priority than RQ/GT . 0 1 •RQ/GT pins have internal pullup resistors and may be left unconnected. •Request/Grant sequence is as follows: 1.A pulse of one clock wide from another bus master requests the bus access to 8086. 2.During T (current) or T (next) clock cycle, a pulse one clock wide from 8086 to the 4 1 requesting master, indicates that the 8086 has allowed the local bus to float and that it will enter the ‘hold acknowledge’ state at next cycle. The CPU bus interface unit is likely to be disconnected from the local bus of the system. 3.A one clock wide pulse from the another master indicates to the 8086 that the hold request is about to end and the 8086 may regain control of the local bus at the next clock cycle. Thus each master to master exchange of the local bus is a sequence of 3 pulses. There must be at least one dead clock cycle after each bus exchange. •The request and grant pulses are active low. •For the bus request those are received while 8086 is performing memory or I/O cycle, the granting of the bus is governed by the rules as in case of HOLD and HLDA in minimum mode. General Bus Operation •The 8086 has a combined address and data bus commonly referred as a time multiplexed address and data bus. • The main reason behind multiplexing address and data over the same pins is the maximum utilisation of processor pins and it facilitates the use of 40 pin standard DIP package. •The bus can be demultiplexed using a few latches and transreceivers, when ever required. •Basically, all the processor bus cycles consist of at least four clock cycles. These are referred to as T , T , T , T . The address is transmitted by the processor during T . It is 1 2 3 4 1 present on the bus only for one cycle. •The negative edge of this ALE pulse is used to separate the address and the data or status information. In maximum mode, the status lines S , S and S are used to indicate the 0 1 2 type of operation. •Status bits S to S are multiplexed with higher order address bits and the BHE signal. 3 7 Address is valid during T while status bits S to S are valid during T through T . 1 3 7 2 4 Memory read cycle Memory write cycle T T T T T T T T T T 1 2 3 w 4 1 2 3 w 4 CLK ALE S – S 2 0 A A S S A A S S 19 16 3 7 19 16 3 7 Add/stat BHE BHE Bus reserve Add/data for Data In Data Out D – D 15 0 A A D D A A D D 0 15 15 0 0 15 15 0 RD/INTA Ready Ready READY DT/R Wait Wait DEN WR Memory access time General Bus Operation Cycle in Maximum Mode Minimum Mode 8086 System •In a minimum mode 8086 system, the microprocessor 8086 is operated in minimum mode by strapping its MN/MX pin to logic 1. •In this mode, all the control signals are given out by the microprocessor chip itself. There is a single microprocessor in the minimum mode system. •The remaining components in the system are latches, transreceivers, clock generator, memory and I/O devices. Some type of chip selection logic may be required for selecting memory or I/O devices, depending upon the address map of the system. •Latches are generally buffered output Dtype flipflops like 74LS373 or 8282. They are used for separating the valid address from the multiplexed address/data signals and are controlled by the ALE signal generated by 8086. •Transreceivers are the bidirectional buffers and some times they are called as data amplifiers. They are required to separate the valid data from the time multiplexed address/data signals. •They are controlled by two signals namely, DEN and DT/R. •The DEN signal indicates the direction of data, i.e. from or to the processor. The system contains memory for the monitor and users program storage. •Usually, EPROM are used for monitor storage, while RAM for users program storage. A system may contain I/O devices. • •The working of the minimum mode configuration system can be better described in terms of the timing diagrams rather than qualitatively describing the operations. •The opcode fetch and read cycles are similar. Hence the timing diagram can be categorized in two parts, the first is the timing diagram for read cycle and the second is the timing diagram for write cycle. •The read cycle begins in T with the assertion of address latch enable (ALE) signal and 1 also M / IO signal. During the negative going edge of this signal, the valid address is latched on the local bus. •The BHE and A signals address low, high or both bytes. From T to T , the M/IO 0 1 4 signal indicates a memory or I/O operation. •At T , the address is removed from the local bus and is sent to the output. The bus is 2 then tristated. The read (RD) control signal is also activated in T . 2 •The read (RD) signal causes the address device to enable its data bus drivers. After RD goes low, the valid data is available on the data bus. •The addressed device will drive the READY line high. When the processor returns the read signal to high level, the addressed device will again tristate its bus drivers. •A write cycle also begins with the assertion of ALE and the emission of the address. The M/IO signal is again asserted to indicate a memory or I/O operation. In T , after sending 2 the address in T , the processor sends the data to be written to the addressed location. 1 •The data remains on the bus until middle of T state. The WR becomes active at the 4 beginning of T (unlike RD is somewhat delayed in T to provide time for floating). 2 2 •The BHE and A signals are used to select the proper byte or bytes of memory or I/O 0 word to be read or write. •The M/IO, RD and WR signals indicate the type of data transfer as specified in table below. T 1 T T T T T 2 3 W 4 1 Clk ALE BHE S – S 7 3 ADD / STATUS A – A 19 16 ADD / DATA A – A 15 0 Valid data D – D 15 0 WR DEN DT / R Write Cycle Timing Diagram for Minimum Mode •Hold Response sequence: The HOLD pin is checked at leading edge of each clock pulse. If it is received active by the processor before T of the previous cycle or during T 4 1 state of the current cycle, the CPU activates HLDA in the next clock cycle and for succeeding bus cycles, the bus will be given to another requesting master. •The control of the bus is not regained by the processor until the requesting master does not drop the HOLD pin low. When the request is dropped by the requesting master, the HLDA is dropped by the processor at the trailing edge of the next clock. Clk HOLD HLDA Bus Request and Bus Grant Timings in Minimum Mode System Maximum Mode 8086 System •In the maximum mode, the 8086 is operated by strapping the MN/MX pin to ground. •In this mode, the processor derives the status signal S , S , S . Another chip called bus 2 1 0 controller derives the control signal using this status information . •In the maximum mode, there may be more than one microprocessor in the system configuration. •The components in the system are same as in the minimum mode system. •The basic function of the bus controller chip IC8288, is to derive control signals like RD and WR ( for memory and I/O devices), DEN, DT/R, ALE etc. using the information by the processor on the status lines. •The bus controller chip has input lines S , S , S and CLK. These inputs to 8288 are 2 1 0 driven by CPU. •It derives the outputs ALE, DEN, DT/R, MRDC, MWTC, AMWC, IORC, IOWC and AIOWC. The AEN, IOB and CEN pins are specially useful for multiprocessor systems. • •AEN and IOB are generally grounded. CEN pin is usually tied to +5V. The significance of the MCE/PDEN output depends upon the status of the IOB pin. •If IOB is grounded, it acts as master cascade enable to control cascade 8259A, else it acts as peripheral data enable used in the multiple bus configurations. •INTA pin used to issue two interrupt acknowledge pulses to the interrupt controller or to an interrupting device. •IORC, IOWC are I/O read command and I/O write command signals respectively . These signals enable an IO interface to read or write the data from or to the address port. •The MRDC, MWTC are memory read command and memory write command signals respectively and may be used as memory read or write signals. •All these command signals instructs the memory to accept or send data from or to the bus. •For both of these write command signals, the advanced signals namely AIOWC and AMWTC are available. •Here the only difference between in timing diagram between minimum mode and maximum mode is the status signals used and the available control and advanced command signals. Clk DEN S DT/ R 0 Control bus S 1 IORC 8288 IOWT S 2 MWTC AEN S Reset 0 Reset IOB Clk S MRDC 1 AL CEN Clk Generator S 2 8284 + 5V RDY Ready 8086 CLK AD AD 6 15 A/D Address bus Latches A A 16 19 A dd DT/R bu A BHE 0 DIR Data CS0 CS0 H L RD CS WR RD WR buffer DEN G Peripheral Memory Data bus Maximum Mode 8086 System. •R , S , S are set at the beginning of bus cycle.8288 bus controller will output a pulse as 0 1 2 on the ALE and apply a required signal to its DT / R pin during T . 1 •In T , 8288 will set DEN=1 thus enabling transceivers, and for an input it will activate 2 MRDC or IORC. These signals are activated until T . For an output, the AMWC or 4 AIOWC is activated from T to T and MWTC or IOWC is activated from T to T . 2 4 3 4 •The status bit S to S remains active until T and become passive during T and T . 0 2 3 3 4 •If reader input is not activated before T , wait state will be inserted between T and T . 3 3 4 •Timings for RQ/ GT Signals : The request/grant response sequence contains a series of three pulses. The request/grant pins are checked at each rising pulse of clock input. •When a request is detected and if the condition for HOLD request are satisfied, the processor issues a grant pulse over the RQ/GT pin immediately during T (current) or T 4 1 (next) state. •When the requesting master receives this pulse, it accepts the control of the bus, it sends a release pulse to the processor using RQ/GT pin. One bus cycle T T T T T 1 2 3 4 1 Clk ALE Inactive S – S Active Active 2 0 Add/Status BHE, A – A S – S 19 16 7 3 Add/Data A – A 15 0 D – D 15 0 MRDC DT / R DEN Memory Read Timing in Maximum Mode One bus cycle T T T T T 1 2 3 4 1 Clk ALE Inactive S – S Active Active 2 0 ADD/STATUS BHE S – S 7 3 A A ADD/DATA 15 0 Data out D – D 15 0 AMWC or AIOWC MWTC or IOWC high DT / R DEN Memory Write Timing in Maximum mode. Clk RQ / GT Another master Master releases CPU grant bus request bus access RQ/GT Timings in Maximum Mode. Minimum Mode Interface •When the Minimum mode operation is selected, the 8086 provides all control signals needed to implement the memory and I/O interface. •The minimum mode signal can be divided into the following basic groups : address/data bus, status, control, interrupt and DMA. •Address/Data Bus : these lines serve two functions. As an address bus is 20 bits long and consists of signal lines A through A . A represents the MSB and A LSB. A 20bit 0 19 19 0 address gives the 8086 a 1Mbyte memory address space. More over it has an independent I/O address space which is 64K bytes in length. •The 16 data bus lines D through D are actually multiplexed with address lines A 0 15 0 through A respectively. By multiplexed we mean that the bus work as an address bus 15 during first machine cycle and as a data bus during next machine cycles. D is the MSB 15 and D LSB. 0 •When acting as a data bus, they carry read/write data for memory, input/output data for I/O devices, and interrupt type codes from an interrupt controller. Vcc GND INTR A A ,A /S – A /S 0 15 16 3 19 6 INTA Interrupt Address / data bus interface TEST D – D 0 15 NMI 8086 ALE MPU RESET BHE / S 7 M / IO Memory I/O HOLD controls DMA DT / R interface RD HLDA WR Vcc DEN Mode select READY MN / MX CLK clock Block Diagram of the Minimum Mode 8086 MPU •Status signal: The four most significant address lines A through A are also multiplexed but in this 19 16 case with status signals S through S . These status bits are output on the bus at the same 6 3 time that data are transferred over the other bus lines. •Bit S and S together from a 2 bit binary code that identifies which of the 8086 internal 4 3 segment registers are used to generate the physical address that was output on the address bus during the current bus cycle. •Code S S = 00 identifies a register known as extra segment register as the source of the 4 3 segment address. •Status line S reflects the status of another internal characteristic of the 8086. It is the 5 logic level of the internal enable flag. The last status bit S is always at the logic 0 level. 6 S S 4 3 Segment Register Extra 0 0 1 Stack 0 Code / none 1 0 Data 1 1 Memory segment status codes. •Control Signals : The control signals are provided to support the 8086 memory I/O interfaces. They control functions such as when the bus is to carry a valid address in which direction data are to be transferred over the bus, when valid write data are on the bus and when to put read data on the system bus. •ALE is a pulse to logic 1 that signals external circuitry when a valid address word is on the bus. This address must be latched in external circuitry on the 1to0 edge of the pulse at ALE. •Another control signal that is produced during the bus cycle is BHE bank high enable. Logic 0 on this used as a memory enable signal for the most significant byte half of the data bus D through D . These lines also serves a second function, which is as the S 8 1 7 status line. •Using the M/IO and DT/R lines, the 8086 signals which type of bus cycle is in progress and in which direction data are to be transferred over the bus. •The logic level of M/IO tells external circuitry whether a memory or I/O transfer is taking place over the bus. Logic 1 at this output signals a memory operation and logic 0 an I/O operation. •The direction of data transfer over the bus is signaled by the logic level output at DT/R. When this line is logic 1 during the data transfer part of a bus cycle, the bus is in the transmit mode. Therefore, data are either written into memory or output to an I/O device. •On the other hand, logic 0 at DT/R signals that the bus is in the receive mode. This corresponds to reading data from memory or input of data from an input port. •The signal read RD and write WR indicates that a read bus cycle or a write bus cycle is in progress. The 8086 switches WR to logic 0 to signal external device that valid write or output data are on the bus. • On the other hand, RD indicates that the 8086 is performing a read of data of the bus. During read operations, one other control signal is also supplied. This is DEN ( data enable) and it signals external devices when they should put data on the bus. •There is one other control signal that is involved with the memory and I/O interface. This is the READY signal. •READY signal is used to insert wait states into the bus cycle such that it is extended by a number of clock periods. This signal is provided by an external clock generator device and can be supplied by the memory or I/O subsystem to signal the 8086 when they are ready to permit the data transfer to be completed. •Interrupt signals : The key interrupt interface signals are interrupt request (INTR) and interrupt acknowledge ( INTA). •INTR is an input to the 8086 that can be used by an external device to signal that it need to be serviced. •Logic 1 at INTR represents an active interrupt request. When an interrupt request has been recognized by the 8086, it indicates this fact to external circuit with pulse to logic 0 at the INTA output. •The TEST input is also related to the external interrupt interface. Execution of a WAIT instruction causes the 8086 to check the logic level at the TEST input. •If the logic 1 is found, the MPU suspend operation and goes into the idle state. The 8086 no longer executes instructions, instead it repeatedly checks the logic level of the TEST input waiting for its transition back to logic 0. •As TEST switches to 0, execution resume with the next instruction in the program. This feature can be used to synchronize the operation of the 8086 to an event in external hardware. •There are two more inputs in the interrupt interface: the nonmaskable interrupt NMI and the reset interrupt RESET. •On the 0to1 transition of NMI control is passed to a nonmaskable interrupt service routine. The RESET input is used to provide a hardware reset for the 8086. Switching RESET to logic 0 initializes the internal register of the 8086 and initiates a reset service routine. •DMA Interface signals :The direct memory access DMA interface of the 8086 minimum mode consist of the HOLD and HLDA signals. •When an external device wants to take control of the system bus, it signals to the 8086 by switching HOLD to the logic 1 level. At the completion of the current bus cycle, the 8086 enters the hold state. In the hold state, signal lines AD through AD , A /S 0 15 16 3through A /S , BHE, M/IO, DT/R, RD, WR, DEN and INTR are all in the high Z state. 19 6 The 8086 signals external device that it is in this state by switching its HLDA output to logic 1 level. Maximum Mode Interface •When the 8086 is set for the maximummode configuration, it provides signals for implementing a multiprocessor / coprocessor system environment. •By multiprocessor environment we mean that one microprocessor exists in the system and that each processor is executing its own program. • Usually in this type of system environment, there are some system resources that are common to all processors. •They are called as global resources. There are also other resources that are assigned to specific processors. These are known as local or private resources. •Coprocessor also means that there is a second processor in the system. In this two processor does not access the bus at the same time. •One passes the control of the system bus to the other and then may suspend its operation. •In the maximummode 8086 system, facilities are provided for implementing allocation of global resources and passing bus control to other microprocessor or coprocessor. INIT Multi Bus S 0 BUSY S CBRQ 1 S BPRO 2 8289 LOCK Bus BPRN CRQLCK RESB BREQ CLK SYSB/RESB Vcc GND BCLK CLK AEN IOB ANYREQ CLK AEN INTR LOCK IOB S 0 MRDC CLK TEST AEN IOB MWTC S 1 S 0 NMI AMWC S IORC 1 8288 Bus S 2 RESET IOWC S controller 2 AIOWC DEN INTA DT/ R MCE / PDEN 8086 MPU ALE DEN DT / R ALE A A , 0 15 A /S A /S 16 3 19 6 MN/MX D – D 0 15 BHE RD READY QS , QS 1 0 Local bus control RQ / GT RQ / GT 1 0 8086 Maximum mode Block Diagram •8288 Bus Controller – Bus Command and Control Signals: 8086 does not directly provide all the signals that are required to control the memory, I/O and interrupt interfaces. •Specially the WR, M/IO, DT/R, DEN, ALE and INTA, signals are no longer produced by the 8086. Instead it outputs three status signals S , S , S prior to the initiation of each 0 1 2 bus cycle. This 3 bit bus status code identifies which type of bus cycle is to follow. •S S S are input to the external bus controller device, the bus controller generates the 2 1 0 appropriately timed command and control signals. Status Inputs CPU Cycles 8288 S S S Command 2 1 0 Interrupt Acknowledge 0 0 0 INTA Read I/O Port IORC 0 0 1 IOWC, AIOWC 0 1 0 Write I/O Port 0 1 1 Halt None MRDC 0 1 0 Instruction Fetch MRDC 1 0 1 Read Memory 1 MWTC, AMWC Write Memory 1 0 1 None 1 Passive 1 Bus Status Codes •The 8288 produces one or two of these eight command signals for each bus cycles. For instance, when the 8086 outputs the code S S S equals 001, it indicates that an I/O read 2 1 0 cycle is to be performed. •In the code 111 is output by the 8086, it is signaling that no bus activity is to take place. •The control outputs produced by the 8288 are DEN, DT/R and ALE. These 3 signals provide the same functions as those described for the minimum system mode. This set of bus commands and control signals is compatible with the Multibus and industry standard for interfacing microprocessor systems. •The output of 8289 are bus arbitration signals: Bus busy (BUSY), common bus request (CBRQ), bus priority out (BPRO), bus priority in (BPRN), bus request (BREQ) and bus clock (BCLK). •They correspond to the bus exchange signals of the Multibus and are used to lock other processor off the system bus during the execution of an instruction by the 8086. •In this way the processor can be assured of uninterrupted access to common system resources such as global memory. •Queue Status Signals : Two new signals that are produced by the 8086 in the maximummode system are queue status outputs QS and QS . Together they form a 2bit 0 1 queue status code, QS QS . 1 0 •Following table shows the four different queue status. QS QS Queue Status 1 0 No Operation. During the last clock cycle, nothing was 0 0 (low) taken from the queue. First Byte. The byte taken from the queue was the first byte 0 1 of the instruction. 1 (high) Queue Empty. The queue has been reinitialized as a result 0 of the execution of a transfer instruction. Subsequent Byte. The byte taken from the queue was a 1 1 subsequent byte of the instruction. Queue status codes •Local Bus Control Signal – Request / Grant Signals: In a maximum mode configuration, the minimum mode HOLD, HLDA interface is also changed. These two are replaced by request/grant lines RQ/ GT and RQ/ GT , respectively. They provide a 0 1 prioritized bus access mechanism for accessing the local bus. Internal Registers of 8086 •The 8086 has four groups of the user accessible internal registers. They are the instruction pointer, four data registers, four pointer and index register, four segment registers. •The 8086 has a total of fourteen 16bit registers including a 16 bit register called the status register, with 9 of bits implemented for status and control flags. •Most of the registers contain data/instruction offsets within 64 KB memory segment. There are four different 64 KB segments for instructions, stack, data and extra data. To specify where in 1 MB of processor memory these 4 segments are located the processor uses four segment registers: •Code segment (CS) is a 16bit register containing address of 64 KB segment with processor instructions. The processor uses CS segment for all accesses to instructions referenced by instruction pointer (IP) register. CS register cannot be changed directly. The CS register is automatically updated during far jump, far call and far return instructions. •Stack segment (SS) is a 16bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program stack. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by the stack pointer (SP) and base pointer (BP) registers is located in the stack segment. SS register can be changed directly using POP instruction. •Data segment (DS) is a 16bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program data. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by general registers (AX, BX, CX, DX) and index register (SI, DI) is located in the data segment. DS register can be changed directly using POP and LDS instructions. •Accumulator register consists of two 8bit registers AL and AH, which can be combined together and used as a 16bit register AX. AL in this case contains the low order byte of the word, and AH contains the highorder byte. Accumulator can be used for I/O operations and string manipulation. •Base register consists of two 8bit registers BL and BH, which can be combined together and used as a 16bit register BX. BL in this case contains the loworder byte of the word, and BH contains the highorder byte. BX register usually contains a data pointer used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing. •Count register consists of two 8bit registers CL and CH, which can be combined together and used as a 16bit register CX. When combined, CL register contains the low order byte of the word, and CH contains the highorder byte. Count register can be used in Loop, shift/rotate instructions and as a counter in string manipulation,. •Data register consists of two 8bit registers DL and DH, which can be combined together and used as a 16bit register DX. When combined, DL register contains the low order byte of the word, and DH contains the highorder byte. Data register can be used as a port number in I/O operations. In integer 32bit multiply and divide instruction the DX register contains highorder word of the initial or resulting number. •The following registers are both general and index registers: •Stack Pointer (SP) is a 16bit register pointing to program stack. •Base Pointer (BP) is a 16bit register pointing to data in stack segment. BP register is usually used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing. •Source Index (SI) is a 16bit register. SI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a source data address in string manipulation instructions. •Destination Index (DI) is a 16bit register. DI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a destination data address in string manipulation instructions. Other registers: •Instruction Pointer (IP) is a 16bit register. •Flags is a 16bit register containing 9 one bit flags. •Overflow Flag (OF) set if the result is too large positive number, or is too small negative number to fit into destination operand. •Direction Flag (DF) if set then string manipulation instructions will autodecrement index registers. If cleared then the index registers will be autoincremented. •Interruptenable Flag (IF) setting this bit enables maskable interrupts. •Singlestep Flag (TF) if set then singlestep interrupt will occur after the next instruction. •Sign Flag (SF) set if the most significant bit of the result is set. •Zero Flag (ZF) set if the result is zero. •Auxiliary carry Flag (AF) set if there was a carry from or borrow to bits 03 in the AL register. •Parity Flag (PF) set if parity (the number of "1" bits) in the loworder byte of the result is even. •Carry Flag (CF) set if there was a carry from or borrow to the most significant bit during last result calculation. Addressing Modes •Implied the data value/data address is implicitly associated with the instruction. •Register references the data in a register or in a register pair. •Immediate the data is provided in the instruction. •Direct the instruction operand specifies the memory address where data is located.