English language teaching methods

English language teaching methodology and English language teaching approaches methods techniques
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Published Date:09-07-2017
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ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING FIRST YEAR Source Book for The Diploma in Teacher Education Untouchability is a Sin Untouchability is a Crime Untouchability is Inhuman TAMILNADU TEXTBOOK CORPORATION COLLEGE ROAD, CHENNAI - 600 006.© Government of Tamilnadu First Edition - 2008 Chairperson Dr.S. Swaminatha Pillai, Director, DDE (Retd.), G 4 Adyar Apartments, Kottur Gardens, Chennai – 600 085 Reviewers Mrs. Nalini Parthiban Dr. K.N. Elangovan, Principal, Former Principal, District Institute of Education and Training, Perundurai, Vanavani Matric. Hr. Sec. School, IIT Campus, Chennai. Erode District Coordinator & Author Mr. J. Inbaraj, Assistant Professor, Directorate of Teacher Education, Research and Training, Chennai – 600 006 Authors Mr. N. Vaikunda Mani Nadar, Mrs.V. Vijayakanthi, Senior Lecturer, District Institute Principal, of Education and Government TTI, Training,Thirumoorthy Nagar, Royapettah, Coimbatore District. Chennai – 600 014. Mr. Bertheu, Mrs.T.L. Vasanthi, ELT Expert, 4/32, Johns Street, Lecturer, Veerapanidyan Pattinam, District Institute of Education and Thiruchenthoor, Training, Mannargudi, Thoothukudi – 628 216. Thiruvarur. Mrs. Jasmine Parimalam Rathibai, BRTE, Block Resource Centre, Mugaideen Andavar Puram, Cumbam, Theni District. Price : Rs. This book has been prepared by The Directorate of Teacher Education, Research and Training on behalf of the Govt. of Tamilnadu. This book has been printed on 70 GSM paper Printed by offset at :Foreword “KNOWLEDGE is that which is acquired through personal experiences” - Thiruvalluvar The paramount duty of schools is to provide quality education through a curriculum frame work. Quality education is comprised of dimensions like enriching the innate potential of learners, inculcation of self-discipline, enabling the students to assimilate the best learning experiences in every subject and creating interest in learning among students. Curriculum is revised from time to time based on the changing needs of learners and their environment. NCERT, New Delhi has designed National Curriculum Frame Work 2005 (NCF 2005) bearing in mind the contextual and professional needs of all the stake holders of education. The following five cardinal principles of NCF 2005 have been assimilitated into teacher education curriculum and in the source books of Elementary Teacher Education which are to be introduced in 2008-2009. Connecting knowledge to life outside the school Ensuring that learning shifts away from rote methods Enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks Making Examinations more flexible and integrating them with classroom life. Nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic polity of the country. The curriculum developed by DTERT is likely to develop the following skills in student-teach- ers of Elementary Teacher Education. The ability to seek knowledge continuously Skill of applying acquired knowledge to various situation Skill to realize the inner potential and live in harmony with others accordingly and learn to live in coordination with the members of the society Mastery of learning in all the subjects Skill for doing constructive activities ( iii ) The proficiency of student-teachers in innovations, doing Research and the ability to think telelogically The curriculum has the following objectives: To enhance the professionalism of student-teachers and develop their holistic personality To nurture values such as national integration, milk of human kindness and moral values To give importance to Adolescence Education, Health Education, Life Skills Education, Environmental Education, Road Safety and Peace Education. To facilitate the realization of the above objectives, eight subjects and nine practicums have been prepared by a team of authors for the two year Diploma in Teacher Education Course. They are viz. st nd 1 Year 2 Year Learning Child Indian Education System Facilitating and Enhancing Learning Facilitating and Enhancing Learning Teaching of Tamil Language Teaching of Tamil Language Teaching of Malayalam Teaching of Malayalam Teaching of Telugu Teaching of Telugu Teaching of Urdu Teaching of Urdu Early Childhood care and Education Early Childhood care and Education Teaching of English Teaching of English Teaching of Mathematics Teaching of Mathematics Teaching of Science Teaching of Science Teaching of Social Science Teaching of Social Science ( iv )DTE Practicum st nd 1 Year 2 Y ear Child Observation and case studies Projects School Visits Art Education and Work Experience Story Telling Computer Education Physical Education, health Education, Yoga Physical Education, health Education, Yoga Self Development Workshop Self Development Workshop Teaching of Learning Materials Teaching of Learning Materials Learned and eminent scholars like Dr. P.S. Balasubramaniyam, Former HOD, Department of Education, University of Madras, Dr. Swaminathapillai, Former Director, Distance Education, Bharathiyar University, Dr. S. Lakshmi, Former Vice-Chancellor, Mother Theresa Women’s University. Thiru. V. Ganapathy, Former Professor, IASE, Chennai. Mrs. G. Pangajam, Vice – Chancellor, Gandhigram Rural University, Dindigul. Dr. Subbammal, Former Vice –Chancellor, Vinayaga Mission University, Pondicherry. Dr. Kumaran, Prof & Head, Department of Education, University of Madras and Dr.S. Krishnamoorthy, Annamalai University, Chidambaram have studied different books published by scholars and given simplified instructions to the team for producing quality source books. Each source book has Educationists from Universities, DTERT, IASE, Colleges of Teacher Education as authors and reviewers. Prominent educationists have reviewed the source books and refined the books. Regional coordinators have also contributed to the quality of the book. Besides, Dr.C.K.Lilly from Kerala Unviersity. S. Syed Sajith, HOD, Department of Urdu, University of Madras. Mrs. Lalitha, Academic Consultant of Adarsh Educational Institutes, Chennai and K. Narayana Pillai, Former AEEO have served the team as Chairpersons of Minority Language Subject Source Books. Substantial contribution has been provided by A.M.Murthy, Former Senate Member of Alagappa Unviersity, Karaikudi. Sumitra A. Gowthama, Educationist from ‘The School’ and Educational NGOs such as Amuktha Mahapatra, Balaji Sampath from AID India pvt limited, Thiru. T.N. Arulanandan, Vedanthri Maharisha Association Member, Assistant professor and T. Parasaraman, Institute of Culture and Languages, Pondicherry. ( v )There is a paradigm shift from teaching to self –learning through Activity Based Learning strat- egy. These new source books have been designed with self-learning through Activity Based Learning Strategy. These new source books have been designed with self-learning activities enabling student teachers to master various concepts and skills. The sourcebooks shall guide student teachers to explore library resources to reinforce their teaching strategies to ensure maximum learning among children to improve their skills of observation, classroom management, content knowledge, skill to use TLM and TLE appropriately, Leadership traits and Knowledge of Child Psychology. Source books are not text books. They are simply guides which show where resources are available for reference and learning. From the identified resources learning needs are to be expanded. The duties of the teacher educators are to learn, understand, analyse, consolidate and evaluate. The duties of the student teachers are to assimilate teaching ideas and learn well to become reflective practitioners. I commend all the educationists and teacher educators involved in the process of preparing the source book and also congratulate the prospective student teachers who are likely to be benefited from the Diploma in Teacher Education Source books. DIRECTOR Directorate of Teacher Education, Research and Training, Chennai - 600 006 (vi )A note to the teacher educators The DTE source books have a paradigm shift in the treatment of all the subjects. They are learner-centric. In each unit there are suggested activities leading to the lesson that will provide opportunities for exploration during the lesson and further enquiry and expansion of concepts being learnt. Learning has been designed in such a way that student-teachers construct knowledge based on their prior experiences and in close interaction with peers and teacher-educators. Student-teachers and learners at the primary level cannot sustain their interest in learning if they are unable to connect what they learn in school to what they have already learnt before coming to the Teacher Training Institute or school respectively. So, the activities have been designed by the authors to enable the student-teachers to become not mere transmitters of knowledge but reflective practitioners. In an unprecedented manner, reflective logs have also been introduced to give a wide scope for the student-teachers to record their impressions during internship. The logs shall help teacher-trainees try wearing a professorial garb in teaching. The new source books are replete with questions challenging the skills, understanding and application. Knowledge-based questions have been reduced to the minimum. This discourages rote learning to a great extent. Teacher educators have the liberty to exploit the resources listed as references in each unit to enhance understanding in the student-teachers and they should refrain from using source books as textbooks. Even the methods explained are not prescriptive and teacher-educators are encouraged to explore further innovative ways of teaching lessons. Learning is experiential and activity based in all the source books. The Sourcebooks do not, as a rule, prescribe any teaching method as the best but have laid out various methods for trying out and selecting the appropriate ones with a lot of scope for exploration and innovation .The blue-print and model paper will help teacher-educators really evaluate how and to what extent the student-teachers have developed knowledge, skills and application abilities required of facilitators in students’learning. In the present context, teacher - educator shall facilitate student-teachers to observe and create a profile of students they are going to teach in their internship. There shall be greater understanding of the needs and concerns of fellow student- teachers. There will be teaching practice classes all the year round giving a wide scope for collaborative learning and peer correction. Each of those classes will also be reflected upon by the individual and the class as a whole. ( vii ) The TeamEnglish Language Teaching - DTE I Year Syllabus Introduction : English has become an integral part of India .After the advent of Globalization of economy, the parental demand for English has sky rocketed. Teachers are expected to train students not only in numbers and letters but also in soft skills that would increase their employability lately when they enter the employment market. English reaches children through various ways other than the teacher. Their acquaintance with English needs to be kept as a base and the teacher has to build on it. We all know that an interested teacher alone can make the classes interesting. So it is necessary to instill enthusiasm and develop the right attitude among the teacher trainees in teaching English. From this perspective, the syllabus for English Language Teaching has been framed with the following objectives: Objectives : To equip the trainees with the necessary skills 1. to Listen, Speak, Read and Write effectively. 2. to increase their vocabulary 3. to strengthen the knowledge of English Grammar and application skills. 4. to adopt effective Teaching-Learning strategies. 5. to organize language activities and games in the classroom. 6. to make children communicate in English 7. to teach various areas like Prose, Poem, Composition, Supplementary Readers. 8. to develop their capacity to use different evaluation techniques and prepare question papers. 9. to conduct workshops, undertake Action Research and simple projects. 10. to use Newspapers in teaching English. 11. to design and prepare Teaching Learning Materials, Self Learning Materials and use multimedia technology for teaching English. Part – A Content (a) Practical Language skills 1. Interpretation of non-verbal data 2. Filling up different kinds of forms. ( ix )3. Different types of greetings. 4. Drafting telegrams / SMS. 5. Developing topic sentences into paragraphs. 6. Expansion of an outline into a cohesive text. 7. Writing formal letters relating to school contexts. 8. Note-making; Note-taking. 9. Report writing. 10. Reading comprehension. b) Grammar and Usage 1. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs 2. Types of sentences – Recognition and usage. 3. Sentence patterns. 4. Using Articles. 5. Using Prepositions. 6. Modals and their usage. 7. Making use of appropriate tense forms. 8. Degrees of comparison. 9. Direct and Reported speech. Part – B Methodology Theory Practical Unit–I:Objectives of Learning English: (i) Need for Learning English Interviewing peer group to find (ii) General and Specific out the problems encountered Objectives of Learning English while learning English. Socio psychological factors in learning English Unit – II : Oral skills (i) Classroom English Practising the oral skills in pair and small (ii) Telling Stories group situation (iii) Creating Situations for dialogue Using Audio Cassettes – Recording (iv) Language games - language Playing- aim at self corrections activities. Narrating stories with proper voice, ( x )(v) Use of language in social gatherings modulations. Compeering programmes (vi) Conducting interviews Presentation of views (vii) Telephonic conversation Short speeches on topics of day to day relevance for gaining fluency / confidence. Unit – III : Listening and Speaking Listening and speaking skills- Listening Designing and taking up listening tests. Using audio Tasks – English speech sounds- vowels, visual aids for trainees. diphthongs and consonants – Practice (i) Story telling and preparation of masks, puppets. stress and intonation patterns - Developing communication skills (ii) Describing pictures and people through specific tasks - Individual, pair (iii) Describing events. (iv) Describing processes/Experiences. and Group work (v) Reporting. (vi) Role - play and Dramatization of skit. (vii) Asking questions. (viii) Conducting quiz programmes. Unit – IV : Methods and Approaches of Teaching English (i) Language Acquisition Distinguish between acquisition and Learning (ii) Methods (a) Grammar Translation (b) Direct method (c) Bilingual Method (d) S-O-S approach (iii) Latest trends – Communicative approach.ABL – Activity Based Learning ALM- Active Learning Methodology Practice of the methods by trainees in appropriate contents. Practice by trainees Preparation of learning cards and supportive materials. ( xi )Unit – V : Teaching Vocabulary (i) Active and Passive vocabulary Demonstration followed by peer teaching (ii) Selecting and grading Preparation of a dictionary for each English (iii) Techniques to introduce a word Reader from I to V (iv) Vocabulary expansion – class room devices and exercises (v) Teaching spelling (vi) Difficulties and remedies in learning spelling. (vii) Spelling games Unit – VI : Teaching of Prose (i) Prose – intensive reading Trainees practise peer teaching (ii) Aims of teaching prose Reading of non-textual passages. (iii) The steps involved in teaching prose (iv) Planning a prose lesson – model (v) Active Learning Methodology (ALM) for prose lessons (vi) Extensive reading (vii) Steps in teaching supplementary reader (viii) Teaching of Continuous writing Unit – VII : Teaching of Poetry (i) Aims of teaching poem Demonstration and peer teaching / Rhyme ( xii )CONTENTS PART – A - CONTENT PAGE NO a. Practical Language Skills 1 b. Grammar and Usage 18 PART – B – METHODOLOGY Unit – I Objectives of Learning English 52 Unit – II Oral Skills 59 Unit III Listening and Speaking 94 Unit IV Methods and Approaches of Teaching English 135 Unit – V Teaching Vocabulary 156 Unit – VI Teaching of Prose 184 Unit – VII Teaching of Poetry 216 Blue Print 232 Model Question Papers 234 ( xiii )PART - A CONTENT a. PRACTICAL LANGUAGE SKILLS This section is designed to help you to develop different skills in English. You’ll find exercises and activities under each sub-heading that concentrate on different skills, helping you to revise and consolidate what you already know, and to develop and extend your knowledge of English further. I. INTERPRETATION OF NON-VERBAL DATA a. 1. Graphs, tables and charts (Non-Verbal Presentations) make the presentation not only simple and brief but attractive as well. They enable the readers have a holistic idea of data which take a lot of time to understand or interpret. Look at the following chart : 215 athletes participated in Theni District Level Sports Meet – 20 athletes from Andipatti block, 5 from Bodi block, 30 from Chinnamanur, 50 from Cumbum, 10 from Mayiladumparai, 15 from Periyakulam, 45 from Theni and 35 from Uthamapalayam. These details can be represented in a neat way through a bar diagram as shown below : Participants in Theni District Level Sports Meet 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Blocks in Theni District Using the above example interpret the chart given below. Time spent by Jef in a day Miscellaneous Things, 2 Numbers refer Learning, 2 to hours. At School, 8 Play Time, 2 Reading Library Books, 1 Gardening, 1 Sleeping, 8 1 Andipatti Bodi Chinnamanur Cumbum Mayiladumparai Periyakulam Theni Uthamapalayam Number of Atheletes2. Make a Pie Chart of time spent by you in a day and give it to your partner for interpretation. 3. Here is a simple table of Annual or Term Fee particulars from a Matriculation School. Interpret it to your partner. P.K.G. L.K.G. I II III to V VI to VIII IX X U.K.G. Rs. 1100 Rs. 1580 Rs. 1780 Rs. 1840 Rs. 2300 Rs. 2800 Rs. 2600 4. The chart shows the distribution of population of different ages in different parts of the world. Divide yourselves into many pairs. Discuss these questions with your partner. Why do you think these particular age groups have been chosen? Where would you ‘choose to be born’ if you wanted to live a long life? Join another pair and find out what they have discovered. Share your ideas and information with them. II.FILLING UP DIFFERENT KINDS OF FORMS Forms are formal procedures for entering into any remarkable activity in life. We shall try to fill in a few forms. 1. You are from a village and you wish to join in a students’ hostel and continue your studies. Fill in the prescribed application 2KARUNYA STUDENTS’ HOSTEL 26, KUMILY ROAD, THENI. Please complete the following details in BLOCK LETTERS and return to the address above. 1. Name of the Applicant : ………………………………………......................... 2. Male / Female : ………………………………………......................... 3. Age : ………………………………………......................... 4. Name of Father : ………………………………………......................... 5. Address and Phone : ………………………………………......................... Number with STD Code ………………………………………......................... ………………………………………......................... …………………………Ph No.…........................... 6. Purpose of Joining : ………………………………………......................... 7. Name of Visitor for weekends ………………………………………......................... (i) Relationship : ………………………………………......................... (ii) Occupation : ………………………………………......................... (iii) Address with Phone No. : ………………………………………......................... : ………………………………………......................... ………………………………………......................... …………………………Ph No.…........................... Signature of the Local Guardian Signature of the Applicant 2. Fill in the forms given below and clarify your doubts. 3. Collect different types of forms such as Money Order form, Railway Reservation form, Membership form, Scholarship Application form, Application for any job. etc. Fill in those forms and make a file of it. III. DIFFERENT TYPES OF GREETINGS : Human communication begins with greetings. VERBAL NON VERBAL Hai Hi Hello Glad to meet you How nice to see you Smile How do you do ? Waving hands How are you ? Shaking hands How’s life ? Hugging Good Morning / afternoon / evening Good day 1. Pick out the right greetings for the following occasions : 1. When you meet your close friend - 2. When you meet your Teacher / Superior – 3. When you meet somebody in the afternoon – 4. When you meet somebody in the afternoon after a long gap – 5. When you meet somebody at night – 6. When you depart from somebody at night – 42. When/with whom will you practice the following. Put the numbers against each item. 1. Children - 1.2 2. Close friends / relatives Hug 3. At a distance Shake hands 4. Newly acquainted person 5. Superiors Wave hands 6. Colleagues 7. Unknown Person Smile 3. Greetings are exchanged during festivals and anniversaries. Fix the occasion for the following greetings. Happy Diwali - Diwali Happy Pongal - Happy New Year - Merry Christmas - Id Mubarak - Happy Birthday - Happy Anniversary - Many Many Happy Returns of the day - 4. Greeting is also a message of good wish to somebody’s health, happiness, etc. Here are a few greetings that we use commonly. Have a good day Nice day to you Wish you a successful day Joyful trip to you A happy journey to you God bless you Safe journey to you Let the blessings of God be with you Showers of blessings on you All the best Best of luck Good luck Come out with flying colours Wish you a speedy recovery When and to whom will you use the above mentioned wishes? 5. Collect and write 10 greetings to suit different situations. 6. Discuss and answer (a) What is the most widely used greeting term over the telephone? (b) Why shouldn’t we say “Good Night” when we meet somebody at night? (c) Why do we say “Good Morning” irrespective of the time when we meet somebody after a long gap? 5IV. DRAFTING TELEGRAMS / SMS Telegram is a means of communication that can be delivered within a short span of time. Even though the telephone tries to fit into the place of Telegram, it can’t be denied that telegram is a record. Imagine you are staying in a hostel. You wish to join the Tour team. You need money urgently. So you are sending a telegram to your father. SEND RS. 2000/- BY M.O. SCHOOL TOUR NEXT WEEK Only limited and important words are used and not full sentences. NOW YOU CAN TRY : 1. Your uncle Mr. Giri is admitted in Appollo Hospital, Chennai, because of a heart attack. As he is seriously ill with no hope of reviving the doctor asks you to inform your relatives. Prepare a telegram. 2. A Government servant whose native place is 200 Kms away from her working spot, goes home for the holidays. Unfortunately she falls ill . She has to request her office for 2 days of casual leave. Help her do so. 3. You are trying to get a bank loan for your friend in a distant place. It is confirmed that your friend can be given Rs. 1,00,000/- from the bank. Prepare a telegram to inform him of the matter. 4. Imagine a situation and write a suitable telegram too. DRAFTING SMS Short Message Service is a communications protocol allowing the interchange of short text messages between mobile telephone users. In modern times, SMS has replaced the usage of greeting cards. Often we send SMS to communicate our ideas to our near and dear ones. There are pre- designed templates for different occasions. Using such templates saves time. Happy New Year Happy Pongal, dear friend Hai, how R U ? Wel n gud Thank U Rn’t U wel ? 6Have you noticed how words are shortened? Analyse how the SMS texts differ from Telegrams. 1. A few contexts are given here. Prepare SMS/ text messages. 1. During Birthdays : ……………………………..................................... 2. Desirous to know where is your friend? : ………………………….................. 3. Instructing your friend : ……………………………..................................... 4. Requesting to come : ……………………………..................................... 2. Match the boxes SMS Message Moods reflected Pls forgiv me Expressing concern y dint u call ? Feeling sorry 1 hr more. R u redi ? Gratitude Got it. Thank U Angry for not calling Note : SMS is a system of providing the quickest means of communication in a brief a manner It therefore employs brevity of words through representation or sounds. It is for this reason that SMS words are numbers and letters or alphabets accordingly. e.g., How are you - how are u? You are too good to be true - U’ r 2 gud 2 b true. 3. Write a few SMS/text messages you have received from your friend. V.DEVELOPING TOPIC SENTENCES INTO PARAGRAPHS (a) Read the following paragraph : Standard procedures for treatment of heart related diseases are expensive. A private hospital, despite having good intentions, will expect the patient to pay, Rs. 30,000 for a week’s stay. If we add the cost of investigations and the cost of injections, saline bottles, medicines and other medical necessities, the total will be close to Rs. 1,60,000/- The underlined sentence is the topic sentence – “the main idea of the paragraph”. It is generally found at the beginning of a paragraph but not always. The other sentences in the paragraph give “supporting details” to the topic sentence. The supporting sentences can be examples, details, facts, reasons or incidents. Go through the following paragraph and underline the topic sentence. A dog can be taught many tricks to obtain rewards of food and praise. In order to make the final stages of training, work best, the trainer must withhold the reward till the animal has successfully performed the entire behaviour, it has learned. Instead, if the trainer were to continue to reward the initial lying down behaviour, the animal simply would repeat that behaviour over and over to get food and affection. Have you underlined the topic sentence? 7(b) Here is a topic sentence, followed by pairs of sentences. Choose the appropriate one from each pair to make supporting sentences. The first one is done for you. 1. Topic Sentence : Humans are surrounded by a thousand enemies threatening their health, and thereby their happiness. A. (i) The World Health Organization looks after the health of the people of the world. " (ii) Some of these enemies are so small that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. " B. (i) Now a days there are electron microscopes which magnify objects a million fold. " (ii) But the size of the enemy is no clue to the extent of the harm it can cause. " C. (i) In fact, the greatest of our enemies are the viruses and bacteria, infinitely small creatures that cause and spread some of the deadliest diseases. " (ii) Microbiology is the scientific study of micro organisms. " Now you can try the second one. 2. Topic Sentence : People who want to climb mountains face many difficulties. A. (i) At great heights the mountaineer will find it hard to breathe. " (ii) They will find it difficult to get food since there are no hotels at such heights. " B. (i) Therefore, they carry their own supply of oxygen in cylinders. " (ii) The boiling point of water is reduced at great heights. " C. (i) The cylinder is very difficult to carry. " (ii) Liquid oxygen is compressed into these cylinders and then allowed to come out as gas. " D. (i) There are other difficulties such as unpredictable weather and treacherous surfaces. " (ii) Therefore mountaineers engage porters to carry their luggage. " E. (i) Irvine and Mallory lost their lives attempting to scale Mount Everest. " (ii) So we cannot but admire the spirit that drives them to brave the unknown. " (c) Here is a topic sentence : “My puppet looks like Snow White” It is being developed into a paragraph by adding supporting sentences to it. “My puppet looks like Snow White. She has brown buttons for eyes. Her hair is made from black wool. She wears a dress made from red cloth. Her dress feels very soft”. This paragraph describes a puppet. Imagine that you have got a new puppy. Write a paragraph describing your puppy. Topic Sentence : “I have a new puppy named Lucky” Make use of the word bank. Word Bank I have a new puppy named lucky. black, white, brown, floppy, _________________________________ tail, paws, coat, soft, small _________________________________ _________________________________ 8