Question? Leave a message!




How to learn English verb tenses

how to use English verb tenses and how to teach English verb tenses and English verb tenses made easy pdf free download
ShawnPacinocal Profile Pic
ShawnPacinocal,United States,Researcher
Published Date:09-07-2017
Website URL
Comment
English Verb Tenses: An informal but extensive reference for ESL students, the good folks who teach them, the idly curious, and the linguistically perplexed by Kent Uchiyama copyright 20062 Contents How to Use (and Not to Use) This Guide...............................................................5 The Tenses and Their Main Meanings: A Quick Overview..................................11 Which Verb Tense Should I Use? A Very Rough Guide.......................................15 Simple Present The Basics...................................................................................................20 More That You Should know.....................................................................23 Extra Stuff...................................................................................................27 Present Progressive The Basics...................................................................................................32 More That You Should Know.....................................................................34 Extra Stuff......................................... .........................................................39 Simple Past The Basics...................................................................................................53 More That You Should Know....................................................................55 Past Progressive The Basics....................................................................................................57 More That You Should Know.....................................................................59 Extra Stuff....................................................................................................62 Future The Basics.....................................................................................................67 More That You Should Know......................................................................70 Extra Stuff......................................................................................................75 Future Progressive The Basics......................................................................................................83 More That You Should Know........................................................................86 Extra Stuff.......................................................................................................87 Present Perfect Introduction....................................................................................................88 A Brief Survival Guide...................................................................................903 Present Perfect Meaning 1 The Basics........................................................................................................97 More That You Should Know.........................................................................98 Extra Stuff.......................................................................................................102 Meaning 1b The Basics.......................................................................................................109 More That You Should Know........................................................................110 Extra Stuff.......................................................................................................112 Meaning 2 The Basics.......................................................................................................115 More That You Should Know........................................................................116 Extra Stuff.......................................................................................................121 Meaning 3 The Basics.....................................................................................................129 More That You Should Know......................................................................130 Some Final Points about the Present Perfect............................................................132 Present Perfect Progressive The Basics.....................................................................................................135 More That You Should Know.......................................................................137 Past Perfect The Basics.....................................................................................................141 More That You Should Know......................................................................143 Extra Stuff.....................................................................................................145 Past Perfect Progressive The Basics.....................................................................................................147 More That You Should Know......................................................................150 Extra Stuff.....................................................................................................151 Future Perfect The Basics......................................................................................................155 More That You Should Know.......................................................................157 Future Perfect Progressive The Basics......................................................................................................159 More That You Should Know........................................................................162 Extra Stuff.......................................................................................................164 Appendix I: Questions about the Subject....................................................................1674 Appendix II: Books and Websites You Might Find Useful...................................... ..171 A few thank-you’s..........................................................................................................1745 How to Use (and Not to Use) This Guide How to Use (and Not to Use) This Guide: Some Suggestions 1. Finding the information you need Beginning and intermediate ESL students probably won’t want to read this book from cover to cover; it’s too much information at once. But as you’re learning English, you’ll probably come up with a lot of questions about the verb tenses. The purpose of this book is to help you find the answers to those questions. This guide contains a lot of information, and so I’ve tried to make it easy to find the information you want. Here are some steps that will help you: 1. Look in the Table of Contents (p2) for the verb tense you want. 2. Look over the Basics about that verb tense. 3. If the answer to your question isn’t in the Basics section, look in the More That You Should Know section. You won’t have to read everything; use the titles of each point to help you find your answer. 4. If you don’t find the answer to your question in the More That You Should Know section, try the Extra Stuff section. 5. If you can’t find the answer to your question in this guide, see 4 below. Important points about using verb tenses are in blue. References to other parts of the book where you can find more information are in red. 2. What you won’t find in this guide I only had one semester to write this guide, and so I didn’t have time to include everything about verb forms in English. Unfortunately, you WON’T find the following verb forms here: the passive conditionals modals reported speech gerunds and infinitives participial phrases (reduced adjective and adverb clauses) As time goes by, I may try to add these topics to this guide. In the 6 How to Use (and Not to Use) This Guide meantime, you can find pretty good discussions of them in many grammar texts. I’ve listed a few texts I like on p171 in Books and Websites You Might Find Useful. 3. If you have a question about verb tenses that isn’t answered in this guide Please e-mail me your question. My e-mail address is kuchiyamachabotcollege.edu. I’ll try to include the answer in future versions of this guide, and if I have time I’ll try to send you an answer to your question. (If you’re a student at Chabot, please drop by my office with your question. Most grammar questions are much easier to explain in person than by e-mail, so it can save me a lot of time if we speak in person.) 4. What this book can and can’t do for you. This book can (I hope) • answer many of your questions about verb tenses, and • explain some points about verb tenses that you won’t find in other grammar books. This book CANNOT take the place of a good ESL class. Learning a language is a lot like learning how to dance; it’s almost impossible to learn just by reading a book. When we learn to dance, nearly all of us need to practice, interact with many different people, make mistakes, observe what other people are doing, and learn to move easily without really thinking about it. The same things are true when we learn a language. A well-taught ESL class can give you all these things, but a book can’t. A book can give you a clear understanding, but almost everyone needs more to learn how to use a language. 5. This guide probably won’t be helpful for everyone. As I mentioned earlier, learning a language is a lot like learning to dance. No one can learn to dance without actually dancing, and no one can learn a language without actually using it (a lot). However, different people learn best in different ways. When some people 7 How to Use (and Not to Use) This Guide learn to dance, they learn more quickly and easily if someone explains the movements to them step by step before they get on the dance floor. For other people, explanation isn’t helpful at all. These people often learn more easily if they just watch the dance steps for a while and then start trying them. Similarly, some students really like detailed explanations of grammar; they find that a clear explanation helps them learn more easily. Other students might find that detailed explanations are frustrating or even confusing. If you try using this guide and it isn’t helpful, it doesn’t mean that you have a problem. You may learn better by just “jumping in” and using the language. You might want to come back to the guide after a year or two to see if it seems more helpful after some time has passed. Maybe it will, or maybe it won’t. The important thing is that you find out what most helps you learn English. 6. A note for other teachers In this guide, I’m trying to stake out some new territory, so if you • see something that seems inaccurate, • find an important omission, or • have a better way to explain something, I’d deeply appreciate hearing from you. My e-mail here at stately Chabot College is kuchiyamachabotcollege.edu. (I’d also appreciate a heads up if you find any typos; I’m sure there are still some lurking about.) If you’d like to use any of the material here in your classes, feel free to do so, but give an attribution of the source. While we’re on the subject of using this guide, I want to stress that it’s not written to be used as the sole ESL textbook for a grammar class. It was meant to be a reference, so there are no exercises. Also, the sheer amount of material could be overwhelming for many students, especially if a teacher tried to teach the book cover-to-cover. I’ve used parts of this guide in many of my classes, supplementing it with exercises from other sources and ones I wrote myself, and that’s worked well. See what works for you. If you come up with a great idea for using this guide, please let me know8 How to Use (and Not to Use) This Guide 7. A note for grammatical purists In the following pages, I’ve split infinitives, ended clauses with prepositions, used their with a singular antecedent, began sentences with conjunctions, and used adjective clauses to modify other clauses. These practices are not born of ignorance or a desire to annoy you; I just don’t hold much truck with the outlook that underlies the rules I’m disregarding. However, if you are convinced of the intellectual (or moral) superiority of schoolhouse grammar, I doubt that I can convince you otherwise. (Years of effort have not succeeded with my mom.) I can only extend my sincere (but more or less unrepentant) apologies in advance, along with my honest hope that you’ll still find the following information helpful in some way. And if you do see something that seems to arise from my ignorance or negligence rather than my attitude, I would deeply appreciate your correction. 9 How to Use (and Not to Use) This Guide10 How to Use (and Not to Use) This Guide11 The Tenses and Their Main Meanings The Tenses and Their Main Meanings (These are only the main meanings; for more complete information, see the section on each tense.) Past Tenses Simple Past Main Meaning This action ended in the past. John did his homework last night. Note: Simple past is correct for most actions in the past. There are only a few times when we absolutely need to use other past tenses. Past Progressive Main Meaning This action happened over time in the past. Most common use: to show this action was happening over time when something happened. John was doing his homework when the earthquake started. Past Perfect Main Meaning We use past perfect when we want to make it clear that this action happened before something in the past. Norton had eaten breakfast when he left for work. (This means Norton ate breakfast before he went to work.) Past Perfect Progressive Main Meaning We use past perfect progressive when we want to make it clear that this action was happening over time before something in the past. The kitchen smelled wonderful because Norton had been cooking dinner.12 The Tenses and Their Main Meanings Present Tenses Simple Present Main Meanings This action is a habit or repeated now. I usually drive to school. This is a fact that’s always (or almost always) true. Wood floats in water. Present Progressive Main Meanings This action is happening right now. You are reading this sentence. This action isn’t finished, but might not be happening right now. John is studying English this semester, but he isn’t studying right now; he’s eating dinner. Note: Don’t use present progressive with stative verbs. Present Perfect Main Meanings With a length of time, present perfect usually means this action started in the past and has continued until now. Ralph’s a bus driver. He has worked as a bus driver for 10 years. Note: Present Perfect Progressive can often be used to say the same thing (but not with stative verbs). With no time phrase, present perfect usually means the action ended in the past, but the time is not clear. Ralph isn’t hungry because he has eaten dinner. Note: In American English, simple past can usually be used to say the same thing. Present Perfect Progressive Main Meaning This action started in the past and has continued until now. Ralph’s a bus driver. He has been working as a bus driver for 10 years. Note: Don’t use present perfect progressive with stative verbs. 13 The Tenses and Their Main Meanings Future Tenses Future Main Meaning This action will happen in the future. Ralph and Norton will play cards tomorrow night. Note: Future is correct for most actions in the future. There are only a few times when I absolutely need to use other future tenses. Future Progressive Main Meaning This action will happen over time in the future. Most common use: to show this action will be happening over time when something happens. I’ll start to study at 7:00, so I’ll be studying when you arrive at 7:`10. Future Perfect Main Meaning We use future perfect when we want to make it clear that this action will happen before something in the future. Martha will have finished her homework when she comes to class tomorrow. Note: If it’s already clear which action will happen first, future is also okay. Future Perfect Progressive Main Meaning This action will happen over time before something in the future When I retire, I will have been teaching for over forty years. Note: Future perfect progressive is a pretty rare tense; we don’t use it very much. 14 The Tenses and Their Main Meanings15 Which Verb Tense Should I Use? Which Verb Tense Should I Use? A Very Rough Guide Actions in the Past For most actions in the past: simple past I ate breakfast at 7:00 this morning before I went to work. I’m a little tired today because I went to bed late. When I need to make it clear that this action was in progress when something happened: past progressive I was taking a bath when you called, so I couldn’t answer the phone. When I want to show that an action started in the past and has continued until now: present perfect progressive (for most verbs) I have been teaching at Chabot for fourteen years. John has been thinking about buying a new car. OR present perfect + a length of time (for stative verbs) George Bush Sr. has hated broccoli since he was a child. When I want to show that an action happened before something in the past: past perfect At 5:00, Fred had finished work for the day. (This means that Fred finished work before 5:00.) (NOTE: We can say, At 5:00, Fred finished work for the day, but this sentence has a different meaning. It means that Fred finished work at 5:00, not before.)16 Which Verb Tense Should I Use? When I need to make it clear that this action was happening over time before another action (or a time) in the past: past perfect progressive (for most verbs) Barney had been studying for six hours when he fell asleep at his desk. OR past perfect + a length of time (for stative verbs) Ralph had loved Alice for many years before he asked her to marry him. For actions that have never happened in someone’s life: present perfect I’ve never seen a flying elephant. For questions asking if someone has ever done something in their life: present perfect Have you seen the Grand Canyon? For repeated actions that might happen again: present perfect Hoku has seen that movie eight times.17 Which Verb Tense Should I Use? Actions in the Present For a present habit: simple present I don’t drive to work; I usually take BART. For something that is always or usually true: simple present Wood floats on water. Rocks don’t float. They sink. For an action happening right now: present progressive (for most verbs) Norton isn’t home now. He’s studying at the library. OR simple present (for stative verbs only) Right now, I understand my calculus homework, but tomorrow I may be confused again. For an action that isn’t finished yet: present progressive (for most verbs) Martin is working at the library this semester, but he isn’t there now because today’s Sunday and library’s closed. 18 Which Verb Tense Should I Use? Actions in the Future For predictions (things we think will happen): future Fred’s plane will arrive at 8:00. Fred’s plane is going to arrive at 8:00. For actions that will be happening over time when something happens: future progressive When Lucy’s plane arrives tomorrow, Ricky will be waiting for her at the airport. For future plans: be going to Ralph and Alice are going to visit Yosemite National Park next month. For time clauses and if-clauses in the future: simple present (almost always) When Ralph gets home tomorrow night, he’s going to take Alice out to dinner. If Yoko buys a car next Friday, she’ll drive it to school on Monday. When I need to make it clear that this action will be finished before something in the future: future perfect The train always leaves at 12:00. If you get to the station at 12:05, the train will have already left. When I need to make it clear that this action will happen over time before something in the future: future perfect progressive (for most verbs) Next September, I will have been working at Chabot for 10 years. OR future perfect + a length of time (for stative verbs) At its anniversary in 2011, Chabot College will have existed for fifty years.19 Which Verb Tense Should I Use?20 Simple PresentThe Basics Simple Present Part 1: The Basics 1. What does simple present tense mean? Usually, simple present tense means 1) that the action is a habit (or another type of repeated action) in the present or 2) that the action is always or usually true. Examples: I usually eat lunch at the school cafeteria. (This is a habit in the present.) What time do you usually feed your pet dinosaur? (I’m asking about a habit in the present.) Ralph and Norton sometimes go bowling on Thursday nights. (This is a habit in the present.) George usually doesn’t buy bananas at Albertson’s. (This is a habit in the present.) Wally never comes late to class. (This is a habit in the present.) The moon travels around the earth. (This is always or usually true.) Wilma makes good gravelberry pies. (This is always or usually true.) Does the sun rise in the east or in the west? (I want to know if this is always or usually true.) Government officials often don’t tell the truth. (This statement is usually true.) Simple present can also have other uses. You can find these in the points “Stative verbs use simple present, not present progressive” on p24, “Simple present in future time clauses and if-clauses” p25, “Scheduled events in the future” p25, and “Simple present when discussing literature” p26.”