Free grammar eBook level 1

how to learn grammar english step by step and how to learn english grammar fast | pdf free download
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Published Date:09-07-2017
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1 Free Grammar E-Book Level 1 www.espressoenglish.net 2 Table of Contents Present Simple: To Be…………………………………………………………………… 4 Possessives…………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Articles: A, An, The ……………………………………………………………………… 7 This, That, These, Those……………………………………………………………… 8 Present Simple……………………………………………………………………………… 10 Can / Can't / Have to / Don't Have to………………………………………… 14 Prepositions: In, At, On………………………………………………………………… 15 Past Simple: To Be………………………………………………………………………… 17 Past Simple: Regular Verbs…………………………………………………………… 18 Past Simple: Irregular Verbs………………………………………………………… 20 There is / There are……………………………………………………………………… 22 Present Continuous………………………………………………………………………… 23 Present Simple or Continuous……………………………………………………… 26 Countable and Uncountable………………………………………………………… 27 Future with Going To…………………………………………………………………… 29 Comparative Adjectives………………………………………………………………… 31 Superlative Adjectives…………………………………………………………………… 34 Adverbs…………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 Present Perfect: Verb be…………………………………………………………………38 Present Perfect: Other Verbs………………………………………………………… 40 Present Perfect or Past Simple……………………………………………………… 42 www.espressoenglish.net 4 Present Simple: Be Positive: I am I’m from Japan. you / we / they are you’re / we’re / they’re from Brazil. he / she / it is he’s / she’s / it’s from India. Negative: I am not I’m not married. you / we / they You’re not / You aren’t happy. are not We’re not / We aren’t They’re not / They aren’t he / she / it He isn’t / He’s not a student. is not She isn’t / She’s not It isn’t / It’s not Question: Am I beautiful? Are you / we / they a teacher? Is he / she / it tall? www.espressoenglish.net 5 Present Simple: Be Name: I’m Joanna. He’s Paulo. They’re Aki and Yuta. Country / Nationality: I’m from the U.S. I’m American. My husband is from Italy. He’s Italian. She’s not Korean, she’s Vietnamese. Are they from Australia? Age: I’m 27 years old. How old are you? She’s 15. My mother is 65 years old. Emotions: I’m sad. She’s excited. You’re angry. We’re happy. Jobs: I’m not a student. I’m a teacher. Are you a doctor? He’s a journalist. They’re artists. Grammar Exercise: Present Simple: Be www.espressoenglish.net 6 Possessives NOUN POSSESSIVE EXAMPLE I my My name is Sandra. you your What’s your name? he his His name is John. she her Her computer is fast. it its My car is old, so its engine isn’t powerful. we our Our apartment is in the city center. they their My parents sold their house. Mary Mary’s Mary’s phone number is 555-4321. Joe Joe’s Joe’s favorite color is green. the boy the boy’s The boy’s clothes are dirty. friends friends’ My friends’ names are Patrick and Gloria. cat cat’s My cat’s name is Ginger. country country’s My country’s flag is red, white, and blue. Don’t confuse its (possessive) with it’s (contraction for “it is”) The cat ate it’s food The cat ate its food. Its illegal for a 17-year-old to buy alcohol. It’s illegal for a 17-year-old to buy alcohol. Grammar Exercise: Possessives www.espressoenglish.net 7 Articles: A, An, The I’m going to eat an apple. I’m going to eat the red apple. a / an general I want to buy a car. (one of He’s eating an apple. many) Do you have a bike? She is an old woman. I’m reading a book. the specific Tokyo is the capital of Japan. (one The new Chinese restaurant is very good. specific) We like the blue car. The girl in the red dress is beautiful. I’m reading the new book by J.K. Rowling. www.espressoenglish.net 8 Articles: A, An, The Use “an” if the word starts with the sound of a, e, i, o, u: an apple an egg an ice cream shop an open door an umbrella an hour Use “a” if the word starts with the sound of any other letter. Do not use “the” with countries or cities: I live in the China. I live in China. Do not use “the” with things in general: She likes the pizza. She likes pizza. She likes the pizza from Tony’s Restaurant. (specific) Grammar Exercise: A, An, The www.espressoenglish.net 9 This, That, These, Those This 1 thing – near That 1 thing – far These 2+ things – near Those 2+ things – far This apple is green. That apple is red. These books are new. Those books are old. www.espressoenglish.net 10 Present Simple: Positive Use the present simple for things that happen regularly or things that are generally true. I / you / we / they work he / she / it works Examples: I work in a bank. He works at the university. We work every day. My sister works at the hospital. Special Case 1 For verbs that end in consonant + –y, we remove the –y and add –ies: I study English at school. Dana studies English at school. Bill studys English at school Other verbs like this include: cry, try, fly, carry Special Case 2 For verbs that end in -o, -sh, -s, -ss, -ch, -x, we add -es. They go to English class on Wednesday. She goes to cooking class on Saturday. She gos to cooking class on Saturday. Other verbs like this include: watch, kiss, teach, fix www.espressoenglish.net 11 Present Simple: Negative Use the present simple negative for things that are not generally true. I / you / we / they don’t like he / she / it doesn't like Examples: I don't like coffee. John doesn't like pizza. John and David don't like milk. My mother doesn't like to travel. Common Errors 1) In the present simple negative, do not add -s: Martha doesn't likes to dance. Martha doesn't like to dance. 2) Other common errors: Pete no like bananas. Pete not like bananas. Pete doesn’t like bananas. www.espressoenglish.net 12 Present Simple: Questions Use present simple questions to ask about things that happen regularly or things that are generally true. Do I / you / we / they live in a city? Does he / she / it live in a city? Examples:  Do you live in Brazil?  Does Adam live in England?  Do they live in a big house?  Does she live near the beach? Common Errors 1) In questions, don't use -s: Does she lives close to the beach? Does she live close to the beach? 2) Don’t forget DO or DOES: Clara live in a big city? Does Clara live in a big city? www.espressoenglish.net 13 Present Simple: Answering Yes/No Questions Do you have a dog? Yes, I do. / No, I don't Do I look fat in these jeans? No, you don’t Does John speak Italian? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't. Does she like rock music? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t. Do we watch too much TV? Yes, we do. / No, we don’t. Do they understand English? Yes, they do. / No, they don't. Grammar Exercises: Present Simple Positive Present Simple Negative Present Simple Questions www.espressoenglish.net 14 Can / Can’t / Must / Mustn’t Have to / Don’t have to Can It’s OK Can’t / Mustn’t It’s not OK Have to / Must It’s necessary / obligatory Don’t have to It’s not necessary / obligatory Doesn’t have to (it’s optional) (must / mustn’t are more formal) You can ride your bike here. You can’t smoke here. You mustn’t smoke here. FREE FOOD You have to stop here. You don’t have to pay You must stop here. for the food. www.espressoenglish.net 15 Prepositions: In, At, On TIME PLACE Cities and countries Months IN In January In Tokyo In October In Japan Seasons Rooms and buildings In the summer In the kitchen In the spring In the supermarket Years Closed spaces In 2004 In the car In 1986 In a park Periods of the day In the morning In the evening (exception: at night) www.espressoenglish.net 16 TIME PLACE Dates and days Transportation ON On Monday On the bus th On February 14 On a bike (exception: in a car) Surfaces On the table On the wall TIME PLACE Times Contexts / Events AT At 6:00 At school At half past three At work At noon At a party Grammar Exercise: Prepositions: In, On, At www.espressoenglish.net 17 Past Simple: To Be Positive: I / he / she / it was born in 1982. you / we / they were born in 1982. Negative: I / he / she / it was not (wasn’t) born in Europe. you / we / they were not (weren’t) born in Europe. Questions: Was I / he / she / it a famous artist? Were you / we / they a famous artist? Common words used to talk about the past: Yesterday Last Sunday / last week / last month / last November / last year 1 hour ago / 5 days ago / 3 months ago / 10 years ago When I was a child… / When we were in college… Grammar Exercise: Past Simple: To Be www.espressoenglish.net 18 Past Simple: Regular Verbs Positive: I / you / he / she / it / we / they worked yesterday Negative: I / you / he / she / it / we / they didn’t work yesterday Question: Did I / you / he / she / it / work yesterday? we / they How to form the past simple for regular verbs: Verb Past Spelling listen listened Add -ed play played like liked Add -d decide decided stop stopped One vowel + one consonant = double the final consonant and add -ed study studied One consonant + y  try tried -ied www.espressoenglish.net 19 Past Simple: Regular Verbs In past simple negative and questions, do not add -ed: Mary didn’t liked the movie. Mary didn’t like the movie. Did you studied for the test? Did you study for the test? Examples: I talked with my mother last night. We enjoyed the party on Saturday. She finished the test early. He didn’t listen to the teacher’s instructions. They didn’t want to join us for coffee. Jill didn’t stay in a hotel last summer. Did you watch the news yesterday? Did they remember to turn off the lights? What time did your father arrive? Grammar Exercise: Past Simple Regular Verbs www.espressoenglish.net 20 Past Simple: Irregular Verbs Infinitive Positive Negative be was / were wasn’t / weren’t buy bought didn’t buy can could couldn’t eat ate didn’t eat get got didn’t get go went didn’t go have had didn’t have leave left didn’t leave make made didn’t make meet met didn’t meet say said didn’t say see saw didn’t see take took didn’t take think thought didn’t think understand understood didn’t understand wear wore didn’t wear write wrote didn’t write www.espressoenglish.net 21 Past Simple: Irregular Verbs Examples: Where were you last month? I was in France. What did your sister buy at the mall? She bought new shoes. What time did he eat breakfast today? He ate breakfast at 6:00 AM. When did you get married? We got married in July. Why did she go to London? She went to London to study English. Did you have any pets when you were a child? Yes, I had a dog. When did he leave the meeting? He left the meeting an hour before it finished What did you make for dinner? I made some vegetable soup. When did you meet your best friend? I met my best friend 20 years ago. What did the teacher say? The teacher said that she loved our class. Did you see Brad at the football game? No, but we saw Peter and Henry. What did he wear to the wedding? He wore a suit. Did he write a new book last year? No, he only wrote a few magazine articles. Grammar Exercise: Past Simple – Irregular Verbs www.espressoenglish.net