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Improve English Grammar and Vocabulary

Basic English grammar structures and vocabulary and English grammar vocabulary and comprehension | pdf free download
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Published Date:09-07-2017
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r ry mm lu Basic english grammar gr edssttnu voc udl t nd structures and vocaBulary english for cis A orhst rosceu ni e ihslng fro A t dul tsuntdse shngil ertrustscu e ni uresoc hsotr Prof. Juan mo. g moya montaña DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN BA A A A ABA A A BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________ DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓNProfesor Juan Guillermo Moya Montaña Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y Traductor de la División Doctrina del Ejército de Chile. jmoyamprofing.tie.cl Cel. : 08-3619605 Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual Nº151.465 I.S.B.N. Nº 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar Julio 2008 2da. EdiciónÍNDICE Pág • Presentación _____________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apéndices ____________________________________________________________ 297 A short course in english for adult students 3Bl 4Pr Presentación esentación En la actualidad, nadie pone en duda que las exigencias que la sociedad le atribuye a las instituciones armadas son variadas y complejas. En este sentido y ya en pleno siglo XXI, las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional, impulsan a nuestros soldados a tener un dominio cada vez mayor del idioma anglosajón. El material que se presenta a continuación, ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las esctructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal. Por este motivo, el Ejército decidió reimprimir este completo manual de autoaprendizaje, cuyo autor es el profesor Juan Moya Montaña, con el propósito de seguir contribuyendo a la formación y perfeccionamiento de todos sus integrantes. DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO. A short course in english for adult students 5Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. Leer, estudiar y memorizar las defi niciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. 2. Estudiar las ilustraciones, los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación fi gurada indicada en algunos casos. 3. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. Use lápiz de grafi to para escribir. 4. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores. 5. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%), estudiar de nuevo las defi niciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. 6. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar, discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. 7. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos, adjetivos, verbos, preposiciones, etc.), frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al fi nal de cada unidad. 8. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio, de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. 9. Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar, estudiar y estudiar. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. A short course in english for adult students 7Bl 8TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL • TO BE (Present, Past and Future) 15 • What?, Who?, How?, When?, Why?, How old? How long? What time? • THE ENGLISH ALPHABET 22 • This, That, These, Those; A(N); The ; At, On, In ; Until, For UNIT 1 • THE PHONETIC ALPHABET 23 • Now, today; yesterday, the day before yesterday; last week / last year / last • KEY TO ANSWERS 25 Monday, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week, two days ago P. 15 - 25 • THERE TO BE 27 • There is a car in the garage. There are 3 cars in the garage (Present, Past and Future) • How much? How many? • SOME - NOT ANY - NO - ANY 27 • Much, many, little, few, a lot, lots of, very little, very few UNIT 2 • CARDINAL NUMBERS 33 • VOCABULARY: - People 34 P. 27 - 36 • KEY TO ANSWERS 36 • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT 37 • He has got a big house • ADJECTIVES 39 • Uncountable nouns: money, sugar, milk, water, work, etc. • ARTICLES I - Defi nite and Indefi nite 39 • Countable nouns: people, men, students, books,etc. UNIT 3 • TELLING THE TIME 41 • O´clock, quarter past / to, half past, minutes past / to • VOCABULARY: - Adjectives 43 • In the morning / afternoon / evening; at night P. 37 - 45 • KEY TO ANSWERS 45 • Noon / midday, midnight • PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE 47 • He is working at the moment • INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS 48 • Now, at present, at the moment, at this time, temporarily, for the time • TIME AND DATES 52 being. • ORDINAL NUMBERS 52 • How old?, How tall?, How far?, How long?, How high?, How fast?, How UNIT 4 • QUESTION WORDS 1 54 deep?, How thick?, How wide?, How big?, What color?, What size?, What For describing people and things. shape?, What is / are ......... like? P. 47 - 57 • VOCABULARY: - Numerals, Time 55 and Dates • KEY TO ANSWERS 57 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 59 • He works here every day • TIME EXPRESSIONS (I): 61 • Every day, every week, every month, etc. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • Always, generally, usually, often, sometimes, never, etc. • QUESTION WORDS II 66 • Once a day, twice a week, three times a year, etc. For requesting information. • What?, Who?, Which?, Why?, Where?, How? Whom?, Whose?, How UNIT 5 • ARTICLES II - General and specifi c 67 much?, How many?, How often?, How long?, What time?, What kind of?, • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and 68 What sort of?, etc. P. 59 - 75 Which • VOCABULARY: - Clothes 71 • KEY TO ANSWERS 73 • SIMPLE PAST TENSE 77 • He worked here yesterday • REGULAR AND IRREGULAR 78 • Last week, last month, last Monday, etc. VERBS • Two weeks ago, thirty minutes ago, etc. 83 • USED TO + INFINITIVE • Yesterday morning, yesterday evening, last night, on the fi fth of May, 1996, • POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES etc. 84 AND PRONOUNS UNIT 6 • My, your, his her, its, our, your, their. • SUBJECT AND OBJECT • Mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs. P. 77 - 90 PRONOUNS 86 • Me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them. • VOCABULARY: - Professions 87 And Occupations • KEY TO ANSWERS 89 A short course in english for adult students 9• PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE 91 • He was working here at 9:30 last night • IMPERATIVE FORM 94 • At that time, at 10:30 last night, etc., When Peter arrived this morning, • ARTICLES III - Nationalities, 95 when they got married, etc. professions, titles and ranks; • Open the door, please. Please, don´t do that. streets, cities, countries and • An American, a Chilean, an Englishman, etc. UNIT 7 geographical names. • A doctor, an engineer, a secretary, etc. • EXCLAMATORY FORM 96 • Mr. Scott, Cpt. Jones, Dr. White, etc. P. 91 - 102 • VOCABULARY: - The house 99 • On Fifth Avenue, In Salt Lake City, In Canada, in the USA, in North Carolina, • KEY TO ANSWERS 101 in the West Indies. • What a tall woman, What beautiful fl owers What nice weather How tall she is How quickly time passes • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will 103 • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who, 106 month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year, etc. Whom, Whose • He said that he was tired. • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE, 109 He told me that he was tired. UNIT 8 SOMETHING, SOMEWHERE • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The AND DERIVED WORDS man with whom Mary is working now, The man whose car is parked outside. P. 103 - 114 • VOCABULARY: - The City 111 • Somebody / someone, something, somewhere, not anybody / not anyone, • KEY TO ANSWERS 113 not anything, not anywhere, nobody / no one, nothing, nowhere • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : 115 • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week, AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO....... etc. • IT TAKES........ / IT TOOK....... / 116 • It takes me 20 minutes to..... IT WILL TAKE...... = DEMORAR • How long does it take to....? UNIT 9 • COMPARISON OF 119 • Short - shorter than- the shortest ADJECTIVES 123 • Intelligent, more intelligent than, the most intelligent P. 115 - 126 • VOCABULARY: - Food 125 • As fast as....... • KEY TO ANSWERS • Good - better - best, etc. • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : 127 • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow, etc. AM / IS / ARE+ING • Bob can swim very well; Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow; You may • MODAL VERBS: CAN, MUST, 129 use the phone now; They should t / ought to be more careful of what they MAY, SHOULD, OUGHT TO say UNIT 10 • HAVE TO = TENER QUE 131 • I have to buy another dictionary. This one is too old • VOCABULARY: - Parts of the 135 P. 127 - 140 Body Time Expressions (II) 136 • KEY TO ANSWERS 139 • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE 141 • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow, etc. • MAKING REQUESTS 143 • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind • ASKING FOR PERMISSION 144 opening the door, please? • OFFERING TO DO 145 • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? SOMETHING 146 • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight; DO SOMETHING TOGETHER 147 How about going to a disco tonight? UNIT 11 • ALSO, TOO, AS WELL, SO; • The boy also speaks Italian; He speaks Italian, too / as well; The boy NOT...EITHER, NEITHER / NOR speaks Italian and so does the girl. P. 141 - 154 BUT 150 • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either; Peter doesn´t like golf and • POSITION OF DIRECT AND neither do I. INDIRECT OBJECTS 152 • The boy speaks Italian, but the girl doesn´t.. • VOCABULARY: - Our Health 153 • Bob sent some fl owers to his girlfriend; Bob sent his girlfriend some • KEY TO ANSWERS fl owers; Bob sent her some fl owers. 10 A short course in english for adult students PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE 157 • I have seen that movie • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS 161 • Mary hasn´t fi nished typing it yet • USE OF INFINITIVES AND 164 • Have they arrived already? GERUNDS I • Just,before, lately, once, twice, three times, never, already, not yet, yet / VERB + GERUND already?, since, for, ever UNIT 12 • VOCABULARY: 170 • Book / books; brush / brushes; knife / knives; baby / babies; day / days; etc. - Prepositions and Connectors • Irregular plural forms P. 157 - 174 • KEY TO ANSWERS 173 • Enjoy playing, keep talking, etc. • Go skiing, go shopping, etc. • PRESENT PERFECT 175 • I have been working all day CONTINUOUS TENSE • They agreed to meet outside the theater. • USE OF INFINITIVES AND 177 • He will let them play GERUNDS II 177 • He wants us to go, too A. Verb + to-infi nitive 178 • I saw her crossing / cross the road. B. Verb + somebody + bare • I´ll help you do / to do that infi nitive 179 • I like to playing / to play golf UNIT 13 C. Verb + gerund / bare • The fl oor needs cleaning / to be cleaned infi nitive 179 • He works well, doesn´t he? P. 175 - 190 D. Verb + somebody + bare • He didn´t come to the meeting, did he? infi nitive / to-infi nitive 181 E. Verb + ing / to-infi nitive 184 • TAG ENDINGS 187 • VOCABULARY: - Sports and 189 Recreation • KEY TO ANSWERS • PAST PERFECT TENSE 191 • He had seen the fi lm before • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND 194 • The train had already left when he arrived COMPARISON • Quickly, carefully, certainly, etc. • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 196 • Fast, hard, early, late, soon UNIT 14 • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” 198 • More quickly, more carefully, etc. • VOCABULARY: - Nature 199 • Sooner, harder, earlier, etc. P. 191 - 202 • KEY TO ANSWERS 201 • He cut himself; He himself did it; He lives all by himself • We were going to play football but it began to rain • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS 203 • He had been working all day TENSE • He should have studied harder. / He ought to have done it • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / 205 • You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves OUGHT TO • We could go to the movie • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER 205 • We could have gone to the movie • MODAL VERBS II: 207 • He must be very tired • COULD DO SOMETHING 207 • He can´t be hungry already - COULD HAVE DONE • He must have gone home UNIT 15 SOMETHING 207 • He can´t have done that alone - MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE, / 209 • It may / might be true P. 203 - 214 CAN´T HAVE DONE • You must have / might have left it in the shop SOMETHING - MAY, MIGHT, MAY HAVE / MIGHT 210 HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: - The Weather 212 • KEY TO ANSWERS 213 A short course in english for adult students 11• FUTURE PERFECT TENSE 215 • They will have fi nished the work by then • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES 217 • He says he´s tired / He said he was tired. • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER 218 • When I see her tomorrow....... WHEN, AS SOON AS, UNTIL, • Do you need anything else? ETC. • I´ll take a taxi, or else I´ll miss my fl ight. UNIT 16 • USE OF ELSE, OR ELSE / 219 OTHERWISE P. 215 - 223 • VOCABULARY: - The Workshop 221 • KEY TO ANSWERS 223 210 • THE PASSIVE VOICE 225 • The book was published in 1998 • BE SUPPOSED TO 231 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 UNIT 17 • VOCABULARY: 233 - The Armed Forces I P. 225 - 236 • KEY TO ANSWERS 235 • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • If you study hard you´ll pass the course • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH 237 • If you studied harder you´d get better marks • VERB + PRESENT OF 244 • If you had studied harder you would have passed the course SUBJUNCTIVE 245 • I wish I could swim UNIT 18 • VOCABULARY: • I wish I had seen her - The Armed Forces II 248 • I wish it would stop snowing P. 237 - 252 • KEY TO ANSWERS • I suggest that she wait a few minutes. 251 • REPORTED SPEECH 253 • He said he wanted to go A. STATEMENTS 253 • He told me that he wanted to go B. QUESTIONS 254 • He asked me where they were C. COMMANDS, ORDERS 254 • He told me to sit down UNIT 19 • VOCABULARY: 257 P. 253 - 261 - Regular and Irregular Verbs • KEY TO ANSWERS 261 • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES 263 • At a social gathering AND EXPRESSIONS IN • At a hotel UNIT 20 ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS • At a restaurant • How to get to places P. 263 - 275 • At the station / airport • Shopping • ASSESSMENT TEST 277 • QUESTION BOOKLET (Listening 279 Part) • QUESTION BOOKLET (Reading 283 UNIT 21 Part) • ANSWER SHEET 291 P. 277 - 296 • TEACHER’S TEXT SCRIPT 293 • KEY TO ANSWERS 295 • CHART 1 BASIC VERB TENSES 297 • CHART 2 BASIC VERB TENSES 299 APENDICES A) CONTINUOUS TENSES 299 B) SIMPLE TENSES 300 C) PERFECT TENSES 302 4) PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES 303 12 A short course in english for adult students BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVELBl 14UNIT 1 PART I. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ , IS /iz/, ARE /a:r/ 1. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM - IS - ARE I am /ai æm/ (Yo soy/estoy) We are /wi: á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) You are /iú á:r/ (Tú eres/estás) You are /iú á:r/ (Uds. son/están) He is /hi: íz/ (El es/está) She is /shi: íz/ (Ella es/está) They are /éi á:r/ (Ellos/as son/están) It is /it íz/ (Es/está) En conversación, normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. You´re, He´s, She´s, It´s, We´re, They´re. Escuche, repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?; Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?; Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?;How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?; This /is/ este/a, That /æt/ ese/a; These /í:z/ estos/as; Those /óuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons.) un/a;, An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a; The / e (antes de cons.) , i/ (antes de vocal) el, la, los, las; At /æt/ en; In /in/ en; On /on/ encima de; Now /náu/ ahora; Today /tudéi/ Hoy día; Thanks /"æks/ gracias; Thank you /"æk iu:/ gracias; Fine /fáin/ bien; Very well /véri uél/ muy bien; Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz is/ ¿Qué es esto? It is a pen. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz What´s that? /wots æt/ ¿Qué es eso? It´s an ambulance. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia What are these? /wót a:r í:z/, ¿Qué son éstos? They are books. /ei a:r búks/ Son libros What are those? /wót a:r óuz/, ¿Qué son esos? They´re cars. /eir ká:rz/ Son autos Is this a pen? /iz is a pén/ Yes, it is. It´s a pen /iés,it iz. its a pén/ Is that a house? /is æt a háus/ Yes, It is. It´s a house. /iés it iz its e háus/ Are these books? /a:r í:z búks/ Yes, they are. They´re books. /iés, ei á:r. eir búks/ Are those cars? /á:r óuz ká:rz/ Yes, they are.They´re cars. /iés, ei á:r.eir ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz æt mæn/ He´s Mr. Jones, the new instructor. /hi:z e niú: instráktor/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z æt wúman/ . She´s Miss Black, the secretary. /shi:z e sékretri/ Who are those men? /hú: a:r óuz mén/ They´re Bob, Jim and Tom, the students. /eir e stiú:dents/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ He´s at home. /hi:z at hóum/ Where´s the car? /wéarz e ká:r/ It´s in the garage. /its in e gæridll/ Where´s the book? /wéarz e búk/ It´s on the desk. /its on e désk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r e ká:rz/ They´re in the car park. /éir in e ká:r pá:rk/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r e stiú:dents/ They´re in the lab. /éir in e læb/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ I´m fi ne, thanks. /áim fáin, "æks/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ He´s much better, thanks. /hí:z mátch béter, "æks/ How are the children? /háu a:r e tchíldrn/ They´re very well, thank you. /eir véri wél "æk iu/ 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT, normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ I am not /ai æm nót/ I´m not /aim nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ You aren´t /iu á:rent/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ It isn´t /it íznt/ It´s not /its nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They are not /ei a:r nót/ They aren´t /ei á:rent/ They´re not /eir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15Escuche, repita y aprenda: is not /iz nót/, isn´t /íznt/ ; are not /a:r nót/, aren´t /á:rent/; here /híar/ aquí; there /éar/ allí; over there /óuver éar/ allá I am not a pilot. /páilot/ I´m not a pilot They are not students /stiú:dnts/. They aren´t students. They´re not students. He is not here /híar/. He isn´t here. He´s not here. They are not there /éar/ They aren´t there. They´re not there. It is not a train. /tréin/ It isn´t a train. It´s not a train. Bob is not very well /véri wél/ He isn´t very well. He´s not very well. The students are not in the lab /læb/. They aren´t in the lab. They´re not in the lab. Escuche, repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ No, it isn´t. (It´s not a pen.) It´s a pencil. /pénsl/ Is that a tank? /tæk/ No, it isn´t. (It´s not a tank.) It´s a truck. /trák/ Are these books? /búks/ No, they aren´t. (They´re not books.) They´re magazines. /mægazinz/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No, they aren´t. (They´re not chairs). They´re tables /téiblz/. 3. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. Am I? /am ai/ Aren´t I? /á:rent ai / Are we? /á:r wí:/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Are they? /á:r ei/ Aren´t they? /á.rent ei/ Is it? /íz it/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT, habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche, repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ ¿No estoy en lo cierto? Are you all right? /á.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a kæptin/ Es él un capitán? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Are they busy? /á:r ei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent ei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/¿Está correcta mi respuesta? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt is kwéstchion korékt/ EXERCISES Ex. 1. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. 6. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. 2. John and Mary _____ good friends. 7. The train _____ ten minutes late. 3. The men ______ tired. 8. I ______ an undergraduate student. 4. Those vehicles______ slow-moving.(vehículos lentos) 9. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. 5. Those weapons ______ powerful. (armas-poderosas) 10. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. (sala de profs.) Ex. 2. Answer these questions, as in the example Is Tom a pilot? Yes, he is. He´s a pilot. 1. Are you in the offi ce? Yes, _____________ _______________________________________ 2. Is that man Mr. Clark? Yes, _____________ _______________________________________ 3. Are we ready to go? ________________ _______________________________________ 4. Am I a good instructor? ________________ _______________________________________ 5. Are the students in class? ________________ _______________________________________ 6. Is Miss Jones a secretary? ________________ _______________________________________ 7. Is this a modern plane? ________________ _______________________________________ 16 A short course in english for adult students 8. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) ________________ _______________________________________ 9. Is the bank open? ________________ _______________________________________ 10. Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. 3. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) No, they are not. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students 1. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos No, _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 2. Are you thirsty? sediento (hungry) ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 3. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 4. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 5. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 6. Are your friends American? (British) ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 7. Are you a navy offi cer?(an army offi cer) ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 8. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 9. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 10. Is Cpt. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. 4 Ask questions, as in the example below: The Browns - at home Are the Browns at home? 1. The manager / in his offi ce ___________________________________________________ 2. Peter and John / in class ___________________________________________________ 3. The course / interesting ___________________________________________________ 4. Your friends / from Canada ___________________________________________________ 5. The computer / connected to the Internet ___________________________________________________ 6. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) ___________________________________________________ 7. The pictures / clear (nítidas, claras) ___________________________________________________ 8. The children / in the playground.(patio) ___________________________________________________ 9. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) ___________________________________________________ 10. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. Ask questions using the wh-words What?, Who?, Where?, How?, as in the example: It´s a plane. What´s this? o What´s that? 1. It´s a knife _________________________________________________________ 2. They´re books _________________________________________________________ 3. The cigarettes are in the bag _________________________________________________________ 4. I´m fi ne, thanks _________________________________________________________ 5. The cat´s under the sofa _________________________________________________________ 6. It´s a chair _________________________________________________________ 7. That boy´s my brother _________________________________________________________ 8. The books are on the table _________________________________________________________ 9. The children are tired _________________________________________________________ 10. That woman´s my wife _________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17Ex. 6. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. 1. Robert : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. Jack : How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. Where ______ you from, Mr. Brown? Robert : I ______ American. I ______ from Appleton, Wisconsin. Jack : Oh. That ______ very interesting. 2. Frank : Hello. My name ______ Frank. What ______ your name? John : My name ______ John. How ______ you? Frank : I ______ fi ne, thanks. ______ you a student here? John : No, I ______ not. I ______ an instructor. Frank : Oh. Pleased to meet you, Sir. 3. Peter : Hello, Mike Michael : Hello, Peter. Who______ that girl? Peter : She ______ Mary. She ______ a new student. Michael : Where ______ she from? Peter : She ______ from Australia. Michael : ______ she single? Peter : No, she ______ ______. She ______ married. Michael : Oh. That´s bad news. 4. Jack : Where ______ you, Jim? Jim : I ______ here, in the library. Jack : ______ you alone? Jim : No, I ______ ______. I ______ with my friend Janet. Come and meet her. (pausa) Jim : This ______ Janet. She ______ my classmate . She ______ from London. Jack : Hello, I ______ glad to meet you, Jane. How ______ you? Janet : I ______ fi ne, Jack. I´m glad to meet you, too. B. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ - WERE /we:r/ 1. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ - WERE /we:r/ I was /ai wóz/ (Yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) They were /ei wé:r/ (Ellos/eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) It was /it wóz/ (Era/estaba/fue/estuvo) Escuche, lea y aprenda: When? /wén/ ¿Cuándo?; Why? /wái/ ¿Por qué?; How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ la semana pasada; Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días; Yesterday /iésterdi/ ayer; The day before yesterday /e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ anteayer; Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) John was at home all day today. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris el año pasado) Mary was the best student in my class. / méri woz e bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) They were very good friends. /ei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) Mr. Jackson was here three weeks ago. /míster djækson woz híar "rí: wí:ks agóu/ (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). 18 A short course in english for adult students 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. Escuche, lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. /dllón wóznt at hóum is mórni/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N.Y. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. /ei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérki/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche, lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás is mórnin/ (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at is táim iésterdi/ (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE, present or past: 1. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. 2. They ______ free today, but they ______ at work yesterday. 3. Today ______ Monday. Yesterday ______ Sunday. 4. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? 5. The elevator ______ out of order last night, but it ______ working well now. 6. John ______n´t in the offi ce at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. 7. Bob ______ very sick yesterday, but he ______ much better today. Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. The secretary was busy at midday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. They were good friends at school. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. The weather was fi ne that day. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. The men were tired after the long walk. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. Mary was late for the train this morning. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. Henry was at the movie at 7 P.M. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Ask questions using wh-words like What?, Where?, When?,Why?, How?, How old, Who? 1. Tom was at home at midnight last night. ___________________________________________________ 2. John was in the car at that moment. ___________________________________________________ 3. Liz was in bed because she was sick. ___________________________________________________ 4. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. ___________________________________________________ 5. George was a little better this morning. ___________________________________________________ 6. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19