Improve English Grammar and Vocabulary

Basic English grammar structures and vocabulary and English grammar vocabulary and comprehension | pdf free download
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Published Date:09-07-2017
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r ry mm lu Basic english grammar gr edssttnu voc udl t nd structures and vocaBulary english for cis A orhst rosceu ni e ihslng fro A t dul tsuntdse shngil ertrustscu e ni uresoc hsotr Prof. Juan mo. g moya montaña DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN BA A A A ABA A A UNIT 1 PART I. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ , IS /iz/, ARE /a:r/ 1. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM - IS - ARE I am /ai æm/ (Yo soy/estoy) We are /wi: á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) You are /iú á:r/ (Tú eres/estás) You are /iú á:r/ (Uds. son/están) He is /hi: íz/ (El es/está) She is /shi: íz/ (Ella es/está) They are /éi á:r/ (Ellos/as son/están) It is /it íz/ (Es/está) En conversación, normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. You´re, He´s, She´s, It´s, We´re, They´re. Escuche, repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?; Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?; Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?;How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?; This /is/ este/a, That /æt/ ese/a; These /í:z/ estos/as; Those /óuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons.) un/a;, An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a; The / e (antes de cons.) , i/ (antes de vocal) el, la, los, las; At /æt/ en; In /in/ en; On /on/ encima de; Now /náu/ ahora; Today /tudéi/ Hoy día; Thanks /"æks/ gracias; Thank you /"æk iu:/ gracias; Fine /fáin/ bien; Very well /véri uél/ muy bien; Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz is/ ¿Qué es esto? It is a pen. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz What´s that? /wots æt/ ¿Qué es eso? It´s an ambulance. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia What are these? /wót a:r í:z/, ¿Qué son éstos? They are books. /ei a:r búks/ Son libros What are those? /wót a:r óuz/, ¿Qué son esos? They´re cars. /eir ká:rz/ Son autos Is this a pen? /iz is a pén/ Yes, it is. It´s a pen /iés,it iz. its a pén/ Is that a house? /is æt a háus/ Yes, It is. It´s a house. /iés it iz its e háus/ Are these books? /a:r í:z búks/ Yes, they are. They´re books. /iés, ei á:r. eir búks/ Are those cars? /á:r óuz ká:rz/ Yes, they are.They´re cars. /iés, ei á:r.eir ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz æt mæn/ He´s Mr. Jones, the new instructor. /hi:z e niú: instráktor/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z æt wúman/ . She´s Miss Black, the secretary. /shi:z e sékretri/ Who are those men? /hú: a:r óuz mén/ They´re Bob, Jim and Tom, the students. /eir e stiú:dents/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ He´s at home. /hi:z at hóum/ Where´s the car? /wéarz e ká:r/ It´s in the garage. /its in e gæridll/ Where´s the book? /wéarz e búk/ It´s on the desk. /its on e désk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r e ká:rz/ They´re in the car park. /éir in e ká:r pá:rk/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r e stiú:dents/ They´re in the lab. /éir in e læb/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ I´m fi ne, thanks. /áim fáin, "æks/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ He´s much better, thanks. /hí:z mátch béter, "æks/ How are the children? /háu a:r e tchíldrn/ They´re very well, thank you. /eir véri wél "æk iu/ 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT, normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ I am not /ai æm nót/ I´m not /aim nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ You aren´t /iu á:rent/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ It isn´t /it íznt/ It´s not /its nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They are not /ei a:r nót/ They aren´t /ei á:rent/ They´re not /eir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15Escuche, repita y aprenda: is not /iz nót/, isn´t /íznt/ ; are not /a:r nót/, aren´t /á:rent/; here /híar/ aquí; there /éar/ allí; over there /óuver éar/ allá I am not a pilot. /páilot/ I´m not a pilot They are not students /stiú:dnts/. They aren´t students. They´re not students. He is not here /híar/. He isn´t here. He´s not here. They are not there /éar/ They aren´t there. They´re not there. It is not a train. /tréin/ It isn´t a train. It´s not a train. Bob is not very well /véri wél/ He isn´t very well. He´s not very well. The students are not in the lab /læb/. They aren´t in the lab. They´re not in the lab. Escuche, repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ No, it isn´t. (It´s not a pen.) It´s a pencil. /pénsl/ Is that a tank? /tæk/ No, it isn´t. (It´s not a tank.) It´s a truck. /trák/ Are these books? /búks/ No, they aren´t. (They´re not books.) They´re magazines. /mægazinz/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No, they aren´t. (They´re not chairs). They´re tables /téiblz/. 3. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. Am I? /am ai/ Aren´t I? /á:rent ai / Are we? /á:r wí:/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Are they? /á:r ei/ Aren´t they? /á.rent ei/ Is it? /íz it/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT, habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche, repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ ¿No estoy en lo cierto? Are you all right? /á.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a kæptin/ Es él un capitán? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Are they busy? /á:r ei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent ei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/¿Está correcta mi respuesta? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt is kwéstchion korékt/ EXERCISES Ex. 1. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. 6. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. 2. John and Mary _____ good friends. 7. The train _____ ten minutes late. 3. The men ______ tired. 8. I ______ an undergraduate student. 4. Those vehicles______ slow-moving.(vehículos lentos) 9. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. 5. Those weapons ______ powerful. (armas-poderosas) 10. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. (sala de profs.) Ex. 2. Answer these questions, as in the example Is Tom a pilot? Yes, he is. He´s a pilot. 1. Are you in the offi ce? Yes, _____________ _______________________________________ 2. Is that man Mr. Clark? Yes, _____________ _______________________________________ 3. Are we ready to go? ________________ _______________________________________ 4. Am I a good instructor? ________________ _______________________________________ 5. Are the students in class? ________________ _______________________________________ 6. Is Miss Jones a secretary? ________________ _______________________________________ 7. Is this a modern plane? ________________ _______________________________________ 16 A short course in english for adult students 8. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) ________________ _______________________________________ 9. Is the bank open? ________________ _______________________________________ 10. Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. 3. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) No, they are not. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students 1. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos No, _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 2. Are you thirsty? sediento (hungry) ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 3. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 4. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 5. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 6. Are your friends American? (British) ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 7. Are you a navy offi cer?(an army offi cer) ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 8. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 9. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ 10. Is Cpt. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. 4 Ask questions, as in the example below: The Browns - at home Are the Browns at home? 1. The manager / in his offi ce ___________________________________________________ 2. Peter and John / in class ___________________________________________________ 3. The course / interesting ___________________________________________________ 4. Your friends / from Canada ___________________________________________________ 5. The computer / connected to the Internet ___________________________________________________ 6. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) ___________________________________________________ 7. The pictures / clear (nítidas, claras) ___________________________________________________ 8. The children / in the playground.(patio) ___________________________________________________ 9. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) ___________________________________________________ 10. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. Ask questions using the wh-words What?, Who?, Where?, How?, as in the example: It´s a plane. What´s this? o What´s that? 1. It´s a knife _________________________________________________________ 2. They´re books _________________________________________________________ 3. The cigarettes are in the bag _________________________________________________________ 4. I´m fi ne, thanks _________________________________________________________ 5. The cat´s under the sofa _________________________________________________________ 6. It´s a chair _________________________________________________________ 7. That boy´s my brother _________________________________________________________ 8. The books are on the table _________________________________________________________ 9. The children are tired _________________________________________________________ 10. That woman´s my wife _________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17Ex. 6. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. 1. Robert : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. Jack : How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. Where ______ you from, Mr. Brown? Robert : I ______ American. I ______ from Appleton, Wisconsin. Jack : Oh. That ______ very interesting. 2. Frank : Hello. My name ______ Frank. What ______ your name? John : My name ______ John. How ______ you? Frank : I ______ fi ne, thanks. ______ you a student here? John : No, I ______ not. I ______ an instructor. Frank : Oh. Pleased to meet you, Sir. 3. Peter : Hello, Mike Michael : Hello, Peter. Who______ that girl? Peter : She ______ Mary. She ______ a new student. Michael : Where ______ she from? Peter : She ______ from Australia. Michael : ______ she single? Peter : No, she ______ ______. She ______ married. Michael : Oh. That´s bad news. 4. Jack : Where ______ you, Jim? Jim : I ______ here, in the library. Jack : ______ you alone? Jim : No, I ______ ______. I ______ with my friend Janet. Come and meet her. (pausa) Jim : This ______ Janet. She ______ my classmate . She ______ from London. Jack : Hello, I ______ glad to meet you, Jane. How ______ you? Janet : I ______ fi ne, Jack. I´m glad to meet you, too. B. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ - WERE /we:r/ 1. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ - WERE /we:r/ I was /ai wóz/ (Yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) They were /ei wé:r/ (Ellos/eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) It was /it wóz/ (Era/estaba/fue/estuvo) Escuche, lea y aprenda: When? /wén/ ¿Cuándo?; Why? /wái/ ¿Por qué?; How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ la semana pasada; Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días; Yesterday /iésterdi/ ayer; The day before yesterday /e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ anteayer; Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) John was at home all day today. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris el año pasado) Mary was the best student in my class. / méri woz e bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) They were very good friends. /ei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) Mr. Jackson was here three weeks ago. /míster djækson woz híar "rí: wí:ks agóu/ (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). 18 A short course in english for adult students 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. Escuche, lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. /dllón wóznt at hóum is mórni/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N.Y. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. /ei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérki/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche, lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás is mórnin/ (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at is táim iésterdi/ (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE, present or past: 1. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. 2. They ______ free today, but they ______ at work yesterday. 3. Today ______ Monday. Yesterday ______ Sunday. 4. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? 5. The elevator ______ out of order last night, but it ______ working well now. 6. John ______n´t in the offi ce at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. 7. Bob ______ very sick yesterday, but he ______ much better today. Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. The secretary was busy at midday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. They were good friends at school. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. The weather was fi ne that day. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. The men were tired after the long walk. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. Mary was late for the train this morning. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. Henry was at the movie at 7 P.M. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Ask questions using wh-words like What?, Where?, When?,Why?, How?, How old, Who? 1. Tom was at home at midnight last night. ___________________________________________________ 2. John was in the car at that moment. ___________________________________________________ 3. Liz was in bed because she was sick. ___________________________________________________ 4. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. ___________________________________________________ 5. George was a little better this morning. ___________________________________________________ 6. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19C. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infi nitivo BE. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. serán / estarán) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) They will be /ei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ella será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /eil bí:/ Escuche, lea y aprenda: How long? /háu ló/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta; For /for/ por, para What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana; Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana; The day after tomorrow /e déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana I will be very busy this afternoon. /ái wil bí: véri bízi is a:fternú:n/ . Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. Escuche, lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrow. /ai wil nót bí: véri bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. They won´t be here all day. /ei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. Escuche, lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vni/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be diffi cult? /wil e tést bí: dífi kalt/ ¿Será difi cil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil ei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿Estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. bi: at e mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil ei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu lo wil ei bí: in wóshiton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Complete the sentences, as in the example: John is not at home today, but he (will be at home) tomorrow. 1. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester, but they _______________________________ next semester. 2. John isn´t absent today, but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. 3. It is not very cold now, but it ______________________________________________________________this evening. 4. We are not busy right now, but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch. 5. I am not in my offi ce at the moment, but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. 6. Mr.Johnson was not at the meeting last week, but he _______________________________________ next Monday. 7. The weather was not very nice last month, but it _____________________________________________ next month. 20 A short course in english for adult students Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. 1. John will be in class today. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 2. It´ll be hot tomorrow. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 3. My friends will be here before 12. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 4. The program will be interesting. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 5. Mary´ll be in the offi ce all morning. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 6. I´ll be in the fi rst team. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 7. They will be in the next town before midday. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. 3. Ask questions using Where?,When?,Why?, How?, How long?, What time?, etc. 1. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. ___________________________________________ 2. I will be free next Tuesday morning. ___________________________________________ 3. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. ___________________________________________ 4. They will be here at ten-thirty. ___________________________________________ 5. The weather will be very nice this month. ___________________________________________ 6. Mary will be in New York next weekend. ___________________________________________ 7. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. ___________________________________________ 8. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. ___________________________________________ 9. Mr. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ Ex. 4. Answer the following questions, in English. 1. Where were you at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________ 2. When will you be on vacation again? ___________________________________________ 3. How are you today? ___________________________________________ 4. Who was absent from class last Monday? ___________________________________________ 5. Why is your friend in bed at this time? ___________________________________________ 6. Where were you last weekend? ___________________________________________ 7. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? ___________________________________________ 8. When is the next general meeting? ___________________________________________ 9. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? ___________________________________________ 10. Why were you absent from class last Friday? ___________________________________________ Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. ___________________________________________ 2. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. ___________________________________________ 3. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? ___________________________________________ 4. ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? ___________________________________________ 5. Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. ___________________________________________ 6. Ella será una excelente secretaria. ___________________________________________ 7. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio ___________________________________________ 8. Los informes no estaban listos todavía. ___________________________________________ 9. Mr Jackson estuvo en la ofi cina todo el día. ___________________________________________ 10. ¿Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? ___________________________________________ 11. ¿Quién era ese hombre? ___________________________________________ 12. Este no es un libro muy interesante. ___________________________________________ 13. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. ___________________________________________ 14. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 21PART II. THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: A E I O U /éi/ /i:/ /ái/ /óu/ /iú/ Consonants: B C D G P T V /bi:/ /si:/ /di:/ /dlli:/ /pi:/ /ti:/ /vi:/ F L M N S X Z /ef/ /el/ /em/ /en/ /es/ /eks/ /zed/ J H K Y Q W R /dlléi/ /eitch/ /kei/ /uái/ /kiú/ /dábliu/ /a:r/ En Inglés Americano la letra Z se llama /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex. 1. ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1. E - I - O - A - E - I - E - O - U - I - U - A -E 2. P - G - B - V - T - C - Z - L - F - N - S - X - D - B - C - L - M - X - V -B 3. J - Y - Q - W - H - K - Y - R - C - L - H - G - N - Y - Q - T - X - W - R - Z - J - K - F 4. E - C - L - M - X - V - B - A - I - B - D - X - S - N - F - O - G - U - Q - Y - W - A 5. U - I - E - J - O - G - K - A - T - E - P - I - W - O - Q - A - X - O - I - A Ex. 2. Escuche, lea y aprenda: 1. How do you spell your fi rst name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2. My last name is Vasquez, that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z. /mái la:st néim is váskes, æts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3. Tom works for IBM in LA. /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex. 3. Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1. A: My brother´s name is Ignacio. 2. A: When did you buy your VCR? /mái bráerz néim iz ignásio/ /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á.r/ B: Can you spell that, please? B: Last month. I bought it at the PX /kán iu: spél æt plí:z/ /lá:st mán" ái bó:t it at e pí: éks/ A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O A: Was it very expensive? /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /wóz it ekspénsiv/ B: Thank you B: No, it only cost me eighty-fi ve dollars /"ækiu:/ /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex. 4. ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Washington geography Kalamazoo Japan whisky Mexico Quebec Chicago Venezuela Shanghai Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students Ex. 5. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA BBC PLO ATM DC CEO MBA B.C. UCLA USSR OAS COD UK MBT A.D. VAT VCR IBM GPS UNO FBI UFO NBT CIA GMT DEA OK NCO CO IRA MIA MP ITT PTO ADC MIT Ph.D FOB a.m. p.m. EST APC OBE CIF ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell diffi cult words: as in /az in/ como en for /fo:r/ para A as in Alfa /álfa/ N for November /nouvémber/ B as in Bravo /brávou/ O for Oscar /óskar/ C as in Charlie /tchá:rli/ P for Papa /pápa/ D as in Delta /délta/ Q for Quebec /kuibék/ E as in Echo /ékou/ R for Romeo /rómiou/ F as in Foxtrot /fókstrot/ S for Sierra /siéra/ G as in Golf /gólf/ T for Tango /tágou/ H as in Hotel /houtél/ U for Uniform /íunifo:rm/ I as in India /índia/ V for Victor /víktor/ J as in Juliett /dlluliét/ W for Whisky /wíski/ K as in Kilo /kílou/ X for X-ray /éks réi/ L as in Lima /líma/ Y for Yankee /iáki/ M as in Mike /máik/ Z for Zulu /zúlu/ Examples: 1. My name is JUAN. I spell: J for Juliett; U for uniform; A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2. The commander´s last name is CLARK. I spell: C as in Charlie; L as in Lima, A as in Alfa; R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23Bl 24KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A. Ex. 1. 1. is 2.are 3. are 4. are 5. are 6. is 7. is 8. am 9. is 10.are Ex. 2. 1. Yes, I am. I´m in the offi ce. 2. Yes, he is. He´s Mr. Clark. 3. Yes, we are-We´re ready to go. 4. Yes,you are. You´re a good instructor. 5. Yes, they are. They´re in class. 6. Yes, she is. She´s a secretary. 7. Yes, it is. It´s a modern plane. 8. Yes, they are. They´re updated. 9. Yes, it is. It´s open. 10. Yes, I am. I´m hungry. Ex. 3. 1. No, they´re not. They aren´t angry. They´re hungry. 2. No, I´m not. I´m not thirsty. I´m hungry. 3.No, he´s not. He isn´t at home. He´s at work. 4. No, they´re not. They aren´t happy, They´re sad. 5. No, he´s not. He isn´t a doctor. He´s an engineer. 6. No, they´re not. They aren´t American. They´re British. 7. No, I´m not. I´m not an navy offi cer. I´m a army offi cer. 8. No, it´s not. It isn´t clean. It´s dirty. 9. No, they´re not. They aren´t old. They´re young. 10. Now, he´s not. He isn´t on duty. He´s off duty. Ex. 4. 1. Is the manager in his offi ce? 2. Are Peter and John in class? 3. Is the course interesting? 4. Are your friends from Canada? 5. Is the computer connected to internet? 6. Is the package light or heavy? 7. Are the pictures clear? 8. Are the children in the playground? 9. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10. Are the maps in the library? Ex. 5. 1. What´s this / that? 2. What are these / those? 3. Where are the cigarettes?.? 4. How are you? 5. Where´s the cat? 6. What´s this / that? 7. Who´s that boy? 8. Where are the books? 9. How are the children? 10. Who´s that woman? Ex. 6. 1.R: is J: is - are R: am - am J: is 2. F: is - is J: is - are F: am - Are J: am - am 3. M: is P: is - is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t - is 4. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not - am (pause) is - is - is Ja: am - are Ja: am B. Ex. 1. 1. Was - is 2. Are - were 3. Is - was 4. Were - are 5. Was - is 6. Was - was 7. Was - is Ex. 2. 1. The secretary wasn´t..... / Was the secretary ....? 2. They weren´t..... / Were they....? 3. The weather wasn´t ...... / Was the weather....? 4. The men weren´t ..... / Were the men .....? 5. Mary wasn´t ..... / Was Mary....? 6. Henry wasn´t ...... / Was Henry....? Ex. 3. 1. Where was Tom at....? 2. Who was in the car.....? 3. Why was Liz in bed? 4. When were the Smiths ....? 5. How was George....? 6. How old was Mr Clark when....? C. Ex. 1. 1. will be in the same class 2. will be absent 3. will be very cold 4. will be very busy 5. will be in my offi ce 6. will be at the meeting 7. will be very nice. Ex. 2. 1. John won´t be..... / Will John be ....? 2. It won´t be ..... / Will it be....? 3. My friends won´t be... / Will my friends be....? 4. The program won´t be ... / Will the program be...? 5. Mary won´t be... / Will Mary be...? 6. I won´t be... / Will I be ....? 7. They won´t be.../ Will they be...? Ex. 3. 1. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2. When will you be free? 3. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4. At what time will they be here? 5. How will the weather be this month? 6. When will Mary be in New York? 7. When will she be back in Chile? 8. Why will they be at home all day? 9. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex. 4. (open answers) Ex. 5. 1. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning. 2. Those children are not very good students. 3. Where are your friends now? 4. Who was here this morning? 5. We weren´t here last week. 6. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7. They were good friends at school. 8. The reports weren´t ready yet. 9. Mr Jackson was in the offi ce all day. 10. When are they free all day? 11. Who was that man? 12. This isn´t a very interesting book. 13. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . 14. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25Bl 26UNIT 2 PART I. THERE TO BE (HABER, EXISTIR) A. PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS - THERE ARE Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY, en castellano. THERE IS /ear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. THERE ARE /ear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. Normalmente, en el singular, se usa la contracción THERE´S /éarz/. There is a book on the desk /ear íz e búk on e désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. /éarz e ká:r in e ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. /éarz sam wóter in e glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. /ear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /ear á:r sam tchéarz in e rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /ear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /ear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. /ear iz nót e búk on e désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. / éar íznt e ká:r in e ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /éar íznt éni wóter in e glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /éarz nóu wóter in e glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. /ear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. /ear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. /ear á:rent éni tchéarz in e rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. /ear a:r nóu tchéarz in e rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. Is there a book on the desk? /íz ear e búk on e désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz ear e ká:r in e ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz éar éni wóter in e glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r ear tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r ear éni tchéarz in e rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? /háu match/ (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? There´s very little (whisky). How much ice is there in the glass? There´s a lot (of ice). How much water is there? There isn´t any (water). There´s no water. How many doors are there in this room? There´s only one (door). How many windows are there? There are three (windows). How many chairs are there? There aren´t any (chairs). There are no chairs. Como ud. ha advertido, la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo, algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afi rmativa. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affi rmative SOME There´s some water in the glass. /éarz sam wóter in e glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /éar á:r sam trí:z in e gá:rdn/ Negative NOT ANY There isn´t any water in the glass. /ear íznt éni wóter in e glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. /ear á:rent éni trí:z in e gá:rdn/ NO There ´s no water in the glass. /éarz nóu wóter in e glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden. /ear á:r nóu trí:z in e gá:rdn/ Interrogative ANY? Is there any water in the glass? /iz ear éni wóter in e glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . /a:r ear éni trí:z in e gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a), FEW /fi ú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /éarz véri lítl wó:ter in e glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. /éarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. /ear a:r véri fi ú: desks in e rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. /ear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. La expresión A LOT OF normalmente se usa en oraciones afi rmativas. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefi ere usar las palabras MUCH o MANY, según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /éarz e lót ov shúgar in e bóul/ Affi rmative a lot of There are a lot of books on the shelf. /éar á:r e lót ov buks on e shélf/ not much There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. /éar íznt match shúgar in e bóul/ Negative not many There aren´t many books on the shelf. /éar á:rent méni buks on e shélf/ much? Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz éar match shúgar in e bóul/ Interrogative many? Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r éar méni buks on e shélf/ El artículo indefi nido A/AN (un,una) no tiene una forma para el plural, por lo tanto se omite. Normalmente el artículo A/ AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as, SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as, MANY /méni/ muchos/as. There is a tree in the garden. There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden. There are many trees in the garden. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo, en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. There´s no water in that bottle. There are fl owers in the garden. There are no fl owers in the garden Finalmente, estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much There is milk in this bottle a little very little no/not any some several many fl owers in the There are a lot of garden. a few very few no/not any EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. _______________________ some books on the shelf. 2. _______________________ very little money left in the box. 3. _______________________ only one student in the lab now. 4. _______________________ very few people at the conference. 28 A short course in english for adult students 5. _______________________ no more milk in the jug. 6. _______________________ no more CDs in the box. 7. _______________________ no time left. 8. _______________________ several helicopters in the airfi eld. 9. _______________________ some letters for you on the desk. 10. _______________________ a lot of mistakes in your composition. Ex. 2. Change the following statements into the negative form. 1. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket. ___________________________________________________ 2. There are a lot of students absent. ___________________________________________________ 3. There´s some more meat in the fridge. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. There are some extra chairs in the room. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. There´s a telephone in the room. ___________________________________________________ 6. There are a lot of people in the room. ___________________________________________________ 7. There are some more clean glasses. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. There are 30 days in February. ___________________________________________________ 9. There´s some more money in my pocket. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. There´s central heating in the room. ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. 1. There´s a hotel near the Training Center. ___________________________________________________ 2. There are some students absent today. ___________________________________________________ 3. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings. ___________________________________________________ 4. There´s some more coffee in the cup. ___________________________________________________ 5. There are more than 10 students. ___________________________________________________ 6. There are more women than men. ___________________________________________________ 7. There is another chair in that room ___________________________________________________ 8. There are some more books. ___________________________________________________ 9. There are 24 hours in a day. ___________________________________________________ 10. There´s a train for Paris in the morning. ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Complete the following questions and answers. Use HOW MUCH......IS THERE? or HOW MANY.......... ARE THERE? in the questions, and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the answers . Ej.: How many dictionaries are there? There are 8, sir. 1. ___________________ money _______________? ________________ very little. 2. ___________________ doors ________________in the lab? ________________ just one. 3. ___________________ milk _________________in the jug? ________________ no milk in it. 4. ___________________ video tapes ___________? ________________ very few. 5. ___________________ work _________________today? ________________ a lot of work. 6. ___________________ people _______________in the room?. ________________ a lot. 7. ___________________ butter ________________in the dish? ________________ just a little. 8. ___________________ secretaries ____________here? ________________ two. 9. ___________________ women_______________in that group? ________________ fi ve or six. 10. ___________________ men _________________in the crew? ________________ four men. Ex. 5. Use LITTLE, FEW, A LOT in the blank spaces. 1. There are very ______________________________ books in the school library. 2. There´s ____________________________________ milk left in the bottle. A short course in english for adult students 293. There´s very ________________________________ ice in my glass. 4. There´s ____________________________________ of noise in this room. 5. There are __________________________________ of trees in that park. 6. There are only a ____________________________ tickets available. 7. There are __________________________________ students absent from class today. 8. There´s ____________________________________ of sugar in my coffee. It´s very sweet. 9. There are __________________________________ of errors in my check. 10. There´s just a_______________________________ whisky left in the bottle. B. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS - THERE WERE El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /ear wóz/ / THERE WERE /ear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /ear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /ear wé:rent/. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. Escuche, lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /ear woz e lot ov nóis in e rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. There were many people absent. /ear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes. There wasn´t any beer in the can. /ear wóznt éni bíar in e kæn/There was no beer.../ ear wóz nou bíar.../No había nada de cerveza en la lata. There weren´t many books on the desk. /ear wé:rnt méni buks on e désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. Was there a TV in the room? / woz ear e tÍ: ví: in e rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r ear at e pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fi esta?). How much coffee was there? / háu match kófi woz ear / ¿Cuánto café había? EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Change into the Past Tense: 1. There´s a lot of work in the offi ce today. _________________________________________________________ 2. There are two books missing from the shelf. _________________________________________________________ 3. How much milk is there in the fridge? _________________________________________________________ 4. There aren´t many hotels in this town. _________________________________________________________ 5. Is there enough money for the trip? _________________________________________________________ 6. How many people are there on board? _________________________________________________________ 7. There isn´t much time to talk. _________________________________________________________ 8. There are very few people in the pub. _________________________________________________________ 9. Are there many errors in the bill? _________________________________________________________ 10. There´s very little whisky left. _________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Answer these questions, using the information given in parenthesis: 1. How many students were there in this class last year? (about 20) 2. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (No, not more than 30) 3. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? (very little, of course) 4. Was there enough bread for all the people? (yes, more than enough) 5. How many students were there in the laboratory? ( not any) 6. How many days were there in February that year? (29, because it was a leap year) 7. Were there many cars in the street at that time? ( Yes, lots of cars) 30 A short course in english for adult students C. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /ear wil bí:/. En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE, formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /earl bí:/. Escuche, lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /ear wil bí: e véri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. There will be two more tests next week. /ear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. There´ll be another meeting this evening. /earl bí: anáer mí:ti is í:vni/ . Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. /earl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo fi n de semana La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL, normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. En las preguntas, el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. Escuche, lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. /ear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. There will not be another meeting this evening. /ear wil not bí: anáer mí:ti is í:vni/ There won´t be two more tests next week. /ear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil ear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: is í:vni/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil ear bí. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil ear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex.1. Change into the future tense. 1. There is a lot of free time in the evening. ___________________________________________________ 2. There are some women at the meeting. ___________________________________________________ 3. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. ___________________________________________________ 4. How many people are there at the reception? ___________________________________________________ 5. How much money is there in the box? ___________________________________________________ 6. Is there any more work? ___________________________________________________ 7. Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present, Past or Future). 1. How many women ____________________________ at the party last Saturday? 2. ____________________________________________ a lot of noise in this room now. 3. ____________________________________________ several trees in the park now. 4. How much free time __________________________ next time? 5. ____________________________________________ very little food in the fridge now. 6. ____________________________________________ not any more exercises in the book now. 7. ____________________________________________ a lot of noise at the disco last night. 8. ____________________________________________ very few fl owers in our garden. 9. How many students ___________________________ in your class last year? 10. ____________________________________________ much milk left. Just one or two bottles. Ex. 3. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. 1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 314. ______________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________ 10. ______________________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Answer these questions in English. 1. How many days are there in a week? ______________________________________________ 2. How many days will there be in February next year? ______________________________________________ 3. How many students were there in your class last year? ______________________________________________ 4. How many computers are there in your offi ce? ______________________________________________ 5. How many people were there in the room at 8:30? ______________________________________________ 6. Will there be another meeting this week? No, __________________________________________ 7. Was there much work to do in the offi ce last Monday? Yes, __________________________________________ 8. Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? No, __________________________________________ No, ___________________________________________ 9. How much money is there in your wallet? ______________________________________________ 10. How many eggs are there in a dozen? ______________________________________________ Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. ______________________________________________ 2. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. ______________________________________________ 3. ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? ______________________________________________ 4. ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? ______________________________________________ 5. No había mucha gente en el edifi cio a esa hora. ______________________________________________ 6. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. ______________________________________________ 7. No hay tiempo para conversar. ______________________________________________ 8. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. ______________________________________________ 9. ¿Cuántos autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? ______________________________________________ 10. Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. ______________________________________________ 11. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fi n de semana. ______________________________________________ 12. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora.. ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students PART II. NUMBERS Escuche, lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 2 two /tu:/ 3 three /"ri:/ 4 four /fo:r/ 5 fi ve /fáiv/ 6 six /siks/ 7 seven /sévn/ 8 eight /éit/ 9 nine /náin/ 10 ten /ten/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 13 thirteen /"e:rtí:n/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtí:n/ 15 fi fteen /fi ftí:n/ 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ 18 eighteen /eití:n/ 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 30 thirty /"é:rti/ 40 forty /fó:rti/ 50 fi fty /fífti/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 200 two hundred /tú: hándred/ 1,000 one thousand /uán "áuzand/ 2,000 two thousand /tú: "áuzand/ 200,000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred "áuzand/ 2,000,000 two million /tú: mílion/ 5,362 fi ve thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv "áuzand "ri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45,971 forty-fi ve thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv "áuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1. Las palabras twenty, thirty, forty, etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario. Ej, 21. twenty-one, 32 thirty-two, 45 forty- fi ve, 68 sixty-eight, 94 ninety-four. 2. Las palabras hundred, thousand, million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés. Ej. 400 four hundred; 5,000 fi ve thousand, 3,000,000 three million. 3. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and; las palabras thousand, million y billion no van seguidas de and. Ej. 365 three hundred and sixty-fi ve; 5,387 fi ve thousand, three hundred and eighty-seven; 463,265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand, two hundred and sixty-fi ve. 4. Las palabras hundred, thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones, para indicar lo mismo que “lots of...” Ej. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park; There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium; There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5. Al escribir cifras en inglés, el punto es coma y la coma es punto. Ej. 12.5% ; 70.45 km; US 4,365.80 Ex. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 b) 56 c) 79 d) 94 e) 33 f) 28 g) 148 h) 597 i) 846 j) 1,285 k) 6,394 l) 24,973 m) 256,875 n) 5,687,328 a) _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ c) _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ e) _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ g) _____________________________________________ h) ___________________________________________________________________ i) ___________________________________________________________________ j) ___________________________________________________________________ k) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ l) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ m) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ n) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33