100 Accounting Questions: For Class XII (M.P. Board)
This book contains approx 120 Most Important Guess Questions taken from 5 Years of M.P. Board Papers.
CHAPTER - 1
Distinguish between Del-Credere Commission and Over-Riding
Basis of Del-Credere Commission Over-Riding Commission
It is paid for realizing It is paid for encouraging
amount of credit sale. sale at a higher than Invoice
It is usually computed on It is computed on the excess
the amount of credit sale. amount over invoice price.
It is paid for avoiding the It is paid for getting extra
risk of bad debts. profit.
Representation The recipient of such The recipient of such
commission is called commission is called
Credere Agent. Normal Agent.
Difference between Invoice & Proforma Invoice
It is sent to Buyers. It is sent to Consignee.
It is sent after dispatch of goods. It is sent before dispatching of
It is prepared on the basis of actual It is not prepared on the basis of
sale. actual sale.
It is sent during the normal routine. It is sent only when it is necessary to
The buyer is bound to pay the The consignee is not bound to pay
amount shown in the invoice. the amount, shown in such invoice.
What do you mean by Abnormal Loss in Consignment A/c?
When goods are lost due to accident or negligence, it is called Abnormal
Loss. It can be insured, to reduce the extent of the loss to be suffered by
consignor on his account since abnormal loss has nothing to do with a
particular consignment, it should not be charged to any particular
Why does the consignor show invoice price higher than cost price? What
adjustment entries are passed?
When goods are sent in Invoice price, the consignor always writes the cost of
consigned goods more than actual cost price. The following are the two main
objects to goods sent in invoice price:
- To earn maximum profit in consignment.
- To keep the secrecy of Cost Price.
Goods sent on Consignment A/c Dr.
To Consignment A/c
Differentiate Consignment and Sale
Basis of Consignment Sale
In consignment, In Sales, only the title to
ownership always vest the goods are transferred.
with the Consigner
Relationship The relation between The relation between
Consignor or Consignee Seller and Buyer is that of
is Principal-Agent. Debtor-Creditor.
Discount No discount is given. Discount is given.
Proforma Invoice Proforma Invoice is sent. No such invoice is sent.
CHAPTER - 2
In the absence of Partnership Deed, What rules are applicable?
According to the Partnership Act, 1932, in the absence of Partnership Deed,
the following points should be applied:
i. Profits or Losses should be shared equally among the partner’s.
ii. No partner is entitled to get any type of remuneration like salary,
iii. Right to partnership in the conduct of the business.
iv. Right to express his opinion.
v. Inspection of any copy/books of the firm.
What do you mean by Partner’s Current A/c? What items are included
in Partner’s Capital A/c?
When the capital accounts of partners are prepared under fixed capital
system, a separate account called partner’s current account is prepared, where
all the other entries excluding capital balance is recorded. It includes interest
on capital, partner’s salary, commission, interest on drawing, share on profit
and loss, etc. the account which is prepared in this way is called Partner’s
What is Partnership? Write three characteristics?
Partnership is the relationship between two or more persons, who have
agreed to share the profits of the business, carried on by all or anyone of them
acting for all is said to be Partnership.
Characteristics: Three characteristics at partnership are as follows:
a. Carrying out a Business: The existence of a business is necessary for
a formation of a partnership firm.
b. Agreement: A partnership firm is the outcome of agreement between
partner’s. it may be oral or written.
c. Unlimited Liability: With reference to the repayment of the firm’s
external debt’s, the liability of each partner is unlimited.
Differentiate between Fixed and Fluctuating Capital Method:
Basis of Difference Fixed Capital A/c Fluctuating Capital
Number of Accounts Two separate a/c’s are Each partner has only
maintained for each one account i.e., capital
partner viz Capital and account.
Recordings of All adjustments related All adjustments related
to partner’s drawings, to partner’s drawings,
salary, etc. are made in salary, etc. are made in
current a/c not in the Capital A/c.
Change in Partner’s The capital a/c balance The balance of the
Capital Balance remain unchanged capital account
unless there is addition fluctuates from year to
to or withdrawal of year.
Balance of Capital A/c Fixed capital accounts Fluctuating capital
always show a credit accounts may show a
balance. debit or credit balance.
CHAPTER - 3
Define Goodwill. What are its characteristics?
‘Goodwill’ is defined as ‘The capacity of a business to earn profits in the
future is basically what is meant by the term Goodwill.
The following are the characteristics of goodwill:
a) Goodwill is treated as an Asset of Business.
b) Goodwill is an intangible asset.
c) Goodwill helps to make more profits.
d) Goodwill can be calculated.
e) The value of goodwill always Fluctuate.
f) Goodwill is a Fixed Asset.
g) It is a Saleable Asset.
What are the different types of Goodwill?
On the basis of goodwill, it may be classified into three groups:
a) Cat Goodwill: The main cause of arising cat goodwill is location
of business. If the location of business firm is changed, it may be
possible to lose some profits by business.
b) Dog Goodwill: If the master of dog leaves his place, his dog
always follows him. Same Way, the goodwill of the firm goes with
the owner of the business, if he changes his business.
c) Rat Goodwill: This type of goodwill has no value. The nature of
rat is always to change its place. It doesn’t remain at a fixed place.
The goodwill doesn’t remain in a particular business.
Explain the causes of ‘Creation of Goodwill’?
The following are the causes of creating of goodwill:
a) Situation f a market: Business should be started in such a place,
where the buyers can easily come and buy goods. It will increase
the sale and profits of the business.
b) Good Business Dealing: If the businessman, are keeping good
relations with the customers, it will automatically increase the
reputation and sales.
c) Good Quality of Goods at Reasonable Price: If the businessman
sell their goods of good quality at reasonable price, more
customers will be attracted and the sales will normally be
d) Influence of Advertisement: Due to continuous, advertisement
there should be chances of increasing the sales e.g., Nirma Powder.
Differentiate between Sacrificing and Gaining Ratio:
Sacrificing Ratio Gaining Ratio
Sacrifice made by the old partners The profit sharing ratio of the
out of their existing share in favor remaining partners increases due
of new partner’s is called to retirement or death of the
Sacrificing Ratio. partner. The ratio increases is
recorded in Profit sharing ratio of
the remaining partner’s.
It is calculated at the time, when a It is calculated at the event of
new partner enters into retirement or death of a partner.
As per Accounting Standard 10, what are the provisions of goodwill
when a new partner is admitted in partnership?
According to the resolution passed in the 144 meeting of the council of
institute of chartered accountants of India, held on 7 to 9 June, 1990,
in the Para 16 of the Accounting Standard, goodwill is recorded in the
books only when some consideration in money worth or money has been
paid for goodwill. Goodwill Account can be opened only when goodwill
has been acquired by paying some consideration price. If no price or
consideration is given goodwill a/c can’t be opened in the books on
admission, retirement or death of a partner or in case of changes in profit
ratio of partners.
What are the factors affecting Goodwill?
a) Suitable location of the firm.
b) Popular name of the firm.
c) Contacts with customers.
e) Fire Price Policy.
f) Quality of products or goods.
g) Monopolistic Condition.
h) Service after sale.
i) Quick response to customers.
What is the Need for Valuation of Goodwill (when goodwill valued)?
The valuation of goodwill is required normally in the following
i. When the existing partners decide to change their mutual Profit
ii. When a new partner is admitted in the partnership firm.
iii. When a partner retires from firm and the remaining partners
decide to continue the partnership business.
iv. When a partner dies and the remaining partners decide to continue
the partnership business.
v. When the firm is dissolved due to sale of its business to a going
vi. When two partnership firms are amalgamated for averting
competition or reducing the administrative expenditure.
CHAPTER - 4
What is the reason of admitting new partner?
Due to the following reasons, A partner may be admitted:
To Raise Capital: When the firm needs more capital, a new partner is
admitted to fulfil their need.
Need of a Skillful Partner: If the firm needs an able, skillful and
intellectual person for the development and efficient running of the business,
the firm can admit a new partner to fulfil their needs.
On Death of a Partner: On the death or retirement of a partner, there gets a
blank in the firm and in order to fill the space a new partner is admitted in
the firm. This helps the firm to receive additional capital from the incoming
partner and his experience.
How will you calculate amount payable to the legal representative on the
death of a partner?
The amount payable to his legal representative on the death of a partner is as
a. Make the accounts up to the date of death of the partner.
b. The debit balance shown by the partner’s capital account regarding
drawings, interest on drawings, revaluation loss, any other loss of firm,
up to the death of the partner.
c. After entering all the above items, the balance amount is treated as the
amount payable to the representative of the dead partner.
On which circumstances, A Partnership Firm may be dissolved? /
Methods of Dissolution of a Firm?
Section 40 to 44 of the Indian Partnership Act, of 1932 tells that on the
following circumstances, A partnership firm may be dissolved:
a. Dissolution by Agreement: A firm may be dissolved with the consent
of all the partners.
b. Dissolution by Court: If any of the circumstances lays down, the court
may under to dissolve firm: -
When a partner becomes unsound mind.
When a partner suffers from permanent incapacity.
c. Dissolution by Notice: If the partnership is at will, the firm may be
dissolved at any time by any partner giving notice in writing to all the
other partners of his intention to dissolve the firm.
Difference between the Dissolution of Firm & Dissolution of Partnership
Basis of Dissolution of Firm Dissolution of Partnership
Relation When the firm is dissolved, the When the partners are dissolved,
personal relation among the the relation among them is also
partners is not dissolved. dissolved forever.
Business In this condition, the business of In this condition, the business of
the firm will continue. the partners will come to an end.
Dissolution of partnership doesn’t When the firm is dissolved, the
need the winding up of the firm. partners are also winding up.
Difference between the Revaluation A/c and Realization A/c
Basis of Revaluation A/c Realization A/c
When is, it It is prepared at the time of It is prepared at the time of
Prepared? admission, retirement or death of a dissolution of a firm.
Why is it It is prepared for the accounting of It is prepared to close the accounts
increase or decrease of assets and of assets and liabilities.
How is it In this account, the increase and The amount received from the sale
Prepared? decrease of assets and liabilities of assets and the amount paid for the
are recorded. liabilities are recorded
What is the Accounts of assets and liabilities Accounts of assets and liabilities are
effect on are opened. closed.
CHAPTER - 6
Characteristics of a Company:
A Company has the following characteristics: -
a. It is an artificial person, created by law.
b. It is a voluntary association of persons.
c. It is a separate legal entity.
d. It has a common seal.
e. It has a perpetual succession.
f. It has a limited liability.
g. It is effaced by law.
h. It has registered office.
Preference Shares:Shares which enjoy preferential rights as to the
payment of dividend at a fixed rate during the life of the company and as
the return of capital on winding up of the company.
Categories of Preference Shares:
a. Cumulative – Non-Cumulative Preference Share
b. Participating – Non-Participating Preference Share
c. Convertible – Non-Convertible Preference Share
d. Redeemable – Irredeemable Preference Share
When a Company can issue its shares at discount?
Under Section 79 of the Companies Act, 1956, a company can issue
shares at a discount subject to the following conditions:
a. The company is completed one year of its business.
b. The issue of shares at a discount has been authorized by the
shareholders in a general meeting of the company and also has
been sanctioned by court.
c. Shares to be issued at a discount must be of a class already issued.
Share Application / Allotment A/c Dr.
Discount on issue of shares A/c Dr.
To Share Capital
What do you mean by issue of shares at premium? What entries are
made in this respect, when the premium amount is collected along
with allotment money?
When the shares issues higher price than the nominal value or the face
value of the shares, it is said to be issue of shares at premium. When the
shares are issued at Premium, Entries are
Share Application A/c Dr.
To Share Capital
To Share Premium
(Being Allotment due, including Premium)
Explain any four characteristics of Equity Shares?
The characteristics of Equity Shares are as follows:
a. Voting Rights: - Equity shareholders enjoy voting rights over the
b. Dividend: On such shares, rate of dividend is not fixed.
c. Payment: Dividend on such shares is paid only after the preference
dividend is paid.
d. Redemption: At the event of liquidation, the equity capital is
refunded only after the preference shares are paid back.
What do you mean by a Stock? Write difference between Share &
By Share and Stock, we mean aggregate of fully paid-up shares which
have been consolidated to ensure convenience in holding. A stock is
made up of sets of shares expressed in terms of money instead of
number of shares assimilated in that stock.
Share:Total capital of a company is divided into units of small
denominations. Each such unit of capital is called ‘Share’.
Difference between Equity Shares and Preference Share
Basis of Equity Share Preference Share
Rate of Rate of dividend on these Rate on dividend on these shares
Difference between Shares and Stock
Basis of Shares Stock
Nominal / A share has face value. A stock certificate has no face
Face Value value.
Issue Shares are issued directly to Only fully paid-up shares are
the public after Incorporation converted into stock.
Fully Paid- For Shares, to be fully paid- For issuing a share, is necessary
Up Value up is not necessary. for consolidating shares to be
Numbering Shares are numbered A share stock certificate doesn’t
seriously. contain serial number.
Shares are popular among the Share stock certificates are not
Dividend shares are not fixed. are by Article of Association.
Limited The income as dividend is not Income as dividend are fixed
Income limited. and limited.
Value The value is generally less. The value are generally more.
Rate of Dividend is high. Rate of Dividend is less.
Priority of Payment are done later. Payments are done at first.
What do you mean by Debentures? When can debentures be issued?
The word Debenture is derived from the Latin word ‘Debere’, which
means to Owe. The term debenture is used to signify the
acknowledgement of a debt given under the seal of the company and
containing a contract for the repayment of the principal sum at a
specified date and for the payment of interest at a fixed rate until the
principal sum is repayed.
What is the object of issuing Debentures?
According to the guidelines, issued by Security Exchange Board of India
(SEBI). Company can issue the debentures for the following objectives.
a. For expanding expenditure on modernization of plants.
b. Expansion and Diversification of plant.
c. For meeting, long term requirement of working capital.
d. For setting up new projects.
Explain the advantage of Debenture to the Company?
Following are the advantages of issuing debentures:
a. Sufficient Funds are Raised: At the event of need of additional
capital, A company may raise sufficient funds through issuing of
debentures to public.
b. No Intervention in Management: A Debenture Holder has no
right to intervene in the management of the company, Since, they
do not enjoy voting rights.
c. Convenience in Repayment: A company may conveniently
arrange for the repayment of debentures to be made after a specific
period of time.
What is meant by Redeemable and Irredeemable Debentures?
Redeemable Debentures are those debentures, which are repayable after
a stipulated period or after a fixed date is called Redeemable Debenture.
Irredeemable Debentures are those debentures, which are not repayable
so long as the Company exists is called Irredeemable Debenture.
Differentiate between Share holder and Debenture holder?
Basis of Share holder Debenture holder
They are the owners of the They are the creditors of the
They receive Dividend. They receive Interest.
It is repaid at the end. It is repaid at first.
Shares are part of capital. Debentures are part of capital.
They have the right to control They have no rights to control
the affairs of the company. the affairs of the company.
Explain the essential characteristics of Debentures?
The essential characteristics of debentures are: -
i. A debenture is a certificate of debts.
ii. Debenture is a convenient means of external borrowings.
iii. A debenture includes debenture, stock, bonds or any of the
iv. A debenture contains the provision for payment of interest at
regular intervals on fixed dates.
v. A debenture contains the provision for repayment of the principal
sum on due date.
Issue of Debentures
Under the Companies Act, 1656, the board of directors is empowered to
issue debentures but, of course, with the consent of the company in the
ordinary General Meeting. The previous borrowings and present
borrowings both together must not exceed the paid-up capital and
reserve fund of the company. Debentures can be issued at par, at
premium or at discount. If the debentures carry a charge on the assets of
the company, the particulars of such charge must be furnished to the
Registrar of Companies within 21 days of the charge so arose. The
debentures can be issued for payment in a lump sum or in different
installment like shares. The journal entries are made in the same manner
as are made for the issue of shares. But, debentures cannot be forfeited
like shares for non-payment of calls.
What are the things kept in mind while redemption of debentures?
Following things are kept in mind while redeeming the debentures:
i. Redemption fund should be made.
ii. The amount of that fund utilizes only that way whatever is
redemption fund is created for.
iii. It is compulsory for each and every company to deposit 50%
amount issued amount.
iv. Time of redemption amount should be arranged.
Discuss the methods of Redemption of Debentures?
There are various methods of redemption of debentures. Therefore,
determination of redemption of debentures is made at the time of issuing
a. Payment in Lump-Sum.
b. Payment in Installment.
c. At the Option of the Company.
d. Purchasing from Open Market.
State the type of debentures. Explain any Five.
A Company may issue following types of Debentures:
Registerable Mortgaged or Secured
Bearer Right Debentures
What is meant by ‘Redemption of Debentures’?
Redemption of Debentures means Repayment of the number of
debentures, to the debenture holders or discharge of the liability on
account of debentures. Debentures are normally redeemed on the due
Write two names of the types of Financial Analysis?
Statements prepared to ascertain the profit and loss, during the
accounting period and position of assets and liabilities at a certain date.
Types of Financial Statements:
There are two basic Financial Statements are: -
i. Balance Sheet or Position Statements: Balance Sheet is a
statement of assets and liabilities disclosing the financial position
of an enterprise at a given date. The purpose of balance sheet is to
know the resources and obligations for acquiring assets and
ii. Profit and Loss A/c or Income Statement: Income statement or
P&L A/c shows the net results of operation of business during an
Explain the items, which are shown on the asset side of balance
sheet under the main heads of Public Limited Company.
The following items are included on Asset side of the balance sheet of
public limited company under the main heads:
i. Fixed Assets: Under this heading, Fixed assets of the company are
shown in their cost price. Appreciation of Depreciation are added
ii. Investments: To earn income securities are purchased for business
iii. Current Assets, Loans & Advances: This heading is also divided
into two subheads: - Current Assets & Loans and Advances
iv. Miscellaneous Expenditure: Under this heading, Preliminary
expenses, commission and brokerage on shares and debentures etc.
v. Profits and Loss A/c: When there is a debit balance of Profit and
Write some important items showed as Indian Company’s Act, 1956
Schedule VI-I in Balance Sheet.
Liabilities Amount Assets Amount
Share Capital Rs. Fixed Assets Rs.
Reserves and Surplus - Investments -
Secured Loans - Loans & Advances/ -
Unsecured Loans - Miscellaneous Expenses -
Contingent Liabilities - Profit and Loss A/c -
Current Liabilities - (Dr. Balance) -
What do you mean by Ratio Analysis?
Ratio Analysis explains the comparison between two numbers. It also
explains the relationship between two items and two groups. By ratio
analysis, we can simplify difficult and brief data and convert into simplest
form, it will help for study of different ratio.
Mention two objects of Ratio Analysis?
Two objects of Ratio Analysis are as follows:
a. Profitability Measurement.
b. Examination of Solvency.
c. Examination of Operational Efficiency of Firm.
d. Financial Statement Analysis.
Explain objectives of Financial Statement Analysis?
The following are the main objective of financial statement analysis.
a. Knowledge of Earning Capacity: The main object of analysis is to
know whether there is appropriate profit on invested capital or not.