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How improve English Communication skills
how to improve English communication skills in 30 days pdf free download
Subject: ENGLISH COMMUNICATION SKILLS (THEORY)
Subject Code: HM3101
Branch: B.Tech all branches
Semester: (IST SEM)
Lecture notes prepared by:
i) Dr. Minakshi Prasad Mishra (Coordinator)
Asst. Prof. in English
College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar
ii) Ms. Parinita Tripathy
Lecturer in English
College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar
iii) Ms. Ranjita Patra
Lecturer in English
College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar
The lecture notes has been prepared by referring to many books and notes prepared
by the teachers. Some of the books referred has not been given reference in the foot
notes, but referred only once in the end notes. This document does not claim any
originality and cannot be used as a substitute for prescribed textbooks. The
information presented here is merely a collection of materials by the committee
members of the subject. This is just an additional tool for the teaching-learning
process. The teachers who teach in the class room, generally prepare lecture notes to
give direction to the class. These notes is just a digital format of the same. These notes
does not claim to be original and cannot be taken as a text book. These notes has been
prepared to help the students of BPUT in their preparation for the examination. This
is going to give them a broad idea about the curriculum. Various sources as mentioned
at the reference of the document as well as freely available material from internet
were consulted for preparing this document. The ownership of the information lies
with the respective authors or institutions. Further, this document is not intended to
be used for commercial purpose and the committee faculty members are not
accountable for any issues, legal or otherwise, arising out of use of this document. The
committee faculty members make no representations or warranties with respect to
the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this document and specifically
disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
Preamble: Course outcome
Today’s engineers face a dual challenge of being competitive as well as global. They not only
have to be master in their professional skills but also, they must have various soft skills
competencies to be suitable for the job market. In today’s date the job market is growing in
terms of volume but it is shrinking in terms of number of professionals passing out of the
college. The students who pass out their degree must possess the qualities of a techno-
manager. They must be in a position to do multitasking in their jobs. Only possessing technical
skills/hard skills have not paid off for many. Hence, keeping in view the requirement of the job
market it was understood that the students need to be good at Soft skills too. One of the most
important tool for good soft skills is Communication skills. Communication skills means English
communication skills. Communication skills helps a student in developing Confidence,
smartness and outward skills. This course has been designed keeping in mind the need of the
Engineering students and their future needs. All the three modules discussed in the curriculum
is highly essential and helps a professional to speak better English. A thorough research has
gone into the design of the curriculum. The digital notes prepared will help to enhance the
understanding on the subject. The students are advised to use the digital notes for the purpose
of reference only. They have go through many books in order to understand individual subjects.
The course will help in getting a better idea on different topics, hence, increasing the
competency of the students in the subject.
Module-I The elements of Communication
1.1 The importance of communication through English at the present time
1.2 The process of communication and factors that influence communication sender, receiver,
channel, code, topic, message, context, feedback, noise, filters & barriers
1.3 The importance of audience and purpose
1.4 The information gap principle: given and new information, information overload
1.5 Verbal and non-verbal communication: body language
1.6 Comparing general communication and business communication
Module-II The sounds of English
2.1 Vowels, diphthongs, consonants, consonant clusters
2.2 The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): Phonemic transcription
2.3 Problem Sounds
2.4 Syllable division and word stress
2.5 Sentence rhythm and weak forms
2.6 Contrastive stress in sentences to highlight different words
2.7 Intonation: Falling, rising and falling-rising tones
2.8 Varieties of Spoken English: Standard Indian, American and British
(Note: This unit should be taught in a simple, non-technical manner, avoiding technical terms as
far as possible.)
Module- III Review of English grammar
3.1 Static and Dynamic Verbs
3.2 The auxiliary system: finite and non-finite verbs
3.3 Time, tense and aspect
3.4 Voice: Active and passive
3.6 Negation 5
3.7 Interrogation: reported and tag questions
3.10 Phrasal Verbs
(Note: The teaching of grammar should be treated as a diagnostic and remedial activity and
integrated with communication practice. The areas of grammar in which errors are common
should receive special attention when selecting items for review. Teaching need not be
confined to the topics listed above.)
1) An introduction to Professional English and Soft Skills by B. K. Das et al., Cambridge
University Press (Facilitated by BPUT)
2) Technical Communication: Principles and Practice, Second Edition by Meenakshi Raman
and Sangeeta Sharma, Oxford Publications.
3) Effective Technical Communication by M Ashraf Rizvi, The McGraw-Hill companies.
4) Understanding Body Language by Alan Pease.
5) Communicative Grammar of English by Geoffrey Leech and Ian Svartik.
6) Better English Pronunciation by J.D.O’Connor.
7) English Grammar by S.Pit Corder
8) English Grammar by Wren and Martin.
This is not the end of the list other books may also be referred.
Lesson Plan: The course should be taught in an interactive method. Use of black board as well
ICT is highly useful for delivering the topics.
The first module has to be completed in 6 hours hence, the module has been divided into six
sessions of one hour each.
Session 1: Importance of Communication in the present context, Introduction to
Session 2: Process of Communication and Factors that influence the process.
Session 3: Importance of audience and purpose.
Session 4: The information gap principle: Given and new information, information overload.
Session 5: Verbal and non-verbal communication (Body language)
Session 6: Comparison between general communication and Business communication, review
of the module.
The second module is to be completed in 14 hrs. hence the second module is divided into 14
sessions of one hour each.
Session 7: Introduction to phonetics, need and use of it.
Session 8: Received pronunciation, transformation of letters into sounds.
Session 9: International phonemic alphabets, Vowel Sounds, Consonant Sounds
Session 10: Consonant Clusters and its use.
Session 11: Phonemic transcription
Session 12: Phonemic transcription contd…
Session 13: Syllable division and word practice
Session 14: Word stress and Sentence stress
Session 15: Problem sounds and Sentence rhythm 7
Session 16: Weak forms
Session 17: Contrastive stress in sentences to highlight different words.
Session 18: Intonation
Session 19: Rising and Falling tone, falling-rising tone
Session 20: Varieties of Spoken English: American, Standard Indian and British, Review of the
The last module has been allotted 10 hrs hence, the module has been divided into 10 sessions
of 1 hour each.
Session 21: Introduction to Grammar, elementary grammar
Session 22: Parts of Speech
Session 23: Verb and its application, Static and Dynamic Verb
Session 24: The auxiliary system, Finite and non-finite verbs
Session 25: Time, Tense and aspect
Session 26: Voice Change: Active and Passive
Session 27: Negation, Interrogation: reported and tag questions
Session 28: Conditionals, Concord
Session 29: Phrasal verbs
Session 30: Detailed review of grammar.
Module-I The elements of Communication
1.1: The importance of Communication through English at the present time
Before trying to understand the importance and relevance of English or English Communication
skills we must understand the historical background of the language and how it has evolved to
the present status. English as a language never enjoyed this position from the beginning. World
history in and after 14 century has a major role to play in making this language powerful and
useful. In today’s date it is not only a major language all over the world but also the official
language in many parts of the world. Many people depend on this language for their mere
survival and sustenance.
History of English Language:
Many may be surprised to know that English as language was never used for official purposes
even in England up to 11 and 12 century. In England people used to use rich languages like
Latin, French and Spanish. The dominance of each and every language over the history has
been dictated by the might the countries enjoyed. As England was ruled by the France and
other nations for a long period of time they never had the opportunity to develop their own
language. Till late 13 century the script of English language was not completely developed.
The first writing in English which can be claimed as a piece of literature dates back to late 13
Comparison between English and Indian Languages:
Many Indian languages like Sanskrit, Hindi and Odia are much older languages than English.
The literature of Sanskrit which is also known as the God’s language in India is thousands of
year old. Devnagri script which is used for most North Indian languages pre-dominantly for
Hindi (the national language of our country) and the language is much older in comparison to
English. Odia which is our state language and mother tongue is also older than English. The
literature written and used in these languages are rich in diversity and class. There is clear
evidence available to prove these.
Global languages and position of English:
If we try to say that English as a language is used all over the world. Hence, it is logical to use
this language. This statement is also falsified if we look into the top languages in the world in
terms of number of people using it. The number one slot in terms of population goes to
Mandarin (Chinese) and list is followed by Hindi, English, French, Arabic and Bengali among the
top languages used in the world. English only happen to stand IIIrd in the list. This fact confuses
us further. In the following paragraph we will see despite such a position why we are learning
English for day to day use and how the language evolved from being a meagre existence to such
a powerful and dominating position.
Evolution of the Language globally:
After 14 century England started flexing its muscles and started entering into new territories.
They settled colonies in almost each and every corner of the world. The union jack started
flowing in each and every continent. Their major colonies were America (North and South
America), Asia (India, China, Japan, and Myanmar etc.), Australia and New Zealand and Africa.
As they spread into the far and corner of the world they started dominating the local languages.
They made English compulsory in all the colonies ruled by them. As a result slowly the language
of English evolved as a global language. The say became quiet famous, “The sun never sets in
the British empire.”
Evolution of English Language in India:
In their quest of power they reached the Indian sub-continent in the 17 century. They settled
their colonies and slowly acquired the whole country under one rule. After 1857 (the sepoy
mutiny) Britishers established complete sovereignty over India. The use of English started from
the day the English landed in the country but after 1857 it became the official language of the
British ruled India. The English started training Indians to work as clerks in the various offices.
They established many schools and colleges to impart learning and training in English. It worked
for the Britishers because of the geographical and linguistic diversity present in our country.
Many freedom fighters in India started adopting English as a language to make a platform for
communication. The linguistic diversity between languages was so sharp that it was very very 10
difficult to understand or learn other languages. In such a situation English helped in bridging
the gap between state to state and province to province. Many popular freedom fighters
started using this language as a tool to reach the mass. English worked not only as a language
for communication but also a language for unity and solidarity among Indians. The trend
continued even after independence and in the constitution this language was given the status
of official language.
Present day status of English:
The preexistent linguistic barrier helped the language of English to rule the roost. India is a
country with more than 25 dominant languages and 6000 dialects. There are more than 16
major languages spoken and used in this country. English appears as a common platform for
many Indians when in a cross-linguistic situation. We must also attribute the hypocrisy of many
Indians for the development of English language in our country. We take pride in claiming that
we can speak, write or use this language comfortably fluently. English is the official language in
government and private offices. This is also the language of instruction in all the Universities
and colleges across the country. The scenario is such that one need to hone the skills of English
to obtain a job. Mere knowledge of subjects is no more the only criteria to secure a job in
today’s date. One need to be master in English communication skills to be a professional.
English has evolved as language of status. This reflects status symbol. If one is able to
communicate in English they drive respect for themselves. Before look onto us with respect if
we can speak in English. A person’s knowledge is judged in terms of English. English
Communication has become essential to get a job, move up in the career and earn a lot of
money. Not only in India but also in the world market English communication is highly required.
Today we live in a global village. Globalization has been adopted by almost all the developed
and developing countries. In this globalized era English language is an important tool in the
professional’s hand. In addition to the evolution of the language we must also understand the
economic value of the language. In most developed countries like US, Canada, England,
Australia and other major countries English is the language used for speaking and official
correspondence. As this countries control most of the world economy we have to learn this 11
language to be a part of the economy. English is no more a language but a bread winner in
today’s date. India is a developing country. We need to produce as many professionals as
required. And the professionals need to be well versed in the language. The language is skills is
the call of the day.
In India, Corporates, software companies, industries as well PSU’s and government
organizations need professionals who is fluent in English communication skills. Keeping in view
the need of the language we need to learn this language. Keeping in view the need and
importance of English language in the present context almost all the Universities insist on
English communication skills as a compulsory part of their curriculum for all sorts of
professional courses. e.g. B.Tech, B.Sc, B.Pharma, BBA/BCA, B.Arch., MBA, MCA and other
courses. English communication skills has become an integral part of the curriculum. A
professional in todays’ date cannot survive without learning and honing the skills of the
language. We must learn English in today’s date first to survive and secondly to move ahead in
our career. China which is a rival economy is in a less advantageous position because we Indians
can use this language in a better manner. China is trying hard to train it professionals this
language. It is believed that it will surpass India in terms of software professionals by 2020, if
we don’t learn this language to surpass China in the global market. In that a scenario, most of
the software jobs will vanish for Indian professionals as China is very good at providing cheap
professionals. One must understand the importance of English Communication skills in the
present time in a broader perspective rather than with a narrower vision.
1.2: The process of communication and factors that influence communication sender,
receiver, channel, code, topic, message, context, feedback, noise, filters & barriers.
This world consists of human beings. Human beings are the only species in this earth who has
the ability to speak and has a brain that can do multiple things. Though the three major
functions of human behavior includes food, sex and group existence, human being cannot be
complete without expressing themselves. We need to speak or express our feelings and ideas.
These ideas form the base of our existence. Communication is essential for the existence of the
society and it plays a prominent role in the functioning of different professional organizations.
We keep on expressing ourselves at all situations and at all times. When we look around us in
any situation we find people doing various activities. In doing these activities they involve in
various discussions, meetings, conversations, phone calls, presentations, video chatting,
conferencing or mere gossiping. In other words they are communicating in order to interact. It
is one of the important conditions for social interaction. Social interaction cannot take place
without communication because human interaction is essentially communicative interaction. It
pervades the entire range of social and professional relationships, and plays a key role in our
life. It is the reciprocal stimulation and response between individuals, and makes social as well
as professional interaction possible. Most of the times it has been found that all conflicts,
tensions, wars are a result of miscommunication. If absence of proper communication can lead
to such dangerous situations, then it is definitely important to understand the term. Now let’s
try to understand the term ‘Communication.’
What is Communication?
The term communication has been defined at various levels. Communication is a dynamic
interactive process that involves the effective transmission of facts, ideas, thoughts, feelings,
and values. It is not passive and does not just happen; we actively and consciously engage in
communication in order to develop the information and understanding required for effective
group functioning. It is dynamic because it involves a variety of forces and activities interacting
over a period of time. The word ‘process’ suggests that communication exists as a flow through 13
a sequence or series of steps. The term ‘process’ also indicates a condition of flux and change.
The relationships of people engaged in communication continuously grow and develop.
Communication can also be understood as an exchange of meaning and understanding.
Meaning is central to communication, and transmission of meaning is the central objective of
communication. Communication begins with the sender sending out message cues, which are
perceived by the receiver who assigns meaning to them and responds to them as per the need.
Communication can be complete unless the message sent by the sender is properly decoded at
the receiver’s end and comprehended. Moreover, communication can be considered effective
only when the receiver’s response is matching with the meaning the sender wanted to convey.
Communication: It is the process of expressing one’s ideas, thoughts, feelings, expressions,
emotions, language, knowledge etc. The process may involve Transaction, exchange, and
sharing. Communication is the base of human existence. Starting from the child’s cry which the
first communication by any human being. Communication is present in Home. It spreads out to
society (the people with whom we live and share our experiences on a daily basis). It is also
instrumental is framing our culture. Culture in a developed state of being becomes an integral
part of religion. Communication is also responsible in administration and control in the country.
Every aspect related to human being is dependent on communication. Either it be politics,
economics, sociology or technical things like evolution of Science and development & use of
technology. Particularly, in the present context communication assumes a lot of importance.
We live in the world of information technology. Communication is the nerve centre of
information technology and I.T. enabled services.
The process of evolution from pre-historic age to modern age every time human being has
given proof of existence through communication. From the beginning of civilization human
being has understood the need and importance of communication. Now let’s understand the
nuances of communication.
The word has been derived from Latin words ‘communis’ and ‘communicare’. The meaning of
the first word suggests to make common and ‘communicare’ means to share or sharing. 14
Definition 1: It is the ability to speak, write or to express our ideas, feelings: clearly and
Definition 2: It is the process of sending and receiving symbols for the purpose of understanding,
knowing, informing and in the broadest sense, improving the relation with the world.
Definition 3 (Robert Anderson): Communication is interchange of thoughts, opinions or
information by speech, writing or signs.
Communication also be symbolic because it is not limited to words or language. It can always
be done by the help of gestures and symbols or facial expressions. The symbols can be present
with and without language. Our ability to symbolize and express makes the process of
Tools of Communication:
There are various tools that helps in the process of communication. These tools have been
developed by human beings from the dawn of civilization or before. They help us in
communicating sometimes universally sometimes within a group. Here are some of the tools
discussed in brief. There can be many more tools that help in the process of communication.
This is not the end of the list.
i) Language: The main function of each and every language is to communicate. Each
language has various forms. It is one of the foremost and important tool of
communication. It is the most clear and comfortable tool to use. Each and every
individual uses this tools in the process of communication. There are different
languages in this world. We need to have knowledge of a particular language in
order to communicate in that language. That’s why depending on the use of various
languages in the world there are different linguistic groups.
ii) Script: This is a group of symbols used to express the language in the written format.
They are also highly essential useful tools of communication. One limitation with
script is we have make a conscious effort to acquire knowledge about a particular 15
script. This consumes a lot of time. This is also regarded as the tool of the educated
iii) Drawing/Painting/Sculpture/Visual art: Many individuals are blessed with
creativity. They use their creativity to communicate in an artistic manner. Their art is
well accepted in the society and gives them high regard. These artistic creations
reflect nothing else but communication. They express themselves with the help of
art. These art may be in the form of drawing (child) or painting (professional), they
convey the same meaning. Artistic creations are more stylish in nature in terms of
communication. A small piece of art can convey thousands of sentences by its form,
size, colour combination, shades etc.
iv) Body: Our body is one of the most important tools of communication. Whether we
are using language or not it is always present in the process of communication.
Without body cues our communication may be confusing. Our words must be
supported by proper actions reflected by the body. They may be in the form of
gestures, postures, eye contact, spacing etc. Every action or non-action is part of
Body. This type of tool is otherwise known as body language.
v) Silence: In particular situations silence can also act as an important tool for
communication. There are many instances where either we don’t use
language/words or we are not in a position to use those. In such situations silence
has the power to convey the message effectively. The silence inside a temple
indicates purity and nearer to godliness. The silence inside an examination hall
suggests discipline and law abiding.
vi) Dress/costume: This is also an important tool for communication. Dress has been an
integral part of every culture, tradition, custom and practice. They give shape to our
personality and individuality. Dress also reflects culture and behavior. An individual’s
behavior can always be guessed by the kind dress one is wearing. It has the potential
to convey many things without the use of words. School uniform, mask, traditional
attire etc. can convey the purpose. We can identify an individual from the dress. 16
vii) Surrounding/Environment: Many a times just by reflecting to the environment we
get a lot of message. Many things are communicated by the environment itself. We
need not engage in words to understand a particular situation or context. The
environment is powerful enough to communicate the message and convey us
Applications of communication for professional or any other purpose:
We refer of communication as a skill, it means we are going to apply this skill for some purpose.
The purposes can vary from simple social interactions to running governance, it can range from
giving a small presentation in the office to make headlines in the media. We use
communication on a daily basis. It is an important medium to achieve and acquire many
personal and professional goals.
Interpersonal: Communication helps us in maintaining proper inter-personal relationships.
Interpersonal skills are a must in this competitive professional world. This deals with handling
people and problems at various situations. This includes understanding, listening, empathizing,
convincing, persuading, negotiating, motivating, driving etc. We have examples in history of
great communicators who applied interpersonal communication skills to the utmost which
made them memorable personalities in the history. E.g. Birbal (the minister with lots of wit with
Emperor Akbar), Mahatma Gandhi (the father of the nation who convinced people of India to
adopt non-violence as their weapon for freedom struggle), Tenali Raman (the clever minister in
the court of King of Vijaynagar).
Mass Communication: This is also an application of communication where communication is
used to reach many people at one go. This type of communication has developed with the
development of human civilization and society. Technological advancement has also added to
the use of these types of communication. We live in a society, we want to convey many
important ideas, events, incidents, developments etc. to the world. Mass communication helps
us in reaching the maximum at the push of one button. Newspaper, journal, magazines,
Internet, Advertisement, T.V. Channels etc. 17
Organizational (intra/inter): An organization whether profit based or not, cannot exist without
communicating within and outside the organization. Organizations depend a lot on meetings,
business presentation, discussions, deliberations, reports, interaction, client response etc. Each
and every organization uses communication in their daily business. Similarly organizations need
to communicate with the outside world in the form of understandings, letters, proposals,
contracts, deals, partnerships etc.
Local/Regional/National/International: Each and every stage of governance depend on
communication. There are various agencies involved in governance and control. Without
proper communication there will be a lot of confusion and they cannot survive. To maintain
coordination among various stages of governance and various agencies, communication is a
must. Various international treaties, pacts, understandings are only possible through
communication. Different organizations has come up in the years to maintain proper
communication for various sectors. E.g. United Nations Organization (UNO), World Health
Organization (WHO), International Court of Justice (ICJ) etc.
In today’s date one needs to master communication because it is both process as well as
product. In the contemporary world communication has adopted multiple roles. One need to
learn and practice communication in order to be successful. In today’s date no profession is
bereft of communication. Artists and leaders could influence a big mass with their style,
approach, language etc. But in all these things communication plays an important role to make
them popular. Stalin, Russoue, Gandhi, Vivekananda, Churchill, Alexander,
Herodotus etc. are some of the masters of communication the world has ever produced. One
must understand that communication is ever changing and developing. It is in a constant state
of metamorphosis. In order to keep pace with this one must be skilled enough in all the
technicalities of the process of communication.
Process of communication:
Communication is an interactive process. The two communication agents involved in the
communication process are the sender(s) and the receiver(r). Bothe the communication agents
exert a reciprocal influence on each other through inter-stimulation and response. The process 18
of communication consists of five steps that is ideation, encoding, transmission, decoding and
feedback. These steps take place only between the sender and receiver.
Ideation: This is the initiation in the different stages of communication. Ideation refers to the
formation of the idea and we tend select the message to be communicated. We also finalize the
language for communication and the length and breadth of it. It consists of the ‘What’ of
communication and is concerned with the content of the specific message to be presented.
Ideation depends on the sender’s knowledge, experiences, and abilities, as well as the purpose
of communication and the context of the communication situation. However, ideation depends
on various factors. Messages are generally of two types as far as content is concerned, i.e.
logical and emotional. Logical messages contains facts, figures and analysis whereas emotional
messages consists of feelings. We finalize on the topic to communication in this step.
Encoding: It is the process of converting the idea into a particular language. The information to
be sent is transformed into a logical and coded message. It depends on the type of relationship
the sender and receiver enjoy. For example, if it is a formal situation then the sender has to
keep various things in mind e.g. Selection of language, level of competency of the receiver to
understand the language, selecting a medium of communication (speaking, writing or non-
verbal means) and the form of communication (face to face, telephonic, one-to-one, one-to-
many, group communication etc.)
Transmission: It refers to the transfer of message from sender to the receiver through a proper
channel. It helps in confirming the process of encoding and the keeps the channel free from
interference. It decides the right time, place and method for communication. Through
transmission only the intended message reaches the receiver without distortion and the
listener is able to decode it in order to understand and comprehend the message.
Decoding: In order to understand the message the receiver has to decode the message in form
and content. It is the process of converting the message into thoughts by translating the
received stimuli into an interpreted meaning in order to understand the message
communicated. One must understand that the message is transferred not the meaning. It
depends on the receiver to realize the meaning and understand it. The process also involves 19
interpretation and analysis of a message. In case of oral communication in involves listening
and understanding. As quick response is required in oral communication the decoding must
take place rapidly, whereas, in case of written communication it involves reading and
understanding, hence, the time taken can depend on the ability of receiver. Effective decoding
is very much essential for successful communication to continue.
Feedback: It is most important step in the process of communication. Without feedback the
process of communication won’t be complete. It makes the process of communication two-
way. This is the last stage in the process of communication but, one must keep in mind that, the
communication doesn’t end here. It just completes one loop in the communication cycle. The
process of communication continues in a cyclical order. It is considered the reaction/response
to the message. The feedback is given by the receiver, but when the receiver is giving the
feedback he/she becomes the sender and the sender becomes the receiver. That’s why it is also
known as the reverse flow of communication. Feedback denotes whether the receiver has
understood the message or not. The effectiveness of the process of communication depends on
Factors that influence the process of Communication:
There are various factors that influence the process of communication. Without having a
proper understanding of the factors one cannot involve in the process of communication
effectively. They control and regulate the process of communication. The factors are sender &
receiver, code, channel, topic, message, context, feedback, noise, barriers and filters.
Sender & receiver: They are the two participants essential for the process of communication to
take place. The flow of information takes place between these two sides. Sender initiates the
process of communication. Please refer….the process of communication.
Code: It is a system of symbols used for the purpose of communication. Language is the most
prominent code used by human beings. Each language uses various symbols in the form of
letters which are represented by different script in different languages for written
communication and different sounds for oral communication. For the communication to be
complete both sender and receiver must be well versed with code they use. In case of non-20
verbal communication we use gestures/body language as code. “Code” is also a set of rules
which we follow while using a particular language. Each language has different rules e.g.
Grammar, sounds (phonetics) and syntax (sentence structure).
Channel: It refers to the medium through which the information passes. There are basically two
types of channels. a) Auditory channel: The message in the transmission is converted into
sounds and the sound wave passes through air to reach the receiver. b) Visual channel: In case
of written communication we read symbols with the help of vision. This type of channel is also
used while sending or receiving non-verbal messages. As most of the communication involves a
mixture of verbal and non-verbal messages hence, both the channels are active in any process
Topic: The topic is the idea converted into a message. The topic should suit both the sender and
receiver. They must enjoy some rapport with each other to undertake the process of
communication and must have some understanding on the topic to be communicated. The
topic can range from an event, action, object, person, experience, feeling, emotion, subject,
theory, analysis, law, regulations, etc. The topic should be of mutual interest for the
communication to be sincere and continuous. The participants in the process of communication
finalize on the degree of involvement in a particular topic after initial exchange of ideas. There
are some topics which are participant dependent e.g. entertainment, sports, behavior, attitude
etc. whereas, some topics are topic dependent e.g. Science, technology, policies, economic
theories, administrative functions etc. Hence, in topic dependent topics passive form of
communication is used.
Message: In verbal communication it is the form in which the information is sent or received by
the participants. It can be words/group of words or sentences/group of sentences. In case of
non-verbal communication it depends on the situation or context. In non-verbal
communication the message becomes signal sent by means of signs, symbols, gestures,
postures etc. The message depends of five factors. They are precision, confusion, exclusion,
emotion and style. a) Precision: The accuracy and strictness of the message need to be
maintained in order to send it in proper content as it was devised in ideation. b) Confusion: It