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Lecture Notes on Chemistry

lecture notes on chemistry of carbohydrates and lecture notes on clinical chemistry by whitby pdf free download
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ShawnPacinocal,United States,Researcher
Published Date:09-07-2017
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Contents Notes Page Notes Page Why and What is Chemistry? 2 Gases 152 The Components of Matter 13 Thermochemistry 169 Measurement 25 Modern Atomic Theory 193 Dimensional Analysis 48 Modern Atomic Theory - Apps 212 Atomic Theory 1 55 Periodic Trends 228 Molecules and Ions 69 Chemical Bonding Basics 244 Stoichiometry 1 86 More Chemical Bonding 259 Quantitative Stoichiometry 99 Intermolecular Forces 282 Aqueous Reactions 120 Exam Tips and Final Review 296 Acids - Bases Reactions 134 Blank Practice Exams 301 REDOX reactions 143 Periodic Table 322 See the Course Website (http://www3.jjc.edu/staff/pmills) for specific test dates and other important information Legend You will often find specific icons embedded within the notes. These respective symbols alert the student to the following: Represents a key fact or other piece of information, such as the definitions of an element and a compound. Represents a useful trick the student will likely find useful, such as an 'EZ' way to convert between grams and moles for a substance Alerts the student to an important relationship between micro and macro scale properties or phenomena with respect to the material under discussion Such material provides a link to interesting (briefly discussed) supplemental material, often beyond the scope of the course syllabus Disclaimer: This document may only be downloaded, without charge, by students enrolled in Dr. Mills’ CHM 101and CHM 102 course(s) at Joliet Junior College. This document MAY NOT be resold, or in any other way utilized for profit, by any third party interest. Cover Art: The ‘Fundamental Sun’ (Atom) STM image 1 Why Chemistry? “What’s my motivation?” Why are you sitting in this class? In other words, why chemistry? Task: Write down as many reasons as you can that explain why you are taking this class: rd (We will also justify responses relating to 3 party requirements during the session) Professional programs that benefit directly from a background in chemistry 1. Nursing and allied health (pre-pharm., pre-med., pre-dentistry) Example: Chlorothiazide (Diuril) is ordered b.i.d. for a infant weighing 6.5 kg. It is supplied in elixir form 100 mg/tsp. The recommended dosage for Diuril is 25 mg/kg/day. How many cc’s should the nurse give to the child for each dose? A. 6.15 cc. B. 8.13 cc. C. 4.06 cc. D. 0.81 cc. 2 2. Engineering (mechanical, civil, chemical, electrical) Example: Your company decides to import child safety seats manufactured in Asia. Unfortunately, the safety guidelines for the seats are quoted in ‘metric’ units. The label reads: “Do not exceed a 150 N load” and you must use this information to determine the maximum weight a child must not exceed in order to be protected during a collision at 55 mph. Can you do it? A child’s life, not to mention the financial future of your employer, may depend on your ability to solve questions such as this. 3. Everyday / Real life situations Example: It is time to re-carpet your 12 ft x 24 ft. family room. You visit a few carpet stores and select a brand that costs 20.50 per square meter. The sales person quotes you a total price of 749 – is this price fair, or have you just been taken advantage of? We will return to and solve each of these three problems at some point during the course Discussion: What do all three of the above examples have in common? Which professions (or professionals) utilize such skills most commonly? Hint, “I pretend to be one on occasion” “We’re the first link” 3 The “Cognitive Elite” Discussion: What do you think the phrase “cognitive elite” actually means? Data from ‘The Emergence of a Cognitive Elite’ (Chapters 1 and 2 of The Bell Curve).  People with IQ’s of 120 (the top 10%) preferentially enter the 10 or so ‘High IQ professions’ discussed above.  Developing good cognitive skills is essential to entering and being successful within the ‘High IQ’ and related professions. We are the first link in the chain Example: Medical careers Increased Problem Solving Ability Take home message: People with good cognitive / problem solving skills preferentially find employment within fields of their choosing that are financially rewarding and/or intellectually satisfying. A question of some importance: How can one’s cognitive skills be improved? Answer(s): 4 The Role of Chemistry as a Prerequisite Course Key facts and results: Fact: The problem solving skills routinely utilized in the ‘high IQ’ and related professions (such as nursing, business management, accounting, etc.) are introduced, learnt and mastered during physical science courses. Result: Professional programs and subsequent employers insist that their candidates have a background in one of the physical sciences – both for specific (allied health, engineering) and general (your family room carpet) reasons. Fact: Study within any of the ‘high IQ fields’ will increase cognitive skills, but only the physical sciences do so via the study of fundamental, everyday phenomena so are of broad relevance and interest (we all interact with and benefit from the manipulation of matter on a daily basis after all). Result: Chemistry (and physics) may be considered to be the ‘gatekeepers’ of cognitive learning – chemistry in particular introduces, develops and subsequently equips students with cognitive skills necessary to succeed in their chosen careers Take home message: While the direct relevance of chemistry to your chosen course of study may at times seem tenuous, remember that the cognitive skills developed during such programs of study are of significant importance to your professional development and employability. In essence, this is why you are here. 5 How Chemistry is Perceived & Skills Needed to Succeed in Chemistry How Chemistry is Perceived: Discussion: How did your friends and family respond when you told them you were taking a chemistry course this semester?? “Frank” slide Study Skills Needed to Succeed in Chemistry: Fact: As discussed above, chemistry is all about the student developing and learning to apply problem solving skills - your study habits should reflect this. Do NOT fall in to the trap of believing you can learn chemistry simply by memorizing the information from your text – you must practice applying this information, not just be familiar with it. Result: Successful chemistry students typically spend most of their independent study time working assigned problems, not just reading about them. To learn chemistry you must do chemistry is a truism worth remembering. An analogy would be this: you read all the books out there on the subject of golf, but don’t get round to swinging a club – what do you think happens when you tee off for the first time? Fact: Chemistry relies on a cumulative method of learning, i.e. theories learnt from week 1 onwards will be repeatedly applied all the way through the course. Thus, it is important that the student does not let any ‘gaps’ in their knowledge develop. This fact exemplifies the differences in philosophy between the sciences and arts, as art courses are often more modular in nature. Example: I overhead a student tell another: “Yeah, I blew off reading the first book in my English class, but read the second one and got a ‘B’”. This method of study is not recommended in chemistry 6 Analogy: Building a tower Result: Successful chemistry students typically have exemplary attendance records. In some cases they may not be the ‘best’ students, but guarantee themselves a better grade than more capable students, who in turn typically may miss as few as one or two lecture sessions (this is especially true with regard to 3 hr. class sessions). Pictorial analogy of attendance vs cumulative knowledge ‘I missed a lab’ ‘I missed a lecture’ ‘I missed a couple of lectures’ Don’t ‘Swiss cheese’ or ‘torpedo’ your chances of passing the course because of missed work Take home message: Simply by attending class regularly and completing the HWK assignments you essentially guarantee yourself a passing grade for the course, while, due to the nature of the material, deviating from this approach may ensure the opposite 7 What is chemistry? What do Chemists do? Task: In your own words describe what you consider chemistry to be, plus make a list of what you think the job of a chemist is: What is chemistry? “Official” definition of what chemistry is: 8 Key words: Matter: “Stuff” – anything with mass and volume. Can you think of anything without mass or volume? What are the basic building blocks of all matter, be it a diamond, a tree or the air around us? ‘High Tech’ science (STM or AFM, top left) is often based on simple ideas (gramophone, top right). Click logo for ‘flyby’. More recent atomic (STM) images 9 Example: What is water made up from? How do you know? Summary: Atoms and molecules are MICROSCOPIC particles (they are very small) A drop of water is a MACROSCOPIC particle (because you can see it, hold it in your hand etc.) 10 What do chemists do? In other words, what is the basic most, fundamental goal of every chemical investigation? Hint: Think how chemists express their findings.. “Official” definition of what chemists do: 11 Chemistry in action: Explaining what happens on your BBQ grill. The burning of a charcoal brick on your backyard grill (MACRO) explained in terms of a balanced chemical equation (MICRO) ANY large (MACRO) scale chemical process can be described using a MICRO scale chemical equation featuring individual atoms and/or molecules A cartoon representation of the reaction of the pertinent atoms and molecules; along with the Chemists’ description – a balanced chemical equation illustrating a single microscopic event. Cartoon Balanced Equation This process is repeated many billions of times (MICRO) for the burning of a charcoal briquette (MACRO) 12 The Components of Matter Reading: Ch 1 sections 1 - 5 Homework: Chapter 1: 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49 = ‘important’ homework question Review: What is matter? Recall: “Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties, the changes matter undergoes and the energy associated with those changes” Recap: There are 3 stable states of matter – solid (s), liquid (l) and gas (g). 13 Specific macro- and microscopic physical properties define the three states of matter State of Matter Macroscopic Description Microscopic Description (observation) (chemical model) Solid Liquid Gas The state matter is in depends on the strength of the forces (chemical bonds) between the individual microscopic particles within the matter Task: Rank the intermolecular forces present in steam, ice and water in order of increasing strength. Use the included figures as a guide. Ranking 14 Changing between the 3 states of matter Describe the relationship between the mpt. and bpt. of matter, with regard to microscopic processes, occurring at these specific temperatures Example: The boiling of water to make steam ( H O →( H O ) 2 (l) 2 (g) 15 Physical and Chemical Properties – what’s the difference? Analogy: We all posses ‘as is’ physical properties, or characteristics, that define us. For example, Dr. Mills is 5’11” and has green eyes. As with people, each chemical also possesses a unique set of ‘as is’ physical properties that define it. For example, water is a clear, colorless, tasteless o o molecular material that has a fpt. of 0 C and a bpt. of 100 C. Chemical Properties, in contrast, are a function of change (usually associated with a chemical reaction). For example, Iron (Fe) reacts with oxygen gas to form rust: 4 Fe (s) + 3 O (g) → 2 Fe O (s) 2 2 3 Task: Identify the flowing as either chemical or physical properties Property Chemical or Physical Diamond is the hardest known substance. Charcoal burns to make CO (g) 2 The statue of liberty turned ‘green’ Copper is a good conductor of electricity Sugar dissolves in water Melting of ice Think up two more chemical properties of your own 16 Elements and Compounds – the further classification of pure matter Task: State which of the following are elements, and which are compounds. When done, try to come up with a definition of what elements and compounds are. Material Chemical Formula Element or Compound? Water H O (l) 2 Oxygen gas O (g) 2 Pure silver coin Ag (s) Sugar crystals C H O (s) 6 12 6 Carbon dioxide gas CO (g) 2 Elements: Compounds: 17 Compounds and elements can have either ‘giant’ or molecular structures: ‘Giant’: Repeating lattice of particles – usually strongly bound (high mpt.) solids. Examples: sand (SiO ), diamond (C), table salt 2 (NaCl) Molecular: a collection of independent molecular units (molecules will be discussed in more detail later). Usually (low mpt) liquids or gasses at room temp. Definition: Molecule – a small, independent particle of matter made up from 2 or more atoms Examples: water (H O), carbon dioxide (CO ), 2 2 Nitrogen gas (N ) 2 Think of molecules like cars on the expressway – each car (molecule) is a separate, independent unit that contains a number of passengers (atoms). The cars (molecules) are free to move while the people (atoms) stay fixed inside. ‘Giant’ materials are like people (atoms) ‘locked’ in place at a very crowded concert, the DMV waiting room etc…… 18 Review: A microscopic scale view of several materials is presented below. Label each using elemental or compound and molecular or ‘giant’ tags Water (H O (l)) Silicon (Si (s)) 2 Steam (H O (g)) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 2 Details: Ice is a solid (crystalline) form of water (a molecular compound). How would you describe the structure of ice? Can you think of other similar examples? More Details: Allotropes of an Element Example: Carbon C C C (diamond) (graphite) 60 19