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Lecture Notes on Chemistry
lecture notes on chemistry of carbohydrates and lecture notes on clinical chemistry by whitby pdf free download
Notes Page Notes Page
Why and What is Chemistry? 2 Gases 152
The Components of Matter 13 Thermochemistry 169
Measurement 25 Modern Atomic Theory 193
Dimensional Analysis 48 Modern Atomic Theory - Apps 212
Atomic Theory 1 55 Periodic Trends 228
Molecules and Ions 69 Chemical Bonding Basics 244
Stoichiometry 1 86 More Chemical Bonding 259
Quantitative Stoichiometry 99 Intermolecular Forces 282
Aqueous Reactions 120 Exam Tips and Final Review 296
Acids - Bases Reactions 134 Blank Practice Exams 301
REDOX reactions 143 Periodic Table 322
See the Course Website (http://www3.jjc.edu/staff/pmills) for specific test dates and other important
You will often find specific icons embedded within the notes. These respective
symbols alert the student to the following:
Represents a key fact or other piece of information, such as the
definitions of an element and a compound.
Represents a useful trick the student will likely find useful, such
as an 'EZ' way to convert between grams and moles for a
Alerts the student to an important relationship between micro
and macro scale properties or phenomena with respect to the
material under discussion
Such material provides a link to interesting (briefly discussed)
supplemental material, often beyond the scope of the course
Disclaimer: This document may only be downloaded, without charge, by students enrolled in Dr. Mills’
CHM 101and CHM 102 course(s) at Joliet Junior College. This document MAY NOT be resold, or in any
other way utilized for profit, by any third party interest.
Cover Art: The ‘Fundamental Sun’ (Atom) STM image
1 Why Chemistry?
“What’s my motivation?”
Why are you sitting in this class? In other words, why chemistry?
Task: Write down as many reasons as you can that explain why you are
taking this class:
(We will also justify responses relating to 3 party requirements during the session)
Professional programs that benefit directly from a background in chemistry
1. Nursing and allied health (pre-pharm., pre-med., pre-dentistry)
Example: Chlorothiazide (Diuril) is ordered b.i.d. for a infant weighing 6.5 kg. It is
supplied in elixir form 100 mg/tsp. The recommended dosage for Diuril is 25 mg/kg/day.
How many cc’s should the nurse give to the child for each dose?
A. 6.15 cc.
B. 8.13 cc.
C. 4.06 cc.
D. 0.81 cc.
2 2. Engineering (mechanical, civil, chemical, electrical)
Example: Your company decides to import child safety seats manufactured in Asia.
Unfortunately, the safety guidelines for the seats are quoted in ‘metric’ units. The label
reads: “Do not exceed a 150 N load” and you must use this information to determine the
maximum weight a child must not exceed in order to be protected during a collision at 55
mph. Can you do it? A child’s life, not to mention the financial future of your employer,
may depend on your ability to solve questions such as this.
3. Everyday / Real life situations
Example: It is time to re-carpet your 12 ft x 24 ft. family room. You visit a few carpet
stores and select a brand that costs 20.50 per square meter. The sales person quotes you
a total price of 749 – is this price fair, or have you just been taken advantage of?
We will return to and solve each of these three problems at some point during the course
What do all three of the above examples have in common?
Which professions (or professionals) utilize such skills most commonly?
Hint, “I pretend to be
one on occasion”
“We’re the first link”
3 The “Cognitive Elite”
Discussion: What do you think the phrase “cognitive elite” actually means?
Data from ‘The Emergence of a Cognitive Elite’ (Chapters 1 and 2 of The
People with IQ’s of 120 (the top 10%) preferentially enter the 10 or so ‘High IQ
professions’ discussed above.
Developing good cognitive skills is essential to entering and being successful
within the ‘High IQ’ and related professions. We are the first link in the chain
Example: Medical careers
Increased Problem Solving Ability
Take home message: People with good cognitive / problem solving skills
preferentially find employment within fields of their choosing that are
financially rewarding and/or intellectually satisfying.
A question of some importance: How can one’s cognitive skills be
4 The Role of Chemistry as a Prerequisite Course
Key facts and results:
Fact: The problem solving skills routinely utilized in the ‘high IQ’ and
related professions (such as nursing, business management, accounting,
etc.) are introduced, learnt and mastered during physical science
Result: Professional programs and subsequent employers insist that their
candidates have a background in one of the physical sciences – both for
specific (allied health, engineering) and general (your family room carpet)
Fact: Study within any of the ‘high IQ fields’ will increase cognitive
skills, but only the physical sciences do so via the study of fundamental,
everyday phenomena so are of broad relevance and interest (we all
interact with and benefit from the manipulation of matter on a daily basis
Result: Chemistry (and physics) may be considered to be the ‘gatekeepers’
of cognitive learning – chemistry in particular introduces, develops and
subsequently equips students with cognitive skills necessary to succeed
in their chosen careers
Take home message: While the direct relevance of chemistry to your chosen
course of study may at times seem tenuous, remember that the cognitive
skills developed during such programs of study are of significant importance
to your professional development and employability. In essence, this is why
you are here.
5 How Chemistry is Perceived & Skills Needed to Succeed in
How Chemistry is Perceived:
Discussion: How did your friends and family respond when you told them
you were taking a chemistry course this semester??
Study Skills Needed to Succeed in Chemistry:
Fact: As discussed above, chemistry is all about the student developing
and learning to apply problem solving skills - your study habits should
reflect this. Do NOT fall in to the trap of believing you can learn chemistry
simply by memorizing the information from your text – you must practice
applying this information, not just be familiar with it.
Result: Successful chemistry students typically spend most of their
independent study time working assigned problems, not just reading about
them. To learn chemistry you must do chemistry is a truism worth
remembering. An analogy would be this: you read all the books out there on
the subject of golf, but don’t get round to swinging a club – what do you
think happens when you tee off for the first time?
Fact: Chemistry relies on a cumulative method of learning, i.e. theories
learnt from week 1 onwards will be repeatedly applied all the way through
the course. Thus, it is important that the student does not let any ‘gaps’
in their knowledge develop. This fact exemplifies the differences in
philosophy between the sciences and arts, as art courses are often more
modular in nature. Example: I overhead a student tell another: “Yeah, I blew
off reading the first book in my English class, but read the second one and
got a ‘B’”. This method of study is not recommended in chemistry
6 Analogy: Building a tower
Result: Successful chemistry students typically have exemplary
attendance records. In some cases they may not be the ‘best’ students, but
guarantee themselves a better grade than more capable students, who in turn
typically may miss as few as one or two lecture sessions (this is especially
true with regard to 3 hr. class sessions).
Pictorial analogy of attendance vs cumulative knowledge
‘I missed a lab’ ‘I missed a lecture’ ‘I missed a couple of lectures’
Don’t ‘Swiss cheese’ or ‘torpedo’ your chances of passing the course
because of missed work
Take home message: Simply by attending class regularly and completing
the HWK assignments you essentially guarantee yourself a passing
grade for the course, while, due to the nature of the material, deviating
from this approach may ensure the opposite
7 What is chemistry? What do Chemists do?
Task: In your own words describe what you consider chemistry to be, plus
make a list of what you think the job of a chemist is:
What is chemistry?
“Official” definition of what chemistry is:
8 Key words:
Matter: “Stuff” – anything with mass and volume. Can you think of
anything without mass or volume?
What are the basic building blocks of all matter, be it a diamond, a tree or
the air around us?
‘High Tech’ science (STM or AFM, top left) is often based on simple ideas
(gramophone, top right). Click logo for ‘flyby’.
More recent atomic (STM) images
Example: What is water made up from? How do you know?
Atoms and molecules are MICROSCOPIC particles (they are very
A drop of water is a MACROSCOPIC particle (because you can see it,
hold it in your hand etc.)
10 What do chemists do? In other words, what is the basic most, fundamental
goal of every chemical investigation? Hint: Think how chemists express
“Official” definition of what chemists do:
Chemistry in action: Explaining what happens on your
The burning of a charcoal brick on your backyard grill
(MACRO) explained in terms of a balanced chemical
ANY large (MACRO) scale chemical process can be
described using a MICRO scale chemical equation
featuring individual atoms and/or molecules
A cartoon representation of the reaction of the pertinent atoms and
molecules; along with the Chemists’ description – a balanced chemical
equation illustrating a single microscopic event.
This process is repeated many billions of times (MICRO) for the burning of
a charcoal briquette (MACRO)
12 The Components of Matter
Reading: Ch 1 sections 1 - 5 Homework: Chapter 1: 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49
= ‘important’ homework question
Review: What is matter?
Recall: “Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties, the changes
matter undergoes and the energy associated with those changes”
Recap: There are 3 stable states of matter – solid (s), liquid (l) and gas (g).
13 Specific macro- and microscopic physical properties define the three
states of matter
State of Matter Macroscopic Description Microscopic Description
(observation) (chemical model)
The state matter is in depends on the strength of the forces
(chemical bonds) between the individual microscopic
particles within the matter
Task: Rank the intermolecular forces present in steam, ice and water in
order of increasing strength. Use the included figures as a guide.
14 Changing between the 3 states of matter
Describe the relationship between the mpt. and bpt. of matter,
with regard to microscopic processes, occurring at these
Example: The boiling of water to make steam ( H O →( H O )
2 (l) 2 (g)
15 Physical and Chemical Properties – what’s the difference?
Analogy: We all posses ‘as is’ physical properties, or
characteristics, that define us. For example, Dr. Mills is 5’11”
and has green eyes.
As with people, each chemical also possesses a unique set of ‘as is’ physical
properties that define it. For example, water is a clear, colorless, tasteless
molecular material that has a fpt. of 0 C and a bpt. of 100 C.
Chemical Properties, in contrast, are a function of change (usually
associated with a chemical reaction). For example, Iron (Fe) reacts with
oxygen gas to form rust:
4 Fe (s) + 3 O (g) → 2 Fe O (s)
2 2 3
Task: Identify the flowing as either chemical or physical properties
Property Chemical or Physical
Diamond is the hardest known
Charcoal burns to make CO (g)
The statue of liberty turned ‘green’
Copper is a good conductor of
Sugar dissolves in water
Melting of ice
Think up two more chemical properties of your own
16 Elements and Compounds – the further classification of pure matter
Task: State which of the following are elements, and which are compounds.
When done, try to come up with a definition of what elements and
Material Chemical Formula Element or
Water H O (l)
Oxygen gas O (g)
Pure silver coin Ag (s)
Sugar crystals C H O (s)
6 12 6
Carbon dioxide gas CO (g)
17 Compounds and elements can have either ‘giant’ or molecular structures:
‘Giant’: Repeating lattice of particles – usually
strongly bound (high mpt.) solids.
Examples: sand (SiO ), diamond (C), table salt
Molecular: a collection of independent molecular
units (molecules will be discussed in more detail
later). Usually (low mpt) liquids or gasses at room
Definition: Molecule – a small, independent
particle of matter made up from 2 or more atoms
Examples: water (H O), carbon dioxide (CO ),
Nitrogen gas (N )
Think of molecules like cars on the expressway – each car
(molecule) is a separate, independent unit that contains a
number of passengers (atoms). The cars (molecules) are
free to move while the people (atoms) stay fixed inside.
‘Giant’ materials are like people (atoms) ‘locked’ in place
at a very crowded concert, the DMV waiting room
18 Review: A microscopic scale view of several materials is presented below.
Label each using elemental or compound and molecular or ‘giant’ tags
Water (H O (l)) Silicon (Si (s))
Steam (H O (g)) Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Details: Ice is a solid (crystalline) form of water (a
molecular compound). How would you describe
the structure of ice? Can you think of other similar
More Details: Allotropes of an Element
C C C
(diamond) (graphite) 60