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Lecture notes on Library and Information science

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IntroductiontoLibraryandInformation Science en.wikibooks.orgSeptember1,2015 Onthe28thofApril2012thecontentsoftheEnglishaswellasGermanWikibooksandWikipedia projectswerelicensedunderCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlike3.0Unportedlicense.A URItothislicenseisgiveninthelistoffiguresonpage81.Ifthisdocumentisaderivedworkfrom thecontentsofoneoftheseprojectsandthecontentwasstilllicensedbytheprojectunderthis licenseatthetimeofderivationthisdocumenthastobelicensedunderthesame,asimilarora compatiblelicense,asstatedinsection4bofthelicense.Thelistofcontributorsisincludedinchapter Contributorsonpage79.ThelicensesGPL,LGPLandGFDLareincludedinchapterLicenseson page85,sincethisbookand/orpartsofitmayormaynotbelicensedunderoneormoreofthese licenses,andthusrequireinclusionoftheselicenses.Thelicensesofthefiguresaregiveninthelist AA offiguresonpage81.ThisPDFwasgeneratedbytheLTXtypesettingsoftware.TheLTXsource EE codeisincludedasanattachment(source.7z.txt)inthisPDFfile.Toextractthesourcefrom thePDFfile,youcanusethepdfdetachtoolincludinginthepopplersuite,orthehttp://www. pdflabs.com/tools/pdftkthepdftoolkit/utility.SomePDFviewersmayalsoletyousave theattachmenttoafile.AfterextractingitfromthePDFfileyouhavetorenameittosource.7z. A Touncompresstheresultingarchivewerecommendtheuseofhttp://www.7zip.org/.TheLTX E sourceitselfwasgeneratedbyaprogramwrittenbyDirkHünniger,whichisfreelyavailableunder anopensourcelicensefromhttp://de.wikibooks.org/wiki/Benutzer:DirkHuenniger/wb2pdf.Contents 1ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderIn formationInfrastructure3 1.1Defininglibraries.................................3 1.2Librariesofthepast...............................3 1.3Librariesintheinformationage.........................16 1.4References.....................................18 2EthicsandValuesintheInformationProfessions19 2.1TheValuesoflibrarianship...........................19 2.2ProfessionalEthics................................21 2.3References.....................................29 3InformationPolicy31 3.1Collectiondevelopment.............................31 3.2Confidentiality..................................32 3.3Controlofinformation..............................33 3.4Copyright.....................................33 3.5DigitalRightsManagement...........................34 3.6Finesandfinewaiving..............................34 3.7Governmentinformation.............................34 3.8Internationalinformationpolicy........................34 3.9Outsourcing....................................35 3.10Webcontentfilters................................37 3.11References.....................................39 4InformationOrganization41 4.1Whyorganizeinformation...........................41 4.2Bibliography...................................41 4.3Bibliographicmetadata.............................42 4.4Informationarchitecture.............................48 4.5Informationretrieval...............................49 4.6TheSemanticWeb,RDF,andlinkeddata...................50 4.7Knowledgemanagement.............................52 4.8Generalissuesininformationorganization...................53 4.9Notes.......................................53 4.10References.....................................53 5InformationSeeking55 5.1Referenceservices................................55 5.2Scientificandacademicresearch........................55 IIIContents 5.3References.....................................55 6RecontextualizingLibraries:ConsideringLibrarieswithinTheirCom munities57 6.1Thelibraryascommunityspace........................57 6.2Libraryservicetospecificcommunities.....................57 6.3Librarycommunityrelations..........................61 6.4References.....................................61 7TechnologyandLibraries:ImpactsandImplications63 7.1TechnologyandLIS:ahistoricalperspective..................63 7.2Implementinginformationtechnologiesinlibraries..............64 7.3Digitallibrariesandservices..........................65 7.4Accesstotechnology...............................67 7.5Physicallibrariesinacyberworld.......................67 7.6Costofadoption.................................68 7.7Conclusion:Rutenbeck’s”Fivegreatchallenges”................69 7.8References.....................................70 8TranscendingBoundaries:GlobalIssuesandTrends71 9LearningMore:FreeLISResources73 9.1Professionaldevelopment............................73 9.2OpenaccessLISresources............................73 9.3Referencesources.................................73 9.4PeerreviewedJournals..............................73 10ListofContributors77 11Contributors79 ListofFigures81 12Licenses85 12.1GNUGENERALPUBLICLICENSE.....................85 12.2GNUFreeDocumentationLicense.......................86 12.3GNULesserGeneralPublicLicense......................87 11ContextualizingLibraries:Their HistoryandPlaceintheWider InformationInfrastructure Thischapterwilldrawontwoimportantfieldstodefinerolesandcontextsforlibrarianship andotherinformationwork.First,wewillexplorethemanydiverseroleslibrarieshave playedthroughouthistory,exploringthedifferentmotivationsforlibrariesandservices libraryworkershaveprovidedtowardsthesemotivations.Wewillthenlookathowdifferent individualsandfieldsconceiveofinformationintoday’sworld,andhowtheseconceptions informtheirpractice.WewillconcludebydrawingonhistoricalLISpracticeandlessons learnedfromrelateddisciplinestoestablishrolesandascopeforcontemporaryLISpractice andscholarship. Afterreadingthischapter,astudentshouldbeabletoarticulate: 1.whatalibraryis 2.thevalueofcriticallyexamininglibraryhistorytoinformcurrentlibrarypractice 3.themissionsandpracticesoflibrariesinancientandmedievalEuropeanlibraries 4.thecontributionsofpremodernEastAsian,MiddleEastern,andAfricanlibrariesto contemporarylibrarypractice 5.exclusionarypracticesandpoliciesin19thand20thcenturylibrariesintheUnited States 6.theconceptsofahistoricismandtunnelvision 7.definitionsofinformationfromseveraldifferentfields,andhowtheyinformLISprac tice 8.howthefollowingfieldsrelatetoLIS •Computerscience •Education •Informationtheory •Socialwork 1.1Defininglibraries 1.2Librariesofthepast Thissectionwillintroducecharacteristicsandpurposesoflibrariesthroughouttime,and thenintroducesomecriticalissuesandmethodsoflibraryhistory. 3ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure 1.2.1Abriefhistoryoflibraries Earlylibraries(2600BC–800BC) Figure1TabletfromtheLibraryofAshurbanipalcontainingpartoftheEpicof Gilgamesh Thefirstlibrariesconsistedofarchivesoftheearliestformofwritingtheclaytabletsin 1 cuneiformscriptdiscoveredintempleroomsinSumer. 1LibrariesintheAncientWorld.YaleUniversityPress,, 4Librariesofthepast TheearliestdiscoveredprivatearchiveswerekeptatUgarit(inpresentdaySyria);besides correspondenceandinventories,textsofmythsmayhavebeenstandardizedpracticetexts forteachingnewscribes.ThereisalsoevidenceoflibrariesatNippurabout1900BCand 2 thoseatNinevehabout700BCshowingalibraryclassificationsystem. 3 Over30,000claytabletsfromtheLibraryofAshurbanipalhavebeendiscoveredatNineveh, providingmodernscholarswithanamazingwealthofMesopotamianliterary,religiousand administrativework.AmongthefindingsweretheEnumaElish,alsoknownastheEpicof 45 Creation,whichdepictsatraditionalBabylonianviewofcreation,theEpicofGilgamesh, alargeselectionof”omentexts”includingEnumaAnuEnlilwhich”containedomensdealing withthemoon,itsvisibility,eclipses,andconjunctionwithplanetsandfixedstars,thesun, itscorona,spots,andeclipses,theweather,namelylightning,thunder,andclouds,andthe 6 planetsandtheirvisibility,appearance,andstations”,andastronomic/astrologicaltexts,as wellasstandardlistsusedbyscribesandscholarssuchaswordlists,bilingualvocabularies, listsofsignsandsynonyms,andlistsofmedicaldiagnoses. PhilosopherLaoziwaskeeperofbooksintheearliestlibraryinChina,whichbelongedto 7 theImperialZhoudynasty.Also,evidenceofcataloguesfoundinsomedestroyedancient 8 librariesillustratesthepresenceoflibrarians. 2TheAmericanInternationalEncyclopedia,NewYork:J.J.LittleIves,1954;VolumeIX 3Britishmuseum.orgˆhttp://www.britishmuseum.org/research/researchprojects/ashurbanipal libraryphase1.aspx”AssurbanipalLibraryPhase1”,BritishMuseumOne 4”EpicofCreation”,inDalley,Stephanie.MythsfromMesopotamia.Oxford,1989;pp.23381 5”EpicofGilgamesh”,inDalley,Stephanie.MythsfromMesopotamia.Oxford,1989;pp.50–135 6VanDeMieroop,Marc.AHistoryoftheAncientNearEastca.3000–323BC.Oxford,UK:Blackwell Publishing,2007:pg.263 7Mukherjee,A.K.Librarianship:ItsPhilosophyandHistory.AsiaPublishingHouse(1966)p.86 8Mukherjee,A.K.Librarianship:ItsPhilosophyandHistory.AsiaPublishingHouse(1966)p.86 5ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure Classicalperiod(800BC–500AD) Figure2ArtisticrenderingoftheLibraryofAlexandria,basedonsomearchaeological evidence TheLibraryofAlexandria TheLibraryofAlexandria,inEgypt,wasthelargestandmostsignificantgreatlibrary oftheancientworld.ItflourishedunderthepatronageofthePtolemaicdynastyand functionedasamajorcenterofscholarshipfromitsconstructioninthe3rdcenturyBC untiltheRomanconquestofEgyptin30BC.Thelibrarywasconceivedandopenedeither 6Librariesofthepast duringthereignofPtolemyISoter(323–283BC)orduringthereignofhissonPtolemyII 910 (283–246BC).AnearlyorganizationsystemwasineffectatAlexandria. MuchofwhatweknowabouttheAlexandrianlibraryisnotbasedonverifiablefact,but ratheracollectionofstories,manyofwhichweshouldforegoaccordingtoJochum’sre search.Therearenophysicalremnantsofthelibraryleft,onlywrittenallusionsfrom classicalwriters,buthebelievesthatthegreatlibrarydidnotexistmerelyassinglebuild ing.TheAlexandrianlibraryclaimedtohavecontainedeverybookoneverysubjectin everylanguage.Themethodsforacquiringthesebooksvaried.Onereportedmethod wastoemploytraderstobuybookswherevertheycouldbefound.Anotherclaimedthat bookswereconfiscatedfromshipsintheAlexandrianharbor,thencopiedforthelibrary andreturnedtotheirowners.Catalogsweremadeofthecollection’sbooks,includingthe metadataontheoriginalownersandwherethecopywascopiedorwritten. Today,thethoughtofalibrarycontainingeverybookoneverysubjectineveryknownis impossible,especiallyastechnologyadvances.Aslongagoas1976,havingtheinformation availabledigitallywasproposedasthewaytoemulatetheidealoftheAlexandrianlibrary. Theeconomiesofferedbydigitalizationcangetusaccesstothetypeofknowledgesought bytheGreeks.JochumoffersthattheAlexandrianmaynothaveexistedastheultimate facility.Oncewecanweedoutthelorefromfact,wecanthenbegintomoveforwardwith 11 thelibraryasalearningcenterinsteadofajustphysicalrepositoryforbooks. OtherClassicallibraries Privateorpersonallibrariesmadeupofwrittenbooks(asopposedtothestateorinsti tutionalrecordskeptinarchives)appearedinclassicalGreeceinthe5thcenturyBC.The celebratedbookcollectorsofHellenisticAntiquitywerelistedinthelate2ndcenturyin Deipnosophistae.AlltheselibrarieswereGreek;thecultivatedHellenizeddinersinDeip nosophistaepassoverthelibrariesofRomeinsilence.BythetimeofAugustustherewere publiclibrariesneartheforumsofRome:therewerelibrariesinthePorticusOctaviaenear theTheatreofMarcellus,inthetempleofApolloPalatinus,andintheBibliothecaUlpiana intheForumofTrajan.Thestatearchiveswerekeptinastructureontheslopebetween theRomanForumandtheCapitolineHill. Privatelibrariesappearedduringthelaterepublic:SenecatheYoungerinveighedagainst librariesfittedoutforshowbyilliterateownerswhoscarcelyreadtheirtitlesinthecourse ofalifetime,butdisplayedthescrollsinbookcases(armaria)ofcitruswoodinlaidwith ivorythatranrighttotheceiling:”bynow,likebathroomsandhotwater,alibraryisgot 12 upasstandardequipmentforafinehouse(domus).Librarieswereamenitiessuitedto avilla,suchasCicero’satTusculum,Maecenas’sseveralvillas,orPlinytheYounger’s,all describedinsurvivingletters.AttheVillaofthePapyriatHerculaneum,apparentlythe villaofCaesar’sfatherinlaw,theGreeklibraryhasbeenpartlypreservedinvolcanicash; 9Phillips,HeatherA.,”TheGreatLibraryofAlexandria”.LibraryPhilosophyandPractice,August2010 ˆhttp://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/phillips.htm 10Phillips,HeatherA.,”TheGreatLibraryofAlexandria”.LibraryPhilosophyandPractice,August2010 ˆhttp://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/phillips.htm 11Jochum,Uwe.“TheAlexandrianLibraryandItsAftermath.”LibraryHistory15(May1999):512. 12Seneca,Detranquillitateanimiix.4–7. 7ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure archaeologistsspeculatethataLatinlibrary,keptseparatefromtheGreekone,mayawait discoveryatthesite. IntheWest,thefirstpubliclibrarieswereestablishedundertheRomanEmpireaseach succeedingemperorstrovetoopenoneormanywhichoutshonethatofhispredecessor. UnliketheGreeklibraries,readershaddirectaccesstothescrolls,whichwerekepton shelvesbuiltintothewallsofalargeroom.Readingorcopyingwasnormallydoneinthe roomitself.Thesurvivingrecordsgiveonlyafewinstancesoflendingfeatures.Asarule, Romanpubliclibrarieswerebilingual:theyhadaLatinroomandaGreekroom.Mostof thelargeRomanbathswerealsoculturalcentres,builtfromthestartwithalibrary,atwo roomarrangementwithoneroomforGreekandoneforLatintexts. LibrarieswerefilledwithparchmentscrollsasatLibraryofPergamumandonpapyrus scrollsasatAlexandria:theexportofpreparedwritingmaterialswasastapleofcommerce. Therewereafewinstitutionalorroyallibrarieswhichwereopentoaneducatedpublic(such astheSerapeumcollectionoftheLibraryofAlexandria,oncethelargestGreatlibraryin 13 theancientworld),butonthewholecollectionswereprivate.Inthoserarecaseswhereit waspossibleforascholartoconsultlibrarybooksthereseemstohavebeennodirectaccess tothestacks.Inallrecordedcasesthebookswerekeptinarelativelysmallroomwhere thestaffwenttogetthemforthereaders,whohadtoconsulttheminanadjoininghallor coveredwalkway. HanChinesescholarLiuXiangestablishedthefirstlibraryclassificationsystemduringthe 14 HanDynasty,andthefirstbooknotationsystem.Atthistimethelibrarycataloguewas writtenonscrollsoffinesilkandstoredinsilkbags. MiddleAges(501AD–1400AD) Inthe6thcentury,attheverycloseoftheClassicalperiod,thegreatlibrariesofthe MediterraneanworldremainedthoseofConstantinopleandAlexandria. Cassiodorus,ministertoTheodoric,establishedamonasteryatVivariumintheheelof ItalywithalibrarywhereheattemptedtobringGreeklearningtoLatinreadersand preservetextsbothsacredandsecularforfuturegenerations.Asitsunofficiallibrarian, Cassiodorusnotonlycollectedasmanymanuscriptsashecould,healsowrotetreatises aimedatinstructinghismonksintheproperusesofreadingandmethodsforcopyingtexts accurately.Intheend,however,thelibraryatVivariumwasdispersedandlostwithina century. ThroughOrigenandespeciallythescholarlypresbyterPamphilusofCaesarea,anavid collectorofbooksofScripture,thetheologicalschoolofCaesareawonareputationfor havingthemostextensiveecclesiasticallibraryofthetime,containingmorethan30,000 manuscripts:GregoryNazianzus,BasiltheGreat,Jeromeandotherscameandstudied there. Bythe8thcenturyfirstIraniansandthenArabshadimportedthecraftofpapermaking fromChina,withapapermillalreadyatworkinBaghdadin794.Bythe9thcentury 13Phillips,HeatherA.,”TheGreatLibraryofAlexandria”.LibraryPhilosophyandPractice,August2010 ˆhttp://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/phillips.htm 14Chinabibliography:aresearchguide...–GoogleBooks.,,1995 8Librariesofthepast publiclibrariesstartedtoappearinmanyIslamiccities.Theywerecalled”hallsofScience” ordaral’ilm.TheywereeachendowedbyIslamicsectswiththepurposeofrepresenting theirtenetsaswellaspromotingthedisseminationofsecularknowledge.The9thcentury AbbasidCaliphalMutawakkilofIraq,orderedtheconstructionofa”zawiyatqurra”–an enclosureforreaderswhichwas”lavishlyfurnishedandequipped”. InShiraz,AdhudalDaula(d.983)setupalibrary,describedbythemedievalhistorian alMuqaddasias”acomplexofbuildingssurroundedbygardenswithlakesandwaterways. Thebuildingsweretoppedwithdomes,andcomprisedanupperandalowerstorywith atotal,accordingtothechiefofficial,of360rooms....Ineachdepartment,catalogswere 15 placedonashelf...theroomswerefurnishedwithcarpets”. Thelibrariesoftenemployedtranslatorsandcopyistsinlargenumbers,inordertorender intoArabicthebulkoftheavailablePersian,Greek,RomanandSanskritnonfictionand theclassicsofliterature. ThisfloweringofIslamiclearningceasedcenturieslater,aftermanyoftheselibrarieswere destroyedbyMongolinvasions.Otherswerevictimofwarsandreligiousstrifeinthe Islamicworld.However,afewexamplesofthesemedievallibraries,suchasthelibrariesof ChinguettiinWestAfrica,remainintactandrelativelyunchanged.Anotherancientlibrary fromthisperiodwhichisstilloperationalandexpandingistheCentralLibraryofAstan QudsRazaviintheIraniancityofMashhad,whichhasbeenoperatingformorethansix centuries. ThecontentsoftheseIslamiclibrarieswerecopiedbyChristianmonksinMuslim/Christian borderareas,particularlySpainandSicily.Fromtheretheyeventuallymadetheirwayinto otherpartsofChristianEurope.Thesecopiesjoinedworksthathadbeenpreserveddirectly byChristianmonksfromGreekandRomanoriginals,aswellascopiesWesternChristian monksmadeofByzantineworks. Buddhistscriptures,educationalmaterials,andhistorieswerestoredinlibrariesinpre modernSoutheastAsia.InBurma,aroyallibrarycalledthePitakaTaikwaslegendarily 16 foundedbyKingAnawrahta;inthe18thcentury,BritishenvoyMichaelSymes,upon visitingthislibrary,wrotethat”itisnotimprobablethathisBirmanmajestymaypossess amorenumerouslibrarythananypotentate,fromthebanksoftheDanubetotheborders ofChina”.InThailandlibrariescalledhotraiwerebuiltthroughoutthecountry,usually onstiltsaboveapondtopreventbugsfromeatingatthebooks. IntheEarlyMiddleAges,monasterylibrariesdeveloped,suchastheimportantoneat theAbbeyofMontecassino.Bookswereusuallychainedtotheshelves,andthesechained librariesreflectedthefactthatmanuscripts,createdviathelabourintensiveprocessofhand 17 copying,werevaluablepossessions.Despitethisprotectiveness,manylibrariesloaned booksifprovidedwithsecuritydeposits(usuallymoneyorabookofequalvalue).Lending wasameansbywhichbookscouldbecopiedandspread.In1212thecouncilofParis 15 UNKNOWNTEMPLATEciteencyclopedia Goeje,M.J.deBibliothecageographorumArabicorumArabicLeiden449E.J.BrillAlMuqaddasi:Ahsan alTaqasimIII1906 16Internationaldictionaryoflibraryhistoriesˆhttp://books.google.com/booksid=ZoqTtEN54ICpg= PA29,29 17TheChainedLibrary.CambridgeUniversityPress,, 9ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure condemnedthosemonasteriesthatstillforbadeloaningbooks,remindingthemthatlending 18 is”oneofthechiefworksofmercy.”Theearlylibrarieslocatedinmonasticcloistersand associatedwithscriptoriawerecollectionsoflecternswithbookschainedtothem.Shelves builtaboveandbetweenbacktobacklecternswerethebeginningofbookpresses.The chainwasattachedattheforeedgeofabookratherthantoitsspine.Bookpresses cametobearrangedincarrels(perpendiculartothewallsandthereforetothewindows) inordertomaximizelighting,withlowbookcasesinfrontofthewindows.This”stall system”(fixedbookcasesperpendiculartoexteriorwallspiercedbycloselyspacedwindows) wascharacteristicofEnglishinstitutionallibraries.InEuropeanlibraries,bookcaseswere arrangedparalleltoandagainstthewalls.This”wallsystem”wasfirstintroducedona largescaleinSpain’sElEscorial. Renaissance Figure3ReadingroomoftheLaurentianLibrary 18Geo.HavenPutnamBooksandTheirMakersintheMiddleAges.Hillary,,1962 10Librariesofthepast InRome,thepapalcollectionswerebroughttogetherbyPopeNicholasV,inseparateGreek andLatinlibraries,andhousedbyPopeSixtusIV,whoconsignedtheBibliothecaApostolica 19 Vaticanatothecareofhislibrarian,thehumanistBartolomeoPlatinainFebruary1475. The16thand17thcenturiessawotherprivatelyendowedlibrariesassembledinRome: theVallicelliana,formedfromthebooksofSaintFilippoNeri,withotherdistinguished librariessuchasthatofCesareBaronio,theBibliotecaAngelicafoundedbytheAugustinian AngeloRocca,whichwastheonlytrulypubliclibraryinCounterReformationRome;the BibliotecaAlessandrinawithwhichPopeAlexanderVIIendowedtheUniversityofRome; theBibliotecaCasanatenseoftheCardinalGirolamoCasanate;andfinallytheBiblioteca CorsinianafoundedbythebibliophileClementXIICorsiniandhisnephewCardinalNeri Corsini,stillhousedinPalazzoCorsiniinviadellaLungara. TheRepublicofVenicepatronizedthefoundationoftheBibliotecaMarciana,basedon thelibraryofCardinalBasiliosBessarion.InMilan,CardinalFedericoBorromeofounded theBibliotecaAmbrosiana.ThistrendsoonspreadoutsideofItaly,forexampleLouisIII, ElectorPalatinefoundedtheBibliothecaPalatinaofHeidelberg.Theselibrariesdon’thave somanyvolumesasthemodernlibraries.However,theykeepmanyvaluablemanuscripts ofGreek,LatinandBiblicalworks. TianyiChamber,foundedin1561byFanQinduringtheMingDynasty,istheoldest survivinglibraryinChina.Initsheydayitboastedacollectionof70,000volumesof antiquebooks. 19ThissectiononRomanRenaissancelibrariesfollowsKennethM.Setton,”FromMedievaltoModern Library”ProceedingsoftheAmericanPhilosophicalSociety104.4,DedicationoftheAPSLibraryHall, AutumnGeneralMeeting,November,1959(August1960:371–390)p.372ff. 11ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure 17thand18thcenturies Figure4ZałuskiLibrary,Warsaw Duringthe17thand18thcenturies,someofthemoreimportantEuropeanlibrarieswere founded,suchastheBodleianLibraryatOxford,theBritishMuseumLibraryinLondon, theMazarineLibraryandtheBibliothèqueSainteGenevièveinParis,theAustrianNational LibraryinVienna,theNationalCentralLibraryinFlorence,thePrussianStateLibrary inBerlin,theZałuskiLibraryinWarsawandtheM.E.SaltykovShchedrinStatePublic 20 LibraryofStPetersburg. The18thcenturyiswhenweseethebeginningofthemodernpubliclibrary.InFrance,the FrenchRevolutionsawtheconfiscationin1789ofchurchlibrariesandrichnobles’private libraries,andtheircollectionsbecamestateproperty.Theconfiscatedstockbecamepartof anewnationallibrary–theBibliothèqueNationale.Twofamouslibrarians,HubertPascal AmeilhonandJosephVanPraet,selectedandidentifiedover300,000booksandmanuscripts 21 thatbecamethepropertyofthepeopleintheBibliothèqueNationale.DuringtheFrench Revolution,librariansweresolelyresponsibleforthebibliographicplanningofthenation. Outofthiscametheimplementationoftheconceptoflibraryservice–thedemocratic 22 extensionoflibraryservicestothegeneralpublicregardlessofwealthoreducation. 20Stockwell,FosterAHistoryofInformationandStorageRetrieval.,,2000 21Mukherjee,A.K.(1966)Librarianship:itsPhilosophyandHistory.AsiaPublishingHouse;p.112 22Mukherjee,A.K.(1966)Librarianship:itsPhilosophyandHistory.AsiaPublishingHouse;p.112 12Librariesofthepast 19thcentury 20thcentury StephenCresswellreviewsliteratureconcerninglibraries,thecivilrightsmovementand theendofsegregationinSouthernlibraries.TheALAdidnotactivelysupportlibrary integration.AsRubinnotes,untilthe1960s,theALAconsidereditselfanassociation representingonlyitsconstituencyoflibrarians(Rubin,294).EffortsbytheALAincluded: 1.The1936decisiontoboycottconventioncitieswherehotelsandrestaurantswere segregated. 2.Inthelate1950sand1960sALAdeniedmembershiptosegregatedstatelibraryas sociationsandruledastatecouldhaveonlyonestateassociation. 3.The1961amendmenttotheLibraryBillofRightsstatedthattherightofanindividual totheuseofalibraryshouldnotbeabridgedbecauseofhisrace,religion,national originsorpoliticalviews. 4.In1962theorganizationundertookan“AccessStudy”toevaluatefreedomofaccess throughoutthecountry. Thestudyrevealedmoresegregationandinequitiesinlibrariesinnortherncitiesthanin theSouth.Northernlibrariesweresometimesthefocusofdestructivedemonstrations.In theSouththeywereoftenthefirstfocusofcivilrightsdemonstrationsratherthanschools, becausetheyevokedsympathyfortheindividual’srighttolearn,ratherthanthemore emotionalreactionstointegratingpublicschools. 23 1.2.2Issuesinlibraryhistory Ahistoricism Lancaster,F.W.(1978).Towardpaperlessinformationsystems. HarrisandHannah(1992).Whydowestudythehistoryoflibraries Black,Alastair.”InformationandModernity:TheHistoryofInformationandtheEclipse ofLibraryHistory.”LibraryHistory14(May1998):3945. Gender Garrison,writingin1972,highlightsaproblemofthepublicimageoflibrarianship:ithas notattainedthestatusofthemorescientificprofessionssuchasdoctor,sociologist,etc. Onepossiblereason,theonecentraltothisarticle,istheentréeofwomenintothefield duringtheVictorianera.Garrisonexaminesthreetenetsthatmakeaprofession:service, knowledge,andautonomy.Librarians,asprofessionals,servetheirclients(communityor society);femalelibrarians,ontheotherhand,weretobealmostsubservient.Theknowledge 23Cresswell,Stephen.“TheLastDaysofJimCrowinSouthernLibraries.”LibrariesandCulture31(sum mer/fall1996):557573. 13ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure requiredofalibrarian,consideredhighlyeducatedforawomanatthetime,lackedthe standardizedtrainingforadoctor.Librariesweregovernedbyboardspopulatedbymen, notfemalelibrarians,whomadekeydecisions.Garrisonconcludesthatuntillibraryscience comestotermswithwomen’searlyemploymentinlibrariesandthewayithasshapedthe currentassumptions,itwillneverattaintherankofotherprofessions.Garrisonprovidesa livelyessayonthehistoryoffemalelibrariansanditsmanifestationstoday.Herperspective, however,iscoloredbyfeminism’ssecondwaveinthe1970s. Perhapsthepublicimageoflibrarianshiptodayshouldnotfocussomuchondoctorsand sociologists,butthemoretechnologybasedprofessionsundertheinformationscienceum brella.Forinstance,librariansarenotseenasthedrivingforcebehindinnovationlike softwareengineersandothersintheITfield.Wouldananalysisofwomenintheearly stagesoflibrarianshipgiveinsightintowhysomehavetroublewiththeinformationscience 24 moniker Eventhoughtheprofessionofalibrarianisconsidered”women’swork”therearemenwho havechosenthisprofession.However,theyusuallyholdpositionsofuppermanagementand otherhigherpayingareas.Whatexactlyis”women’swork”withinthelibraryenvironment SuzanneHildenbrandarguesthatcatalogingandservicesforchildrenandyoutharemost oftenseeninthisway.Therearestatisticsthatshowthesetwopositionsarethelowestpaid andarenotheldinhighesteemwithinthelibraryworkplace.Theauthorraisesagreat pointthatwhatneedstobefocusedonisnotthemovementofwomenintomanagement positionsandotherhighpayingpositionsbutonethatfocusesontheequalityofsalaries andconditionswithinthemostfemaleconcentratedspecialtiesuptothestandardofthe 25 profession Inclusionsandexclusions Before1960,therewerenopubliclibraryservicesforethnicminorities.Duringthe1960’s and1970’s,manyattemptstodesignanddeveloplibraryservicesforethnicgroupswereput intomotion.Theculturalprogramsthatflourishedwereprogramsthathadadequatefederal fundingforservicesandexperimentation.Otherfactorsthatcontributedtosuccessful programs: •Recruitmentofappropriatestafftoidentifyinformationneedsandpromotelibrarypro grams •Involvementbythecommunityinplanninganddevelopingservices •Developedmechanismsthatenablethecommunitytoidentifyitsownneeds •Linktheneedstotheexpertiseoflibrarians Ethniclibraryserviceshavebeendroppinggraduallysince1981;andlibrariesarestillfailing toinclude:books,periodicals,films,recording,andarchivesthatrelatetovariousminority 24Garrison,Dee.“TheTenderTechnicians:TheFeminizationofPublicLibrarianship,18761905.”Journal ofSocialHistory6(winter19721973):131156. 25Hildenbrand,Suzanne.”’Women’sWork’withinLibrarianship.”LibraryJournal114(September1,1989): 153155. 14Librariesofthepast groups.Rethinkingideastomeetdifferentneedsisrequiredwhentherearedemographic 26 changes,andlibrariesshouldtakeproperstepstoappealtoeveryone. Itisimportanttohaveadiversestaff,particularlywhenadiverseclienteleisinvolved. Therehasbeenadecreaseincollegeenrollmentamongstminorities;andin19911992,only 8.5oftheLibraryandInformationSciencegraduateswereminorities.Therearefivetasks administratorsandlibrariansshouldimplement,sothenumberofgraduatesincreaseinthe libraryprogram: •Cooperativeeffortstohireminoritygraduates •Additionalmonetaryincentivesscholarships,tuitionwaivers,andhousing •Recruitmentactivitiesaimedatstudentsasearlyasthejuniorhighschool •Recruitmentofnontraditionalstudentsfrommilitaryorcommunitycolleges •Developmentofanacademicandsocialenvironmentoncampusconducivetosuccess In1993,afeweffortshavebeenmadetorecruitminorities,butnonehadbeenparticularly successful.Inordertomakerecruitmentmoresuccessful,itmustbeconsideredapriority 27 SalvadorGuerenaandEdwardErazohavethreerecommendationsforthefutureofLatinos andlibraries: 1.Increaserecruitment,retention,andmentoringofbilingual/biculturalLatinoprofes sionalpersonnel. 2.IncludemembersoftheLatinocommunityintheprocessofplanninglibraryservices forthecommunity. 3.FosternetworkingamonglibrariesprovidingservicetotheLatinocommunity. HispanicsrepresentthefastestgrowingdemographicgroupintheUnitedStates,butLatino librarianshiphasremainedconstantat1.8oflibrarians.Shortagesofbilinguallibrarians willcontinuetoincrease.Foreignlanguageproficiencyisnotrequiredoflibraryschoolsso graduatesarenotpreparedtoservetheneedsoftheLatinocommunity.REFORMA,LSTA, andALAhavebeenadvocatesfortraining,improvingtechnologyandcurriculuminresponse tochangingmulticultural,multiethnicandmultilingualsociety.Thearticleisinformative yetpessimistic.ItrecognizesthetechnologicaldivideintheHispaniccommunityandthe needforeducationandavailabilityofcomputersinlibraries.Theaffordabilityofcomputers hasnotincreasedownershipofcomputersintheirhomes.InWestChicagoMiddleSchool, manyLatinostudentsusethecomputersintheclassroomtocompletetheirassignments. Formanyofthesestudents,highschoolwillbetheendoftheirformaleducation.Atthe Olcottlibrary,thegreatestdemandforSpanishtitlescomesfromMiamiandLosAngeles notlocally.AtellingobservationofthearticleisthatHispanicsdonotfeelwelcomein librariesbecauseHispanicsfeellibrariesareAngloAmericaninstitutionsrunbyandfor 28 AngloAmericans. 26Trujillo,RobertoG.,andYolandaJ.Cuesta,1989.ServicetoDiversePopulations.ALAYearbookof LibraryandInformationScience.Vol.14:711. 27McCook,Kathleen,andGeist,Paula,1993.DiversityDeferred:WherearetheMinorityLibrarians LibraryJournal.118:2326. 28Guerena,SalvadorandEdwardErazo.”LatinosandLibrarianship.”LibraryTrends49(2000):138181. 15ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure Tunnelvision WayneWeigandsaysthat”aconstantreexaminationofourpast...canshowtheparame tersoftunnelvisionandrevealmanyoftheblindspots”.Librariansoftenactas”stewards” 29 ofthepast,whichmaymeanperpetuatingmanyofthepast’sclosemindedviews. Librarycollections,likethestewardlibrariansWeigandmentionsare”productsofourpasts”. Unlesswehavetheluxuryofthrowingoutourentirecollectionandstartinganew,weare stuckwithincludingthetunnelvisionofthepastinourlibraries. 1.3Librariesintheinformationage 1.3.1Defininginformation Therearemanywaysofdefiningandconceptualizinginformation.Definitionscanfocus onthetechnicalaspectsofinformation,orthesocietalaspects. Technicalaspects Informationasasequenceofsymbols Initsmostrestrictedtechnicalsense,isasequenceofsymbolsthatcanbeinterpretedas amessage.Informationcanberecordedassigns,ortransmittedassignals. Societalaspects Informationasaright InanarticlewrittenfortheBowkerAnnualin1987,KennethDowlindiscussestheneed forthelibraryprofessiontoensurethataccesstoinformationremainsavailable,asabasic humanright,toeveryoneinanagewherewearemovingfromanindustrialtoaninformation society.Hearguesthatthemissionoflibrariesshouldbetodevelopminimumstandards ofaccessand“promotethecompatibilityofinformationsystems”.Dowlingivesabrief discussionofwhyinformationmustbeconsideredahumanright,andidentifiesseveral barrierstothis,namely 1.Legislativebarriers 2.Competitivebarriers 3.Technologicalbarriers 4.Perceptualbarriers 5.Economicbarriers Hethenproposessomestrategiestoreducethesebarriersanddefinestherolethelibrary professionshouldplayinimplementingthem. 29WayneWiegand,TunnelVisionandBlindSpots:WhatthePastTellsUsaboutthepresent;reflections onthetwentiethcenturyhistoryofAmericanlibrarianship(LibraryQuarterly,69:1,Jan.1999) 16Librariesintheinformationage Ibelievethatheiscorrectinhisassessmentofthebarriersthatexist,andthatlibraries shouldplayaroleinensuringaccessforalltoinformation,butdisagreewithmostofhis proposedsolutions,whichinmymindarebasedonfalseassumptions,whichtimehasborne out.Heasksthelibraryprofessiontoimplementsolutionstheyarenotequippedtodealwith andhavenocontrolover.Thelibraryprofessionhasnowaytosetstandardsoftechnologyto ensureaccessforall.Lettingtheprivatesectorderivesolutionstothesebarriers,hasproven thebestwaytoovercomethebarriershehasidentified.AlthoughDowlin’sfundamental statementiscorrect,itisquestionablewhetherhissolutionsarepracticalorachievablein 30 therealworld. Informationasacommodity 1.3.2Quantifyinginformation Thereisaplethoraofwaystothinkaboutinformation,andthoseinvolvedininformation andknowledgeworkhaveanumberwidelydivergentagendas.Thiscanmakeevaluation ofinformationservicesverydifficult.Somegroupsattempttomakesuchevaluationmath ematicalandscientific,whileothersrelyontoolsfromthesocialsciences,suchassurveys andstudies.Themathematicalandscientificgroupsoftentrytomeasureaservice’svalue usingcalculationsandmonetaryvalues. WhiletheUnitedKingdomconductedasurveythathadpeopleevaluatehowmuchservice theyreceivedandhowitcontributedtotheirproductivity.Thearticlewasn’tnecessarily aimedatjustthebusinessworld.Theauthordidagreatjobatrelatingthistothelibrary fieldbytalkingabouttheamountofknowledgeyouposesandhowusefulthatmakesyou. Ittalkedaboutthemoreknowledgeableyouare,themoreproductiveyouwillbe,andthe moreassistanceyouwillbeabletoprovide.Fromourdiscussionlastweekinclassabout whatmakesagoodlibrarianthiswasoneofthemajorthingsthatweallthoughtmadea goodlibrarian.Ifeelthemoreinformedandversatileyouareinalldifferentaspects,the moreyouwillhavetodrawuponandoffer.Allofthatcontributestoyourabilitytobe 31 moreproductiveforthepatronsthatyouassist. 1.3.3Definingknowledge Knowledgeisageneralunderstandingorfamiliaritywithasubject,place,situation,etc. Knowledgecanbeacquiredthroughexperienceoreducation. Informationneeds Aninformationneedisagapinaperson’sknowledge.Whenapersonidentifiessuchagap, itmaybeexpressedasaquestionorasearchquery. 30Dowlin,KennethE.“AccesstoInformation:AHumanRight”BowkerAnnual32(1987):6468. 31Koenig,MichaelE.D.“InformationServicesandDownstreamProductivity.”AnnualReviewofInformation ScienceandTechnology25(1990):55–86. 17ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure Education 1.4References 182EthicsandValuesintheInformation Professions Afterreadingthischapter,studentsshouldbeabletoarticulate: 1.Theimportanceofdefiningaprofession’svalues 2.Thedifferencebetweenprofessional,general,personal,andrivalvalues 3.Ranganathan’sFiveLawsofLibraryScience 4.ALA’sLibraryBillofRights 5.ALA’sCodeofEthics 6.Apointofconflictbetweentwodifferentsetsofvalue 7.Theirpersonalvalues 8.HowtheirpersonalandprofessionalvalueswillinformtheirLISpractice 2.1TheValuesoflibrarianship Valuesareessentialtothesuccessandfutureoflibrarianship:theyhighlightwhatis”im portantandworthyinthelongrun,”andhelptodefineourprofession.Inaliteraturereview onprofessionalvaluesinLIS,LeeFinksarguesthatthesevaluesfallintofourcategories: 1.Professionalvaluesareinherentinlibrarianshipandincluderecognizingtheimpor tanceofserviceandstewardship;maintainingphilosophicalvaluesthatreflectwis dom,truth,andneutrality;preservingdemocraticvalues;andbeingpassionateabout readingandbooks. 2.Generalvaluesare”commonlysharedbynormal,healthypeople,whatevertheirfield.” Librarians’work,social,andsatisfactionvaluesexpressacommitmenttolifelong learning,theimportanceoftoleranceandcooperation,andtheneedtofeelaccepted. 3.Personalvaluesspecificallybelongtolibraryworkersandincludehumanistic,idealis tic,conservative,andaestheticvalues. 4.Rivalvaluesthreatenthemissionoflibrarieswithbureaucratic,antiintellectual,and 1 nihilisticideas.Librariansmusthavefaithintheprofession’sabilitytodogood. Thissectionwillmainlydiscussprofessionalvalues,butwewilltouchonseveralgeneral, personal,andevenrivalvaluesthroughoutthecourseofthisbook. 1Finks,LeeW.“ValuesWithoutShame.”AmericanLibraries20(1989):352–356. 19EthicsandValuesintheInformationProfessions 2.1.1Definingprofessionalvalues In1999,theALAformedataskforceto”toclarifythecorevalues(credo)oftheprofession”. Thistaskforcebelieved”thatwithoutcommonvalues,wearenotaprofession,”andproposed thefollowingdefinitionofcommongoalsforourfield: 1.Connectionofpeopletoideas 2.Assuranceoffreeandopenaccesstorecordedknowledge,informationandcreative works 3.Commitmenttoliteracyandlearning 4.Respectfortheindividualityandthediversityofallpeoples 5.Freedomforallpeopletoform,tohold,andtoexpresstheirownbeliefs 6.Preservationofthehumanrecord 7.Excellenceinprofessionalservicetoourcommunities 2 8.Formationofpartnershipstoadvancethesevalues Despitetheworkofthistaskforce,theALAdidnotadoptaCoreValueStatementuntil June2004.Thisstatementrepresentedacompromisebetweenthetaskforceanditscritics, andtookits11corevaluesfromALApoliciesthatwerealreadyineffect.Whilethetask force’sdocumentpositionedthesevaluesinrelationtoourprofession(forexample,our professionmustprovide”assurance”thataccesstorecordedknowledgeisfreeandopen), theofficialALApolicysimplyliststhevalues.TheALA’swordingalsoleavesitslistopen toothervaluesaswell,andliststheseasexamplesofcorevalues: 1.Access 2.Confidentiality/privacy 3.Democracy 4.Diversity 5.Educationandlifelonglearning 6.Intellectualfreedom 7.Preservation 8.ThePublicgood 9.Professionalism 10.Service 3 11.Socialresponsibility 2.1.2Ranganathan’sfivelaws Establishingacoresetofvaluesisnottheonlywaytodefineandprovidedirectionfora field.Manyofthenaturalsciencesarebasednotonvalues,butonscientificlaws.This ledmathematicianandlibrarianS.R.RanganathantoproposeFivelawsoflibraryscience in1931.Ranganathanenvisionedtheselawsasasetoffundamentallaws,analogousto thescientificlawsthatserveasfundamentalprinciplesfornaturalandsomesocialsciences. Ranganathan’soriginallawswere: 2Sager,D.(2001).TheSearchforLibrarianship’sCoreValues.PublicLibraries,40(3),14953. 3AmericanLibraryAssociation.(2009).B.1CoreValues,Ethics,andCoreCompetencies.InPolicy Manual.AmericanLibraryAssociation.Retrievedfromhttp://www.ala.org/aboutala/governance/ policymanual/updatedpolicymanual/section2/40corevalues 20ProfessionalEthics •Booksareforuse. •Everyreadertheirbook. •Everybookitsreader. •Savethetimeofthereader. 4 •Alibraryisagrowingorganism. MichaelGormanrespectfullyadjustedRanganathan’slawstobetterfitthefutureneeds andpracticesoflibraries.Gorman’srevisedlawsare: •LibrariesservehumanityTheyshouldservetheindividual,communityandsocietytoa higherquality.Whenmakingdecisions,librariansshouldconsiderhowthechangewill betterservehumanity. •RespectallformsbywhichknowledgeiscommunicatedIfthereisanewmeansof communicationofknowledge,anditisabettercarrier,utilizeit. •UsetechnologyintelligentlytoenhanceserviceTechnologyneedstobeintegratedsothat itisusedintelligentlyinacosteffectiveandbeneficialway. •ProtectfreeaccesstoknowledgeThelibraryiscentraltofreedom.Itneedstopreserve allrecordssononearelost,andshouldbetransmittedtoall. •HonorthepastandcreatethefutureLibrariesneedtocombinethepastandfutureina 5 rationalmanner.Notclingingtothepastbutlookingforwardforthebetter. 2.2ProfessionalEthics Oncewehavedefinedgoalsforourprofession,weneedtomakesurethatwemeetthese goalsinethicalways.LibraryandInformationworkersareexpectedtofollowcertainethical standards,typicallycodifiedindocumentscalledCodesofEthics.Thesecodesofferabasis formakingethicaldecisionsandapplyingethicalsolutionstoproblemsinLIS. IntheUnitedStates,professionallibrarianethicsarecodifiedintheALA’sCodeofEthics, whicharediscussedbelow.However,thereareothercodesofethicsthatareimportantto theLIScommunity,whicharediscussedlaterinthischapter. 2.2.1TheALA’sCodeofEthics Highestlevelofservicetoallusers Quote: Weprovidethehighestlevelofservicetoalllibraryusersthroughappropriateand usefullyorganizedresources;equitableservicepolicies;equitableaccess;andaccurate, unbiased,andcourteousresponsestoallrequests. 4Ranganathan,S.R.(1963).Thefivelawsoflibraryscience.Bombay,NewYork:AsiaPub.House. 5Gorman,Michael.”FiveNewLawsofLibrarianship.”AmericanLibraries26(September1995):784785. 21EthicsandValuesintheInformationProfessions Intellectualfreedom Quote: Weupholdtheprinciplesofintellectualfreedomandresistalleffortstocensorlibrary resources. Intellectualfreedomisamajorareaofconflictwithinlibraries.Intellectualfreedomisa goalthatmostlibraryworkerscanagreeonintheory,butsituationsineverydaylibrary workcancomplicatethisseeminglysimplerule. Challengedmaterials. Anotherissue,broughtupbyJohnSwan,ishowlibrariesshouldrepresentpointsofview thatarecompletelywrong.Swanasksif”Truth”shouldplaythepivotalroleastheraison d’etreoflibraries,oriflibrariesserveanothercauseentirelyHistopicsfordiscussion include: 1.Arelibrariescommittedto”Truth”forlegalpurposes 2.Theroleof”Truth”,”Untruth”andLibraries. 3.”Truth”isnecessaryforthelaw,but”Untruths”areanecessaryfunctionoflibraries. 4.Intellectualfreedom,not”Truth”shouldbethedrivingforceforlibraries. 5.LibrarieshaveadutytopresentUntruths”. Hisconclusionsarethatlibrariesexist,bytheirverynature,asforumsforideas.According toSwan,both”Truth”and”Untruth”arenecessaryinprovidinginformationtothepublic intheseforums.Theroleoflibrariesisaccesstoboth,andinfactonecannotexistwithout theother.Swanmakesdistinctionsaboutthedifferingrolesofthelegalsystem,third partygroups,librariesandtherolethatcensorshipplaysfrompressuregroups.These distinctionsareasrealandpertinenttodayastheywere20yearsago,infactmoreso, asthereismore”conflicting”informationavailabletothepublictodayduetoadvancesin 6 technology(internet,blogs,etc.). Privacyandconfidentiality Quote: Weprotecteachlibraryuser’srighttoprivacyandconfidentialitywithrespecttoinfor mationsoughtorreceivedandresourcesconsulted,borrowed,acquiredortransmitted. Intellectualpropertyrights Quote: Werecognizeandrespectintellectualpropertyrights Intellectualpropertyrightsareadifficultissue.WhilemostoftherestoftheALA’sCodeof Ethicstalksabouthowlibrariesshouldprovideunrestrictedaccesstoinformation,copyright 6Swan,John.”UntruthorConsequences.”LibraryJournal111(July1,1986):4452. 22ProfessionalEthics andotherintellectualpropertyrightscansometimesproviderestrictionsonthisflowof information.Librarieshavetakenanactiveinterestinopenlicensing,freesoftware,and newpublicationanddistributionmodelsthatrespecttherightsofinformationcreators whileallowingmorewidespreadaccesstoideas. DavidDormanassertsthattheOpenSourceSoftwaremovementisakintolibrarians’views ofinformation.Thatis,informationispublicpropertyandassuchanyoneshouldhave accesstoit.OSSfurthersthisbyemphasizingthesoftwarethatholdstheinformation: ifcontrolofthesoftwareiseliminated,theinformationitselfismorefreeandaccessible. Thus,theInformationControlWarsisthebattlebetweenthosewhobelievetechnology shouldpromotefreeaccesstoinformation,andthosewhobelievetechnologyshouldcontrol itfortheireconomicandpoliticalgain.Dormanpresentsathoughtfultreatiseonthe philosophical,democratic,andtangiblemeritsofOSS.Hisanalysisshedslightonthelegal implicationsofpatentandcopyrightlegislationofwhichthecasualsupporterofOSSmay notbeaware. ThediscussionofOSSincontextwithinformationbelongingtoallbringstomindSCO Group’smanylawsuitsagainstcompanieswhoallegedlycopiedsourcecodethat,OSSad vocatesargue,wasfreetobeginwith.LittleSCOtakingonthebig,badcorporationof IBM,forexample,seemsonthesurfacetounderscoredemocracy.ButSCO’sclaimsrun againsttheintentofOSS,andtheirattemptstoextractmoniesseemillfoundedatbest. Thequestionarisesnonetheless:howdoesonedeterminewhenintellectualpropertyhas beenviolatedinOSSIfthereisaviolationintheOSSworld,whatimplicationsdoesthat haveforitsfutureWhataretheimplicationsforthosewhosupportfreeinformationand 7 access Respectingfellowlibraryworkers Quote: Wetreatcoworkersandothercolleagueswithrespect,fairnessandgoodfaith,and advocateconditionsofemploymentthatsafeguardtherightsandwelfareofallemployees ofourinstitutions. Nonadvancementofprivateinterests Quote: Wedonotadvanceprivateinterestsattheexpenseoflibraryusers,colleagues,orour employinginstitutions. 7Dorman,David.“OpenSourceSoftwareandtheIntellectualCommons.”AmericanLibraries33,no.11 (December2002):5154. 23EthicsandValuesintheInformationProfessions Distinguishingbetweenpersonalconvictionsandprofessionalduties Quote: Wedistinguishbetweenourpersonalconvictionsandprofessionaldutiesanddonotallow ourpersonalbeliefstointerferewithfairrepresentationoftheaimsofourinstitutions ortheprovisionofaccesstotheirinformationresources. Librarianshaveoftentakenapoliticallyneutralstanceasawaytogainprofessionalsta tus.Inthisliteraturereview,theauthorarguesthatbynotdefiningtheirpoliticalvalues, librarianswillbeinfluencedbythosewitheconomicandpoliticalpower.Thiswillthreaten thepublic’saccesstoinformationwhilecorporationsprofit.Theauthordisagreeswitha predictionbyThomasSuprenantandClaudiaPerryHolmesthatlibrariescanenhancetheir “institutionalstatus”bychargingpatronsandoffering“informationstamps”tothosewho cannotpay.Theybelievetheprofessioncanstayaliveiflibrariansfocuson“efficiency, productivity,andqualitycontrol”andcompetewiththeprivatesector.Librariansmust 8 losetheirneutralviewpointsandpubliclyfightforequalaccesstoinformation. Theauthor’sargumentismadestrongerwithexamplesofhowinformationtraditionally handledbythegovernmentwasturnedovertoprivatevendorsduringtheReaganad ministration.Libraryservicesbasedonabilitytopay,whichtheauthorcomparestothis country’shealthcaresystem,wouldgreatlyacceleratethedigitaldivide.Sincethisarticle waswritten,librarianshavebecomemoreoutspoken.LegislationfollowingtheSeptember 11,2001,terroristattackspromptedtheALAtoadoptresolutionsopposingattemptstore strictaccesstogovernmentinformationonthebasisofnationalsecurityissues.Librarians’ concernsaboutthePatriotActledtoproposedlegislationandseveralALApoliciesurging userprivacyandopenaccess.Librariansarefightingthegovernmentforthepublic’ssake, buttheymustactbeforeaccessisthreatened,notafteritisdenied. Excellenceintheprofession Quote: Westriveforexcellenceintheprofessionbymaintainingandenhancingourownknowl edgeandskills,byencouragingtheprofessionaldevelopmentofcoworkers,andbyfos teringtheaspirationsofpotentialmembersoftheprofession. 2.2.2OtherCodesofEthics SocietyofAmericanArchivistsCoreValuesStatementandCodeofEthics http://www2.archivists.org/statements/saacorevaluesstatementandcodeofethics 8Blanke,HenryT.”LibrarianshipandPoliticalValues:NeutralityorCommitment”LibraryJournal(1989): 3943. 24ProfessionalEthics TheHackerEthic Hackerethicisatermforthemoralvaluesandphilosophythatarestandardinthehacker community.TheearlyhackercultureandresultingphilosophyoriginatedattheMas sachusettsInstituteofTechnology(MIT)inthe1950sand1960s.Thetermhackerethicis attributedtojournalistStevenLevyasdescribedinhis1984booktitledHackers:Heroes oftheComputerRevolution.Thekeypointswithinthisethicareaccess,freedomofinfor mation,andimprovementtoqualityoflife. AsLevysummarizedintheprefaceofHackers,thegeneraltenetsorprinciplesofhacker ethicare: •Sharing •Openness •Decentralization •Freeaccesstocomputers •WorldImprovement Inadditiontothoseprinciples,Levyalsodescribedmorespecifichackerethicsandbeliefs inchapter2,TheHackerEthic: Accesstocomputers Quote: Accesstocomputersandanythingwhichmightteachyousomethingaboutthewaythe worldworksshouldbeunlimitedandtotal.AlwaysyieldtotheHandsOnImperative Informationshouldbefree Quote: Allinformationshouldbefree:Linkingdirectlywiththeprincipleofaccess,information needstobefreeforhackerstofix,improve,andreinventsystems.Afreeexchangeof informationallowsforgreateroverallcreativity. Inthehackerviewpoint,almostanysystemcouldbenefitfromaneasyflowofinformation, aconceptknownastransparencyinthesocialsciences.Thisisonlylimitedbyaconcernfor maintainingtheprivacyofcertaininformation,suchasmedicalinformation.Thisconcept canbeseenasroughlyanalogoustotheconceptofIntellectualFreedomintheALA’s documents. TheFreeSoftwareFoundationnotesthat”free”referstounrestrictedaccess;itdoesnot 9 refertoprice. 9Stallman,R.WhatisFreeSoftware(2011,November29).www.gnu.org.Retrievedfromhttp://www. gnu.org/philosophy/freesw.html 25EthicsandValuesintheInformationProfessions Mistrustauthority Quote: Mistrustauthoritypromotedecentralization:Thebestwaytopromotethefreeex changeofinformationistohaveanopensystemthatpresentsnoboundariesbetween ahackerandapieceofinformationoranitemofequipmentthatheneedsintheir questforknowledge,improvement,andtimeonline.Hackersbelievethatbureaucra cies,whethercorporate,government,oruniversity,areflawedsystems. Meritocracy Quote: Hackersshouldbejudgedbytheirhacking,notcriteriasuchasdegrees,age,race,sex, orposition:Inherentinthehackerethicisameritocraticsystemwheresuperficialityis disregardedinesteemofskill. Whilethisisanadmirablepartofacodeofethics,thereisahugelackofdiversitywithin thehackercommunityandfreeculture.TheAdaInitiativenotesthat”womenareone ofmanygroupscurrentlyunderrepresentedinseveralareasofopentechnologyandcul ture.Recentsurveyshaveshownthataround25ofopensourcedevelopersarewomen (comparedto2030ofthelargertechindustry),andthatwomenrepresentjust1015of 10 Wikipediaeditors.”EventhoughtheHackerEthicdoesnotplaceanyformalrestrictions onparticipation,itdoesfosterenvironmentsinwhichwomenaretargetedinveryspecific 11 ways,andattemptstoaddresstheseissuesareseenascensorship. Artandbeauty Quote: Youcancreateartandbeautyonacomputer:Hackersdeeplyappreciateinnovative techniqueswhichallowprogramstoperformcomplicatedtaskswithfewinstructions. Computerscanchangeyourlife Quote: Computerscanchangeyourlifeforthebetter Hackersfeltthatcomputershadenrichedtheirlives,giventheirlivesfocus,andmadetheir livesadventurous. 10FAQ.(n.d.).Retrievedfromhttp://adainitiative.org/faq/ 11Reagle,Joseph.”“Freeasinsexist”Freecultureandthegendergap”FirstMondayOnline,Volume18 Number1(30December2012) 26ProfessionalEthics Sharing AccordingtoLevy’saccount,sharingwasthenormandexpectedwithinthenoncorporate hackerculture.Theprincipleofsharingstemmedfromtheopenatmosphereandinformal accesstoresourcesatMIT.Duringtheearlydaysofcomputersandprogramming,the hackersatMITwoulddevelopaprogramandshareitwithothercomputerusers. Ifthehackwasparticularlygood,thentheprogrammightbepostedonaboardsomewhere nearoneofthecomputers.Otherprogramsthatcouldbebuiltuponitandimprovedit weresavedtotapesandaddedtoadrawerofprograms,readilyaccessibletoalltheother hackers.Atanytime,afellowhackermightreachintothedrawer,pickouttheprogram, andbeginaddingtoitor”bumming”ittomakeitbetter.Bummingreferredtotheprocess ofmakingthecodemoreconcisesothatmorecanbedoneinfewerinstructions,saving preciousmemoryforfurtherenhancements. Inthesecondgenerationofhackers,sharingwasaboutsharingwiththegeneralpublic inadditiontosharingwithotherhackers.Aparticularorganizationofhackersthatwas concernedwithsharingcomputerswiththegeneralpublicwasagroupcalledCommunity Memory.Thisgroupofhackersandidealistsputcomputersinpublicplacesforanyoneto use.ThefirstcommunitycomputerwasplacedoutsideofLeopold’sRecordsinBerkeley, California. Thissecondgenerationpracticeofsharingcontributedtothebattlesoffreeandopen 1213 software.Infact,whenBillGates’versionofBASICfortheAltairwassharedamong thehackercommunity,Gatesclaimedtohavelostaconsiderablesumofmoneybecausefew 141516 userspaidforthesoftware.Asaresult,GateswroteanOpenLettertoHobbyists. Thisletterwaspublishedbyseveralcomputermagazinesandnewsletters,mostnotably 17 thatoftheHomebrewComputerClubwheremuchofthesharingoccurred. HandsOnImperative Manyoftheprinciplesandtenetsofhackerethiccontributetoacommongoal:theHands OnImperative.AsLevydescribedinChapter2,”Hackersbelievethatessentiallessonscan belearnedaboutthesystems—abouttheworld—fromtakingthingsapart,seeinghowthey work,andusingthisknowledgetocreatenewandmoreinterestingthings.” EmployingtheHandsOnImperativerequiresfreeaccess,openinformation,andthesharing ofknowledge.Toatruehacker,iftheHandsOnImperativeisrestricted,thentheends justifythemeanstomakeitunrestrictedsothatimprovementscanbemade.Whenthese principlesarenotpresent,hackerstendtoworkaroundthem.Forexample,whenthe computersatMITwereprotectedeitherbyphysicallocksorloginprograms,thehackers 12https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill20Gates 13https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/BASIC 14https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open20Letter20to20Hobbyists 15CharlesLeadbetterWeThink.ProfileBooks,,2008 16FionaMacdonald.GetafairshareofcreativityGetafairshareofcreativity.,(Metro) 17https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homebrew20Computer20Club 27EthicsandValuesintheInformationProfessions theresystematicallyworkedaroundtheminordertohaveaccesstothemachines.Hackers assumeda”willfulblindness”inthepursuitofperfection. Thisbehaviorwasnotmaliciousinnature:theMIThackersdidnotseektoharmthe systemsortheirusers(althoughoccasionalpracticaljokeswereplayedusingthecomputer systems).Thisdeeplycontrastswiththemodern,mediaencouragedimageofhackerswho cracksecuresystemsinordertostealinformationorcompleteanactofcybervandalism. DorothyDenningnotesthatevenhackerswhocracksecuresystemsillegallyareoftenmo 18 tivatedbypersonalmoralsandbeliefs,ratherthanbymalice. Communityandcollaboration Throughoutwritingsabouthackersandtheirworkprocesses,acommonvalueofcommunity andcollaborationispresent.Forexample,inLevy’sHackers,eachgenerationofhackers hadgeographicallybasedcommunitieswherecollaborationandsharingoccurred.Forthe hackersatMIT,itwasthelabswherethecomputerswererunning.Forthehardware hackers(secondgeneration)andthegamehackers(thirdgeneration)thegeographicarea 19 wascenteredinSiliconValleywheretheHomebrewComputerClubandthePeople’s 20 ComputerCompanyhelpedhackersnetwork,collaborate,andsharetheirwork. Theconceptofcommunityandcollaborationisstillrelevanttoday,althoughhackersare nolongerlimitedtocollaborationingeographicregions.Nowcollaborationtakesplacevia 21 theInternet. ProtocolsforNativeAmericanArchivalMaterials TheProtocolsforNativeAmericanArchivalMaterialsisalistofbestpracticesfornon tribalinstitutionsthatholdNativeAmericanarchivalmaterials.Theprotocolshavebeen prettycontroversial,partlybecauseofthecostinvolved;thearchivistattheUniversityof Washingtonsaidthathewouldneedtohireatleastonefulltimestaffmemberwhosesole 22 jobwouldbeensuringcompliancewiththeprotocols.Butthemainreasonisthatitgoes againstalotoftraditional(European)LISvalues,suchasUniversalAccess. Mostofthedocumentisaboutopportunitiestocollaborateandconsultwithtriballead ersaboutthecareofmaterialsinarchives.However,theshortsectionson”Accessibility andUse”and”CulturallySensitiveMaterials”statethat”ForNativeAmericancommunities thepublicreleaseoforaccesstospecializedinformationorknowledge—gatheredwithand withoutinformedconsent—cancauseirreparableharm.Instancesaboundofmisrepresen tationandexploitationofsacredandsecretinformation.”Assuch,theprotocolsestablish 18Denning,D.ConcerningHackersWhoBreakintoComputerSystems.(1990,October).Retrievedfrom http://www.cs.georgetown.edu/denning/hackers/HackersNCSC.txt 19https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homebrew20Computer20Club 20https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People27s20Computer20Company 21Levy,Steven.(1984,2001).Hackers:HeroesoftheComputerRevolution(updatededition).Penguin. ISBN0141000511 22Bolcer,John.TheProtocolsforNativeAmericanArchivalMaterials:ConsiderationsandConcernsfrom thePerspectiveofaNonTribalArchivist.EasyAccess,January2009,p.3. 28References expectationsofrepatriationofcertainmaterials,andallowNativeAmericancommunities torestrictaccesstoformerlyopencollections,statingthat”accesstosomeknowledgemay berestrictedasaprivilegeratherthanaright.” Anotherpartthatbotheredsomewasinthecontextsection,whichsuggestscataloging practicesfordescribingmaterialscontainingpejorativecontent.Ireallylikedalotofthe suggestions(e.g.oneoftheirsamplenotes:”Thetribalnamefindsinformationinthiswork inaccurateordisrespectful.Tolearnmorecontact....”),whichIfeltaddedmoreinformation forcatalogusers.Atthesametime,Ifeltchallengedbyothersuggestionsthatinvolved removingcertaincontent(i.e.theirsuggestionthatlibrarians”removeoffensivetermsfrom originaltitlesandprovidesubstitutelanguage”incatalogrecords).Iunderstandwherethis iscomingfromIwouldn’twanttolookupabookaboutacommunityIbelongto,onlyto findwordsridiculingthatcommunityandchallengingitsrighttoexistbutitalsototally 23 challengesmy”acceptnocensorshipProvidelotsofaccesspoints”mindset. 2.3References 23http://www2.nau.edu/libnapp/protocols.html 293InformationPolicy Librariansarefarfromtheonlyplayersintoday’sInformationAge.Ahugenumberof peopleandorganizationshaveasayinhowinformationiscreated,used,stored,accessed, anddisseminated.Eachofthesepartiesisinfluencedbywidelydivergentgoals,worldviews, andprofessionalethics. ThesedivergentviewpointsoftencometotheforeindebatesoverInformationPolicy .Aninformationpolicyisapubliclaw,regulationorpolicythatencourages,discourages, orregulatesthecreation,use,storage,access,andcommunicationanddisseminationof 1 information. Librariansandotherinformationworkersareofteninvolvedincreatingandtransforming informationpolicy,andinvariablyfeeltheeffectsofthesepolicies.Thischapterwilldiscuss anumberofInformationPolicydebatesofparticularinteresttotheLIScommunity. Afterreadingthischapter,studentsshouldbeabletoarticulatehowlibraries 1.aregovernedandfunded 2.establishandupholdpolicies 3.developcollectiondevelopmentpolicies 4.defendaccesstoinformationinbothphysicalandelectronicmedia 5.navigaterestrictionsfromcopyrightlaw 6.protectpatronconfidentiality 7.navigatepolicyexceptions 8.establishfineandfeestructures 9.makedecisionsregardingstafftasksandresponsibilities 3.1Collectiondevelopment Collectiondevelopmentistheprocessofplanningandbuildingausefulandbalancedcollec 2 tionoflibrarymaterials.Collectiondevelopmentpoliciesprovideguidelinesforpeoplewho selectmaterialsforlibrarycollections,andcanalsobeusedtoevaluateselectors’choices, toseeiftheywereindeedappropriateforthelibrary’scollection. Publiclibrariesparticularlyfacea”qualityvs.demand”problem.Librariansareexperts inbookselection,andhavetools,suchasprofessionalreviews,toguidetheminchoosing 1Informationpolicy.(n.d.).InWikipedia.RetrievedSeptember11,2012,fromhttp://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Informationpolicy 2Reitz,J.M.(n.d.).Collectiondevelopment.InODLIS:Onlinedictionaryforlibraryandinformation science.ABCCLIO.Retrievedfromhttp://www.abcclio.com/ODLIS/odlisc.aspxcollecdevel 31InformationPolicy goodbooksfortheircollections.However,thisdoesnotalwaysmeanthattheirselections arepopularwiththeirpatrons. Thetensionbetween”quality”and”demand”isoftendiscussedinreferencetothecaseof theBaltimoreCountyPublicLibrary’sapproachtocollectiondevelopmentfromthe1980s. Whenthelibraryconsideredthefeestheywerepayingtoconverttoonlinerecords,they begantowonderifeveryitemwasearningitskeep.Theycheckedcirculationstatisticsfor eachitem.Materialthatdidn’tcirculatefrequentlyenoughwaswithdrawn.Moreattention waspaidtoareasofthecollectionthatcirculatedwell.Morecopiesofbestsellerswere purchased. Thisapproachwascriticizedasnotbeingactualcollectiondevelopment,butjustmindless readingofstatistics.InanarticleforLibraryJournal,NoraRawlinson,thenheadof materialsselectionatBaltimoreCountyPublicLibrary,admittedthatitiseasytoselect popularitems,butothermaterialiscarefullyconsideredbeforebeingpurchasedforthe collection.Esotericmaterialisrejectedandfairservicetopatronsisconsideredwhen selecting.Thediverseinterestsoftheirpatronscanbemetbecausetheyreducedstaffand increasedthebookbudget.Theapproachwassuccessful:surveysshowedthatpatronswere satisfied,andthelibraryreceivedasignificantnumbermoreinterlibraryloanrequeststhan itmade.Thefearsthatthelibrarywoulddevolveintoacollectionstuffedwithbestsellers andlittlematerialofrealvaluewereunfounded. Althoughthesecollectionpracticeswereoriginallycontroversialforsomelibraries,Baltimore County’schoicetouseacombinationofpopularity(asrepresentedbycirculationstatistics) 3 andprofessionaljudgementhasbeenwidelyadoptedbymanypubliclibraries. 3.2Confidentiality The2001USAPATRIOTActhaschangedhowtheUnitedStatesFederalGovernment canobtaininformation.TheFederalBureauofInvestigationhasusedtheacttoaskli brarieswhichbookspatronscheckedout,whatdatabasespatronsused,andwhatreference questionstheyasked.Ultimately,itrequiresacourtorderforlibrariestoturnoversuch recordsandinformationaboutpatrons.AcourtdecisioninColoradoruledthatanadver sarialhearingwasallowedbeforeasearchwarrantcouldbeenacted.ThePATRIOTACT permitssurveillance,allowsforsearcheswithoutprobablecause,andenforcessecrecy.All theFBIhastoassertinitsinvestigationisthatterrorismisinvolved. Librarystaffmembersshouldkeepinmindthattheyshouldnotturnoverrecordstoanyone withoutawarrant.InanarticleforLibraryJournal,MaryMinowsuggeststhatalllibraries haveaplaninvolvingstafftraining,supervising,havingalawyerpresentifawarranthas beenissued,andproceduresforhandlingtherequestsforinformation.Islibrarypatron recordprivacytrivialcomparedtostoppingterrorismSeveralorganizationsaskedforan accountbytheDepartmentofJusticeoftheinvestigationscarriedoutbytheFBIsincethe passingofthePatriotAct.AtthetimeofMinow’sarticle,theinformationrequestedwas 4 termed”classified”andnotavailabletothepublic. 3Rawlinson,Nora.”Give’EmWhatTheyWant”LibraryJournal(November15,1981):7779. 4Minow,Mary,2002.“TheUSAPatriotAct.”LibraryJournal127:5254. 32Controlofinformation 3.3Controlofinformation ThiseditorialstatesthesituationofthreespecificlibrariesinOhiowhosehazardousma terialsemergencyplanswereremovedwithoutnoticeandwithoutduecausebyagentsof theDepartmentofHomelandSecurity.Thepretensegivenbytheagentsinviewingthe planswasthattheyweretheretoupdateit;instead,theytooktheplanstobestoredata HomelandSecurityoffice,where“properIDmayberequired”forviewing.Sincetheareas affectedwereatriskforterroristactivitiesinthattherewasanoilrefineryandatankman ufacturingplantinthearea,theaffectedlibrariansdidnotnecessarilytakeoffensetothe removalofthesedocumentsgiventhepoliticalclimate,butratherthewaytheinformation wasunceremoniouslytakenfromthem. Toremoveinformationthatcouldbevitaltosome,yetbeusedasadangeroustoolbyothers walksafinelinebetweenlookingoutforthepublicgoodandcensorship.TheDepartment ofHomelandSecuritymanhandledthissituationbytreatingthelibrarians,andindirectly theirpatrons,asbothersomepestsbecauseofaneedtopossessinformation.Intheclass discussions,thetopicofinformationasacommodityalwayscomestotheissueofwho shouldcontrolinformation.Allpartiesinvolvedhavetheirownagenda,andinthiscasethe governmentmayhavecloakedtheirdesiretoremovepotentiallydamagingenvironmental 5 dataundertheguiseofpreventinganotherterroristattack. 3.4Copyright Howdoescopyrightapplytolibraries •Librariesareoftentheonlyentitiesthatprovideaccesstothevastmajorityofcopyrighted worksbeforetheexpirationofthecopyright,andtoworksthatlosecommercialvitality beforethecopyrightexpires(i.e.gooutofprintbutarestilllegallyprotected). •Firstsaledoctrine(1908)enableslibrariestolendbooksandotherresource •Exceptsoftwaregetsdicier,becauseofEnduserlicenseagreements(EULAs) •Fairuseallowsfortheuseof(usuallytinysnippetsof)copyrightedworksforpurposesof criticism,comment,newsreporting,scholarship,orresearch. •Librariesarepermittedtomakereproductionsofcopyrightedworksforpreservationand replacementpurposes. •Librariescanaidinthetransformationandreproductionofcopyrightedworksforusers withdisabilities. •Librariesoftenplayanarchivalfunctionwithprintworks.Cantheydothisinthehighly copyrighted,licenseagreementedworldofelectronicinformationElectronicresources tendtohaveaveryshortshelflife,andmaynotbearchivedproperlyforfutureuse. •DigitalRightsManagementtechnologiesoftendon’trecognizeanylimitationstocopy right,andjustgoaheadandrestrictaccess. TheTeachActhelpsredefinethetermsandconditionsofcopyrightlaws,focusingoncopy rightprotectedmaterialsindistanceeducation.Theactputsmorepressureontheeduca tionalinstitution,ratherthantheeducator;butthereareseveralbenefitsbecauseofthe 5AmericanLibraryAssociation.”HomelandSecurityAgentsPullOhioLibrariesHazMatDocuments.” 33InformationPolicy TeachAct:expandedrangeofallowedworks,expansionofreceivinglocations,storageof transmittedcontent,anddigitizingofanalogworks.Itisimportantforeducatorstobe awareofcopyrightinformation,thenumberofstudentsenrolledinclass,andtheamount oftimeallottedtoviewthematerial.Iftheyarecognizantofthem,theywillnothaveto worryaboutbreakingthelaw.Sincedistanceeducationisgrowing,librariansareexpected todealwithinterlibraryloansmoreoften,amongstothernewopportunities,andneedto understandtheTeachActtoo.Kennethbringsupseveralpointsthatareessentialtore memberabouttheTeachAct.Distancelearningisgrowingratherquickly,andisbecoming morepopularamongstthestudentpopulation.Becauseofthisrapidgrowth,librarians areaskedtoperformseveralnewtasksthatcoincidewiththeact.Librariansneedtobe 6 familiarwiththeTeachAct,sonolawsarebroken,andallmaterialsremainprotected. 3.5DigitalRightsManagement Inthiseditorialtheauthorsproposethatlibrariesmustbeinvolvedinthedevelopment ofdigitalrightsmanagementpoliciesandtheselectionandimplementationofappropriate technologies,becausetheinterestsoflibrariesaredifferentfromtheinterestsofcommercial informationproviders.Thecoremissionoflibrariesistoofferfreeaccesstoinformation ratherthanonapayperusebasisasmanycommercialentitiesdo.Digitalrightsman agementforlibrariesrequiresidentifyingandauthenticatingrightsholdersandusers,while protectingtheirprivacyandconfidentiality.Theprinciplesoffirstsaleandfairusemustbe maintainedinthedigitalenvironmentwhilepreservingauthors’rights,aswell.Aslibraries begintopublishmoreontheweb,theirinterestindigitalrightsmanagementwillincrease. Librariesalreadyoffermanyproductsinadigitalformaccessibletopatronsbyremote accessafteridentificationandauthentication.Whilethelibrarybearstheexpenseofthe product,accessisopentoanyonewhohasavalidcard.Inmyopinion,theuseridentifies thisservicewiththelibrary.Iagreethatlibrariesneedtobeinvolvedindigitalrights managementsoinformationdoesnotbecomeacommoditythatcanbeaccessedonlyby 7 thosewhocanaffordit. 3.6Finesandfinewaiving 3.7Governmentinformation 3.8Internationalinformationpolicy Thisarticleprovidesahistoricalperspectiveonthedevelopmentofinternationalpolicies andsanctionsregardingthefairandsafetradeofinformationbetweencountries.During 6Crews,KennethD.,2004.NewCopyrightLawforDistanceEducation:TheMeaningandImportanceof theTEACHAct.http://www.ala.org/advocacy/copyright/teachact. 7Agnew,Grace,andMaireadMartin.“DigitalRightsManagement:WhyLibrariesShouldBeMajor Players.”InTheBowkerAnnual:LibraryandBookTradeAlmanac.48thedition.EditedbyDave Bogart.Medford,N.J.:InformationToday,2003,267278. 34Outsourcing theinternet’sinfancy,theissuesregardingkeepingprivilegedinformationconfidentialand regulationtheeconomicaspectsofelectronicinformationwerestillbeingworkedout.One ofthebodiesinvolvedintheseissueswascalledtheOrganizationforEconomicCooperation andDevelopment(OECD).Whenthiseditorialarticlewaswrittenin1985waystocontrol andregulatetheinternationalflowofinformationwerestillbeingworkedout.Thisarticle onlyprovidesasmallglimpseoftheissuefromamodernvantagepoint.Onewouldassume thattoday,morethantwentyyearslaterthatregulationswouldnowbefirmlyinplace.In ordertogetabetterideaoftheevolutionofinternationalinformationpolicyitwouldbe 8 necessarytoreadseveralarticlesthatspanthepasttwodecades. 3.9Outsourcing Figure5alt=TheHawaiiStateLibrary,ahistoricbuildingsurroundedbytrees Inrecentyears,manylibrarieshaveexploredoutsourcing”behindthescenes”activities,such ascatalogingandbookselection,toprivatecompanies.Aclassicexampleofthiswasa1996 decisionbyBartholomewKane,theHawaiiStateLibrarian,tooutsourceallcatalogingand selectionforthelibrariesinthestatetotheprivatecompanyBakerandTaylor.Kane’s 8Bortnick,Jane.”NationalandInternationalInformationPolicy.”JournaloftheAmericanSocietyof InformationScience36(1985):164168. 35InformationPolicy philosophyinthisdecisionwasguidedbypublicsurveyswhichshowedapublicdesirefor increasedlibraryassistanceandlongerhoursofoperation.Byoutsourcingcatalogingand selection,Kanewasabletomeetbothofthesepublicdemands. However,thisapproachalsohasitsdrawbacks.Forinstance,byoutsourcingselectionand cataloging,thelibrarylosesitsautonomyinmakingdifferentiatedselectionstosuittheir individualpopulations.AlthoughtheStateLibraryarguedthatitwouldbeinBakerand Taylor’sbestfinancialintersttoselecttheappropriatematerials,theissueisnotentirely resolved.Forinstance,willtheselectorsatBakerandTaylorhavethesameinteractions withandknowledgeofthepublicthatthelibrarianswouldhaveAdditionally,thestateof Hawaiiisinauniquesituation,astheonlystatewithastatewidelibrarysystem,andina stateofgeographicsemiisolationfromtherestofthecountry.Applyingablanketsolution suchasoutsourcingsomeofthetraditionalrolesofthepubliclibraryisnotacatchall solutionforalllibrariesthatneedtoincreasetheirhoursandpersonnelwithoutincreasing 9 theirbottomline. 9Oldon,Renee.1996.HawaiihandscollectiondevelopmenttoBakerTaylor.SchoolLibraryJournal 42:1011. 36Webcontentfilters 3.10Webcontentfilters a Figure6AscreenshotoffilteringsoftwareDansGuardianblockingwhitehouse.com. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/whitehouse.com a LibrariesareoneoftheprimaryprovidersofpublicInternetaccesswithintheUnitedStates. AmericanlibrariansarealsoethicallyboundbytheALA’scodeofethicsto”resistallef fortstocensorlibraryresources.”Therefore,whenthe2000Children’sInternetProtection Act(CIPA)requiredlibrariesandschoolstofilterwebcontentasaconditionforreceiv ingcertainfederalfunding,manyinthelibrarycommunitystronglyobjected.TheALA challengedtheactasunconstitutionallyblockingaccesstoconstitutionallyprotectedin formationontheInternet.TheALAalsonotedthatEratefunding,oneofthefederal fundingprogramscontingentonwebfilteruse,wascreatedtoprovideInternetaccesstoall communities,includinghistoricallyunderfundedcommunities.Mandatingfiltersimposes 37InformationPolicy additionalfinancialburdensonthesameschoolsandlibrariesthattheerateprogramwas meanttohelp.Finally,theALAstatedthatwebfiltersarenotoriouslyunreliable,with”no filteringsoftwaresuccessfullydifferentiatingconstitutionallyprotectedspeechfromillegal speechontheInternet.”ThecasemadeittotheSupremeCourt,whichin2003,ruledthat CIPAwasinfactconstitutional. Thedebateoverfilteringinthelibrarycommunityisfarfromover,however.Writingin 2004,NancyKranichnotessevenreasonsfiltersdonotsucceedinprotectingpatronsfrom offensiveInternetmaterial: 1.FiltersunderblocksitesthatarebannedbyCIPA 2.Filtersoverblocksitesthatarelegal 3.Filterproviderscannotrevieweverysite 4.Filtersdonotdistinguishbetweenusersofdifferentages 5.Overridingordisablingfiltersistimeconsumingandcostly 6.Someusersfindwaysaroundfiltersorfindaccesselsewhere 7.Filtersdonotblockemail,chatroomsorvideos Kranicharguesthatthebestwaystoprotectconsumersarethrougheducation,Internet accesspolicies,linkstoapproved,qualitysites,andreferenceassistance.Requiringparental consentforminorstousetheInternet,publicmonitoring,andtheuseofprivacyscreens 10 alsohelpprotectconsumers. ManyinthelibrarycommunityalsoworriedthatfederallawssuchasCIPAcouldleadthe waytoevenmorerestrictivelawsonthestatelevel.Somelibrariesfilterbecauseviolating certainstatelawscouldleadtocriminalcharges.Mostlibrariesdependoncommunity supportandmoney,soresistingthepublic’srequestsputslibraries’futuresatrisk.Would librarieschoosefilteringiftherewerenothreatsoflegalactionandeliminatedfundingIf so,whatdoesthissayabouttheALA’smission However,HamptonAuldtakesadifferentviewoffiltering.InAuld’sarticle,theChester fieldCounty(Virginia)PublicLibrarybeganfilteringallpublicInternetaccesscomputers aftercomplaintsthatadultsandchildrenwereviewingpornographicimages.Thelibrary observedareductioninthenumberoftimespornographyhadtobeclearedfromscreens, areductioninthenumberofreportedcomplaints,andanimprovedlibraryenvironment, despitemistakesmadebythefilteringsoftware.Auldarguesthatfiltersworkinblocking pornographywhileonlyslightlyaffectingaccesstoprotectedspeech.AccordingtoAuld,the ALAshouldreviseitsantifilteringpolicybecausefiltersaremoreeffectivethananyother 11 ALArecommendedmethodandthepolicyisundermininganddividingtheprofession. Thefollowingtablerepresentsargumentsforandagainstfilteringrequirementsfroman earliersupremecourtcase,Renov.ACLU.Inthiscase,thesupremecourtsidedwiththe ACLU,unanimouslystrikingdownaportionofthe1996CommunicationsDecencyAct (CDA). ArgumentDefense Filtersusekeywords.True,butgoodfilterscanturnoffkeywordblockingandrely onsiteselectedblocking. 10Kranich,Nancy.“WhyFiltersWon’tProtectChildrenorAdults.”LibraryAdministrationandManage ment18(Winter2004):1418. 11Auld,Hampton.“FiltersWork:GetOverIt.”AmericanLibraries34(2003):3841. 38References Filtersblocksexeducation,AIDSinfo,etc.Canbesetupsoonlypornographicsitesareblocked. Outsidersselectmaterial.Librarianshavevendorspreselectbooks. ThelistsofsitesthatarebannedcannotbeviewedorTheyarealldifferent.Somehaveviewablelists,mainthingis changed.thatitiseditableandaccurate. Librarieslooklike”publishers”andcanberesponsibleforits”GoodSamaritan”blockingamendmentprotectslibrariesif content.blockingoffensivematerial. Internetistoobigandchangestoofasttobe100accurate.Librarieshavetotrytobeconsistent,notensureappropriate ness. Lettheusersdecideappropriateness,notthelibrarian.Librarieshavealwayshadglobaljudgment(ex.nottocarry Huster). Librarieshavelimitedbudgetswhichiswhytheydon’tcarryWrongrememberappropriateness(andoffensiveness) everything. ViolatestheConstitution.Usesdiscretion,notremovingfromonething,selectingfrom several. Selectionisaddition,censorshipisremoval.Restrictsthepotentialaccess. 12 Edwards’commentaryfocusesonthequestionablesuccessoffiltersmeanttoblockaccess byyoungpeopletowebsiteswithpornographiccontentinlibrariesandschools.While allowingschoolsandlibrariestomaintainaccesstofederalfundingundertheChildren’s InternetProtectionActof2000(CIPA),theuseofthesefiltersmayalsobeblockingaccess tosensitivehealthinformation.Themostfrequentlyblockedsitesincludedthefollowing words: •Gayorlesbian •Condoms •SafeSex •Abortion Themoretherestrictivefilterspreventedthetwelvetestersfromfindinghealthinformation ontopicssuchaspregnancy,abortionanddruguse,whileonlymarginallyimprovingpro tectionagainstpornographicsites.Bothsidesofthefilteringdebateclaimvictory.Those forfiltersadvocatetheirusebyapplaudingthesuccessofthestudyinblockingbetween 8791ofpornographyinthestudy.Thoseagainsttheuseoffilterscitethepotential24 ofhealthinformationsitesblockedasthefailureinherentinthesystem.Theperplexing portionofCIPAisthatthegovernmentmandatestheuseoffilteringtoremaineligiblefor federalfunding;yettheymakenopolicyastowhatshouldbefiltered.Therecurringtheme withlibrarypolicyistheinformationasacommodity,againleavingthequestionofwhat informationshouldbeavailabletowhomtobeanarbitrarydecision.Onecaninferthatthe debateregardingthistopicwillremaincontroversialsincethereisnowaytostandardizeto 13 ageneralagreementwhatissuesshouldbeblocked. 3.11References 12Burt,David.“InDefenseofFiltering.”AmericanLibraries28(August1997):4648. 13Edward,Ellen.”WebFiltersBlockHealthInformation.”WashingtonPost,December11,2002,p.A02 394InformationOrganization Afterreadingthischapter,astudentshouldbeabletoarticulate: 1.howtobuildaneffectivebibliography 2.howlibrariessharecatalogrecords 3.thepurposeandstructureofMARCrecords 4.theFRBRconceptualmodel 5.theconceptsthatinformthefieldofInformationArchitecture 6.thestrengthsofseveralmajorclassificationstrategies 7.theconceptsofthesemanticwebandlinkeddata 8.majorcritiquesofinformationorganizationpractice 4.1Whyorganizeinformation ThesheerabundanceofinformationavailableontheInternetleadstolimiteduserattention andahighrelianceongatekeepingservices,suchassearchengines.Thesegatekeeping servicescapitalizeonuserattentionscarcitybychannelingusers’attentiontowardcertain 1 documentsandawayfromothers. 4.2Bibliography MarciaBatesattemptstodefineandstandardizethesystematicbibliographyinawaythat makesitcleartotheenduserwhatiscoveredinsuchabibliography,howtomakeresearch easierandbibliographiesmorevaluableasatoolinsearchstrategies.Theauthorneverloses sightoftheenduserandtherealworldapplicationsofbibliographicuse.Theconceptof the”definingpurpose”ofabibliographyisathemethatrunsthroughouttheentirearticle, andthemajorspecificationsofabibliographydiscussedatlengthandindetail,are: 1.Scope 2.SelectionPrinciples 3.Organization 4.Domain 5.Informationfields 6.Bibliographicunits SpecialconsiderationisgiventothePrinciplesofSelection,orthemannerinwhicharticles arechosenforaparticularbibliography.Theseare: 1Hargittai,E.(2000).OpenportalsorclosedgatesChannelingcontentontheWorldWideWeb.Poetics, 27(4),233253. 41InformationOrganization 1.ExpertJudgment 2.RandomSamples 3.RepresentativeSample 4.FunctionalEquivalenceSets Iagreewiththeconceptsstatedinthepaper,andthenecessityforsometypeofsystematic structurewhenbuildingbibliographies,sothatusersgettheinformationtheyneedandhave confidencethatthematerialpresentedinthebibliographyiscomprehensive,pertinentand complete,asdefinedbythepurposestatementofthebibliography.Ithoughtthiswasan excellentarticle,asitlaidoutstepbystep,indetail,howtobuildasystematicbibliography thatkeepstheenduser’ssearchstrategiesinmindatalltimes. Readingthisarticlemakesmequestionwhethertheuseofdigitalresourceshasalteredthe 2 waybibliographiesarecompiled. 4.2.1Subjectguides 4.3Bibliographicmetadata Figure7AhandwrittensubjectcardfromtheLibrary’soldcardcatalogrecallsthe precomputerdayswheninformationhadtobecreated,classified,andsortedbyhand. 2Bates,Marcia.“RigorousSystematicBibliography.”RQ16(Fall1976):226. 42Bibliographicmetadata Catalogingistheprocessofaddinganitemtoacatalog,aprocesstypicallyincluding bibliographicdescription,subjectanalysis,andclassification. 4.3.1Cataloging Authoritycontrol MARCformats TheMARCformatsaredigitalformatsforthedescriptionofbibliographicitemsdeveloped bytheUSLibraryofCongressduringthe1960stofacilitatethecreationanddissemination ofcatalogingbetweenlibraries.Whiletheformatswereoriginallycreatedtofacilitate printingofpapercatalogcards,theyarestillinusetodayasthebasisformostcomputerized librarycatalogs. JackieRadebaugharguesthattheMARCformatwillsurviveinaneraofglobaldigital communication.ShedescribesthemodificationsmadetoMARCtoaccommodatedifferent typesofmaterials,tomakewebaddressesaccessiblefromMARC,andtoaccessanonline tableofcontentsfromtheMARCrecord.MARC21isusedinmanycountriesofthe worldtoday.MARCdocumentationhasbeentranslatedintoseverallanguages.Current modificationsincludemappingMARCtoavarietyoflanguagesincludingDublinCore, SGML,andXMLtoadaptMARCtowebbasedenvironments.Afterithasbeenmodified forwebusewillitstillbeMARCRadebaughquotesonepresenteratthe2000ALA conferencewhostatedthatMARCisverymuchalive.AtthesameconferenceFredKilgour, themanwhochampionedMARCandisresponsibleformuchofitssuccess,speculatedthat inthenext30yearsMarcwillbereplaced.InmyopinionMARChasbeenaresilient 3 format,butmaybesupersededbyformatsmoreadaptivetodigitalenvironments. Bibliographicframework(BIBFRAME) Severalexpertgroups,includingtheWorkingGroupontheFutureofBibliographicCon trolandtheU.S.RDATestCoordinatingCommitteehaverecommendedthatthelibrary communityimplementanewcarrierforbibliographicdatathatreplacestheMARCstan dards.TheRDATestCommittee’sFinalReportsuggestedthatnewwaysofcatalogingare unlikelytoyieldsignificantbenefitsunlesstheyareimplementedontopofanewmeansfor capturingandsharingbibliographicdata.Inotherwords,manyexpertsbelievethatthe MARCformatisholdingbackthedevelopmentofbettercatalogingpractices. ThegeneralplanforthenewBibliographicFrameworkenumeratesalistofrequirements forthenewcarrier,whichisdescribedasan“environment”ratherthanasimple“format”. Someofthemostnoteworthyrequirementsarethatthenewenvironmentwillsupportbib liographicdescriptionexpressedasbothtextualdataandlinkeddataURIs;accommodate RDA,AACR2,DACS,VRACore,andCCOdescriptiverules;andprovisionfordatathat supportoraccompanybibliographicdata,suchasauthoritydata,holdingsdata,preser vationdata,andtechnicaldata.Theplanalsonotesthatcatalogersarelikelytointeract 3Radebaugh,Jackie.“MARCGoesGlobalandLite.”AmericanLibraries34(February2003):4344. 43InformationOrganization withthenewdatacarrieronamoreabstractlevelthantheycurrentlyinteractwithMARC. BIBFRAME’sapproachisbasedontheRDFdatamodelfromtheLinkedDatacommunity, 4 forwhichanumberofqueryandstoragetoolshavealreadybeendeveloped. FunctionalRequirementsforBibliographicRecords Figure8TheFRBRGroupOneEntitiesandtheirrelationshipswitheachother. Historically,catalogingpracticehasbeendevotedtodescribing”books”.Earlyattempts tostandardizecatalogingpracticeinternationally,suchasthe1961ParisPrinciples,only 4”ABibliographicFrameworkfortheDigitalAge”LibraryofCongressBibliographicFrameworkTransi tionInitiative.http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/news/framework103111.html(accessedMar 12,2013). 44Bibliographicmetadata addressedthecatalogingofprintedbooks.TheParisPrinciplesdescribethemselvesas onlybeingapplicableto”cataloguesofprintedbooksinwhichentriesunderauthors’names and,wheretheseareinappropriateorinsufficient,underthetitlesofworksarecombined 5 inonealphabeticalsequence.”1Evenin1961,librariesofferedtheirpatronsmaterials otherthanprintbooks,suchasperiodicalsandmusicalrecordings,andthenumberof formatsthatlibrarycatalogershavebeencalledontodescribehasonlygrownsincethat time.Contemporarylibrarycatalogsmayincludereferencedatabases,ebooks,DVDs, computersoftware,websites,blogs,audiobooks,digitizedarchivalmaterials,andcountless otherresources. Asthenumberofformatsdescribedinlibrarycatalogshasgrown,themeaningoftheterm bookhasbecomelessclear.AsBarbaraTillettnotes: Figure9TheGroupOneEntitiesandtheirconnectionstoGroupTwoentities 5InternationalConferenceonCataloguingPrinciples(Paris:1961).Report.–London:International FederationofLibraryAssociations,1963,p.9196. 45InformationOrganization Quote: Whenwesaythewordbookineverydaylanguage,wemayactuallymeanseveralthings. Forexample,whenwesaybooktodescribeaphysicalobjectthathaspaperpagesand abindingandcansometimesbeusedtopropopenadoororholdupatableleg,FRBR callsthisan”item.”Whenwesaybookwealsomaymeana”publication”aswhenwego toabookstoretopurchaseabook.WemayknowitsISBNbuttheparticularcopydoes notmatteraslongasit’singoodconditionandnotmissingpages.FRBRcallsthis a”manifestation.”Whenwesaybookasin”whotranslatedthatbook,”wemayhavea particulartextinmindandaspecificlanguage.FRBRcallsthisan”expression.”When wesaybookasin”whowrotethatbook,”wecouldmeanahigherlevelofabstraction, theconceptualcontentthatunderliesallofthelinguisticversions,thestorybeingtold a inthebook,theideasinaperson’sheadforthebook.FRBRcallsthisa”work.” aTillett,B.(2004).WhatisFRBR:Aconceptualmodelforthebibliographicuniverse.Washington, DC:LibraryofCongressCatalogingDistributionService.Retrievedfromhttp://www.loc.gov/cds/ downloads/FRBR.PDF Becauseoftheseissues,thecatalogingcommunityfeltthatitwasnecessarytohavea newconceptualmodelforcatalogingthatdidn’tcenteraroundtheambiguousbook.The FunctionalRequirementsforBibliographicRecords,orFRBR,wasanattempttoclarify thishazyterminology,andtoprovideamodelthatwasindependentofparticularcataloging codesandmaterialformats. FRBRstartswithfour”GroupOneEntities”:theWork,theExpression,theMani festation,andtheItem.Atraditionalcatalogrecordcombinesdescriptionateachof theselevels,butgenerallycentersaroundadescriptionatthemanifestationlevel.After definingtheseGroupOneEntities,FRBRthencontinuestodefinerelationshipsbetween theseentitiesandeachother,aswellaswithotherentities,suchasauthors,publishers,and otherpeopleandcorporatebodies(GroupTwoentities),andtopics(GroupThreeentities). LiketheearlierParisPrinciples,FRBRisseperatefromspecificcatalogingstandardssuchas AACR2orInternationalStandardBibliographicDescription(ISBD).However,theFRBR modelhasbeenusedtoinformnewcatalogingstandards,suchasResourceDescriptionand Access(RDA),aswellaschangesinautomatedsystemsanduserinterfaces. 46Bibliographicmetadata 4.3.2Classification Figure10BooksabouttheJavaprogramminglanguage,sortedbyLibraryofCongress Classification. TomakeaClassificationsystem,youneedfourthings: •classes,orwaystogroupobjectsbasedonsimilarcharacteristics •labelsfortheclasses,orwaysofexpressingtheseconceptualclassesinhumanlanguage •notation,anotherwaytoexpresstheseclasses.Notationhelpswithautomatedprocesses, aswellasmakingthingseasierforhumans.Forexample,DeweyDecimalClassification systemnotatesthesubjectof”JewishpeopleinUkraine”as305.89240477.Thisismuch easiertoshelveandretrievethanthenonnotatedversion,shownbelow. Classnotation:305.89240477 ''vs.'' Classlabels:SocialsciencesGroupsofpeopleJewsSubdivided geographicallyEuropeRussiaandEasternEuropeUkraine •relationshipsbetweenclasses(theseareusuallytaxonomic,i.e.heirarchical).Forexample intheexampleabove,EuropestandsinaheirarchicalrelationshipwithRussiaandEastern Europe 47InformationOrganization DeweyDecimalClassification TheDDCisinits23rdeditionandisthe”world’smostwidelyusedclassificationsystem.” Itcanbeorderedinafourvolumeprintversion,asfullWebDeweyoranabridgedprintor webversionwhichisbetterforsmallercollections.Membershipincludesupdatesonitsweb versionsquarterly,andasemiannualDDCnewsletter,offerstoconferencesandworkshops, OCLCarticlesandcasestudies.Thiswebsiteisverysimpletouse.Itisnottoocomplicated andgetstothepointifyourlibraryhasaneedforit.Itdoesn’thavealotof“bellsand whistles”buthaswhatisnecessaryandissimpletofollow.Asitpertainstothechapter theinformationthissiteprovidesisabasicsourcetousewhenlearningaboutDDC.The DeweyDecimalsystemissuchahugepartofsomanylibrariesitishardtothinkofnot 6 havingsuchawellstructureorganizationaltooltouse. Taxonomiesvs.folksonomies 4.4Informationarchitecture InformationArchitectureisafieldthatstartedinthe1990’swiththehightechboominfull force.Theyaresimilartoabuildingarchitectexcepttheydotheirdesigningforawebsite. AnIA(InformationArchitect)makesupthelogicalstructureofawebsite.Theylookat theneedsoftheusersanddesignthevisualandinteractiondesignaccordingtotheuser experience,makingiteasiertofindinformationandtoworkaroundasite.Thisalsowill makeiteasiertomanagethesite. ThekeyconceptsthatanIAlooksatare: •organization •navigation •search •labeling •controlling TheIAthendrawsupblueprintsandworkscloselywiththetechnical,graphic,andeditorial teammemberstofinishthesite.IAChrisFarnumisveryknowledgeableandinformativein theirprofessionandgoesontoexplainthatthereareseveralwaystofindoutmoreabout hisfieldthroughbooks,seminarsandcollegecourses.Ilikethewaythattheinformation hasbeenpresentedveryclearlyandexplainedindetail,andIseeastrongneedforthistype ofprofessionintoday’sworldoftechnology.Withalloftheoptionsandchoicesofsitesout intheWorldWideWeb,inthisdayandage,Icanseealargeneedtomakeyoursitethe 7 mostmarketableanduserfriendlyaspossible. 6“DeweyServices.”OnlineAvailableatwww.oclc.org//dewey.(AccessedJanuary15,2004.) 7Farnum,Chris.“InformationArchitecture:FiveThingsInformationManagersNeedtoKnow.”TheInfor mationManagementJournal(September/October2002):3340. 48Informationretrieval 4.5Informationretrieval Artificialintelligencehastwomainapplicationsininformationretrieval:organizationof applicationmethods,andthedesignofclassificationmethods.Thereisnosharedterminol ogybetweenthefields,makingitdifficultforthetwoareastocollaborateinitially.LindaC. Smith,inher1976article”ArtificialIntelligenceandInformationRetrieval,”predictsthat asartificialintelligenceandinformationretrievalcontinuetoexpandtherewillstillneed tobeanincreaseinthecognitiveabilityoftheuserstodiscernwhathasbeenretrieved fromtheoriginalsearch.Theotherconcernforuserswastheanticipationthatinorderto usethesystem,auserwouldneedtobeexpertstogetthedesiredresults.Atthetimeof thearticle,therewasagrowinginterestintheabilityoftheseretrievalsystemstoanswer questionsandretrievefacts,bothitemsweseehavecometofruitiontodayinmodernsearch enginesusedeveryday.Artificialintelligencewasseentohavebothshorttermandlong termeffectsoninformationretrieval.Intheshortterm,itwouldmodifytheresultsofa currentsearchduringaquerytomeettheuser’scurrentneeds.Inthelongterm,itwould modifythedocumentrepresentationstoimproveresponses.Thisarticlewasafollowupto theauthor’sinitialresearchin1980.Littlehadchangedinthattimeasfarasattitudesand outlookforthefeasibilityofusingartificialintelligencetechniquesaspracticalapplications inlibraryscienceandinformationretrieval.Withhindsightonmyside,itisinterestingto seethatcommonsearchenginesusethekindofaidedsearchestofindrelatedtopicsthat 8 theauthorthoughtonlytheexpertswouldbeabletocomplete. TheWorldWideWeb(WWW)iscommoninschoollibrariesbecauseofitsvalueasan educationaltool.Previousresearchindicatesthatdomainexpertiseimprovesonlinesearch performance.OtherresearchshowsthatWWWbrowsingexperiencedoesnotplayasignif icantroleinachievingahigherefficiencyoraccuracylevelinasearch.Theauthors’study testsfourthgraders’onlinesearchperformanceinrelationtohowproficienttheywerein WWWuse;thelevelofdomainexpertise(Dutchliterature)wasconsistent.Theresults showedthatWWWexpertswerebetterthannovicesatlocatingWebsitesbutthatWWW experiencedoesnotsubstantiallyaffecthowwellinformationislocatedonaspecificWeb site.TheauthorsarguethatlocatingWebsitesinvolvesmoreuseofsearchengines,askill inwhichtheexpertsaremoreproficient,butfindinginformationonaWebsitegenerally involvesbrowsing,inwhichWWWexperienceisnotasimportant.Althoughthenovices werenottruebeginnersandtheexpertsnotprofessionals,thenoviceswouldgreatlybenefit fromcoursesteachingsearchskills,suchashowtousesearchenginesandBooleanopera tors.Ithinkthatinstructionindeterminingtherelevanceandvalidityofsearchresultsis justasimportantassearchskills,butthearticledoesnotaddressthis.However,judging relevancedependsontheuser’sknowledgeofasubjectthatschoollibrariansarenotoften responsibleforteaching.Agoodrelationshipamongteachers,schoollibrarians,andthe 9 WWWmustemergeforstudentstoreceivethebestpossibleeducation. Informationsciencehasatitscoretheconceptof“Relevance”,whichisasubjectivenotion. Relevanceisdefinedbroadlyasameasurementoftheeffectivenessofanexchangeorcon 8Smith,LindaC.”ArtificialIntelligenceandInformationRetrieval.”AnnualReviewofInformationScience andTechnology(ARIST)22(1987):4177. 9Lazonder,ArdW.,HarmJ.A.Biemans,andIwanG.J.H.Wopereis.”DifferencesBetweenNoviceand ExperiencedUsersinSearchingInformationontheWorldWideWeb.”JournaloftheAmericanSociety forInformationScience51(2000):576581. 49InformationOrganization tactofinformationbetweenasourceandauser,allbasedonthedifferingviewsofwhat constituteseffectivecommunication.Thisconceptisthebasisforhowentireinformation retrievalsystemsaredesignedandutilized.Therearemanydifferingviewsonwhatthis means,butallofthemaresomewhatrelatedandinterconnectedregardlessofhowtheyare definedorutilized.Theauthordescribesingreatdetail,theframeworkforthesediffering viewsandtheunderlyingphilosophiesbehindeachconceptofwhatconstituteseffective communication.Hearguesthatallofthesedifferingconstructsareincomplete,(yetcor rect);dependingonwhereonestartstheirexaminationofthecommunicationprocess.He endshispaperwithanappropriatecallformorestudyonthesubject.Hispaperisarecap oftheopposingargumentsofthreedecadesago,butinfactismoreimportantnowthan everbefore,asnewinformationsystemscomeonlineandintobeing(theinternet,theelec tronicdatabase,fundingforcollections,etc.),andareallbasedonanincompletedefinition 10 of“effectivecommunication”. 4.6TheSemanticWeb,RDF,andlinkeddata Figure11AnRDFgraphdescribesSemanticWebinnovatorEricMillerthrougha combinationofliteralstringsandURIs. 10Saracevic,T.“Relevance:AReviewofandaFrameworkfortheThinkingontheNotioninInformation Science.”JournaloftheAmericanSocietyorInformationScience26(1975):321343. 50TheSemanticWeb,RDF,andlinkeddata EricMillerandRalphSwickdescribetheSemanticWebas”anextensionofthecurrentWeb inwhichthemeaningofinformationisclearlyandexplicitlylinkedfromtheinformation itself,betterenablingcomputersandpeopletoworkincooperation.” TheSemanticWebisastackoftechnologiesthatseekstoconvertthecurrentWeb,whichis fullofunstructuredandsemistructureddocuments,intoa”webofdata”wheredocuments areallavailableinmachinereadableformatsaswellashumanreadableones.SemanticWeb enthusiastsarguethatthisabundanceofmachinereadableformatswillallowbothhuman usersandautomatedtechnologiestofind,share,andcombineinformationmoreeasily. Quote: TheSemanticWebfostersandencouragesgreaterdatareusebymakingitavailablefor purposesnotplannedorconceivedbythedataprovider.Supposeyouwant,forexample, tolocatenewsarticlespublishedinthepreviousmonthaboutcompaniesheadquartered incitieswithpopulationsunder500,000ortocomparethestockpriceofacompany withtheweatheratitshomebaseortosearchonlineproductcatalogsforanequivalent replacementpartforsomething.TheinformationmaybethereintheWeb,butcurrently onlyinaformthatrequiresintensivehumanprocessing. 11 12 AkeyresourceforcurrentworkwithRDFisDBpedia,anefforttoextractRDFdata fromtheWikipediaproject.AnexampleofatypicalDBpediarecordcanbeseenat http://dbpedia.org/page/AudreLorde,ahumanlanguagedescriptionofAudreLord, a”blacklesbianfeministmotherpoetwarrior,”whoalsoworkedasalibrarian.Thisexact sameinformationisavailableinamachinereadableformatattheURIhttp://dbpedia. org/data/AudreLorde.ForeveryURIforhumansintheformathttp://dbpedia.org/ page/Topic,thereisaURIformachinesintheformathttp://dbpedia.org/data/Topic, whichexpressestheexactsamedata.Noticealsothatallofthepropertiesandmanyof theirvaluesarelinksthatyoucanclickon.Mostoftheselinksarealsoavailablein machinereadableformats,whichmeansthatamachinecouldfollowtheselinksrepeatedly tointegrateinformationaboutAudreLordefromnumeroussources. MillerandHillmann,inordertomakesenseofthesemantic(contextual)web,describe themakeupoftheweb:semantics,structure,andsyntax.Semanticsreferstothecontext ofinformationanditsmeaning.Thestructureencompasseshowtheinformationisorga nized,andthesyntaxishowthesemanticsandstructurearecommunicated.EXtensible MarkupLanguage(XML)dealswiththesyntax,andResourceDescriptionFormat(RDF) iswhatenablesthestructure.LibrariesarebestequippedtoembraceXMLandRDFto addresscatalogingandwebbasedinterfacestoshareinformation.Itistheirresponsibil itytoutilizetraditionalmodels(MARC)andcurrentdevelopments(XMLandRDF)to controltheirinformationandprovideusableinterfacesforpatrons.Thearticleissuccinct andstraightforward,andtheauthors’attemptstodecodetheseswirlingacronymsshould becommended.However,fromalayperson’sperspective,thesearestilldifficultconcepts 11Miller,E.,Swick,R.(2003).AnoverviewofW3Csemanticwebactivity.BulletinoftheAmerican SocietyforInformationScienceandTechnology,29(4),Retrievedfromhttp://www.asis.org/Bulletin/ Apr03/millerswick.html 12https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DBpedia 51InformationOrganization towrapone’sheadaround.MillerandHillmannareconcernedthatlibraries’focusistoo narrowtomeettheneedsofpatrons.Nowthatthesemanticwebhasgreaterpossibilities, librariesshouldincludeitemsusuallyforgottensuchasolderjournalsorsoundfiles.Thisis verypostmodernindeed.Asexcitingasthisis(toseetheinclusionofitemsgenerallyleft outofalibrary’sdomain),Iwonderatthisfeasibilityinapubliclibrary.Howpreparedare publiclibrarianstolearnthesenewlanguagesPatronsarereadytoseetheirpubliclibrary 13 asaresourcenotjustforbooksandinternetaccess,butarelibrariesreadytodeliver 4.7Knowledgemanagement KnowledgeManagementisanoutgrowthofdataandinformationmanagement.Increased competitionandamobileworkforcewithanalyticalskillsandreducedloyaltytotheorgani zationmaketheconceptofknowledgemanagementandretention,appealingtomanagers. KnowledgeManagement(KM),oncethesoledomainofthecorporateworld,isnowneces sarytomanyinformationdisciplines.Informationprofessionalsneedanunderstandingof whatmakesKMeffective.Thisunderstandingbeginswithknowledgeasaneverchanging entity,madeupofhumanexperiences,emotions,andsenses.Scholarshaveidentified knowledgetoincludethetacit(internal)andtheexplicit(manifestationsoftheinternal). OrganizationshavedevelopedKMsystemstofacilitatebothtacitandexplicitknowledge, andthesharingofthetwo,throughdiscussion,training,teambuilding,etc.Theauthor contendsthat(despitecritics’assessmentthatKMisincapableofaprocesssosubjectiveand human)examplesaboundfromthecorporateworldwhereKMhasmaximizedprofitability, innovation,etc.Basedontheseexamples,theauthorstressesprinciplestoguideeffective KM.Theseincludeanenvironmentdedicatedtovaluingindividualexperienceandopen communicationasameanstoshareandlearn;usingtechnologytoaccommodateknowl edge(emphasizingcurrency,accessibility,etc.);andanunderstandingthatKMrequires arootinginboththetacitandexplicitformsofknowledge.Thefluidityofknowledgeis welldeveloped.However,howthisevolvingknowledgeaffectsKMisillustratedbyexam plessolelyfromtherealmofcorporateorganizations.IfKMisincreasinginscopebeyond thetraditionalorganizations,thereisasurprisinglackofevenanecdotalevidenceinnew, informationbasedenvironments.Theimplicationsgivenforinformationprofessionalsarea rehashingofthemodelsthathaveservedcorporations.ItisunclearhowKM,armedwitha senseofthedynamicandhumannatureofknowledge,willlookdifferentinaninformation basedenvironment.Thisarticlewouldbebetterservedifitdistinguishedhoweffective KMwouldlook,feel,andoperateundertheexpandinginformationprofessionsversusthe 14 traditionalcorporatemodel. DavidBlaircontendsthatearlyattemptstomanageknowledgefailedbecausetheyat temptedtoimproveorreplacehumandecisionmaking.Knowledgemanagementdoesnot replacehumandecisionmakingbutfacilitatesit.Expertsarepartofthesystem.The 13Miller,Eric,andDianeHillmann.“LibrariesandtheFutureoftheSemanticWeb:RDF,XML,and AlphabetSoup.”InCatalogingtheWeb:Metadata,AACR,andMARC21:ALCTSPapersonLibrary TechnicalServicesandCollections.EditedbyWayneJones,JudithR.Ahronheim,andJosephineCraw ford.Lanham,Md.:Scarecrow,2002,5764. 14McInerney,Claire.”KnowledgeManagementandtheDynamicNatureofKnowledge.”Journalofthe AmericanSocietyforInformationScienceandTechnology53(2002):1009:1018. 52Generalissuesininformationorganization authorpersuasivelyarguesthatdataandinformationmanagementofferlimitedreturnsto anorganizationandthatartificialintelligenceprojectsandsystemswithouthumanexperts havenotprovensuccessful.Theauthorcontendsthatknowledgemanagementrequires “communitiesofpractice,”acultureinwhichexpertsshareknowledgewithnovices.Ad ditionally,awidevarietyofinformativemediamustbeavailablethroughtechnologyto supportKnowledgeManagement.Knowledgeworkersrequirestrongcriticalthinkingskills andtheabilitytofindandevaluateinformationfromavarietyofsources. Thegreatestchallengestoimplementingknowledgemanagementarecreatinganorganiza tionalculturethatfacilitatesthesharingofknowledge,thetreatmentoftacitknowledge andthelegalissuesconcerningthenatureofintellectualproperty.Theauthorcontends thatthoughtacitknowledgemaybeinexpressible,rulesofthumband“bestpractices,”case studiesofproblemsandmethodsofresolutioncanprovideexpertswiththeknowledgeto makeinformeddecisions. SomeaspectsofKnowledgeManagementhavealreadybeenimplemented.TheKnowledge managementisoneofmanyemerginginformationtechnologiesthatorganizationsemploy 15 toremaincompetitive. 4.8Generalissuesininformationorganization 4.8.1Thepoliticsofinformationorganization SanfordBerman’sPrejudicesandAntipathies HopeOlson’sThePowertoName 4.9Notes 1.1Theprincipleshalfheartedlysayinafootnotethat”thewordbookshouldbetakento includeotherlibrarymaterialshavingsimilarcharacteristics,”and”serialsandperiodicals” arementionedonceinthedocument. 4.10References 15Blair,DavidC.“KnowledgeManagement:Hype,HopeorHelp”JournaloftheAmericanSocietyfor InformationScienceandTechnology53(2002):10191028. 535InformationSeeking 5.1Referenceservices 5.2Scientificandacademicresearch AntwerpStateUniversityCentreconductedasurveyof3545scientistswhichconfirmedthat thescientistsfirstconsultreferencesattheendofarticlesinjournalsandbookswhenstaying informedabouttheirfield.Rankedsecond,CurrentContentsandthelibraryoperated SDIservicewerereviewedforpapertitles.Abstractingandindexingjournals,followed bypersonalrecommendations,computerizedinformationservices,librarybrowsing,theses andcataloguesrankednext.TheAntwerpsurveywascomparedtoHakulinen’sfindings whichalsoconcludethatforscientificresearchabstractingandindexingjournalsareless important.Thesocalledinformationexplosionposesthechallengeofkeepingawareof newpublicationsandwhathasbeenpublishedonagivensubject.Withtheincreasein information,scientistsdonotreadmore,butarefindingrelevancytotheirsubjectareain asetnumberofcorejournals. Theuseofcomputerdatabasestoscantitlesandsubjectsinascientist’sfieldismore pertinenttodaythanwhenthearticlewaspublished.Asearchacrossmultiplelistings ofjournalsthroughcomputerdatabasessavestimepreviouslyspentreadingthetableof contentsofjournalsandhavingtophysicallyretrievethosejournals.Academiclibraries aremaintainingfewerperiodicalsinprinteachyear.Thefindingsofthearticleremain importantinitscontributiontobibliometricsspecificallyregardingwherescientistscan 1 findcurrentinformationintheirfield. 5.3References 1VanStyvendaele,B.J.H,1977.UniversityScientistsasSeekersofInformationSourcesofReferencesto PeriodicalLiterature.JournalofLibrarianship9:270277. 556RecontextualizingLibraries: ConsideringLibrarieswithinTheir Communities Afterreadingthischapter,studentsshouldbeabletoarticulate 1.howtheconceptofthirdplaceappliestolibraries 2.thedifferencebetweeninformationinsidersandoutsiders 3.howlibrariesreproduceandcombatracism 4.howlibrarypoliciesaffectpoorpeople 5.typicaloutreachservices 6.limitationsandstrengthsofrurallibraryservices 7.bestpracticesforprovidinglibraryservicestodiversepatrongroups 8.libraryadvocacyconceptsandtechniques 6.1Thelibraryascommunityspace 6.1.1Thelibraryasthirdplace 6.2Libraryservicetospecificcommunities 6.2.1Economicallypoor Berman,S.(2005).Classisminthestacks:librariesandpoorpeople.Counterpoise,9(3), 5155. 6.2.2Informationpoor Therearetwogroupswhenitcomestolearningandsharinginformation:insidersand outsiders.Insidersarepeoplewhoarecomfortablewithsociety.Outsidersarepeoplewho aremorewithdrawnfromsociety,andoftenfeelremovedfromeveryoneelse.Outsidersmay besecretive,deceitful,and/orafraidtotakerisks.Insidersandoutsidersrarelyexchange ideaswitheachother,becausetheymaybesuspiciousofeachother,andhaveadifficult timewithtrust. Chatmanimplementedthreestudiesfocusingonthreetheories(gratification,alienation, anddiffusion).Shewantedtofigureoutwhytheinsidersandoutsidersweresodifferent. Sheconcludedthatraceandsocioeconomicstandingsplayedarole.Ifanindividualisforced 57RecontextualizingLibraries:ConsideringLibrarieswithinTheirCommunities tonottrustothers,theywillalsohaveadifficulttimewithtrustinginformation(givingor receiving). Ifpeopleareforcedtosurviveontheirown,howcantheybeexpectedtoembrace”outside ideas”Embarrassmentmaybeafactorfortheoutsiderstoo.Thelastthingtheywantto admitisthattheymaynotbeasknowledgeableasothers.Theremaybeobstaclesthey needtofocusonthataremuchmorecrucialthanlearningnewinformation. Manybarriers,includingphysical,economic,andsocialbarriers,preventorhinderpeople fromfindingtheinformationtheyneed.Manyoutsidersfaceacombinationofthesebarriers, 1 anddonotwanttotrytoovercomethemjusttoobtainmoreinformation. 6.2.3Peoplewithdisabilities Imaginehavingadisabilityandhavingnoideawhattodo.Alibrarycanbeawealth ofinformation.Theycanconnectthedisabledpersonwithorganizationsthatcanassist them.Thelibrarycanalsoprovidebooks,magazines,videos,products,andotherresources tohelptheindividualliveindependently.However,notmanylibrariesareequippedwiththe informationortheknowledgetobeeffective.Afewsuggestionstobecomebetterinformed aretogetonasmanymailinglistsofasmanyorganizationsforpeoplewithdisabilities aspossibleandtousetheInternet.Havingtheinformationisgreat,butitneedstobe accessible.Librariesneedtohaveassistivetechnology,likeelectronicmagnifiers,machines thatreadaloud,modifiedkeyboards,pageturningdevices,andassistivelisteningdevices inordertoservethispopulation.Ontopofhavingtheaccessibleinformation,outreach servicesneedtobeusedtobringpeoplewithdisabilitiesintotheircommunity’slibrary. HowcouldyoudisagreewiththisarticleAftermanyyearsworkingwithchildrenwith physicalandmentaldisabilitiesitisveryevidentthatmanylibrariesdon’tofferprograms andservicestothispopulation.Itisverydiscouraging.Librariesarewillingtobringin bookcollectionsfortheirculturallydiversepopulationsbutnotforpeoplewithdisabilities. Whydoesn’tDominicanofferacourseforprovidingservicestopeoplewithdisabilities Weoffercoursesforchildrenandadults.Maybethistopicshouldbeintegratedintothe 2 curriculumofexistingcourses 6.2.4Ruralcommunities FulfillingtheinformationalandrecreationalneedsofruralAmericansisanimportantbut challengingtaskforlibraries.Staffcreativityhashelpedcountertheeffectsofbudgetcon straintsandlackofresources.Librarianscanreachmanypeoplebymeetingwithlocal clubsandadulteducationclasses.Librarianshaveanobligationtospeakoutinthecom munityandcommunicatewithcitygovernmenttoaskforandoffersupport.LindaJohnson wrotealiteraturereviewthatprovidesexamplesofrurallibraryprogramsthatbenefitthis underservedpopulation.OutreachservicesincludeBooksbyMail,bookmobiles,deposit 1Chatman,E.A.(1996).Theimpoverishedlifeworldofoutsiders.JournaloftheAmericanSocietyfor InformationScience,47(3),193206. 2Klauber,Julie.”LivingWellwithaDisability:HowLibrariesCanHelp.”AmericanLibraries29(November 1998):52. 58Libraryservicetospecificcommunities collections,andservicestonursinghomes,shelters,schools,andtothehomebound.Pro gramsforchildrenoffersocialinteractionandlearningandfrequentlyinvolveparents.There 3 isalsoaneedtoserveyouthswhoreceivehomeschooling. AnneNelsonsharedherexperiencesofgrowingupinasmalltownandusingitsevensmaller library.Thelibrarywentaboveandbeyondinpurposelytryingtokeepthings“safe”and notcontroversialto“protect”itscommunity.Annewaslookingforherlibrarytochallenge hernotshieldherfromtheworldanditshistory.Shealsobelievedherlibrarydidn’treach outtotheminoritycitizensofthecommunity.Shewasconvincedherlibraryneededto establishitselfasa“democraticinstitution”inordertobeabletoserveeveryoneinthe 4 community.Asthetitleofthisarticlestates,Anne’slibraryfailedher. 6.2.5Youthservices Schoolandpubliclibrariesneedtoworktogetherinordertoprovidethemosteffective servicestothechildren/youngadultsofournation.Theyarethefutureofthiscountryand librarianscanandshouldsupporttheirneedsforgrowthandachievement.Librariesand librarianscanhelpmeetthoseneedsinmanyways.Afewexamplesare: 1.Provideapositivesenseofselfworth. 2.Preparethemtousepresentdaytechnologyandtoadapttoachangingtechnological world. 3.Teachthemtothinkcriticallyinordertosolveproblems. 4.Guidethemintheprocessinbecominglifelonglearners. 5.Preparethemtocommunicateeffectively–tolisten,tospeak,toread,andtowrite. Eventhoughthiseditorialarticlewaswritten16yearsago,itisstillsomethingthatis relevanttothecurrenttimes.Itwasaneyeopener,andextremelyhelpfultoreadaboutall thatisexpectedandwhatlittleassistanceyousometimesreceive.Youwouldthinklibrarians wouldhavetheresources,staffing,andfacilitiestoeffectivelycarryoutthisresponsibility. Itallcomesbacktolibrarypolicies.Asafuturelibrarian,itisscarytoseeallthatcomes withthejobbutnotseethesupportthatisneededtoperformit.Unfortunatelypolitics arenotsomethingthatalllibrarianswanttogetinvolvedin.However,itissometimes necessarytobecomeanadvocateinordertoseethechildren/youngadults,thefutureof 5 thiscountry,succeed. WhetheryouagreeornotwiththeNoChildLeftBehindAct,itisherefortheduration. Thisdoesn’tjustimpactschoolteachers.Schoollibrariansplayanimportantroleina child’sachievements,butitisn’twrittenoutinconcretetermslikeitisforteachers.It isthelibrarian’sjobtofigureouttheirroleinallofthis.Theyhavetobecomeactive, supportive,andaleader.Theyneedtoinitiatespecialprojectsandcollaboratewiththe schoolteachersandschoolspecialists.Theyneedtobecomeanadvocatefortheschool 3Johnson,Linda.“TheRuralLibrary:Programs,Services,andCommunityCoalitionsandNetworks.” RuralLibraries20(2000):3862. 4Nelson,Anne.“HowMyHometownLibraryFailedMe.”LibraryJournal103(February1,1978):317319. 5Matthews,VirginiaH.,JudithG.Flum,andKarenA.Whitney.”KidsNeedLibraries:SchoolandPublic LibrariesPreparingtheYouthofTodayfortheWorldofTomorrow,”SchoolLibraryJournal36(April 1990):33–37. 59RecontextualizingLibraries:ConsideringLibrarieswithinTheirCommunities libraryandshoweveryonethatitwillassistinimprovingstudentachievementandNCLB scores. Thiseditorialarticlebringsupagreatpointthathasn’tbeenbroughtupbeforeinthe GSLISprogram.TheNoChildLeftBehindActhasanaffectonbothschoollibraries andpubliclibraries.Everyoneneedstosupportallchildrenandtheireffortstoachieve greatness.Asanearlychildhoodeducatorandfutureschoollibrarian,theimportanceand necessityofschoollibrariesandchildren’s/youthdepartmentsinpubliclibrariesisclearly evident.Itwillbepartofthejob,asaschoollibrarian,toconvinceeveryoneelseofthis 6 whilemaintainingeffectiveness. Therelationshipbetweenexposuretomediaviolenceandaggressivebehaviorbytheviewer hasbeenamajordebateforalmost20years.Itismorelikelyforachildtobeaggressive ifheorsheisreinforcedforhisorheraggressionorifheorsheistheobjectofaggression. Inmanycases,exposuretomediaviolenceincreasesthechancethatachildwillrespond tofrustrationwithaggression.Thefollowingvariablesmayalsoplayapartinthechild’s aggression: •Intellectualachievement •Socialpopularity •Identificationwithtelevisioncharacters •Beliefintherealismoftelevision •Fantasizingaboutaggression Parentsshouldintervenewhenchildrenarewatchingsomethingtooviolentonthetelevision becausetheyprovidecriticalinput.Also,itisessentialforparentstomonitorchildren duringthepreadolescentyearsbecausethatiswhenthemediaviolencebeginstostimulate theaggressivebehavior. ManyindividualsmayagreewithHuesmann’sstatements,butitisimportanttoremember thatthereareseveralotherfactorsthatcanleadtoaggressionalso.Parentsshouldbeaware oftheirchild’sactions,andmonitortheaggression.Theyshouldmodelproperbehaviortoo. Thereisnoconcreteevidencethatmediaviolenceisthemainvariableforanindividual’s 7 negativebehavior,sowhyaren’tothervariablesanalyzedanddiscussedregularlytoo Whohastheauthoritytodeterminewhatchildrenread LibrariesTheALAandSupremeCourtagreethatlibrariesdonotactinlocoparentis. Parents ALASupremeCourt 6Whelan,DebraLau.“AGoldenOpportunity.”SchoolLibraryJournal(January2004):40–42. 7Huesmann,L.Rowell,1986.PsychologicalProcessesPromotingtheRelationBetweenExposuretoMedia ViolenceandAggressiveBehaviorbytheViewer.JournalofSocialIssues.42:238243. 60Librarycommunityrelations ThisisoneoftheALA’sstances.Thisisnotthesupremecourt’sidea:Primarycaretakersareentitledtohelp ofgovernmentbodiesinfulfillingtheirdutiesascaretakersSupervisionof Quote: children’smaterialsisbestlefttoparents,butit’salsointheinterestofsociety Librariansandlibrarygoverningbodiescannotassumetheroleofparents(andhencetheresponsibilityoflibrariansandothers)nottohavekidsreading orthefunctionsofparentalauthorityintheprivaterelationshipbetweencertainthings. parentandchild.Librariansandgoverningbodiesshouldmaintainthat onlyparentsandguardianshavetherightandtheresponsibilitytode terminetheirchildren’s—andonlytheirchildren’s—accesstolibrary resources. TheALAalsosaysthatkidshavethesameprivacyrightsasadults;what materialstheyusecannotbeshowntoparents.Soifthekiddoesn’twanttosay whatbooksthey’vebeenreading,thentheparentdoesnothavearighttothat information.Thismakesittrickyforparentstoexercisetheirresponsibilityto determinetheirchildren’saccesstolibraryresources. Children ALASupremeCourt ThisseemstobetheALA’srealstance:KidsareresponsibleforselectingThesupremecourtlikesthistoo,but...Children’srighttoselectsuchmaterials whichmaterialstheycanorcannotread.Parentscanadvise(andevenadviseshouldbelimited,bothforthesakeofthekid,andforthesakeofsociety. withincentives/punishments),butsocananyoneelse.Youcan’tremovebooksfromlibrariesjustbecauseyoudon’tagreewiththe viewsexpressedinthem.However,youcanremoveitemsifthey’reobscene,or otherwisenotsuitableforkids.Schoollibrariescanremoveitemsiftheyare ”educationallyunsound.” AvoidanceofharmargumentRestrictionsonwhatkidscanreadmaybeharmful,as mighttheparent’sknowledgeofwhatthekidisreading(e.g.accesstoinformationfor queerteensinruralareas,informationaboutpregnancyforteens). 6.3Librarycommunityrelations 6.3.1Outreachservices 6.3.2Libraryadvocacywork 6.4References 617TechnologyandLibraries:Impactsand Implications 7.1TechnologyandLIS:ahistoricalperspective Figure12AportraitofVannevarBush Inhisprophetic1945articleAsWeMayThink,VannevarBushenvisionedamachine calledamemex,acollectivememorymachinethatwouldmakeknowledgemoreaccessible. Theauthorbeginshisargumentbydiscussingthegrowingamountofinformationinthe world.Theincreasingamountandcomplexityofinformationalongwiththetimegap betweencreationanddisseminationrequiresanewtechnology.Bush’stechnologywould focusongreaterusabilityininformationretrieval,allowinguserstocreatetheirown”sortof mechanizedprivatefileandlibrary”.Throughtheminiaturizationofdatausingphotocellsor 63TechnologyandLibraries:ImpactsandImplications microfilm,greatamountsofinformationcouldbestoredinverylittlespace.Traditionally informationisstoredinindexorhierarchicalform,butthisisnothowthebrainstores information.Thememexwouldarrangethingsassociatively,mimickingthewaythehuman brainstoresandcontextualizesinformation. Thismemexisremarkablysimilartoamoderndaycomputer,inthatitwouldbeanew technologydesignedforpersonalusethatwouldallowforthecreation,storage,andor ganizationofdifferentmaterialsanddata.Thisisafascinatingarticleasitexplainshow theneedofanewwaytostore,organizeandretrieveincreasingamountsofdataledto theideaofmoderndaycomputers.Itisaparticularlyinterestingarticleinthemodern context,whereinformationanddatacontinuetoexpandatanexponentialrate.Whatnew technologiesandchangesindataorganizationwillthefutureholdHowwilllibrariesadapt 1 tothesechanges Technologybegantotransformlibrariesinthe1950swithmicrofilmandinthemid1960s withtheXeroxmachine.Computerizeddatabasesweredevelopedinthe1970sandoffered moreinformationandbetterwaystosearchandobtainit.NetworkssuchasOCLCand RLINmadeiteasiertoshareresources.Althoughthisarticlepredateswidespreaduseof theInternet,itiscorrectinpredictingthattechnologywillcontinuetochangethefutureof libraries.Technologyhasallowedgreateraccesstoinformationformorepeople,butitwas tooearlyfortheauthortoaccuratelypredictthedigitaldivide.Hearguesthatlibraries mustinnovatetostayaliveandthatchangeishappeningsoquicklythatitoftenappears ”chaotic.”TheWorldWideWeb,however,isoftendescribedaschaotic,unorganized,and confusing,butitsbenefitsgreatlyoutweighitsrisks.Becausenewtechnologyoftenhelps librarieskeeppeopleconnectedtoinformation,librariesmuststrivetomakesenseoutof thetechnologicalchaos.Theauthormakesastrongcaseforbusinesses’needtocompete butstatesthatlibraries’structureandrules”inhibitusfrommakingthekindofinnovation thatisneededtocompeteandsurvive.”Thechallenge,heconcludes,isnotinintroducing newtechnologybutincreatingnewmanagementstructuresforlibraries.Thisplanseems topushlibrariestowardbehavinglikebusinesses,butIthinkthiswouldrestrictaccessand 2 introduceneweconomic,cultural,andpoliticalproblems. 7.2Implementinginformationtechnologiesinlibraries AccordingtoJohnBushman,theimplementationofinformationtechnologyrequireslibrar ianstoasktwobasicquestions: •Whyisthetechnologygoodforlibraries,librarians,orthepublic •Wherewillthetechnologyleadus Itisthelibrarian’sdutytoaskthesequestionsandbecomeinvolvedinfindingtheanswers. Alltechnologicaladvancesneedtobeapproachedcritically,withtheknowledgethatthey mayhavebothsocialandpoliticalconsequences.Librariansneedtobeabletoevaluate technologiestodeterminewhetheragiventechnologywillharmorhelpthelibraryand 1Bush,Vannevar.“AsWeMayThink.”AtlanticMonthly176(July1945):101108. 2DeGennaro,Richard.”TechnologyandAccessinanEnterpriseSociety.”LibraryJournal114:6(1989): 4043. 64Digitallibrariesandservices itscommunity.Funding,gettingthepublicinvolvedwiththechangeintechnology,getting themtodealwiththepositiveandnegativeeffectsofchange,andmakingsurethelibrarians areabletohandlethepressuresareallwaysofbecominginvolvedwithfindingtheanswers 3 aboutinformationtechnologyandthefutureoflibraries. 7.3Digitallibrariesandservices 7.3.1Digitallibraries TheDigitalLibraryFederationlookedatwhatitseesasthemajorissuesregardingdigital librariesinthefuture.Thesearethefivechallengestheorganizationhaveoutlined:ar chitecturalandsystemsinlibraries,standardsandpractices,collectiondevelopment,how communitieswilluseadigitallibrary,andlongtermaccesstodigitallibraries.Interms ofdesigningandimplementingnewtechnology,informationsharingaboutnewtechnology isvitalbecausefewemployeesinlibrariesactuallymanagetechnologicalchange.Libraries needtohaveaplansoadoptingtechnologyandtrainingemployeesandusersisasmooth transition.Thelibraryissimultaneouslyaconsumerandsupplierofinformationandneeds tohavestandardstocritiqueitself.Issuesinvolvedincollectiondevelopmentincludecosts, copyrightandlicensing,allfacetsofcomputerizing,supportservices,andtheimpacton therestofthelibrary.Howinformationispresentedonlinecandeterminewhetherandto whatextentitisusedbythepublic.Thesourcesofdigitalinformationarecomingfrom allkindsofplacesandsharedresourcescanhelpdefraycosts.Makingthedecisionabout whatinformationtodigitizeandanticipatingthecostsofpreservingtheinformationisthe lastofthesechallenges. Thedigitallibraryserviceenvironmentisdefinedasanetworkonlineinformationspacein whichuserscandiscover,locate,acquireaccessto,andincreasinglyuseinformation.There isnodistinctionabouttheinformationformat.Theidentityofadigitallibraryistheway thelibrarydiscloses,providesaccessto,andsupportstheuseofitsincreasinglyvirtual collection.Managing,administering,monitoringandensuringfairuseofitscollectionare apartofthemix,aswellaskeepingupwithnewtechnologiestosupporteducationand culturalengagementsothatthelibrarycanevolveandsustainitself.Theprospectofa 4 completelyvirtuallibrarystillseemsinthefuture,butweseemheadedinthatdirection. TheNationalDigitalLibraryProgramwascreatedbytheLibraryofCongresssolibraries, schoolsandhomeswillhaveaccesstooriginaldocumentsofAmericanhistoryandculture. Thegoalbytheyear2000wastodigitizeover5millionitems.Thechallengeisselecting fromover110millionitemsandconvertingtoatechnologicalformatthatwilllast.Some fundingiscomingfromprivatedonations.Thearticleisdescriptive,informative,butatthe sametimeunclearabouthowtheselectionofinformationtobedigitizedwasmade.The LibraryofCongressisaleadingrepositoryofinformation.Istheirselectionofinformation forthisdigitizingprojectrepresentativeofthebodyofknowledgethatAmericansand worldscholarscanlooktounderstandwhathasshapedAmericanhistoryShouldwebe 3Bushman,John.“AskingtheRightQuestionsaboutInformationTechnology.”AmericanLibraries21 (December1990):1026–1030. 4Greenstein,Daniel,Fall2000.“DigitalLibrariesandTheirChallenges.”LibraryTrends49:290303. 65TechnologyandLibraries:ImpactsandImplications questioningwhetherAmericanhistoryismoreimportantthanotherculturesthathavebeen influentialinworldhistoryForinstance,thebook,InSearchoftheCradleofCivilization, (Frawley,etal)placeseastIndiansettlementsearlierthanSumerian,Mesopotamian,and Babyloniansocieties.India,thelargestdemocracyintheworldtoday,hasbeenignoredby therestoftheworld.BookslikeInSearchoftheCradlecanbefoundatTheTheosophical SocietywhichhasbeenapartofWheaton’slocalhistoryforover100years.Apartofmy roleintheOlcottLibraryistoapplyforastategrantthatwilldigitizeimportantelements 5 ofthecollectionthatcontributetoIllinoishistory. 7.3.2Virtualreference Inanefforttoreachpatronsaccessingthelibraryviacomputers,manylibrariesandlibrary consortiaoffervirtualreferenceservices.Theseservicescanbeeitherrealtimeoroffset, andareofferedviaemail,instantmessaging,webforminterfaces,SMS,andevenvirtual realitygames.AccordingtotheReferenceandUserServicesAssociation,”Virtualreference 6 isresponsivetopatrons’needforconvenientaccesstoreferenceservice.” Thoughvirtualreferenceisagreatconvenienceforlibrarypatrons,itsimplementation introducesseveralchallengesfortraditionallibraries.Mostindividualinstitutionsdon’t havethestaffinglevelsnecessarytomonitoranIMserviceregularlyenoughfortheservice beattractivetousers.Forrealtimevirtualreference,manylibrariesarepartofchatco operativesorconsortia,someofwhichareabletoofferreferenceservices24hoursaday. However,thisdoesmeanthatreferenceworkersfromotherinstitutions,whomaynotbeas familiarwiththepatrons’homeinstitution’sresources,maynotbeabletoprovideservices ofashighaqualityasthehomeinstitutionmight. InhisintroductiontoDigitalReferenceServiceintheNewMillennium:Planning,Manage ment,andEvaluation,R.DavidLankesexaminestheemergingfieldofdigitalreference, howitaffectsthetraditionalreferencestaffandservice,andaddressestwokeyissues,”scal ability”and”ambiguity”. Lankesmakestheargumentthattheavailabilityanduseofdigitalresourcesarefundamen tallyredefiningtheroleofreferenceservices.AccordingtoLankes,libraryreferencestaff arenowbecoming”informationbrokers”,becauseofthenatureofthedigitalenvironment andchanginguserexpectations.Hediscussestwoissues,scalability(theabilitytoservice growth),andambiguity(identifyingresourcesneededtomeetuser’sneeds).Hedescribes severaldifferinginitiativesthathavebeenorcouldbebroughtintoplaytoaddresstheseis sues,bothalterationsofexistingreferencepractices,andnewmethodsofprovidingrelevant referenceservicesinadigitalage. Hisargumentsaresound,andposefundamentalquestionsastowhatdefinesa“Library” and“ReferenceServices”,asonewouldexpectintheintroductorychapterofabookon thechangingrolethedigitalworldplaysinthereferencefield.Someofthequestions andpossiblesolutions,however,seemveryradicalandunrealisticgiventhefragmented standardreferenceenvironmentbasedonlocallibraries,bothfromafundingandstaffing 5Lamolinara,Guy.“MetamorphosisofaNationalTreasure.”AmericanLibraries27(1996):3133. 6ReferenceandUserServicesAssociation.”Guidelinesforimplementingandmaintainingvirtualreference services.”http://www.ala.org/rusa/resources/guidelines/virtrefguidelines 66Accesstotechnology perspective,andassumesthatsome“entity”(modeledontheprivatesector)willprovidea 7 morecentralizedconstructmoreappropriateforthedigitalage. 7.4Accesstotechnology GordonFlaggexplainshowtheFCCunanimouslypassedanewruleonMay7,1997that decreasedthechargesoftelecommunicationservicestoschoolsandlibrariesthroughoutthe nation.Thediscountsrangefrom2090(thehighestpercentgoingtolibrariesandschools inlowincome,rural,andhighcostcommunities).Inordertoraisethe2.25billionneeded forthisplantheyincreasedfees(1.50forresidentialand3.00forbusiness)andtaxeson secondphonelines. ThisdecisionwaspraisedbytheALAbecauseitallowsmoreschoolsandlibrariestoaccess theinternetwhereinthebaseditwastoocostlytodoso.Thatwayeveryonehasthe opportunitytousethisserviceeveniftheycannotafforditintheirhomes.Someexperts fearedthatthisreductionwouldbedifficulttosustaininthelongrun,becauseitissucha 8 bigundertakingandthattheremaybelegalchallengestheymighthavetodealwith. 7.5Physicallibrariesinacyberworld Rapidlydeterioratingmaterialscreateanurgentneedtofocusonpreservation,particularly inresearchlibraries.Preservationdecisionsoftenfallintotwomajorcategories:selection andmedium. •Problemsofselectionarebestansweredbyateamofbothlibrariansandscholars,who employcriteriathatisthreefold:collection,subject,andusagebased. •Problemsofmedium,ontheotherhand,aremoresubjective.Microfilmisquitesta bleanddurable,butaccessissomewhatlimited.Digitization,whilealleviatingaccess problems,posesconcernsaboutcost,instability,andhardwareandsoftwarechange. AbbySmithadvocatesapreservationstrategythatincludesacombinationofmicrofilm anddigitalstorage.Tobesure,fundingforthismultiprongedapproachisunanswered, butSmith’sideasinactionwillhelpensuretheselectionofabroadscopeofscholarly worksforpreservationinformsthatmeetresearchers’needsofintegrityandaccessibility. SincethepublicationofSmith’sarticle,however,digitalstoragehasgainedmorepotential. Forinstance,someproblemsofcostandchangingtechnologycanbemitigatedbystoring documentson,say,aoneterabyteharddrive.Drivesizehascertainlycomedownincost since1999,andaharddrivewillnotbecomeobsoleteasquicklyasmanyremovableformats. Moreover,accessibilitymaybebenefitedbythesheeramountofworksthatcanfitona 7Lankes,R.David.“TheFoundationsofDigitalReference.”InDigitalReferenceServiceintheNew Millennium:Planning,Management,andEvaluation,editedbyR.DavidLankes,JohnW.Collins,III, andAbbyS.Kasowitz.NewYork:NealSchuman,2000. 8Flagg,Gordon.”FCCApprovesTelecomSubsidiesforLibraries,Schools”.AmericanLibraries28(Jun/Jul 97);12. 67TechnologyandLibraries:ImpactsandImplications terabyteharddrive.Nonetheless,itisclearthatthemediumsusedforpreservationshould 9 bereevaluatedasdigitizationexpands. 7.6Costofadoption Librarieshavebeentransformedandmodernizedbytheapplicationofinformationtechnol ogy.Usersdonothavetogotolibraries,andhavetheopportunitytoretrieveinformation viaInternet.Becauseofallthenewtechnologybeingintroducedtolibraries,libraryad ministratorsareforcedtobreakdownthebudget,inordertomakewisedecisionswhenit comestolongtermbenefitsforthelibrary.Ifalibraryadministratorfollowsacoststruc turemodel,he/shewillhavemoresuccessdeterminingthedirectandindirectcosts.Also, thelibraryadministratorwillbeabletounderstandtheinitialandrecurringcostswithin thelifecycleofimpliedinformationtechnologies.Itiscommonforadministratorstoforget toincludetrainingandothernecessarycosts,whichmayhurttheirlongtermbudget.Itis essentialforlibraryadministratorstoanalyzeeachpartofthebudget,sohe/shedoesnot endupwastinganymoney. Iagreewiththeauthor’sstatementaboutthe“biggerpicture”whenitcomestoabudget,and rememberingthesignificanceofkeepingupwithnewtechnologyoffered.Chapterfivebrings upseveralgreatpointsabouttheimportanceofthegrowthoftechnology,andtheawareness ofpeople’srighttoprivacy.Muchofsocietyisgettingcomfortablewithtechnology,and requirestheprogramsoffered.Itisthelibrary’sjobtoprovidetheprogramstothepublic, 10 andnotgooverthebudget,whilerememberingtheimportanceofanindividual’sprivacy. Monetarycostsarenottheonlycoststoadoptingnewtechnology.AuthorNicholsonBaker isafirmbelieverthatadoptingnewtechnologiescancomeattheexpenseofpreservinghis tory.Librariesaroundthecountry,includingthoseatacademicinstitutions,havereplaced manyoftheircardcatalogswithonlineaccesscatalogs.Theyarethrowingouttheircard catalogs,sometimeswithfanfare.Despitesomeattemptstopreservedatabymicrofilming thecardsandproofingthenewrecords,informationisbeinglostbecauseoferrorsand omissions. Librariansrapidlyadaptedtotechnologytocopewithacatalogingcrisiscausedbygrowing numbersofitemstoprocess.Theauthorarguesthattheyareoverlookingtheirmissionto preservebooks.Insteadofbeingarchetypelibrarians,theywanttobeseenastechnology specialists. AuthorNicholsonBakercontendedthatdisposingofthecardcatalogwasakintotossing outhistory.Thenotationsmadeoneachcardoverdecades,makethecardcatalogitself anartifactworthyofpreservation.Itisironicthatwhilethegoaloflibrariesistopreserve information,theyarekeentodisposeofthecatalog,whichheseesasmorethanafinding aid.Withhumor,witandironyBakerdescribedtheevolutionofthelibrarycatalog. Accessiondates,provenanceandnotesinsomecatalogsmightbeofvaluetoscholars,but 9Smith,Abby.TheFutureofthePast:PreservationinAmericanResearchLibraries.1999.Online Availableatwww.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub82/pub82text.html.(AccessedJanuary29,2006.) 10Dugan,RobertE.,2002.InformationTechnologyBudgetsandCosts:DoYouKnowWhatYourInforma tionTechnologyCostsEachYearJournalofAcademicLibrarianship.28:238243. 68Conclusion:Rutenbeck’s”Fivegreatchallenges” thenostalgiaforwellthumbedfadedcardswithcarefullywrittennotesseemstobeBaker’s 11 primaryobject. Nicholsonagaincritiquedlibraries’adoptionoftechnologiesinhis2001bookDoublefold: librariesandtheassaultonpaper,NicholsonBakerpresentsastronglywordedcritiqueof libraries’digitalreproductionofpapermaterials.Inoneofhismostcompellingcasestudies, heexaminesthecaseoftheSyracuseDailyStandardnewspaper,whichin1858,claimed tohavebeenprintedonpaper”saidtobetakenfromEgyptiansicmummies.”Whenhe attemptedtofindtheactualnewspapers,hediscoveredthatthelocalpubliclibraryhad sincediscardeditspapercopiesofthenewspaper,insteadofferingamicrofilmcopytoits 12 patrons. Thebook,whichtheNewYorkTimesdescribedasa”blisteringandthoroughlyidiosyncratic 13 attack”,wasstronglycriticizedbythelibrarycommunity.Amajorargumentagainst Baker’sbookwasthatlibrariesbuildtheircollectionsbasedonbothcurrentandanticipated use,ratherthanstrictlypreservinganythingtheycan.Noteveryitemeverpublishedcan becollectedandpreservedinitsoriginalformat,norwilleveryitemeverpublishedbeuseful tolibrarypatrons,especiallyifithasdisintegratedextensively.Asecondmajorargument againstthebookwastheimpracticalityofmaintainingprintitems,particularlyacidicones, onalargescale.Athirdargumentnotesthatdigitizationandmicrofilmtendtoenable morepeopleaccesstoaparticularitem,asmicroformscanbesharedviaInterlibraryLoan muchmorefeasiblythancandecayingprintresources,andsincedigitizedmaterialscan oftenbesharedwithanyonewhocanaccesstheInternet.Forabibliographyofreactions 14 toBaker’sbook,seetheofResearchLibrary’sexhaustivelist. 7.7Conclusion:Rutenbeck’s”Fivegreatchallenges” AccordingtoJeffRutenbeck,thecontinuedgrowthofthedigitalworldpresentsfivemajor challengestoitsusers:malleability,selectivity,exclusivity,vulnerability,andsuperficiality. 7.7.1Malleability Malleabilityreferstothetotalimpermanenceofdigitalinformation,fromdatatopictures toevenpeople’sidentities.Unlikeprint,digitalinformationcanbereconfiguredinways thatprintinformationcannot. 11Baker,Nicholson.“Discards.”NewYorker(April4,1994):6486. 12Baker,N.(2001).Doublefold:librariesandtheassaultonpaper.(1sted.).NewYork:RandomHouse. 13 UNKNOWNTEMPLATEcitenews DwightGarnerApril15,2001TheCollectorhttp://www.nytimes.com/books/01/04/15/reviews/ 010415.15garner.htmlTheNewYorkTimes http:// 14http://www.arl.org/preserv/presresources/NicolasBaker.shtml 69TechnologyandLibraries:ImpactsandImplications 7.7.2Selectivity Selectivityaddressesthepreferencebyuserstoonlyconsiderinformationavailableonline, dismissinginformationavailableonlyinprint. 7.7.3Exclusivity Thedigitaldividecomestotheforefrontwithexclusivity,sincenewtechnologyisbeing introducedconstantly,butthereisnouniversalwaytobringeveryonetothesamelevelsof competence. 7.7.4Vulnerability Vulnerabilityhighlightstheinherentproblemswithourinterconnectedness;whileweenjoy theeasyandconstantflowofinformationandideas,atthesametime,weleaveourselves opentosecuritybreachesandsystemsfailures. 7.7.5Superficiality WhatIfeelisthegreatestchallengeinthedigitalageissuperficiality.Wehaveaccessto somuchinformation,butthereisnoguaranteethatwhatweseeisaccurate. 7.7.6Conclusion Theauthoridentifiestheissuesclearly,andofferssuggestionsastohowwecanbattlethese challenges,butacknowledgesthatthereisnoclearcutanswertoovercominganyofthem. Mostusers,includingmyself,buttagainsttheseissuesinourpersonalandbusinesslife,and strugglewithhowtoreconcilethem,since,astheauthoracknowledges,anyanswerleads 15 tocompromises. 7.8References 15Rutenbeck,Jeff.”TheFiveGreatChallengesoftheDigitalAge 708TranscendingBoundaries:Global IssuesandTrends ThisbookwillclosewithalookatlibrarianshipoutsidethecontextoftheUnitedStatesand Canada,andwillexaminesomeemergingthemesinthefieldofLibrarianandInformation Science. 719LearningMore:FreeLISResources Afterreadingthischapter,studentsshouldbeabletoarticulate 1.theimportanceofprofessionaldevelopmentandcontinuingeducation 2.barrierstoprofessionaldevelopmentandcontinuingeducation 3.alistofprominentopenaccessprofessionaldevelopmenttoolsintheirareaofspecialty 9.1Professionaldevelopment 9.2OpenaccessLISresources ManyLISresourceshaverestrictivelicensesandareonlyavailabletopeopleaffiliatedwith librariesthatsubscribetothem.Thisincludesmanyofourdiscipline’smostwellknown journals.However,thereisanincreasingnumberofLISmaterialavailablefreelyonline. Somearefreeofcharge,othersarefreelylicensed,andsome,liketheLISWiki,canbe editedbyanyone. 9.3Referencesources 1 •OnlineDictionaryforLibraryandInformationScience,byJoanK.Reitz.Thisisagreat resource,butnotfreelylicensed,sodon’tcopyithere. 2 •LISWiki,aFreecompendiumthatanyonecaneditlicensedundertheGNUFDL. •Talkingwithotherlibraryworkers,manyofwhomloveansweringquestionsandmentor ing. 9.4PeerreviewedJournals WhilethemajorpeerreviewedjournalsinLIStendtohavesomemajorbarrierstoaccess,an increasingnumberofjournalsinourfieldarefreelyaccessibleonline.Currently,openaccess journalstendtohaveamoreinternationalfocus,andalsotendtoemphasizetechnology topicsmorethantraditionalU.S.indexesoflibrarypublications.Youcansearchanumberof openaccesspeerreviedjournalssimultaneouslyusingthehttp://www.doaj.orgDirectory 3 ofOpenAccessJournals,whichindexesdozensofLISjournals. 1http://www.abcclio.com/ODLIS/odlisA.aspx 2http://liswiki.org/wiki/MainPage 3https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/20Directory20of20Open20Access20Journals 73LearningMore:FreeLISResources 4 •code4libisanexcellentjournalaboutlibrarytech. 5 •DESIDOCJournalofLibraryInformationTechnology 6 •DLiboneofthemostwellrespectedjournalsintheareaofdigitallibraries. 7 •EvidenceBasedLibraryandInformationPractice 8 •FirstMonday”isoneofthefirstopenlyaccessible,peer–reviewedjournalsontheInternet, solelydevotedtotheInternet.SinceitsstartinMay1996,FirstMondayhaspublished 1,278papersin205issues;thesepaperswerewrittenby1,714differentauthors.”Licensed undertheCreativeCommonsBYNCSAlicense. 9 •InformationTechnologyandLibraries 10 •IntheLibrarywiththeLeadPipedespitethisblog’shumoroustitle,itprovidesa numberofpeerreviewedarticleswithfootnotedcitations,andisanawesomeplaceto learnaboutnewideasinlibrarianship. 11 •InternationalJournalofDigitalLibraryServices 12 •InternationalResearch:JournalofLibraryandInformationScience 13 •JournalofLibraryInnovationcoversinnovativelibrarypracticesinmanyforms,ranging from”thediscoveryofunmetuserneeds”to”creativecollaborationbetweenlibraries,or betweenlibrariesandothertypesofinstitutions”to”Implementingnewtechnologies”to ”Explorationsofthefutureoflibraries.” 14 •JournaloftheMedicalLibraryAssociation 15 •LibraryandInformationResearch 16 •LibraryPhilosophyandPractice 17 •LibraryResourcesandTechnicalServices(LRTS)isoneofthemostprestigiousjournals intheareasofcatalogingandtechnicalservices.TheAmericanLibraryAssociationmakes theentirerunofthisjournal,exceptforthemostrecentyear,availableonline. 18 •LibraryStudentJournalarticleswrittenbyLISstudents.Notethatonlythe”Articles” section,ratherthanthe”Essays”and”Opinions”sections,ispeerreviewed.Althoughthis journalisn’tcitedveryoften,thearticlesareofahighquality. 19 •LibraryTrendshasbeeneditedbyprofessorsattheGraduateSchoolofLISatthe UniversityofIllinoissince1952.Eachissuehasitsowntheme,andthetopicsitcovers arequitewideranging.Illinois’InstitutionalRepositorymakesallissuesavailableonline, exceptforthetwomostrecentyears. 20 •Partnership:theCanadianJournalofLibraryandInformationPracticeandResearch 4http://journal.code4lib.org/ 5http://publications.drdo.gov.in 6http://www.dlib.org/ http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIP/ 7 http://firstmonday.org/index 8 http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/ital/issue/current 9 http://www.inthelibrarywiththeleadpipe.org 10 11http://www.ijodls.in 12http://irjlis.com 13http://www.libraryinnovation.org/ 14https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov 15http://www.lirgjournal.org.uk/ 16http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/ 17http://www.ala.org/alcts/resources/lrts/archive 18http://www.librarystudentjournal.org 19https://ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/999 20https://journal.lib.uoguelph.ca/index.php/perj/ 74PeerreviewedJournals 21 •TheologicalLibrarianship 9.4.1NonEnglish 22 •JournalofEducationalMediaandLibrarySciences(ChineseTaiwan) 23 •Knjižnica(Slovenian) 24 •Libreas(German) 21https://journal.atla.com/ojs/index.php/theolib 22http://joemls.dils.tku.edu.tw/ 23http://revijaknjiznica.zbdszveza.si/ 24http://www.libreas.eu/ 7510ListofContributors ThistextbookbeganasanexperimentbyKateWilliamsandstudentsatDominicanUni 1 versitylibraryschool.Herearethemembersofthatclasswhocontributedannotationsto theproject: •AmandaGenge •AngelaBusboomYackley •AnnGass •AnnaParks •CoreyBard •DanaFolkerts •GwenJackson •JudySmith •KaraBourke •KatieSollors •PerryBassett Sincethen,othershaveworkedonthistextbook: 2 •JaneSandberg 1http://www.dom.edu/gslis 2https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User3Asandbergja 7711Contributors EditsUser 1 1AMGass 2 12Adrignola 3 1Courcelles 4 5Darklama 5 2Dfolkerts 6 1DirkHünniger 7 16Jguk 8 6Kernigh 9 2Parkanna 10 1QUBot 11 8QuiteUnusual 12 274Sandbergja 13 3Smitjudi 1https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php3ftitle=User:AMGassaction=editredlink=1 2https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Adrignola 3https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Courcelles 4https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Darklama 5https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php3ftitle=User:Dfolkertsaction=editredlink=1 6https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:DirkH25C325BCnniger 7https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Jguk 8https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Kernigh 9https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php3ftitle=User:Parkannaaction=editredlink=1 10https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:QUBot 11https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:QuiteUnusual 12https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Sandbergja 13https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php3ftitle=User:Smitjudiaction=editredlink=1 79ListofFigures •GFDL:GnuFreeDocumentationLicense.http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl. html •ccbysa3.0:CreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlike3.0License.http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/3.0/ •ccbysa2.5:CreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlike2.5License.http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/2.5/ •ccbysa2.0:CreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlike2.0License.http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/2.0/ •ccbysa1.0:CreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlike1.0License.http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/1.0/ •ccby2.0:CreativeCommonsAttribution2.0License.http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/2.0/ •ccby2.0:CreativeCommonsAttribution2.0License.http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en •ccby2.5:CreativeCommonsAttribution2.5License.http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/2.5/deed.en •ccby3.0:CreativeCommonsAttribution3.0License.http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en •GPL:GNUGeneralPublicLicense.http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl2.0.txt •LGPL:GNULesserGeneralPublicLicense.http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl. html •PD:Thisimageisinthepublicdomain. •ATTR:Thecopyrightholderofthisfileallowsanyonetouseitforanypurpose, providedthatthecopyrightholderisproperlyattributed.Redistribution,derivative work,commercialuse,andallotheruseispermitted. •EURO:Thisisthecommon(reverse)faceofaeurocoin.Thecopyrightonthedesign ofthecommonfaceoftheeurocoinsbelongstotheEuropeanCommission.Authorised isreproductioninaformatwithoutrelief(drawings,paintings,films)providedthey arenotdetrimentaltotheimageoftheeuro. •LFK:LizenzFreieKunst.http://artlibre.org/licence/lal/de •CFR:Copyrightfreeuse. 81ListofFigures •EPL:EclipsePublicLicense.http://www.eclipse.org/org/documents/eplv10. php 14 CopiesoftheGPL,theLGPLaswellasaGFDLareincludedinchapterLicenses.Please notethatimagesinthepublicdomaindonotrequireattribution.Youmayclickonthe imagenumbersinthefollowingtabletoopenthewebpageoftheimagesinyourwebbrower. 14Chapter12onpage85 82ListofFigures 1Faebot,Fæ,Hanay,JarektBot,MikePeel,Mmcanniscom monswiki,YaCBot 2O.VonCorvenPD 1516 3sailko,sailkoGFDL 4AndreasPraefcke,Blahedo,Botev,BurgererSF,Courcelles, DocentX,Emijrpbot,HazardBot,JarektBot,Mathiasrex, Polbot,ShalomAlechem,Un1c0sbotcommonswiki,Wistula 1718 5JoelBradshaw,JoelBradshaw 1920 6OriginaluploaderwasBluefoxicyaten.wikipediaGPL 7Unknown 8JakobVossGFDL 9JakobVossGFDL 21 10RaysonhoOpenGridScheduler/GridEngine, 22 RaysonhoOpenGridScheduler/GridEngine 11W3C 12Davepape,Docu,Hawkeye7,HazardBot,Hohum,Jarekt Bot,Marcok,Ragesoss,SchlurcherBot 15http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Sailko 16https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Sailko 17http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:JoelBradshaw https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:JoelBradshaw 18 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Bluefoxicy 19 http://en.wikipedia.org 20 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Raysonho 21 22https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Raysonho 8312Licenses 12.1GNUGENERALPUBLICLICENSE Version3,29June2007The“CorrespondingSource”foraworkinobjectcodeformmeansalldifferentserver(operatedbyyouorathirdparty)thatsupportsequivyourlicense,and(b)permanently,ifthecopyrightholderfailstono thesourcecodeneededtogenerate,install,and(foranexecutablealentcopyingfacilities,providedyoumaintaincleardirectionsnexttotifyyouoftheviolationbysomereasonablemeanspriorto60days work)runtheobjectcodeandtomodifythework,includingscriptstheobjectcodesayingwheretofindtheCorrespondingSource.Reafterthecessation. Copyright©2007FreeSoftwareFoundation,Inc.http://fsf.org/ tocontrolthoseactivities.However,itdoesnotincludethework’sgardlessofwhatserverhoststheCorrespondingSource,youremain SystemLibraries,orgeneralpurposetoolsorgenerallyavailablefreeobligatedtoensurethatitisavailableforaslongasneededtosatisfy Moreover,yourlicensefromaparticularcopyrightholderisreinstated Everyoneispermittedtocopyanddistributeverbatimcopiesofthis programswhichareusedunmodifiedinperformingthoseactivitiesbuttheserequirements.e)Conveytheobjectcodeusingpeertopeer permanentlyifthecopyrightholdernotifiesyouoftheviolationby licensedocument,butchangingitisnotallowed.Preamble whicharenotpartofthework.Forexample,CorrespondingSourcetransmission,providedyouinformotherpeerswheretheobjectcode somereasonablemeans,thisisthefirsttimeyouhavereceivednotice includesinterfacedefinitionfilesassociatedwithsourcefilesfortheandCorrespondingSourceoftheworkarebeingofferedtothegeneral ofviolationofthisLicense(foranywork)fromthatcopyrightholder, TheGNUGeneralPublicLicenseisafree,copyleftlicenseforsoftware work,andthesourcecodeforsharedlibrariesanddynamicallylinkedpublicatnochargeundersubsection6d. andyoucuretheviolationpriorto30daysafteryourreceiptofthe andotherkindsofworks. subprogramsthattheworkisspecificallydesignedtorequire,suchas notice. byintimatedatacommunicationorcontrolflowbetweenthosesub Aseparableportionoftheobjectcode,whosesourcecodeisexcluded programsandotherpartsofthework. Thelicensesformostsoftwareandotherpracticalworksaredesigned fromtheCorrespondingSourceasaSystemLibrary,neednotbein Terminationofyourrightsunderthissectiondoesnotterminatethe totakeawayyourfreedomtoshareandchangetheworks.Bycon cludedinconveyingtheobjectcodework.licensesofpartieswhohavereceivedcopiesorrightsfromyouunder trast,theGNUGeneralPublicLicenseisintendedtoguaranteeyour TheCorrespondingSourceneednotincludeanythingthatuserscanre thisLicense.Ifyourrightshavebeenterminatedandnotpermanently freedomtoshareandchangeallversionsofaprogram–tomakesure generateautomaticallyfromotherpartsoftheCorrespondingSource. reinstated,youdonotqualifytoreceivenewlicensesforthesame A“UserProduct”iseither(1)a“consumerproduct”,whichmeansany itremainsfreesoftwareforallitsusers.We,theFreeSoftwareFoun materialundersection10.9.AcceptanceNotRequiredforHaving tangiblepersonalpropertywhichisnormallyusedforpersonal,family, dation,usetheGNUGeneralPublicLicenseformostofoursoftware; TheCorrespondingSourceforaworkinsourcecodeformisthatsameCopies. orhouseholdpurposes,or(2)anythingdesignedorsoldforincorpora itappliesalsotoanyotherworkreleasedthiswaybyitsauthors.You work.2.BasicPermissions. tionintoadwelling.Indeterminingwhetheraproductisaconsumer canapplyittoyourprograms,too. product,doubtfulcasesshallberesolvedinfavorofcoverage.ForaYouarenotrequiredtoacceptthisLicenseinordertoreceiveorrun AllrightsgrantedunderthisLicensearegrantedforthetermofcopyparticularproductreceivedbyaparticularuser,“normallyused”refersacopyoftheProgram.Ancillarypropagationofacoveredworkoc Whenwespeakoffreesoftware,wearereferringtofreedom,notprice. rightontheProgram,andareirrevocableprovidedthestatedcontoatypicalorcommonuseofthatclassofproduct,regardlessofthecurringsolelyasaconsequenceofusingpeertopeertransmissionto OurGeneralPublicLicensesaredesignedtomakesurethatyouhave statusoftheparticularuserorofthewayinwhichtheparticularreceiveacopylikewisedoesnotrequireacceptance.However,nothing ditionsaremet.ThisLicenseexplicitlyaffirmsyourunlimitedper thefreedomtodistributecopiesoffreesoftware(andchargeforthem missiontoruntheunmodifiedProgram.Theoutputfromrunningauseractuallyuses,orexpectsorisexpectedtouse,theproduct.AotherthanthisLicensegrantsyoupermissiontopropagateormodify ifyouwish),thatyoureceivesourcecodeorcangetitifyouwant coveredworkiscoveredbythisLicenseonlyiftheoutput,givenitsproductisaconsumerproductregardlessofwhethertheproducthasanycoveredwork.Theseactionsinfringecopyrightifyoudonotaccept it,thatyoucanchangethesoftwareorusepiecesofitinnewfree substantialcommercial,industrialornonconsumeruses,unlesssuch content,constitutesacoveredwork.ThisLicenseacknowledgesyourthisLicense.Therefore,bymodifyingorpropagatingacoveredwork, programs,andthatyouknowyoucandothesethings. rightsoffairuseorotherequivalent,asprovidedbycopyrightlaw.usesrepresenttheonlysignificantmodeofuseoftheproduct.youindicateyouracceptanceofthisLicensetodoso.10.Automatic LicensingofDownstreamRecipients. Toprotectyourrights,weneedtopreventothersfromdenyingyou Youmaymake,runandpropagatecoveredworksthatyoudonotcon“InstallationInformation”foraUserProductmeansanymethods,pro theserightsoraskingyoutosurrendertherights.Therefore,youhave vey,withoutconditionssolongasyourlicenseotherwiseremainsincedures,authorizationkeys,orotherinformationrequiredtoinstallEachtimeyouconveyacoveredwork,therecipientautomaticallyre certainresponsibilitiesifyoudistributecopiesofthesoftware,orifyou force.Youmayconveycoveredworkstoothersforthesolepurposeceivesalicensefromtheoriginallicensors,torun,modifyandprop andexecutemodifiedversionsofacoveredworkinthatUserProduct modifyit:responsibilitiestorespectthefreedomofothers. agatethatwork,subjecttothisLicense.Youarenotresponsiblefor ofhavingthemmakemodificationsexclusivelyforyou,orprovideyoufromamodifiedversionofitsCorrespondingSource.Theinformation withfacilitiesforrunningthoseworks,providedthatyoucomplywithmustsufficetoensurethatthecontinuedfunctioningofthemodifiedenforcingcompliancebythirdpartieswiththisLicense. Forexample,ifyoudistributecopiesofsuchaprogram,whethergratis thetermsofthisLicenseinconveyingallmaterialforwhichyoudonotobjectcodeisinnocasepreventedorinterferedwithsolelybecause orforafee,youmustpassontotherecipientsthesamefreedomsthat controlcopyright.Thosethusmakingorrunningthecoveredworksmodificationhasbeenmade. An“entitytransaction”isatransactiontransferringcontrolofanor youreceived.Youmustmakesurethatthey,too,receiveorcanget foryoumustdosoexclusivelyonyourbehalf,underyourdirection ganization,orsubstantiallyallassetsofone,orsubdividinganorga thesourcecode.Andyoumustshowthemthesetermssotheyknow andcontrol,ontermsthatprohibitthemfrommakinganycopiesof nization,ormergingorganizations.Ifpropagationofacoveredwork Ifyouconveyanobjectcodeworkunderthissectionin,orwith,or theirrights. yourcopyrightedmaterialoutsidetheirrelationshipwithyou. resultsfromanentitytransaction,eachpartytothattransactionwho specificallyforusein,aUserProduct,andtheconveyingoccursas receivesacopyoftheworkalsoreceiveswhateverlicensestothework partofatransactioninwhichtherightofpossessionanduseofthe DevelopersthatusetheGNUGPLprotectyourrightswithtwosteps: Conveyingunderanyothercircumstancesispermittedsolelyundertheparty’spredecessorininteresthadorcouldgiveundertheprevious UserProductistransferredtotherecipientinperpetuityorforafixed (1)assertcopyrightonthesoftware,and(2)offeryouthisLicense paragraph,plusarighttopossessionoftheCorrespondingSourceof theconditionsstatedbelow.Sublicensingisnotallowed;section10 term(regardlessofhowthetransactionischaracterized),theCorre givingyoulegalpermissiontocopy,distributeand/ormodifyit. makesitunnecessary.3.ProtectingUsers’LegalRightsFromAntitheworkfromthepredecessorininterest,ifthepredecessorhasitor spondingSourceconveyedunderthissectionmustbeaccompaniedby cangetitwithreasonableefforts. CircumventionLaw.theInstallationInformation.Butthisrequirementdoesnotapplyif Forthedevelopers’andauthors’protection,theGPLclearlyexplains neitheryounoranythirdpartyretainstheabilitytoinstallmodi thatthereisnowarrantyforthisfreesoftware.Forbothusers’and fiedobjectcodeontheUserProduct(forexample,theworkhasbeenYoumaynotimposeanyfurtherrestrictionsontheexerciseofthe Nocoveredworkshallbedeemedpartofaneffectivetechnological authors’sake,theGPLrequiresthatmodifiedversionsbemarkedas measureunderanyapplicablelawfulfillingobligationsunderarticleinstalledinROM).rightsgrantedoraffirmedunderthisLicense.Forexample,youmay changed,sothattheirproblemswillnotbeattributederroneouslyto notimposealicensefee,royalty,orotherchargeforexerciseofrights 11oftheWIPOcopyrighttreatyadoptedon20December1996,or authorsofpreviousversions. grantedunderthisLicense,andyoumaynotinitiatelitigation(in similarlawsprohibitingorrestrictingcircumventionofsuchmeasures. TherequirementtoprovideInstallationInformationdoesnotinclude cludingacrossclaimorcounterclaiminalawsuit)allegingthatany arequirementtocontinuetoprovidesupportservice,warranty,orup Somedevicesaredesignedtodenyusersaccesstoinstallorrunmodpatentclaimisinfringedbymaking,using,selling,offeringforsale,or Whenyouconveyacoveredwork,youwaiveanylegalpowertoforbiddatesforaworkthathasbeenmodifiedorinstalledbytherecipient, ifiedversionsofthesoftwareinsidethem,althoughthemanufacturerimportingtheProgramoranyportionofit.11.Patents. circumventionoftechnologicalmeasurestotheextentsuchcircumorfortheUserProductinwhichithasbeenmodifiedorinstalled. candoso.Thisisfundamentallyincompatiblewiththeaimofprotect ventioniseffectedbyexercisingrightsunderthisLicensewithrespectAccesstoanetworkmaybedeniedwhenthemodificationitselfma ingusers’freedomtochangethesoftware.Thesystematicpatternof teriallyandadverselyaffectstheoperationofthenetworkorviolatesA“contributor”isacopyrightholderwhoauthorizesuseunderthis tothecoveredwork,andyoudisclaimanyintentiontolimitopera suchabuseoccursintheareaofproductsforindividualstouse,which LicenseoftheProgramoraworkonwhichtheProgramisbased.The tionormodificationoftheworkasameansofenforcing,againstthetherulesandprotocolsforcommunicationacrossthenetwork. ispreciselywhereitismostunacceptable.Therefore,wehavedesigned work’susers,yourorthirdparties’legalrightstoforbidcircumventionworkthuslicensediscalledthecontributor’s“contributorversion”. thisversionoftheGPLtoprohibitthepracticeforthoseproducts.If oftechnologicalmeasures.4.ConveyingVerbatimCopies. CorrespondingSourceconveyed,andInstallationInformationpro suchproblemsarisesubstantiallyinotherdomains,westandreadyto Acontributor’s“essentialpatentclaims”areallpatentclaimsowned vided,inaccordwiththissectionmustbeinaformatthatispublicly extendthisprovisiontothosedomainsinfutureversionsoftheGPL, orcontrolledbythecontributor,whetheralreadyacquiredorhereafter YoumayconveyverbatimcopiesoftheProgram’ssourcecodeasyou documented(andwithanimplementationavailabletothepublicin asneededtoprotectthefreedomofusers. receiveit,inanymedium,providedthatyouconspicuouslyandapproacquired,thatwouldbeinfringedbysomemanner,permittedbythis sourcecodeform),andmustrequirenospecialpasswordorkeyfor License,ofmaking,using,orsellingitscontributorversion,butdo priatelypublishoneachcopyanappropriatecopyrightnotice;keepinunpacking,readingorcopying.7.AdditionalTerms. Finally,everyprogramisthreatenedconstantlybysoftwarepatents. notincludeclaimsthatwouldbeinfringedonlyasaconsequenceof tactallnoticesstatingthatthisLicenseandanynonpermissiveterms Statesshouldnotallowpatentstorestrictdevelopmentanduseofsoft furthermodificationofthecontributorversion.Forpurposesofthis addedinaccordwithsection7applytothecode;keepintactallno “Additionalpermissions”aretermsthatsupplementthetermsofthis wareongeneralpurposecomputers,butinthosethatdo,wewishto definition,“control”includestherighttograntpatentsublicensesina ticesoftheabsenceofanywarranty;andgiveallrecipientsacopyof avoidthespecialdangerthatpatentsappliedtoafreeprogramcouldLicensebymakingexceptionsfromoneormoreofitsconditions.Ad mannerconsistentwiththerequirementsofthisLicense. thisLicensealongwiththeProgram. makeiteffectivelyproprietary.Topreventthis,theGPLassuresthatditionalpermissionsthatareapplicabletotheentireProgramshallbe treatedasthoughtheywereincludedinthisLicense,totheextentthat patentscannotbeusedtorendertheprogramnonfree. Eachcontributorgrantsyouanonexclusive,worldwide,royaltyfree Youmaychargeanypriceornopriceforeachcopythatyoucon theyarevalidunderapplicablelaw.Ifadditionalpermissionsapply patentlicenseunderthecontributor’sessentialpatentclaims,tomake, vey,andyoumayoffersupportorwarrantyprotectionforafee.5. onlytopartoftheProgram,thatpartmaybeusedseparatelyunder Theprecisetermsandconditionsforcopying,distributionandmodi ConveyingModifiedSourceVersions.use,sell,offerforsale,importandotherwiserun,modifyandpropa thosepermissions,buttheentireProgramremainsgovernedbythis ficationfollow.TERMSANDCONDITIONS0.Definitions. gatethecontentsofitscontributorversion. Licensewithoutregardtotheadditionalpermissions. YoumayconveyaworkbasedontheProgram,orthemodifications “ThisLicense”referstoversion3oftheGNUGeneralPublicLicense. Inthefollowingthreeparagraphs,a“patentlicense”isanyexpress toproduceitfromtheProgram,intheformofsourcecodeunderthe Whenyouconveyacopyofacoveredwork,youmayatyouroption agreementorcommitment,howeverdenominated,nottoenforcea termsofsection4,providedthatyoualsomeetalloftheseconditions: removeanyadditionalpermissionsfromthatcopy,orfromanypart “Copyright”alsomeanscopyrightlikelawsthatapplytootherkindspatent(suchasanexpresspermissiontopracticeapatentorcovenant ofit.(Additionalpermissionsmaybewrittentorequiretheirown ofworks,suchassemiconductormasks.nottosueforpatentinfringement).To“grant”suchapatentlicense a)Theworkmustcarryprominentnoticesstatingthatyoumodifiedremovalincertaincaseswhenyoumodifythework.)Youmayplace toapartymeanstomakesuchanagreementorcommitmentnotto it,andgivingarelevantdate.b)Theworkmustcarryprominentadditionalpermissionsonmaterial,addedbyyoutoacoveredwork, enforceapatentagainsttheparty. “TheProgram”referstoanycopyrightableworklicensedunderthisLi noticesstatingthatitisreleasedunderthisLicenseandanyconditionsforwhichyouhaveorcangiveappropriatecopyrightpermission. cense.Eachlicenseeisaddressedas“you”.“Licensees”and“recipients” addedundersection7.Thisrequirementmodifiestherequirementin maybeindividualsororganizations.Ifyouconveyacoveredwork,knowinglyrelyingonapatentlicense, section4to“keepintactallnotices”.c)Youmustlicensetheentire NotwithstandinganyotherprovisionofthisLicense,formaterialyou andtheCorrespondingSourceoftheworkisnotavailableforanyone work,asawhole,underthisLicensetoanyonewhocomesintopos addtoacoveredwork,youmay(ifauthorizedbythecopyrightholders tocopy,freeofchargeandunderthetermsofthisLicense,through To“modify”aworkmeanstocopyfromoradaptallorpartoftheworksessionofacopy.ThisLicensewillthereforeapply,alongwithany ofthatmaterial)supplementthetermsofthisLicensewithterms: apubliclyavailablenetworkserverorotherreadilyaccessiblemeans, inafashionrequiringcopyrightpermission,otherthanthemakingofapplicablesection7additionalterms,tothewholeofthework,and thenyoumusteither(1)causetheCorrespondingSourcetobeso anexactcopy.Theresultingworkiscalleda“modifiedversion”oftheallitsparts,regardlessofhowtheyarepackaged.ThisLicensegives a)Disclaimingwarrantyorlimitingliabilitydifferentlyfromtheavailable,or(2)arrangetodepriveyourselfofthebenefitofthepatent earlierworkorawork“basedon”theearlierwork.nopermissiontolicensetheworkinanyotherway,butitdoesnot termsofsections15and16ofthisLicense;orb)Requiringpreserlicenseforthisparticularwork,or(3)arrange,inamannerconsistent invalidatesuchpermissionifyouhaveseparatelyreceivedit.d)If vationofspecifiedreasonablelegalnoticesorauthorattributionsinwiththerequirementsofthisLicense,toextendthepatentlicenseto theworkhasinteractiveuserinterfaces,eachmustdisplayAppropriate A“coveredwork”meanseithertheunmodifiedProgramorawork downstreamrecipients.“Knowinglyrelying”meansyouhaveactual thatmaterialorintheAppropriateLegalNoticesdisplayedbyworks LegalNotices;however,iftheProgramhasinteractiveinterfacesthat basedontheProgram. containingit;orc)Prohibitingmisrepresentationoftheoriginofknowledgethat,butforthepatentlicense,yourconveyingthecov donotdisplayAppropriateLegalNotices,yourworkneednotmake thatmaterial,orrequiringthatmodifiedversionsofsuchmaterialbeeredworkinacountry,oryourrecipient’suseofthecoveredwork themdoso. To“propagate”aworkmeanstodoanythingwithitthat,withoutper inacountry,wouldinfringeoneormoreidentifiablepatentsinthat markedinreasonablewaysasdifferentfromtheoriginalversion;or mission,wouldmakeyoudirectlyorsecondarilyliableforinfringement d)Limitingtheuseforpublicitypurposesofnamesoflicensorsoraucountrythatyouhavereasontobelievearevalid. Acompilationofacoveredworkwithotherseparateandindependent underapplicablecopyrightlaw,exceptexecutingitonacomputeror thorsofthematerial;ore)Decliningtograntrightsundertrademark works,whicharenotbytheirnatureextensionsofthecoveredwork, modifyingaprivatecopy.Propagationincludescopying,distribution lawforuseofsometradenames,trademarks,orservicemarks;or If,pursuanttoorinconnectionwithasingletransactionorarrange andwhicharenotcombinedwithitsuchastoformalargerprogram, (withorwithoutmodification),makingavailabletothepublic,andin f)Requiringindemnificationoflicensorsandauthorsofthatmaterial ment,youconvey,orpropagatebyprocuringconveyanceof,acovered inoronavolumeofastorageordistributionmedium,iscalledan somecountriesotheractivitiesaswell. byanyonewhoconveysthematerial(ormodifiedversionsofit)with work,andgrantapatentlicensetosomeofthepartiesreceivingthe “aggregate”ifthecompilationanditsresultingcopyrightarenotused contractualassumptionsofliabilitytotherecipient,foranyliability coveredworkauthorizingthemtouse,propagate,modifyorconveya tolimittheaccessorlegalrightsofthecompilation’susersbeyond To“convey”aworkmeansanykindofpropagationthatenablesotherthatthesecontractualassumptionsdirectlyimposeonthoselicensors specificcopyofthecoveredwork,thenthepatentlicenseyougrantis whattheindividualworkspermit.Inclusionofacoveredworkinan partiestomakeorreceivecopies.Mereinteractionwithauserthroughandauthors. automaticallyextendedtoallrecipientsofthecoveredworkandworks aggregatedoesnotcausethisLicensetoapplytotheotherpartsof acomputernetwork,withnotransferofacopy,isnotconveying. basedonit. theaggregate.6.ConveyingNonSourceForms. Allothernonpermissiveadditionaltermsareconsidered“furtherre Aninteractiveuserinterfacedisplays“AppropriateLegalNotices”to strictions”withinthemeaningofsection10.IftheProgramasyou Apatentlicenseis“discriminatory”ifitdoesnotincludewithinthe Youmayconveyacoveredworkinobjectcodeformunderthetermsof theextentthatitincludesaconvenientandprominentlyvisiblefea receivedit,oranypartofit,containsanoticestatingthatitisgovscopeofitscoverage,prohibitstheexerciseof,orisconditionedonthe sections4and5,providedthatyoualsoconveythemachinereadable turethat(1)displaysanappropriatecopyrightnotice,and(2)tellsthe ernedbythisLicensealongwithatermthatisafurtherrestriction,nonexerciseofoneormoreoftherightsthatarespecificallygranted CorrespondingSourceunderthetermsofthisLicense,inoneofthese userthatthereisnowarrantyforthework(excepttotheextentthat youmayremovethatterm.Ifalicensedocumentcontainsafurther underthisLicense.Youmaynotconveyacoveredworkifyouare ways: warrantiesareprovided),thatlicenseesmayconveytheworkunder restrictionbutpermitsrelicensingorconveyingunderthisLicense,youapartytoanarrangementwithathirdpartythatisinthebusiness thisLicense,andhowtoviewacopyofthisLicense.Iftheinter mayaddtoacoveredworkmaterialgovernedbythetermsofthatli ofdistributingsoftware,underwhichyoumakepaymenttothethird a)Conveytheobjectcodein,orembodiedin,aphysicalproduct(in facepresentsalistofusercommandsoroptions,suchasamenu,acensedocument,providedthatthefurtherrestrictiondoesnotsurvive partybasedontheextentofyouractivityofconveyingthework,and cludingaphysicaldistributionmedium),accompaniedbytheCorre prominentiteminthelistmeetsthiscriterion.1.SourceCode. suchrelicensingorconveying.underwhichthethirdpartygrants,toanyofthepartieswhowould spondingSourcefixedonadurablephysicalmediumcustomarilyused receivethecoveredworkfromyou,adiscriminatorypatentlicense(a) forsoftwareinterchange.b)Conveytheobjectcodein,orembodied The“sourcecode”foraworkmeansthepreferredformoftheworkforinconnectionwithcopiesofthecoveredworkconveyedbyyou(or Ifyouaddtermstoacoveredworkinaccordwiththissection,you in,aphysicalproduct(includingaphysicaldistributionmedium),ac copiesmadefromthosecopies),or(b)primarilyforandinconnection makingmodificationstoit.“Objectcode”meansanynonsourceform mustplace,intherelevantsourcefiles,astatementoftheadditional companiedbyawrittenoffer,validforatleastthreeyearsandvalid ofawork.withspecificproductsorcompilationsthatcontainthecoveredwork, termsthatapplytothosefiles,oranoticeindicatingwheretofindthe foraslongasyouoffersparepartsorcustomersupportforthatprod unlessyouenteredintothatarrangement,orthatpatentlicensewas applicableterms. uctmodel,togiveanyonewhopossessestheobjectcodeeither(1)a granted,priorto28March2007. A“StandardInterface”meansaninterfacethateitherisanofficial copyoftheCorrespondingSourceforallthesoftwareintheproduct standarddefinedbyarecognizedstandardsbody,or,inthecaseof thatiscoveredbythisLicense,onadurablephysicalmediumcus Additionalterms,permissiveornonpermissive,maybestatedinthe interfacesspecifiedforaparticularprogramminglanguage,onethatisNothinginthisLicenseshallbeconstruedasexcludingorlimitingany tomarilyusedforsoftwareinterchange,forapricenomorethanyour formofaseparatelywrittenlicense,orstatedasexceptions;theabove widelyusedamongdevelopersworkinginthatlanguage.impliedlicenseorotherdefensestoinfringementthatmayotherwise reasonablecostofphysicallyperformingthisconveyingofsource,or requirementsapplyeitherway.8.Termination. beavailabletoyouunderapplicablepatentlaw.12.NoSurrenderof (2)accesstocopytheCorrespondingSourcefromanetworkserverat Others’Freedom. The“SystemLibraries”ofanexecutableworkincludeanything,othernocharge.c)Conveyindividualcopiesoftheobjectcodewitha Youmaynotpropagateormodifyacoveredworkexceptasexpressly thantheworkasawhole,that(a)isincludedinthenormalformofcopyofthewrittenoffertoprovidetheCorrespondingSource.This providedunderthisLicense.Anyattemptotherwisetopropagateor packagingaMajorComponent,butwhichisnotpartofthatMajoralternativeisallowedonlyoccasionallyandnoncommercially,andonlyIfconditionsareimposedonyou(whetherbycourtorder,agreement modifyitisvoid,andwillautomaticallyterminateyourrightsunder Component,and(b)servesonlytoenableuseoftheworkwiththatifyoureceivedtheobjectcodewithsuchanoffer,inaccordwithsuborotherwise)thatcontradicttheconditionsofthisLicense,theydo thisLicense(includinganypatentlicensesgrantedunderthethird MajorComponent,ortoimplementaStandardInterfaceforwhichansection6b.d)ConveytheobjectcodebyofferingaccessfromanotexcuseyoufromtheconditionsofthisLicense.Ifyoucannotcon paragraphofsection11). implementationisavailabletothepublicinsourcecodeform.A“Madesignatedplace(gratisorforacharge),andofferequivalentaccesstoveyacoveredworksoastosatisfysimultaneouslyyourobligations jorComponent”,inthiscontext,meansamajoressentialcomponenttheCorrespondingSourceinthesamewaythroughthesameplaceatunderthisLicenseandanyotherpertinentobligations,thenasacon (kernel,windowsystem,andsoon)ofthespecificoperatingsystem(ifnofurthercharge.YouneednotrequirerecipientstocopytheCorreHowever,ifyouceaseallviolationofthisLicense,thenyourlicensesequenceyoumaynotconveyitatall.Forexample,ifyouagreeto any)onwhichtheexecutableworkruns,oracompilerusedtoproducespondingSourcealongwiththeobjectcode.Iftheplacetocopythefromaparticularcopyrightholderisreinstated(a)provisionally,untermsthatobligateyoutocollectaroyaltyforfurtherconveyingfrom thework,oranobjectcodeinterpreterusedtorunit.objectcodeisanetworkserver,theCorrespondingSourcemaybeonalessanduntilthecopyrightholderexplicitlyandfinallyterminatesthosetowhomyouconveytheProgram,theonlywayyoucouldsatisfy 85Licenses boththosetermsandthisLicensewouldbetorefrainentirelyfromLaterlicenseversionsmaygiveyouadditionalordifferentpermissions.IfthedisclaimerofwarrantyandlimitationofliabilityprovidedaboveYoushouldhavereceivedacopyoftheGNUGeneralPublicLicense conveyingtheProgram.13.UsewiththeGNUAfferoGeneralPublicHowever,noadditionalobligationsareimposedonanyauthororcopycannotbegivenlocallegaleffectaccordingtotheirterms,reviewingalongwiththisprogram.Ifnot,seehttp://www.gnu.org/licenses/. License.rightholderasaresultofyourchoosingtofollowalaterversion.15.courtsshallapplylocallawthatmostcloselyapproximatesanabso DisclaimerofWarranty.lutewaiverofallcivilliabilityinconnectionwiththeProgram,unlessa Alsoaddinformationonhowtocontactyoubyelectronicandpaper warrantyorassumptionofliabilityaccompaniesacopyoftheProgram NotwithstandinganyotherprovisionofthisLicense,youhavepermismail. inreturnforafee. siontolinkorcombineanycoveredworkwithaworklicensedunder THEREISNOWARRANTYFORTHEPROGRAM,TOTHEEX version3oftheGNUAfferoGeneralPublicLicenseintoasinglecom TENTPERMITTEDBYAPPLICABLELAW.EXCEPTWHENENDOFTERMSANDCONDITIONSHowtoApplyTheseTermsIftheprogramdoesterminalinteraction,makeitoutputashortnotice binedwork,andtoconveytheresultingwork.ThetermsofthisLi toYourNewProgramslikethiswhenitstartsinaninteractivemode: OTHERWISESTATEDINWRITINGTHECOPYRIGHTHOLD censewillcontinuetoapplytothepartwhichisthecoveredwork,but ERSAND/OROTHERPARTIESPROVIDETHEPROGRAM thespecialrequirementsoftheGNUAfferoGeneralPublicLicense, “ASIS”WITHOUTWARRANTYOFANYKIND,EITHEREX section13,concerninginteractionthroughanetworkwillapplytotheIfyoudevelopanewprogram,andyouwantittobeofthegreatest programCopyright(C)yearnameofauthorThisprogram PRESSEDORIMPLIED,INCLUDING,BUTNOTLIMITEDTO, possibleusetothepublic,thebestwaytoachievethisistomakeit combinationassuch.14.RevisedVersionsofthisLicense. comeswithABSOLUTELYNOWARRANTY;fordetailstype‘show THEIMPLIEDWARRANTIESOFMERCHANTABILITYAND freesoftwarewhicheveryonecanredistributeandchangeunderthese w’.Thisisfreesoftware,andyouarewelcometoredistributeitunder FITNESSFORAPARTICULARPURPOSE.THEENTIRERISK terms. certainconditions;type‘showc’fordetails. TheFreeSoftwareFoundationmaypublishrevisedand/ornewverASTOTHEQUALITYANDPERFORMANCEOFTHEPRO sionsoftheGNUGeneralPublicLicensefromtimetotime.SuchnewGRAMISWITHYOU.SHOULDTHEPROGRAMPROVEDE Todoso,attachthefollowingnoticestotheprogram.Itissafestto versionswillbesimilarinspirittothepresentversion,butmaydifferFECTIVE,YOUASSUMETHECOSTOFALLNECESSARYSER Thehypotheticalcommands‘showw’and‘showc’shouldshowthe attachthemtothestartofeachsourcefiletomosteffectivelystatethe indetailtoaddressnewproblemsorconcerns.VICING,REPAIRORCORRECTION.16.LimitationofLiability. appropriatepartsoftheGeneralPublicLicense.Ofcourse,yourpro exclusionofwarranty;andeachfileshouldhaveatleastthe“copyright” gram’scommandsmightbedifferent;foraGUIinterface,youwould lineandapointertowherethefullnoticeisfound. usean“aboutbox”. Eachversionisgivenadistinguishingversionnumber.IftheProgram INNOEVENTUNLESSREQUIREDBYAPPLICABLELAWOR specifiesthatacertainnumberedversionoftheGNUGeneralPub onelinetogivetheprogram’snameandabriefideaofwhatitdoes. AGREEDTOINWRITINGWILLANYCOPYRIGHTHOLDER, licLicense“oranylaterversion”appliestoit,youhavetheoptionof Copyright(C)yearnameofauthorYoushouldalsogetyouremployer(ifyouworkasaprogrammer)or ORANYOTHERPARTYWHOMODIFIESAND/ORCONVEYS followingthetermsandconditionseitherofthatnumberedversionorschool,ifany,tosigna“copyrightdisclaimer”fortheprogram,ifnec THEPROGRAMASPERMITTEDABOVE,BELIABLETOYOU ofanylaterversionpublishedbytheFreeSoftwareFoundation.If essary.Formoreinformationonthis,andhowtoapplyandfollowthe Thisprogramisfreesoftware:youcanredistributeitand/ormodify FORDAMAGES,INCLUDINGANYGENERAL,SPECIAL,INCI theProgramdoesnotspecifyaversionnumberoftheGNUGeneralGNUGPL,seehttp://www.gnu.org/licenses/. itunderthetermsoftheGNUGeneralPublicLicenseaspublishedby DENTALORCONSEQUENTIALDAMAGESARISINGOUTOF PublicLicense,youmaychooseanyversioneverpublishedbytheFree theFreeSoftwareFoundation,eitherversion3oftheLicense,or(at THEUSEORINABILITYTOUSETHEPROGRAM(INCLUDING SoftwareFoundation. youroption)anylaterversion. BUTNOTLIMITEDTOLOSSOFDATAORDATABEINGRENTheGNUGeneralPublicLicensedoesnotpermitincorporatingyour DEREDINACCURATEORLOSSESSUSTAINEDBYYOUORprogramintoproprietaryprograms.Ifyourprogramisasubroutine IftheProgramspecifiesthataproxycandecidewhichfutureversionsTHIRDPARTIESORAFAILUREOFTHEPROGRAMTOOPERThisprogramisdistributedinthehopethatitwillbeuseful,butlibrary,youmayconsideritmoreusefultopermitlinkingproprietary oftheGNUGeneralPublicLicensecanbeused,thatproxy’spublicATEWITHANYOTHERPROGRAMS),EVENIFSUCHHOLDERWITHOUTANYWARRANTY;withouteventheimpliedwarrantyapplicationswiththelibrary.Ifthisiswhatyouwanttodo,usethe statementofacceptanceofaversionpermanentlyauthorizesyoutoOROTHERPARTYHASBEENADVISEDOFTHEPOSSIBILITYofMERCHANTABILITYorFITNESSFORAPARTICULARPURGNULesserGeneralPublicLicenseinsteadofthisLicense.Butfirst, choosethatversionfortheProgram.OFSUCHDAMAGES.17.InterpretationofSections15and16.POSE.SeetheGNUGeneralPublicLicenseformoredetails.pleasereadhttp://www.gnu.org/philosophy/whynotlgpl.html. 12.2GNUFreeDocumentationLicense Version1.3,3November2008followingtextthattranslatesXYZinanotherlanguage.(HereXYZintheirtitles.Sectionnumbersortheequivalentarenotconsidered(section1)willtypicallyrequirechangingtheactualtitle.9.TERMI standsforaspecificsectionnamementionedbelow,suchas”Acknowlpartofthesectiontitles.M.DeleteanysectionEntitled”EndorseNATION edgements”,”Dedications”,”Endorsements”,or”History”.)To”Preservements”.SuchasectionmaynotbeincludedintheModifiedVersion. Copyright©2000,2001,2002,2007,2008FreeSoftwareFoundation, theTitle”ofsuchasectionwhenyoumodifytheDocumentmeansthatN.DonotretitleanyexistingsectiontobeEntitled”Endorsements” Inc.http://fsf.org/Youmaynotcopy,modify,sublicense,ordistributetheDocument itremainsasection”EntitledXYZ”accordingtothisdefinition.ortoconflictintitlewithanyInvariantSection.O.Preserveany exceptasexpresslyprovidedunderthisLicense.Anyattemptoth WarrantyDisclaimers. erwisetocopy,modify,sublicense,ordistributeitisvoid,andwill Everyoneispermittedtocopyanddistributeverbatimcopiesofthis TheDocumentmayincludeWarrantyDisclaimersnexttothenoticeautomaticallyterminateyourrightsunderthisLicense. licensedocument,butchangingitisnotallowed.0.PREAMBLE whichstatesthatthisLicenseappliestotheDocument.TheseWarIftheModifiedVersionincludesnewfrontmattersectionsorappen rantyDisclaimersareconsideredtobeincludedbyreferenceinthisdicesthatqualifyasSecondarySectionsandcontainnomaterialcopied However,ifyouceaseallviolationofthisLicense,thenyourlicense ThepurposeofthisLicenseistomakeamanual,textbook,orother License,butonlyasregardsdisclaimingwarranties:anyotherimpli fromtheDocument,youmayatyouroptiondesignatesomeorallof fromaparticularcopyrightholderisreinstated(a)provisionally,un functionalandusefuldocument”free”inthesenseoffreedom:toas cationthattheseWarrantyDisclaimersmayhaveisvoidandhasnothesesectionsasinvariant.Todothis,addtheirtitlestothelistof lessanduntilthecopyrightholderexplicitlyandfinallyterminates sureeveryonetheeffectivefreedomtocopyandredistributeit,withor effectonthemeaningofthisLicense.2.VERBATIMCOPYINGInvariantSectionsintheModifiedVersion’slicensenotice.Thesetitles yourlicense,and(b)permanently,ifthecopyrightholderfailstono withoutmodifyingit,eithercommerciallyornoncommercially.Sec mustbedistinctfromanyothersectiontitles. tifyyouoftheviolationbysomereasonablemeanspriorto60days ondarily,thisLicensepreservesfortheauthorandpublisherawayto YoumaycopyanddistributetheDocumentinanymedium,either afterthecessation. getcreditfortheirwork,whilenotbeingconsideredresponsiblefor commerciallyornoncommercially,providedthatthisLicense,theYoumayaddasectionEntitled”Endorsements”,provideditcon modificationsmadebyothers. copyrightnotices,andthelicensenoticesayingthisLicenseapplies tainsnothingbutendorsementsofyourModifiedVersionbyvarious Moreover,yourlicensefromaparticularcopyrightholderisreinstated totheDocumentarereproducedinallcopies,andthatyouaddno parties—forexample,statementsofpeerrevieworthatthetexthas permanentlyifthecopyrightholdernotifiesyouoftheviolationby ThisLicenseisakindof”copyleft”,whichmeansthatderivativeworks otherconditionswhatsoevertothoseofthisLicense.Youmaynotuse beenapprovedbyanorganizationastheauthoritativedefinitionofa somereasonablemeans,thisisthefirsttimeyouhavereceivednotice ofthedocumentmustthemselvesbefreeinthesamesense.Itcom technicalmeasurestoobstructorcontrolthereadingorfurthercopy standard. ofviolationofthisLicense(foranywork)fromthatcopyrightholder, plementstheGNUGeneralPublicLicense,whichisacopyleftlicense ingofthecopiesyoumakeordistribute.However,youmayaccept andyoucuretheviolationpriorto30daysafteryourreceiptofthe designedforfreesoftware. compensationinexchangeforcopies.Ifyoudistributealargeenough notice. YoumayaddapassageofuptofivewordsasaFrontCoverText, numberofcopiesyoumustalsofollowtheconditionsinsection3. andapassageofupto25wordsasaBackCoverText,totheend WehavedesignedthisLicenseinordertouseitformanualsforfree ofthelistofCoverTextsintheModifiedVersion.Onlyonepassage Terminationofyourrightsunderthissectiondoesnotterminatethe software,becausefreesoftwareneedsfreedocumentation:afreepro Youmayalsolendcopies,underthesameconditionsstatedabove,and ofFrontCoverTextandoneofBackCoverTextmaybeaddedby licensesofpartieswhohavereceivedcopiesorrightsfromyouunder gramshouldcomewithmanualsprovidingthesamefreedomsthatthe youmaypubliclydisplaycopies.3.COPYINGINQUANTITY (orthrougharrangementsmadeby)anyoneentity.IftheDocument thisLicense.Ifyourrightshavebeenterminatedandnotpermanently softwaredoes.ButthisLicenseisnotlimitedtosoftwaremanuals; alreadyincludesacovertextforthesamecover,previouslyaddedby reinstated,receiptofacopyofsomeorallofthesamematerialdoes itcanbeusedforanytextualwork,regardlessofsubjectmatteror Ifyoupublishprintedcopies(orcopiesinmediathatcommonlyhaveyouorbyarrangementmadebythesameentityyouareactingon notgiveyouanyrightstouseit.10.FUTUREREVISIONSOFTHIS whetheritispublishedasaprintedbook.WerecommendthisLi behalfof,youmaynotaddanother;butyoumayreplacetheoldone, printedcovers)oftheDocument,numberingmorethan100,andthe LICENSE censeprincipallyforworkswhosepurposeisinstructionorreference. Document’slicensenoticerequiresCoverTexts,youmustenclosetheonexplicitpermissionfromthepreviouspublisherthataddedtheold 1.APPLICABILITYANDDEFINITIONS copiesincoversthatcarry,clearlyandlegibly,alltheseCoverTexts:one. TheFreeSoftwareFoundationmaypublishnew,revisedversions FrontCoverTextsonthefrontcover,andBackCoverTextsonthe oftheGNUFreeDocumentationLicensefromtimetotime.Such ThisLicenseappliestoanymanualorotherwork,inanymedium, backcover.Bothcoversmustalsoclearlyandlegiblyidentifyyouas Theauthor(s)andpublisher(s)oftheDocumentdonotbythisLi newversionswillbesimilarinspirittothepresentversion,but thatcontainsanoticeplacedbythecopyrightholdersayingitcan thepublisherofthesecopies.Thefrontcovermustpresentthefulltitle censegivepermissiontousetheirnamesforpublicityforortoas maydifferindetailtoaddressnewproblemsorconcerns.See bedistributedunderthetermsofthisLicense.Suchanoticegrantsa withallwordsofthetitleequallyprominentandvisible.Youmayadd sertorimplyendorsementofanyModifiedVersion.5.COMBINING http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/. worldwide,royaltyfreelicense,unlimitedinduration,tousethatwork othermaterialonthecoversinaddition.Copyingwithchangeslimited DOCUMENTS undertheconditionsstatedherein.The”Document”,below,refersto tothecovers,aslongastheypreservethetitleoftheDocumentand anysuchmanualorwork.Anymemberofthepublicisalicensee,and EachversionoftheLicenseisgivenadistinguishingversionnumber. satisfytheseconditions,canbetreatedasverbatimcopyinginother YoumaycombinetheDocumentwithotherdocumentsreleasedunder isaddressedas”you”.Youacceptthelicenseifyoucopy,modifyorIftheDocumentspecifiesthataparticularnumberedversionofthis respects. distributetheworkinawayrequiringpermissionundercopyrightlaw.thisLicense,underthetermsdefinedinsection4aboveformodified License”oranylaterversion”appliestoit,youhavetheoptionof versions,providedthatyouincludeinthecombinationalloftheIn followingthetermsandconditionseitherofthatspecifiedversionor Iftherequiredtextsforeithercoveraretoovoluminoustofitlegibly, variantSectionsofalloftheoriginaldocuments,unmodified,andlist A”ModifiedVersion”oftheDocumentmeansanyworkcontainingtheofanylaterversionthathasbeenpublished(notasadraft)bythe youshouldputthefirstoneslisted(asmanyasfitreasonably)onthe themallasInvariantSectionsofyourcombinedworkinitslicense FreeSoftwareFoundation.IftheDocumentdoesnotspecifyaversion Documentoraportionofit,eithercopiedverbatim,orwithmodifica actualcover,andcontinuetherestontoadjacentpages. notice,andthatyoupreservealltheirWarrantyDisclaimers. numberofthisLicense,youmaychooseanyversioneverpublished tionsand/ortranslatedintoanotherlanguage. (notasadraft)bytheFreeSoftwareFoundation.IftheDocument IfyoupublishordistributeOpaquecopiesoftheDocumentnumbering specifiesthataproxycandecidewhichfutureversionsofthisLicense ThecombinedworkneedonlycontainonecopyofthisLicense,and A”SecondarySection”isanamedappendixorafrontmattersec morethan100,youmusteitherincludeamachinereadableTranspar canbeused,thatproxy’spublicstatementofacceptanceofaversion multipleidenticalInvariantSectionsmaybereplacedwithasingle tionoftheDocumentthatdealsexclusivelywiththerelationshipof entcopyalongwitheachOpaquecopy,orstateinorwitheachOpaque permanentlyauthorizesyoutochoosethatversionfortheDocument. copy.IftherearemultipleInvariantSectionswiththesamename thepublishersorauthorsoftheDocumenttotheDocument’soverall copyacomputernetworklocationfromwhichthegeneralnetwork 11.RELICENSING butdifferentcontents,makethetitleofeachsuchsectionuniqueby subject(ortorelatedmatters)andcontainsnothingthatcouldfall usingpublichasaccesstodownloadusingpublicstandardnetwork addingattheendofit,inparentheses,thenameoftheoriginalau directlywithinthatoverallsubject.(Thus,iftheDocumentisinpart protocolsacompleteTransparentcopyoftheDocument,freeofadded thororpublisherofthatsectionifknown,orelseauniquenumber. atextbookofmathematics,aSecondarySectionmaynotexplainany”MassiveMultiauthorCollaborationSite”(or”MMCSite”)meansany material.Ifyouusethelatteroption,youmusttakereasonablypru MakethesameadjustmenttothesectiontitlesinthelistofInvariant WorldWideWebserverthatpublishescopyrightableworksandalso mathematics.)Therelationshipcouldbeamatterofhistoricalconnec dentsteps,whenyoubegindistributionofOpaquecopiesinquantity, Sectionsinthelicensenoticeofthecombinedwork. providesprominentfacilitiesforanybodytoeditthoseworks.Apublic tionwiththesubjectorwithrelatedmatters,oroflegal,commercial, toensurethatthisTransparentcopywillremainthusaccessibleatthe wikithatanybodycaneditisanexampleofsuchaserver.A”Massive philosophical,ethicalorpoliticalpositionregardingthem. statedlocationuntilatleastoneyearafterthelasttimeyoudistribute MultiauthorCollaboration”(or”MMC”)containedinthesitemeans Inthecombination,youmustcombineanysectionsEntitled”History” anOpaquecopy(directlyorthroughyouragentsorretailers)ofthat inthevariousoriginaldocuments,formingonesectionEntitled”HisanysetofcopyrightableworksthuspublishedontheMMCsite. The”InvariantSections”arecertainSecondarySectionswhosetitleseditiontothepublic. tory”;likewisecombineanysectionsEntitled”Acknowledgements”,and aredesignated,asbeingthoseofInvariantSections,inthenoticethat anysectionsEntitled”Dedications”.YoumustdeleteallsectionsEn ”CCBYSA”meanstheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlike saysthattheDocumentisreleasedunderthisLicense.Ifasectiondoes Itisrequested,butnotrequired,thatyoucontacttheauthorsofthe titled”Endorsements”.6.COLLECTIONSOFDOCUMENTS3.0licensepublishedbyCreativeCommonsCorporation,anotfor notfittheabovedefinitionofSecondarythenitisnotallowedtobe Documentwellbeforeredistributinganylargenumberofcopies,to designatedasInvariant.TheDocumentmaycontainzeroInvariantprofitcorporationwithaprincipalplaceofbusinessinSanFrancisco, givethemachancetoprovideyouwithanupdatedversionofthe California,aswellasfuturecopyleftversionsofthatlicensepublished Sections.IftheDocumentdoesnotidentifyanyInvariantSectionsYoumaymakeacollectionconsistingoftheDocumentandotherdoc Document.4.MODIFICATIONS thentherearenone.bythatsameorganization. umentsreleasedunderthisLicense,andreplacetheindividualcopies ofthisLicenseinthevariousdocumentswithasinglecopythatis YoumaycopyanddistributeaModifiedVersionoftheDocumentun includedinthecollection,providedthatyoufollowtherulesofthis ”Incorporate”meanstopublishorrepublishaDocument,inwholeor The”CoverTexts”arecertainshortpassagesoftextthatarelisted,as dertheconditionsofsections2and3above,providedthatyourelease Licenseforverbatimcopyingofeachofthedocumentsinallotherinpart,aspartofanotherDocument. FrontCoverTextsorBackCoverTexts,inthenoticethatsaysthat theModifiedVersionunderpreciselythisLicense,withtheModified respects. theDocumentisreleasedunderthisLicense.AFrontCoverTextmay VersionfillingtheroleoftheDocument,thuslicensingdistribution beatmost5words,andaBackCoverTextmaybeatmost25words. andmodificationoftheModifiedVersiontowhoeverpossessesacopyAnMMCis”eligibleforrelicensing”ifitislicensedunderthisLicense, ofit.Inaddition,youmustdothesethingsintheModifiedVersion:Youmayextractasingledocumentfromsuchacollection,anddisandifallworksthatwerefirstpublishedunderthisLicensesomewhere tributeitindividuallyunderthisLicense,providedyouinsertacopy A”Transparent”copyoftheDocumentmeansamachinereadableotherthanthisMMC,andsubsequentlyincorporatedinwholeorin ofthisLicenseintotheextracteddocument,andfollowthisLicense copy,representedinaformatwhosespecificationisavailabletothepartintotheMMC,(1)hadnocovertextsorinvariantsections,and A.UseintheTitlePage(andonthecovers,ifany)atitledis inallotherrespectsregardingverbatimcopyingofthatdocument.7.(2)werethusincorporatedpriortoNovember1,2008. generalpublic,thatissuitableforrevisingthedocumentstraightfor tinctfromthatoftheDocument,andfromthoseofpreviousversions AGGREGATIONWITHINDEPENDENTWORKS wardlywithgenerictexteditorsor(forimagescomposedofpixels) (whichshould,iftherewereany,belistedintheHistorysectionof genericpaintprogramsor(fordrawings)somewidelyavailabledrawing theDocument).YoumayusethesametitleasapreviousversionifTheoperatorofanMMCSitemayrepublishanMMCcontainedin editor,andthatissuitableforinputtotextformattersorforautomatic theoriginalpublisherofthatversiongivespermission.B.ListonAcompilationoftheDocumentoritsderivativeswithotherseparatethesiteunderCCBYSAonthesamesiteatanytimebeforeAugust translationtoavarietyofformatssuitableforinputtotextformatters. theTitlePage,asauthors,oneormorepersonsorentitiesresponsibleandindependentdocumentsorworks,inoronavolumeofastorageor 1,2009,providedtheMMCiseligibleforrelicensing.ADDENDUM: AcopymadeinanotherwiseTransparentfileformatwhosemarkup, forauthorshipofthemodificationsintheModifiedVersion,togetherdistributionmedium,iscalledan”aggregate”ifthecopyrightresultingHowtousethisLicenseforyourdocuments orabsenceofmarkup,hasbeenarrangedtothwartordiscouragesub withatleastfiveoftheprincipalauthorsoftheDocument(allofitsfromthecompilationisnotusedtolimitthelegalrightsofthecom sequentmodificationbyreadersisnotTransparent.Animageformat principalauthors,ifithasfewerthanfive),unlesstheyreleaseyoupilation’susersbeyondwhattheindividualworkspermit.Whenthe TousethisLicenseinadocumentyouhavewritten,includeacopy isnotTransparentifusedforanysubstantialamountoftext.Acopy fromthisrequirement.C.StateontheTitlepagethenameoftheDocumentisincludedinanaggregate,thisLicensedoesnotapplyto oftheLicenseinthedocumentandputthefollowingcopyrightand thatisnot”Transparent”iscalled”Opaque”. publisheroftheModifiedVersion,asthepublisher.D.Preservetheotherworksintheaggregatewhicharenotthemselvesderivative licensenoticesjustafterthetitlepage: worksoftheDocument. allthecopyrightnoticesoftheDocument.E.Addanappropriate copyrightnoticeforyourmodificationsadjacenttotheothercopyright ExamplesofsuitableformatsforTransparentcopiesincludeplain Copyright(C)YEARYOURNAME.Permissionisgrantedtocopy, notices.F.Include,immediatelyafterthecopyrightnotices,alicense ASCIIwithoutmarkup,Texinfoinputformat,LaTeXinputfor IftheCoverTextrequirementofsection3isapplicabletothesecopies distributeand/ormodifythisdocumentunderthetermsoftheGNU mat,SGMLorXMLusingapubliclyavailableDTD,andstandardnoticegivingthepublicpermissiontousetheModifiedVersionunder oftheDocument,theniftheDocumentislessthanonehalfofthe FreeDocumentationLicense,Version1.3oranylaterversionpub thetermsofthisLicense,intheformshownintheAddendumbelow. conformingsimpleHTML,PostScriptorPDFdesignedforhuman entireaggregate,theDocument’sCoverTextsmaybeplacedoncov lishedbytheFreeSoftwareFoundation;withnoInvariantSections, G.PreserveinthatlicensenoticethefulllistsofInvariantSections modification.ExamplesoftransparentimageformatsincludePNG, ersthatbrackettheDocumentwithintheaggregate,ortheelectronic noFrontCoverTexts,andnoBackCoverTexts.Acopyofthelicense XCFandJPG.OpaqueformatsincludeproprietaryformatsthatcanandrequiredCoverTextsgivenintheDocument’slicensenotice. equivalentofcoversiftheDocumentisinelectronicform.Otherwise isincludedinthesectionentitled”GNUFreeDocumentationLicense”. H.IncludeanunalteredcopyofthisLicense.I.Preservethesection bereadandeditedonlybyproprietarywordprocessors,SGMLor theymustappearonprintedcoversthatbracketthewholeaggregate. XMLforwhichtheDTDand/orprocessingtoolsarenotgenerallyEntitled”History”,PreserveitsTitle,andaddtoitanitemstatingat 8.TRANSLATION leastthetitle,year,newauthors,andpublisheroftheModifiedVerIfyouhaveInvariantSections,FrontCoverTextsandBackCover available,andthemachinegeneratedHTML,PostScriptorPDFpro sionasgivenontheTitlePage.IfthereisnosectionEntitled”History” ducedbysomewordprocessorsforoutputpurposesonly.Texts,replacethe”with…Texts.”linewiththis: Translationisconsideredakindofmodification,soyoumaydistribute intheDocument,createonestatingthetitle,year,authors,andpub translationsoftheDocumentunderthetermsofsection4.Replacing lisheroftheDocumentasgivenonitsTitlePage,thenaddanitem The”TitlePage”means,foraprintedbook,thetitlepageitself,pluswiththeInvariantSectionsbeingLISTTHEIRTITLES,withthe InvariantSectionswithtranslationsrequiresspecialpermissionfrom describingtheModifiedVersionasstatedintheprevioussentence. FrontCoverTextsbeingLIST,andwiththeBackCoverTextsbeing suchfollowingpagesasareneededtohold,legibly,thematerialthis theircopyrightholders,butyoumayincludetranslationsofsomeorall J.Preservethenetworklocation,ifany,givenintheDocumentfor Licenserequirestoappearinthetitlepage.ForworksinformatsLIST. 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MinimalCorrespondingSourceunderthetermsofthisLicense,and Asusedherein,“thisLicense”referstoversion3oftheGNULesser a)underthisLicense,providedthatyoumakeagoodfaitheffortto theCorrespondingApplicationCodeinaformsuitablefor,andunder GeneralPublicLicense,andthe“GNUGPL”referstoversion3oftheTheFreeSoftwareFoundationmaypublishrevisedand/ornewver ensurethat,intheeventanApplicationdoesnotsupplythefunctiontermsthatpermit,theusertorecombineorrelinktheApplication GNUGeneralPublicLicense. ordata,thefacilitystilloperates,andperformswhateverpartofitssionsoftheGNULesserGeneralPublicLicensefromtimetotime. withamodifiedversionoftheLinkedVersiontoproduceamodified purposeremainsmeaningful,orb)undertheGNUGPL,withnoneSuchnewversionswillbesimilarinspirittothepresentversion,but CombinedWork,inthemannerspecifiedbysection6oftheGNU maydifferindetailtoaddressnewproblemsorconcerns. “TheLibrary”referstoacoveredworkgovernedbythisLicense,otheroftheadditionalpermissionsofthisLicenseapplicabletothatcopy. GPLforconveyingCorrespondingSource.o1)Useasuitableshared thananApplicationoraCombinedWorkasdefinedbelow.librarymechanismforlinkingwiththeLibrary.Asuitablemechanism isonethat(a)usesatruntimeacopyoftheLibraryalreadypresent 3.ObjectCodeIncorporatingMaterialfromLibraryHeaderFiles. Eachversionisgivenadistinguishingversionnumber.IftheLibrary ontheuser’scomputersystem,and(b)willoperateproperlywitha An“Application”isanyworkthatmakesuseofaninterfaceprovided asyoureceiveditspecifiesthatacertainnumberedversionoftheGNU modifiedversionoftheLibrarythatisinterfacecompatiblewiththe bytheLibrary,butwhichisnototherwisebasedontheLibrary.DefinTheobjectcodeformofanApplicationmayincorporatematerialfromLesserGeneralPublicLicense“oranylaterversion”appliestoit,you LinkedVersion.e)ProvideInstallationInformation,butonlyifyou ingasubclassofaclassdefinedbytheLibraryisdeemedamodeofhavetheoptionoffollowingthetermsandconditionseitherofthat aheaderfilethatispartoftheLibrary.Youmayconveysuchobject wouldotherwiseberequiredtoprovidesuchinformationundersection usinganinterfaceprovidedbytheLibrary. codeundertermsofyourchoice,providedthat,iftheincorporatedmapublishedversionorofanylaterversionpublishedbytheFreeSoftware 6oftheGNUGPL,andonlytotheextentthatsuchinformationis terialisnotlimitedtonumericalparameters,datastructurelayoutsFoundation.IftheLibraryasyoureceiveditdoesnotspecifyaversion necessarytoinstallandexecuteamodifiedversionoftheCombined andaccessors,orsmallmacros,inlinefunctionsandtemplates(tenornumberoftheGNULesserGeneralPublicLicense,youmaychoose A“CombinedWork”isaworkproducedbycombiningorlinkingan WorkproducedbyrecombiningorrelinkingtheApplicationwitha fewerlinesinlength),youdobothofthefollowing:anyversionoftheGNULesserGeneralPublicLicenseeverpublished ApplicationwiththeLibrary.TheparticularversionoftheLibrary modifiedversionoftheLinkedVersion.(Ifyouuseoption4d0,the bytheFreeSoftwareFoundation. withwhichtheCombinedWorkwasmadeisalsocalledthe“Linked InstallationInformationmustaccompanytheMinimalCorresponding Version”.a)Giveprominentnoticewitheachcopyoftheobjectcodethatthe SourceandCorrespondingApplicationCode.Ifyouuseoption4d1, LibraryisusedinitandthattheLibraryanditsusearecoveredby IftheLibraryasyoureceiveditspecifiesthataproxycandecide youmustprovidetheInstallationInformationinthemannerspecified thisLicense.b)AccompanytheobjectcodewithacopyoftheGNU The“MinimalCorrespondingSource”foraCombinedWorkmeansthebysection6oftheGNUGPLforconveyingCorrespondingSource.)whetherfutureversionsoftheGNULesserGeneralPublicLicense GPLandthislicensedocument. CorrespondingSourcefortheCombinedWork,excludinganysourceshallapply,thatproxy’spublicstatementofacceptanceofanyver codeforportionsoftheCombinedWorkthat,consideredinisolation,sionispermanentauthorizationforyoutochoosethatversionforthe arebasedontheApplication,andnotontheLinkedVersion.4.CombinedWorks.5.CombinedLibraries.Library. 87
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