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Lecture notes on Library and Information science

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IntroductiontoLibraryandInformation Science en.wikibooks.orgSeptember1,2015 Onthe28thofApril2012thecontentsoftheEnglishaswellasGermanWikibooksandWikipedia projectswerelicensedunderCreativeCommonsAttribution-ShareAlike3.0Unportedlicense.A URItothislicenseisgiveninthelistoffiguresonpage81.Ifthisdocumentisaderivedworkfrom thecontentsofoneoftheseprojectsandthecontentwasstilllicensedbytheprojectunderthis licenseatthetimeofderivationthisdocumenthastobelicensedunderthesame,asimilarora compatiblelicense,asstatedinsection4bofthelicense.Thelistofcontributorsisincludedinchapter Contributorsonpage79.ThelicensesGPL,LGPLandGFDLareincludedinchapterLicenseson page85,sincethisbookand/orpartsofitmayormaynotbelicensedunderoneormoreofthese licenses,andthusrequireinclusionoftheselicenses.Thelicensesofthefiguresaregiveninthelist AA offiguresonpage81.ThisPDFwasgeneratedbytheLTXtypesettingsoftware.TheLTXsource EE codeisincludedasanattachment(source.7z.txt)inthisPDFfile.Toextractthesourcefrom thePDFfile,youcanusethepdfdetachtoolincludinginthepopplersuite,orthehttp://www. pdflabs.com/tools/pdftk-the-pdf-toolkit/utility.SomePDFviewersmayalsoletyousave theattachmenttoafile.AfterextractingitfromthePDFfileyouhavetorenameittosource.7z. A Touncompresstheresultingarchivewerecommendtheuseofhttp://www.7-zip.org/.TheLTX E sourceitselfwasgeneratedbyaprogramwrittenbyDirkHünniger,whichisfreelyavailableunder anopensourcelicensefromhttp://de.wikibooks.org/wiki/Benutzer:Dirk_Huenniger/wb2pdf.1ContextualizingLibraries:Their HistoryandPlaceintheWider InformationInfrastructure Thischapterwilldrawontwoimportantfieldstodefinerolesandcontextsforlibrarianship andotherinformationwork.First,wewillexplorethemanydiverseroleslibrarieshave playedthroughouthistory,exploringthedifferentmotivationsforlibrariesandservices libraryworkershaveprovidedtowardsthesemotivations.Wewillthenlookathowdifferent individualsandfieldsconceiveofinformationintoday’sworld,andhowtheseconceptions informtheirpractice.WewillconcludebydrawingonhistoricalLISpracticeandlessons learnedfromrelateddisciplinestoestablishrolesandascopeforcontemporaryLISpractice andscholarship. Afterreadingthischapter,astudentshouldbeabletoarticulate: 1.whatalibraryis 2.thevalueofcriticallyexamininglibraryhistorytoinformcurrentlibrarypractice 3.themissionsandpracticesoflibrariesinancientandmedievalEuropeanlibraries 4.thecontributionsofpre-modernEastAsian,MiddleEastern,andAfricanlibrariesto contemporarylibrarypractice 5.exclusionarypracticesandpoliciesin19th-and20th-centurylibrariesintheUnited States 6.theconceptsofahistoricismandtunnelvision 7.definitionsofinformationfromseveraldifferentfields,andhowtheyinformLISprac- tice 8.howthefollowingfieldsrelatetoLIS •Computerscience •Education •Informationtheory •Socialwork 1.1Defininglibraries 1.2Librariesofthepast Thissectionwillintroducecharacteristicsandpurposesoflibrariesthroughouttime,and thenintroducesomecriticalissuesandmethodsoflibraryhistory. 3ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure 1.2.1Abriefhistoryoflibraries Earlylibraries(2600BC–800BC) Figure1TabletfromtheLibraryofAshurbanipalcontainingpartoftheEpicof Gilgamesh Thefirstlibrariesconsistedofarchivesoftheearliestformofwriting-theclaytabletsin 1 cuneiformscriptdiscoveredintempleroomsinSumer. 1LibrariesintheAncientWorld.YaleUniversityPress,, 4Librariesofthepast TheearliestdiscoveredprivatearchiveswerekeptatUgarit(inpresent-daySyria);besides correspondenceandinventories,textsofmythsmayhavebeenstandardizedpractice-texts forteachingnewscribes.ThereisalsoevidenceoflibrariesatNippurabout1900BCand 2 thoseatNinevehabout700BCshowingalibraryclassificationsystem. 3 Over30,000claytabletsfromtheLibraryofAshurbanipalhavebeendiscoveredatNineveh, providingmodernscholarswithanamazingwealthofMesopotamianliterary,religiousand administrativework.AmongthefindingsweretheEnumaElish,alsoknownastheEpicof 45 Creation,whichdepictsatraditionalBabylonianviewofcreation,theEpicofGilgamesh, alargeselectionof”omentexts”includingEnumaAnuEnlilwhich”containedomensdealing withthemoon,itsvisibility,eclipses,andconjunctionwithplanetsandfixedstars,thesun, itscorona,spots,andeclipses,theweather,namelylightning,thunder,andclouds,andthe 6 planetsandtheirvisibility,appearance,andstations”,andastronomic/astrologicaltexts,as wellasstandardlistsusedbyscribesandscholarssuchaswordlists,bilingualvocabularies, listsofsignsandsynonyms,andlistsofmedicaldiagnoses. PhilosopherLaoziwaskeeperofbooksintheearliestlibraryinChina,whichbelongedto 7 theImperialZhoudynasty.Also,evidenceofcataloguesfoundinsomedestroyedancient 8 librariesillustratesthepresenceoflibrarians. 2TheAmericanInternationalEncyclopedia,NewYork:J.J.Little&Ives,1954;VolumeIX 3Britishmuseum.orgˆhttp://www.britishmuseum.org/research/research_projects/ashurbanipal_ library_phase_1.aspx”AssurbanipalLibraryPhase1”,BritishMuseumOne 4”EpicofCreation”,inDalley,Stephanie.MythsfromMesopotamia.Oxford,1989;pp.233-81 5”EpicofGilgamesh”,inDalley,Stephanie.MythsfromMesopotamia.Oxford,1989;pp.50–135 6VanDeMieroop,Marc.AHistoryoftheAncientNearEastca.3000–323BC.Oxford,UK:Blackwell Publishing,2007:pg.263 7Mukherjee,A.K.Librarianship:ItsPhilosophyandHistory.AsiaPublishingHouse(1966)p.86 8Mukherjee,A.K.Librarianship:ItsPhilosophyandHistory.AsiaPublishingHouse(1966)p.86 5ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure Classicalperiod(800BC–500AD) Figure2ArtisticrenderingoftheLibraryofAlexandria,basedonsomearchaeological evidence TheLibraryofAlexandria TheLibraryofAlexandria,inEgypt,wasthelargestandmostsignificantgreatlibrary oftheancientworld.ItflourishedunderthepatronageofthePtolemaicdynastyand functionedasamajorcenterofscholarshipfromitsconstructioninthe3rdcenturyBC untiltheRomanconquestofEgyptin30BC.Thelibrarywasconceivedandopenedeither 6Librariesofthepast duringthereignofPtolemyISoter(323–283BC)orduringthereignofhissonPtolemyII 910 (283–246BC).AnearlyorganizationsystemwasineffectatAlexandria. MuchofwhatweknowabouttheAlexandrianlibraryisnotbasedonverifiablefact,but ratheracollectionofstories,manyofwhichweshouldforegoaccordingtoJochum’sre- search.Therearenophysicalremnantsofthelibraryleft,onlywrittenallusionsfrom classicalwriters,buthebelievesthatthegreatlibrarydidnotexistmerelyassinglebuild- ing.TheAlexandrianlibraryclaimedtohavecontainedeverybookoneverysubjectin everylanguage.Themethodsforacquiringthesebooksvaried.Onereportedmethod wastoemploytraderstobuybookswherevertheycouldbefound.Anotherclaimedthat bookswereconfiscatedfromshipsintheAlexandrianharbor,thencopiedforthelibrary andreturnedtotheirowners.Catalogsweremadeofthecollection’sbooks,includingthe metadataontheoriginalownersandwherethecopywascopiedorwritten. Today,thethoughtofalibrarycontainingeverybookoneverysubjectineveryknownis impossible,especiallyastechnologyadvances.Aslongagoas1976,havingtheinformation availabledigitallywasproposedasthewaytoemulatetheidealoftheAlexandrianlibrary. Theeconomiesofferedbydigitalizationcangetusaccesstothetypeofknowledgesought bytheGreeks.JochumoffersthattheAlexandrianmaynothaveexistedastheultimate facility.Oncewecanweedoutthelorefromfact,wecanthenbegintomoveforwardwith 11 thelibraryasalearningcenterinsteadofajustphysicalrepositoryforbooks. OtherClassicallibraries Privateorpersonallibrariesmadeupofwrittenbooks(asopposedtothestateorinsti- tutionalrecordskeptinarchives)appearedinclassicalGreeceinthe5thcenturyBC.The celebratedbookcollectorsofHellenisticAntiquitywerelistedinthelate2ndcenturyin Deipnosophistae.AlltheselibrarieswereGreek;thecultivatedHellenizeddinersinDeip- nosophistaepassoverthelibrariesofRomeinsilence.BythetimeofAugustustherewere publiclibrariesneartheforumsofRome:therewerelibrariesinthePorticusOctaviaenear theTheatreofMarcellus,inthetempleofApolloPalatinus,andintheBibliothecaUlpiana intheForumofTrajan.Thestatearchiveswerekeptinastructureontheslopebetween theRomanForumandtheCapitolineHill. Privatelibrariesappearedduringthelaterepublic:SenecatheYoungerinveighedagainst librariesfittedoutforshowbyilliterateownerswhoscarcelyreadtheirtitlesinthecourse ofalifetime,butdisplayedthescrollsinbookcases(armaria)ofcitruswoodinlaidwith ivorythatranrighttotheceiling:”bynow,likebathroomsandhotwater,alibraryisgot 12 upasstandardequipmentforafinehouse(domus).Librarieswereamenitiessuitedto avilla,suchasCicero’satTusculum,Maecenas’sseveralvillas,orPlinytheYounger’s,all describedinsurvivingletters.AttheVillaofthePapyriatHerculaneum,apparentlythe villaofCaesar’sfather-in-law,theGreeklibraryhasbeenpartlypreservedinvolcanicash; 9Phillips,HeatherA.,”TheGreatLibraryofAlexandria?”.LibraryPhilosophyandPractice,August2010 ˆhttp://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/phillips.htm 10Phillips,HeatherA.,”TheGreatLibraryofAlexandria?”.LibraryPhilosophyandPractice,August2010 ˆhttp://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/phillips.htm 11Jochum,Uwe.“TheAlexandrianLibraryandItsAftermath.”LibraryHistory15(May1999):5-12. 12Seneca,Detranquillitateanimiix.4–7. 7ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure archaeologistsspeculatethataLatinlibrary,keptseparatefromtheGreekone,mayawait discoveryatthesite. IntheWest,thefirstpubliclibrarieswereestablishedundertheRomanEmpireaseach succeedingemperorstrovetoopenoneormanywhichoutshonethatofhispredecessor. UnliketheGreeklibraries,readershaddirectaccesstothescrolls,whichwerekepton shelvesbuiltintothewallsofalargeroom.Readingorcopyingwasnormallydoneinthe roomitself.Thesurvivingrecordsgiveonlyafewinstancesoflendingfeatures.Asarule, Romanpubliclibrarieswerebilingual:theyhadaLatinroomandaGreekroom.Mostof thelargeRomanbathswerealsoculturalcentres,builtfromthestartwithalibrary,atwo roomarrangementwithoneroomforGreekandoneforLatintexts. LibrarieswerefilledwithparchmentscrollsasatLibraryofPergamumandonpapyrus scrollsasatAlexandria:theexportofpreparedwritingmaterialswasastapleofcommerce. Therewereafewinstitutionalorroyallibrarieswhichwereopentoaneducatedpublic(such astheSerapeumcollectionoftheLibraryofAlexandria,oncethelargestGreatlibraryin 13 theancientworld),butonthewholecollectionswereprivate.Inthoserarecaseswhereit waspossibleforascholartoconsultlibrarybooksthereseemstohavebeennodirectaccess tothestacks.Inallrecordedcasesthebookswerekeptinarelativelysmallroomwhere thestaffwenttogetthemforthereaders,whohadtoconsulttheminanadjoininghallor coveredwalkway. HanChinesescholarLiuXiangestablishedthefirstlibraryclassificationsystemduringthe 14 HanDynasty,andthefirstbooknotationsystem.Atthistimethelibrarycataloguewas writtenonscrollsoffinesilkandstoredinsilkbags. MiddleAges(501AD–1400AD) Inthe6thcentury,attheverycloseoftheClassicalperiod,thegreatlibrariesofthe MediterraneanworldremainedthoseofConstantinopleandAlexandria. Cassiodorus,ministertoTheodoric,establishedamonasteryatVivariumintheheelof ItalywithalibrarywhereheattemptedtobringGreeklearningtoLatinreadersand preservetextsbothsacredandsecularforfuturegenerations.Asitsunofficiallibrarian, Cassiodorusnotonlycollectedasmanymanuscriptsashecould,healsowrotetreatises aimedatinstructinghismonksintheproperusesofreadingandmethodsforcopyingtexts accurately.Intheend,however,thelibraryatVivariumwasdispersedandlostwithina century. ThroughOrigenandespeciallythescholarlypresbyterPamphilusofCaesarea,anavid collectorofbooksofScripture,thetheologicalschoolofCaesareawonareputationfor havingthemostextensiveecclesiasticallibraryofthetime,containingmorethan30,000 manuscripts:GregoryNazianzus,BasiltheGreat,Jeromeandotherscameandstudied there. Bythe8thcenturyfirstIraniansandthenArabshadimportedthecraftofpapermaking fromChina,withapapermillalreadyatworkinBaghdadin794.Bythe9thcentury 13Phillips,HeatherA.,”TheGreatLibraryofAlexandria?”.LibraryPhilosophyandPractice,August2010 ˆhttp://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/phillips.htm 14Chinabibliography:aresearchguide...–GoogleBooks.,,1995 8Librariesofthepast publiclibrariesstartedtoappearinmanyIslamiccities.Theywerecalled”hallsofScience” ordaral-’ilm.TheywereeachendowedbyIslamicsectswiththepurposeofrepresenting theirtenetsaswellaspromotingthedisseminationofsecularknowledge.The9thcentury AbbasidCaliphal-MutawakkilofIraq,orderedtheconstructionofa”zawiyatqurra”–an enclosureforreaderswhichwas”lavishlyfurnishedandequipped”. InShiraz,Adhudal-Daula(d.983)setupalibrary,describedbythemedievalhistorian al-Muqaddasias”acomplexofbuildingssurroundedbygardenswithlakesandwaterways. Thebuildingsweretoppedwithdomes,andcomprisedanupperandalowerstorywith atotal,accordingtothechiefofficial,of360rooms....Ineachdepartment,catalogswere 15 placedonashelf...theroomswerefurnishedwithcarpets”. Thelibrariesoftenemployedtranslatorsandcopyistsinlargenumbers,inordertorender intoArabicthebulkoftheavailablePersian,Greek,RomanandSanskritnon-fictionand theclassicsofliterature. ThisfloweringofIslamiclearningceasedcenturieslater,aftermanyoftheselibrarieswere destroyedbyMongolinvasions.Otherswerevictimofwarsandreligiousstrifeinthe Islamicworld.However,afewexamplesofthesemedievallibraries,suchasthelibrariesof ChinguettiinWestAfrica,remainintactandrelativelyunchanged.Anotherancientlibrary fromthisperiodwhichisstilloperationalandexpandingistheCentralLibraryofAstan QudsRazaviintheIraniancityofMashhad,whichhasbeenoperatingformorethansix centuries. ThecontentsoftheseIslamiclibrarieswerecopiedbyChristianmonksinMuslim/Christian borderareas,particularlySpainandSicily.Fromtheretheyeventuallymadetheirwayinto otherpartsofChristianEurope.Thesecopiesjoinedworksthathadbeenpreserveddirectly byChristianmonksfromGreekandRomanoriginals,aswellascopiesWesternChristian monksmadeofByzantineworks. Buddhistscriptures,educationalmaterials,andhistorieswerestoredinlibrariesinpre- modernSoutheastAsia.InBurma,aroyallibrarycalledthePitakaTaikwaslegendarily 16 foundedbyKingAnawrahta;inthe18thcentury,BritishenvoyMichaelSymes,upon visitingthislibrary,wrotethat”itisnotimprobablethathisBirmanmajestymaypossess amorenumerouslibrarythananypotentate,fromthebanksoftheDanubetotheborders ofChina”.InThailandlibrariescalledhotraiwerebuiltthroughoutthecountry,usually onstiltsaboveapondtopreventbugsfromeatingatthebooks. IntheEarlyMiddleAges,monasterylibrariesdeveloped,suchastheimportantoneat theAbbeyofMontecassino.Bookswereusuallychainedtotheshelves,andthesechained librariesreflectedthefactthatmanuscripts,createdviathelabour-intensiveprocessofhand 17 copying,werevaluablepossessions.Despitethisprotectiveness,manylibrariesloaned booksifprovidedwithsecuritydeposits(usuallymoneyorabookofequalvalue).Lending wasameansbywhichbookscouldbecopiedandspread.In1212thecouncilofParis 15 UNKNOWNTEMPLATEciteencyclopedia Goeje,M.J.deBibliothecageographorumArabicorumArabicLeiden449E.J.BrillAl-Muqaddasi:Ahsan al-TaqasimIII1906 16Internationaldictionaryoflibraryhistoriesˆhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Zoq_TtEN54IC&pg= PA29,29 17TheChainedLibrary.CambridgeUniversityPress,, 9ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure condemnedthosemonasteriesthatstillforbadeloaningbooks,remindingthemthatlending 18 is”oneofthechiefworksofmercy.”Theearlylibrarieslocatedinmonasticcloistersand associatedwithscriptoriawerecollectionsoflecternswithbookschainedtothem.Shelves builtaboveandbetweenback-to-backlecternswerethebeginningofbookpresses.The chainwasattachedatthefore-edgeofabookratherthantoitsspine.Bookpresses cametobearrangedincarrels(perpendiculartothewallsandthereforetothewindows) inordertomaximizelighting,withlowbookcasesinfrontofthewindows.This”stall system”(fixedbookcasesperpendiculartoexteriorwallspiercedbycloselyspacedwindows) wascharacteristicofEnglishinstitutionallibraries.InEuropeanlibraries,bookcaseswere arrangedparalleltoandagainstthewalls.This”wallsystem”wasfirstintroducedona largescaleinSpain’sElEscorial. Renaissance Figure3ReadingroomoftheLaurentianLibrary 18Geo.HavenPutnamBooksandTheirMakersintheMiddleAges.Hillary,,1962 10Librariesofthepast InRome,thepapalcollectionswerebroughttogetherbyPopeNicholasV,inseparateGreek andLatinlibraries,andhousedbyPopeSixtusIV,whoconsignedtheBibliothecaApostolica 19 Vaticanatothecareofhislibrarian,thehumanistBartolomeoPlatinainFebruary1475. The16thand17thcenturiessawotherprivatelyendowedlibrariesassembledinRome: theVallicelliana,formedfromthebooksofSaintFilippoNeri,withotherdistinguished librariessuchasthatofCesareBaronio,theBibliotecaAngelicafoundedbytheAugustinian AngeloRocca,whichwastheonlytrulypubliclibraryinCounter-ReformationRome;the BibliotecaAlessandrinawithwhichPopeAlexanderVIIendowedtheUniversityofRome; theBibliotecaCasanatenseoftheCardinalGirolamoCasanate;andfinallytheBiblioteca CorsinianafoundedbythebibliophileClementXIICorsiniandhisnephewCardinalNeri Corsini,stillhousedinPalazzoCorsiniinviadellaLungara. TheRepublicofVenicepatronizedthefoundationoftheBibliotecaMarciana,basedon thelibraryofCardinalBasiliosBessarion.InMilan,CardinalFedericoBorromeofounded theBibliotecaAmbrosiana.ThistrendsoonspreadoutsideofItaly,forexampleLouisIII, ElectorPalatinefoundedtheBibliothecaPalatinaofHeidelberg.Theselibrariesdon’thave somanyvolumesasthemodernlibraries.However,theykeepmanyvaluablemanuscripts ofGreek,LatinandBiblicalworks. TianyiChamber,foundedin1561byFanQinduringtheMingDynasty,istheoldest survivinglibraryinChina.Initsheydayitboastedacollectionof70,000volumesof antiquebooks. 19ThissectiononRomanRenaissancelibrariesfollowsKennethM.Setton,”FromMedievaltoModern Library”ProceedingsoftheAmericanPhilosophicalSociety104.4,DedicationoftheAPSLibraryHall, AutumnGeneralMeeting,November,1959(August1960:371–390)p.372ff. 11ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure 17thand18thcenturies Figure4ZałuskiLibrary,Warsaw Duringthe17thand18thcenturies,someofthemoreimportantEuropeanlibrarieswere founded,suchastheBodleianLibraryatOxford,theBritishMuseumLibraryinLondon, theMazarineLibraryandtheBibliothèqueSainte-GenevièveinParis,theAustrianNational LibraryinVienna,theNationalCentralLibraryinFlorence,thePrussianStateLibrary inBerlin,theZałuskiLibraryinWarsawandtheM.E.Saltykov-ShchedrinStatePublic 20 LibraryofStPetersburg. The18thcenturyiswhenweseethebeginningofthemodernpubliclibrary.InFrance,the FrenchRevolutionsawtheconfiscationin1789ofchurchlibrariesandrichnobles’private libraries,andtheircollectionsbecamestateproperty.Theconfiscatedstockbecamepartof anewnationallibrary–theBibliothèqueNationale.Twofamouslibrarians,Hubert-Pascal AmeilhonandJosephVanPraet,selectedandidentifiedover300,000booksandmanuscripts 21 thatbecamethepropertyofthepeopleintheBibliothèqueNationale.DuringtheFrench Revolution,librariansweresolelyresponsibleforthebibliographicplanningofthenation. Outofthiscametheimplementationoftheconceptoflibraryservice–thedemocratic 22 extensionoflibraryservicestothegeneralpublicregardlessofwealthoreducation. 20Stockwell,FosterAHistoryofInformationandStorageRetrieval.,,2000 21Mukherjee,A.K.(1966)Librarianship:itsPhilosophyandHistory.AsiaPublishingHouse;p.112 22Mukherjee,A.K.(1966)Librarianship:itsPhilosophyandHistory.AsiaPublishingHouse;p.112 12Librariesofthepast 19thcentury 20thcentury StephenCresswellreviewsliteratureconcerninglibraries,thecivilrightsmovementand theendofsegregationinSouthernlibraries.TheALAdidnotactivelysupportlibrary integration.AsRubinnotes,untilthe1960s,theALAconsidereditselfanassociation representingonlyitsconstituencyoflibrarians(Rubin,294).EffortsbytheALAincluded: 1.The1936decisiontoboycottconventioncitieswherehotelsandrestaurantswere segregated. 2.Inthelate1950sand1960sALAdeniedmembershiptosegregatedstatelibraryas- sociationsandruledastatecouldhaveonlyonestateassociation. 3.The1961amendmenttotheLibraryBillofRightsstatedthattherightofanindividual totheuseofalibraryshouldnotbeabridgedbecauseofhisrace,religion,national originsorpoliticalviews. 4.In1962theorganizationundertookan“AccessStudy”toevaluatefreedomofaccess throughoutthecountry. Thestudyrevealedmoresegregationandinequitiesinlibrariesinnortherncitiesthanin theSouth.Northernlibrariesweresometimesthefocusofdestructivedemonstrations.In theSouththeywereoftenthefirstfocusofcivilrightsdemonstrationsratherthanschools, becausetheyevokedsympathyfortheindividual’srighttolearn,ratherthanthemore emotionalreactionstointegratingpublicschools. 23 1.2.2Issuesinlibraryhistory Ahistoricism Lancaster,F.W.(1978).Towardpaperlessinformationsystems. HarrisandHannah(1992).Whydowestudythehistoryoflibraries? Black,Alastair.”InformationandModernity:TheHistoryofInformationandtheEclipse ofLibraryHistory.”LibraryHistory14(May1998):39-45. Gender Garrison,writingin1972,highlightsaproblemofthepublicimageoflibrarianship:ithas notattainedthestatusofthemorescientificprofessionssuchasdoctor,sociologist,etc. Onepossiblereason,theonecentraltothisarticle,istheentréeofwomenintothefield duringtheVictorianera.Garrisonexaminesthreetenetsthatmakeaprofession:service, knowledge,andautonomy.Librarians,asprofessionals,servetheirclients(communityor society);femalelibrarians,ontheotherhand,weretobealmostsubservient.Theknowledge 23Cresswell,Stephen.“TheLastDaysofJimCrowinSouthernLibraries.”LibrariesandCulture31(sum- mer/fall1996):557-573. 13ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure requiredofalibrarian,consideredhighlyeducatedforawomanatthetime,lackedthe standardizedtrainingforadoctor.Librariesweregovernedbyboardspopulatedbymen, notfemalelibrarians,whomadekeydecisions.Garrisonconcludesthatuntillibraryscience comestotermswithwomen’searlyemploymentinlibrariesandthewayithasshapedthe currentassumptions,itwillneverattaintherankofotherprofessions.Garrisonprovidesa livelyessayonthehistoryoffemalelibrariansanditsmanifestationstoday.Herperspective, however,iscoloredbyfeminism’ssecondwaveinthe1970s. Perhapsthepublicimageoflibrarianshiptodayshouldnotfocussomuchondoctorsand sociologists,butthemoretechnology-basedprofessionsundertheinformationscienceum- brella.Forinstance,librariansarenotseenasthedrivingforcebehindinnovationlike softwareengineersandothersintheITfield.Wouldananalysisofwomenintheearly stagesoflibrarianshipgiveinsightintowhysomehavetroublewiththeinformationscience 24 moniker? Eventhoughtheprofessionofalibrarianisconsidered”women’swork”therearemenwho havechosenthisprofession.However,theyusuallyholdpositionsofuppermanagementand otherhigherpayingareas.Whatexactlyis”women’swork”withinthelibraryenvironment? SuzanneHildenbrandarguesthatcatalogingandservicesforchildrenandyoutharemost oftenseeninthisway.Therearestatisticsthatshowthesetwopositionsarethelowestpaid andarenotheldinhighesteemwithinthelibraryworkplace.Theauthorraisesagreat pointthatwhatneedstobefocusedonisnotthemovementofwomenintomanagement positionsandotherhighpayingpositionsbutonethatfocusesontheequalityofsalaries andconditionswithinthemostfemaleconcentratedspecialtiesuptothestandardofthe 25 profession Inclusionsandexclusions Before1960,therewerenopubliclibraryservicesforethnicminorities.Duringthe1960’s and1970’s,manyattemptstodesignanddeveloplibraryservicesforethnicgroupswereput intomotion.Theculturalprogramsthatflourishedwereprogramsthathadadequatefederal fundingforservicesandexperimentation.Otherfactorsthatcontributedtosuccessful programs: •Recruitmentofappropriatestafftoidentifyinformationneedsandpromotelibrarypro- grams •Involvementbythecommunityinplanninganddevelopingservices •Developedmechanismsthatenablethecommunitytoidentifyitsownneeds •Linktheneedstotheexpertiseoflibrarians Ethniclibraryserviceshavebeendroppinggraduallysince1981;andlibrariesarestillfailing toinclude:books,periodicals,films,recording,andarchivesthatrelatetovariousminority 24Garrison,Dee.“TheTenderTechnicians:TheFeminizationofPublicLibrarianship,1876-1905.”Journal ofSocialHistory6(winter1972-1973):131-156. 25Hildenbrand,Suzanne.”’Women’sWork’withinLibrarianship.”LibraryJournal114(September1,1989): 153-155. 14Librariesofthepast groups.Rethinkingideastomeetdifferentneedsisrequiredwhentherearedemographic 26 changes,andlibrariesshouldtakeproperstepstoappealtoeveryone. Itisimportanttohaveadiversestaff,particularlywhenadiverseclienteleisinvolved. Therehasbeenadecreaseincollegeenrollmentamongstminorities;andin1991-1992,only 8.5%oftheLibraryandInformationSciencegraduateswereminorities.Therearefivetasks administratorsandlibrariansshouldimplement,sothenumberofgraduatesincreaseinthe libraryprogram: •Cooperativeeffortstohireminoritygraduates •Additionalmonetaryincentives?scholarships,tuitionwaivers,andhousing •Recruitmentactivitiesaimedatstudentsasearlyasthejuniorhighschool •Recruitmentofnontraditionalstudentsfrommilitaryorcommunitycolleges •Developmentofanacademicandsocialenvironmentoncampusconducivetosuccess In1993,afeweffortshavebeenmadetorecruitminorities,butnonehadbeenparticularly successful.Inordertomakerecruitmentmoresuccessful,itmustbeconsideredapriority 27 SalvadorGuerenaandEdwardErazohavethreerecommendationsforthefutureofLatinos andlibraries: 1.Increaserecruitment,retention,andmentoringofbilingual/biculturalLatinoprofes- sionalpersonnel. 2.IncludemembersoftheLatinocommunityintheprocessofplanninglibraryservices forthecommunity. 3.FosternetworkingamonglibrariesprovidingservicetotheLatinocommunity. HispanicsrepresentthefastestgrowingdemographicgroupintheUnitedStates,butLatino librarianshiphasremainedconstantat1.8%oflibrarians.Shortagesofbilinguallibrarians willcontinuetoincrease.Foreignlanguageproficiencyisnotrequiredoflibraryschoolsso graduatesarenotpreparedtoservetheneedsoftheLatinocommunity.REFORMA,LSTA, andALAhavebeenadvocatesfortraining,improvingtechnologyandcurriculuminresponse tochangingmulticultural,multiethnicandmultilingualsociety.Thearticleisinformative yetpessimistic.ItrecognizesthetechnologicaldivideintheHispaniccommunityandthe needforeducationandavailabilityofcomputersinlibraries.Theaffordabilityofcomputers hasnotincreasedownershipofcomputersintheirhomes.InWestChicagoMiddleSchool, manyLatinostudentsusethecomputersintheclassroomtocompletetheirassignments. Formanyofthesestudents,highschoolwillbetheendoftheirformaleducation.Atthe Olcottlibrary,thegreatestdemandforSpanishtitlescomesfromMiamiandLosAngeles notlocally.AtellingobservationofthearticleisthatHispanicsdonotfeelwelcomein librariesbecauseHispanicsfeellibrariesareAngloAmericaninstitutionsrunbyandfor 28 AngloAmericans. 26Trujillo,RobertoG.,andYolandaJ.Cuesta,1989.ServicetoDiversePopulations.ALAYearbookof LibraryandInformationScience.Vol.14:7-11. 27McCook,Kathleen,andGeist,Paula,1993.DiversityDeferred:WherearetheMinorityLibrarians? LibraryJournal.118:23-26. 28Guerena,SalvadorandEdwardErazo.”LatinosandLibrarianship.”LibraryTrends49(2000):138-181. 15ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure Tunnelvision WayneWeigandsaysthat”aconstantre-examinationofourpast...canshowtheparame- tersoftunnelvisionandrevealmanyoftheblindspots”.Librariansoftenactas”stewards” 29 ofthepast,whichmaymeanperpetuatingmanyofthepast’sclose-mindedviews. Librarycollections,likethesteward-librariansWeigandmentionsare”productsofourpasts”. Unlesswehavetheluxuryofthrowingoutourentirecollectionandstartinganew,weare stuckwithincludingthetunnelvisionofthepastinourlibraries. 1.3Librariesintheinformationage 1.3.1Defininginformation Therearemanywaysofdefiningandconceptualizinginformation.Definitionscanfocus onthetechnicalaspectsofinformation,orthesocietalaspects. Technicalaspects Informationasasequenceofsymbols Initsmostrestrictedtechnicalsense,isasequenceofsymbolsthatcanbeinterpretedas amessage.Informationcanberecordedassigns,ortransmittedassignals. Societalaspects Informationasaright InanarticlewrittenfortheBowkerAnnualin1987,KennethDowlindiscussestheneed forthelibraryprofessiontoensurethataccesstoinformationremainsavailable,asabasic humanright,toeveryoneinanagewherewearemovingfromanindustrialtoaninformation society.Hearguesthatthemissionoflibrariesshouldbetodevelopminimumstandards ofaccessand“promotethecompatibilityofinformationsystems”.Dowlingivesabrief discussionofwhyinformationmustbeconsideredahumanright,andidentifiesseveral barrierstothis,namely 1.Legislativebarriers 2.Competitivebarriers 3.Technologicalbarriers 4.Perceptualbarriers 5.Economicbarriers Hethenproposessomestrategiestoreducethesebarriersanddefinestherolethelibrary professionshouldplayinimplementingthem. 29WayneWiegand,TunnelVisionandBlindSpots:WhatthePastTellsUsaboutthepresent;reflections onthetwentieth-centuryhistoryofAmericanlibrarianship(LibraryQuarterly,69:1,Jan.1999) 16Librariesintheinformationage Ibelievethatheiscorrectinhisassessmentofthebarriersthatexist,andthatlibraries shouldplayaroleinensuringaccessforalltoinformation,butdisagreewithmostofhis proposedsolutions,whichinmymindarebasedonfalseassumptions,whichtimehasborne out.Heasksthelibraryprofessiontoimplementsolutionstheyarenotequippedtodealwith andhavenocontrolover.Thelibraryprofessionhasnowaytosetstandardsoftechnologyto ensureaccessforall.Lettingtheprivatesectorderivesolutionstothesebarriers,hasproven thebestwaytoovercomethebarriershehasidentified.AlthoughDowlin’sfundamental statementiscorrect,itisquestionablewhetherhissolutionsarepracticalorachievablein 30 therealworld. Informationasacommodity 1.3.2Quantifyinginformation Thereisaplethoraofwaystothinkaboutinformation,andthoseinvolvedininformation andknowledgeworkhaveanumberwidelydivergentagendas.Thiscanmakeevaluation ofinformationservicesverydifficult.Somegroupsattempttomakesuchevaluationmath- ematicalandscientific,whileothersrelyontoolsfromthesocialsciences,suchassurveys andstudies.Themathematicalandscientificgroupsoftentrytomeasureaservice’svalue usingcalculationsandmonetaryvalues. WhiletheUnitedKingdomconductedasurveythathadpeopleevaluatehowmuchservice theyreceivedandhowitcontributedtotheirproductivity.Thearticlewasn’tnecessarily aimedatjustthebusinessworld.Theauthordidagreatjobatrelatingthistothelibrary fieldbytalkingabouttheamountofknowledgeyouposesandhowusefulthatmakesyou. Ittalkedaboutthemoreknowledgeableyouare,themoreproductiveyouwillbe,andthe moreassistanceyouwillbeabletoprovide.Fromourdiscussionlastweekinclassabout whatmakesagoodlibrarianthiswasoneofthemajorthingsthatweallthoughtmadea goodlibrarian.Ifeelthemoreinformedandversatileyouareinalldifferentaspects,the moreyouwillhavetodrawuponandoffer.Allofthatcontributestoyourabilitytobe 31 moreproductiveforthepatronsthatyouassist. 1.3.3Definingknowledge Knowledgeisageneralunderstandingorfamiliaritywithasubject,place,situation,etc. Knowledgecanbeacquiredthroughexperienceoreducation. Informationneeds Aninformationneedisagapinaperson’sknowledge.Whenapersonidentifiessuchagap, itmaybeexpressedasaquestionorasearchquery. 30Dowlin,KennethE.“AccesstoInformation:AHumanRight?”BowkerAnnual32(1987):64-68. 31Koenig,MichaelE.D.“InformationServicesandDownstreamProductivity.”AnnualReviewofInformation ScienceandTechnology25(1990):55–86. 17ContextualizingLibraries:TheirHistoryandPlaceintheWiderInformation Infrastructure Education 1.4References 182EthicsandValuesintheInformation Professions Afterreadingthischapter,studentsshouldbeabletoarticulate: 1.Theimportanceofdefiningaprofession’svalues 2.Thedifferencebetweenprofessional,general,personal,andrivalvalues 3.Ranganathan’sFiveLawsofLibraryScience 4.ALA’sLibraryBillofRights 5.ALA’sCodeofEthics 6.Apointofconflictbetweentwodifferentsetsofvalue 7.Theirpersonalvalues 8.HowtheirpersonalandprofessionalvalueswillinformtheirLISpractice 2.1TheValuesoflibrarianship Valuesareessentialtothesuccessandfutureoflibrarianship:theyhighlightwhatis”im- portantandworthyinthelongrun,”andhelptodefineourprofession.Inaliteraturereview onprofessionalvaluesinLIS,LeeFinksarguesthatthesevaluesfallintofourcategories: 1.Professionalvaluesareinherentinlibrarianshipandincluderecognizingtheimpor- tanceofserviceandstewardship;maintainingphilosophicalvaluesthatreflectwis- dom,truth,andneutrality;preservingdemocraticvalues;andbeingpassionateabout readingandbooks. 2.Generalvaluesare”commonlysharedbynormal,healthypeople,whatevertheirfield.” Librarians’work,social,andsatisfactionvaluesexpressacommitmenttolifelong learning,theimportanceoftoleranceandcooperation,andtheneedtofeelaccepted. 3.Personalvaluesspecificallybelongtolibraryworkersandincludehumanistic,idealis- tic,conservative,andaestheticvalues. 4.Rivalvaluesthreatenthemissionoflibrarieswithbureaucratic,anti-intellectual,and 1 nihilisticideas.Librariansmusthavefaithintheprofession’sabilitytodogood. Thissectionwillmainlydiscussprofessionalvalues,butwewilltouchonseveralgeneral, personal,andevenrivalvaluesthroughoutthecourseofthisbook. 1Finks,LeeW.“ValuesWithoutShame.”AmericanLibraries20(1989):352–356. 19EthicsandValuesintheInformationProfessions 2.1.1Definingprofessionalvalues In1999,theALAformedataskforceto”toclarifythecorevalues(credo)oftheprofession”. Thistaskforcebelieved”thatwithoutcommonvalues,wearenotaprofession,”andproposed thefollowingdefinitionofcommongoalsforourfield: 1.Connectionofpeopletoideas 2.Assuranceoffreeandopenaccesstorecordedknowledge,informationandcreative works 3.Commitmenttoliteracyandlearning 4.Respectfortheindividualityandthediversityofallpeoples 5.Freedomforallpeopletoform,tohold,andtoexpresstheirownbeliefs 6.Preservationofthehumanrecord 7.Excellenceinprofessionalservicetoourcommunities 2 8.Formationofpartnershipstoadvancethesevalues Despitetheworkofthistaskforce,theALAdidnotadoptaCoreValueStatementuntil June2004.Thisstatementrepresentedacompromisebetweenthetaskforceanditscritics, andtookits11corevaluesfromALApoliciesthatwerealreadyineffect.Whilethetask force’sdocumentpositionedthesevaluesinrelationtoourprofession(forexample,our professionmustprovide”assurance”thataccesstorecordedknowledgeisfreeandopen), theofficialALApolicysimplyliststhevalues.TheALA’swordingalsoleavesitslistopen toothervaluesaswell,andliststheseasexamplesofcorevalues: 1.Access 2.Confidentiality/privacy 3.Democracy 4.Diversity 5.Educationandlifelonglearning 6.Intellectualfreedom 7.Preservation 8.ThePublicgood 9.Professionalism 10.Service 3 11.Socialresponsibility 2.1.2Ranganathan’sfivelaws Establishingacoresetofvaluesisnottheonlywaytodefineandprovidedirectionfora field.Manyofthenaturalsciencesarebasednotonvalues,butonscientificlaws.This ledmathematicianandlibrarianS.R.RanganathantoproposeFivelawsoflibraryscience in1931.Ranganathanenvisionedtheselawsasasetoffundamentallaws,analogousto thescientificlawsthatserveasfundamentalprinciplesfornaturalandsomesocialsciences. Ranganathan’soriginallawswere: 2Sager,D.(2001).TheSearchforLibrarianship’sCoreValues.PublicLibraries,40(3),149-53. 3AmericanLibraryAssociation.(2009).B.1CoreValues,Ethics,andCoreCompetencies.InPolicy Manual.AmericanLibraryAssociation.Retrievedfromhttp://www.ala.org/aboutala/governance/ policymanual/updatedpolicymanual/section2/40corevalues 20