Lecture notes Library and Information science

explain how library and information science professionals be considered as knowledge professionals and library and information science research pdf free download
Dr.HaroldNolon Profile Pic
Dr.HaroldNolon,United States,Professional
Published Date:15-07-2017
Your Website URL(Optional)
Comment
FUNDAMENTALS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE TABLE OF CONTENTS Dedication…………………………………………………………………… Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………. Foreword……………………………………………………………………. Preface………………………………………………………………………. CHAPTER ONE: THE MEANING, NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIBRARY Introduction…………………………………………………………………. The Issues……………………………………………………………………. Towards a Definition………………………………………………………… Now a Definition Attempted………………………………………………… CHAPTER TWO: LIBRARY HISTORY Briefs on Library History…………………………………………………….. CHAPTER THREE: BOOKMAKING HISTORY Briefs on Bookmaking History……………………………………………….. Famous Libraries in History………………………………………………….. CHAPTER FOUR: CARNEGIE CORPORATION’S LIBRARY PROGRAMMES The Briefs…………………………………………………………………….. CHAPTER FIVE: THE LIBRARY AND THE BOOK: A RELATIONSHIP ESTABLISHED Introduction…………………………………………………………………… The Issues……………………………………………………………………… Purposes of the Book………………………………………………………….. The Significance of the Library……………………………………………….. CHAPTER SIX: THE BOOK AND ITS IMPORTANCE Earliest Forms of Writing……………………………………………………… Definition of a Book Attempted………………………………………………. The Importance of the Book…………………………………………………… CHAPTER SEVEN: CONSTITUENT PARTS OF A LIBRARY The Concept of a System………………………………………………………. The Library System…………………………………………………………….. The Library and its Personnel………………………………………………….. CHAPTER EIGHT: THE DIFFERENT FEATURES OF THE LIBRARIAN Introduction……………………………………………………………………… The Librarian as a Generalist…………………………………………………….. The Librarian as a Specialist……………………………………………………… The Librarian as an Information Scientist………………………………………… The Librarian as a Person…………………………………………………………. CHAPTER NINE: CATEGORIES OF LIBRARY COLLECTIONS Introduction………………………………………………………………………. Library Collections……………………………………………………………….. CHAPTER TEN: THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIBRARIES Introduction………………………………………………………………………. Libraries and their Types…………………………………………………………. The Public Libraries……………………………………………………………… The School Libraries……………………………………………………………… The Academic Libraries………………………………………………………….. The Research Libraries…………………………………………………………… CHAPTER ONE THE MEANING, NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIBRARY Introduction The term ‘library’ means different things to different people depending on where they stand on the enlightenment spectrum. To some, it is a bookstore; a building where books are kept for safe custody over-seen by a stern-looking watchman in the name of a librarian, essentially ensuring that the books are not tampered with unduly. To many, the library is a place of reading and studying; where examination-writing candidates make their second homes to read their textbooks and notebooks in preparation. This explains why many libraries have seasonal uses as their patrons have a well-known pattern of visits and usage, which are at the designated examination periods. Only a few others conceive of the library as an organization of information resources meant for use. The Issues The above perceptions underpin the justification for a variety of definitions of the library by different people. The answer to such question as “what is a library’’ may seem quite simple and straight-forward to provide; since many would quickly jump to the conclusion “a room or building where books are kept”, “a reading room”, “a store-house of books” etc. Even though these conceptions of a library are not completely wrong in themselves, they however provide the foundations upon which the highly misrepresented and misconceived idea of what a library truly is was laid. Even the Librarian Glossary was not spared of this tendency in defining a library as “a collection of books and other literary materials kept for reading, study and consultation”, “a place, building, room or rooms set 1 apart for the keeping and use of a collection of books”. Incidentally, there is an historical antecedent to this line of conception of what a library is. Evidence of this can be readily found in the Oxford English Dictionary, which affirmed that the word “library” has been used in English in the sense of being a place where books were kept for “reading, study, or reference” th since 1374. By the 19 Century, the understanding metamorphosed into “a building, room, or set of rooms containing a collection of books for the use of the public or some portion of it, or the members of society; … a public institution or 2 establishment charged with the care of a collection of books.” Then, as time went by, additional concepts of “circulation” and “administration” featured in the definition of a library. No doubt therefore that the concept ‘library’ has long been established in our language, and the more reason for the age-long misconceptions about the true nature of the library, which is essentially dynamic (thus, ever-changing); and for which those definitions, though correct to some extent, are no longer sacrosanct in the face of an avalanche of new additions to the world of the library and the librarianship profession today. These new additions have impacted tremendously on the nature of the modern-day library; thereby rendering those either definitions inadequate for capturing the true essence of what a typical library has come to represent. Hence, the need for a re-examination of the concept towards a re- definition that will reflect the emerging trends. Towards a Re-definition Granted that a great number of authors point at the fact that the term “library” derives from the Latin word ‘Liber’ (i.e. book); equating the library with an assemblage of books in a room or as a bookstore; as others would conceive of it, have remained largely untenable. Superficially taken, there can be equivalence; especially if such a purpose was to establish an historical perspective to the issue. As such, the idea remained ever-relevant in that context. But the need for advancement from an historical perspective was long over-due; as we needed to rise above our inability to conceive of the book in its most widely generic sense. The huge confirmation of the position is evidently rooted in the fact that: the library is older than the book as we now know it, older than paper, older than print. It extends back to the scrolls, papyri, and clay tablets that appear near the dawn of writing-back to ancient Mesopotamia and Egyptian 3 civilization. From the above, it becomes clear that the “book” in its multi-dimension of variants had always occupied a centre-stage in the business of all the libraries that have existed. As much as this assertion remains incontrovertible, it is certainly not in the rather cheap sense of taking the book to mean the printed pages as they are known to us today alone. Otherwise, it will remain substantially difficult to arrive at a better conception and representation of the idea of a library. There is yet another angle to the issue which needed to be addressed for a good starting-point to be established, which is the perception of a library as a bookstore or a place where books are kept for their safety mainly. While not disputing the age-long custodianship responsibility of the library and the librarian towards the effective safe-keep of the library material contents, the situation whereby such a responsibility was positioned to sub-merge the functionality of the library’s materials (typified in their use), remained absolutely contentious. Probably in anticipation of the occurrence of this rather distorted perception, Ranganathan, in his Five Laws of Library Science, posited “books are for use” as his very first. By this First Law emphasizing use, Ranganathan has super-imposed the use (i.e. service) aspect of the library’s responsibility/function above all others, more than anything else. Emerging from the above background, one can therefore not but agree with the well-informed declaration made by Shera to the effect that “an assembly of 5 books is not a library, nor is a library only a place where books are kept”. These two parameters, though popular and commonly used in establishing what a library is, have become inadequate to capture the real essence of a library. This is the point driven home by Sharr in the opening remarks to his famous report when he unequivocally declared that “a library is not a building as such, any more than a hospital is a building. A quantity of books is not a library any more than a quantity 6 of drugs is a hospital”. These proclamations have profound significance in more than just one regard. On the one hand, they represent an authentic declaration as to what the library is not; given the two explicit allusions, which are self-explanatory in themselves. This is important because they are good ways of taking our minds away from what the library is not; having, in the process, enriched our understanding. On the other hand however, they serve as the corollary by pointing, quite fundamentally, at a good start to exploring a sound understanding of what truly a library is or should be. Now a Re-Definition Attempted Deriving from our enriched knowledge of what the library is not, as postulated in the foregoing, one ought to have been thoroughly prepared for a good understanding of what a library actually is. The approach to be used in the presentation of this segment will be a review of relevant and useful definitions by some authorities in the subject areas. Olanipekun and Ifabiyi once described the library as “a collection of information materials such as films, magazines, maps, 7 manuscripts and phonograph records) made available for use” . The phrase “for use” in the definition is of great import as “books and other information materials brought together for other purposes do not necessary constitute a library”. This is to emphasize the need for underscoring “use” as of a high premium to the collection of information materials to be found in the library contrary to other such collections as could be found elsewhere. Thus, the library is defined as the repository, lender, acquirer and borrower of organized information with the most emphases being on prepackaged information for ready access and delivery to users. Furthermore, Shera’s definition of a library as “an organization”, a system 8 designed to preserve and facilitate the use of graphic records” is also very instructive. The points of note in this definition are the terms “organization” and “a system”; both of which imply elements of co-ordination of inter-related units/parts- all of which are geared towards same ends. The ends to which the “organization” or “system” would be targeted are “preservation and facilitation of the use of graphic records”. Thus, the system here is expected to evolve devices with which information materials could be presented and facilitated for use. The term “graphic records” used-this definition should be understood from an all-inclusive perspective covering all kinds of formats of communication media from the past to the present and even the future. Thus, this definition does not delimit as to what particular kinds of material are to be found in a library. Also in line with the first definition, this also emphasizes “use” as a critical component of what constitutes a library. Even more elaborate and explicit is the approach adopted by Sharr in defining a library as “an organization of one or more trained people who use carefully selected and organized books, periodicals and other familiar materials as a means of giving to those who may appropriately use it, to the fullest extent of their needs or desires, the information, enrichment and delight which is to be had from the written 9 words.” A careful look at this definition reveals that not only did it also underscores the ‘’use’’ component but went further to touch on library professional personnel, duties and responsibilities, among others. This organization, as far as Sharr was concerned, comprises “one or more trained people” (referring to professional personnel), whose material stocks have been “carefully selected”, (acquired) and organized. Then is the variety of information materials to be found in the library ranging from “books, periodicals and other familiar materials” (i.e. unlimited and unrestricted in coverage). Lastly is the multitude of uses to which these information materials are put by all categories of users namely; for “meeting needs or desires, the information, enrichment or delight”, which are derivable from such uses generally. Similarly, Aguolu, in yet a functional approach to the subject, defined a library as “collection of records of human culture in diverse formats and languages, preserved organized and interpreted to meet broad and varying needs of individuals 10 for information, knowledge, recreation and aesthetic enjoyment”. As the one just before it, this definition essentially points at the functional ingredients of a library as they are geared towards spelling out the fundamental responsibilities of a library. From the foregoing therefore, it is apparent the term “library” is in almost everybody’s vocabulary and an institution, which is a part of almost everybody’s experience. However, the meanings that the individuals bring to it depend largely upon the nature and extent of their experiences. Thus, the library has been frequently referred to, albeit variously, as the “heart of the institution”, “the mind 11 of society” … “the only effective repository of ... the racial memory”; a live depository of the cultural past and sustainer of the intellectual activity that 12 anticipates the future”. Evidently, the library is the only agency devoted solely to the purpose of collecting, preserving, making available, transmitting and securing the widest and most effective use of the records of civilization by the society of which it is a part. Fundamentally however, the library, on its own and all by itself, cannot carry out these functions. This is because, the library is essentially a human enterprise and like all such enterprises, it must depend “ultimately upon the skilled minds and 13 talents of librarians for it to perform its proper role in our ever-changing society”. Finally, possible interpretation and of the above definitions in a number of ways demands that they are all taken together in the following ways: 1. That a library is a social instrument created to form a link in the communication system that is to any society or culture. In other words, communication should be seen as so indispensable that without it, there can hardly be a society. 2. Even more so is that without some form of graphic records and a means for their preservation, no culture can possibly endure. 3. In conclusion, it becomes apparent that from time to time, the library may assume certain marginal functions, even though its basic purpose remain generically the same, which is, serving as a link in the communication chain that is concerned with the custody of recorded knowledge. REFERENCES CHAPTER TWO LIBRARY HISTORY Briefs on Library History The first libraries were only partly libraries, being composed for the most part of unpublished records, which are usually viewed as archives, not libraries. Archaeological findings from the ancient city-states of Sumer have revealed temple rooms full of clay tablets in cuneiform script. These archives were made up almost completely of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, with only a few documents touching theological matters, historical records or legends. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt. The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit; besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. Private or personal libraries made up of non-fiction and fiction books (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) first appeared in classical Greece. The first ones appeared some time near the 5th century BC. The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic Antiquity 1 were listed in the late second century in Deipnosophistae: Polycrates of Samos and Pisistratus who was tyrant of Athens, and Euclides 2 who was himself also an Athenian and Nicorrates of Samos and even the kings of Pergamos, and Euripides the poet and Aristotle the philosopher, and Nelius his 3 librarian; from whom they say our countryman Ptolemæus, surnamed Philadelphus, bought them all, and transported them, with all those which he had 4 collected at Athens and at Rhodes to his own beautiful Alexandria. All these libraries were Greek; the cultivated Hellenized diners in Deipnosophistae pass over the libraries of Rome in silence. At the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, apparently the villa of Caesar's father-in-law, the Greek library has been partly preserved in volcanic ash; archaeologists speculate that a Latin library, kept separate from the Greek one, may await discovery at the site. Libraries were filled with parchment scrolls as at Pergamum and on papyrus scrolls as at Alexandria: export of prepared writing materials was a staple of commerce. There were a few institutional or royal libraries like the Library of Alexandria which were open to an educated public, but on the whole collections were private. In those rare cases where it was possible for a scholar to consult library books there seems to have been no direct access to the stacks. In all recorded cases the books were kept in a relatively small room where the staff went to get them for the readers, who had to consult them in an adjoining hall or covered walkway. Little is known about early Chinese libraries, save what is written about the imperial library which began with the Qin Dynasty. One of the curators of the imperial library in the Han Dynasty is believed to have been the first to establish a library classification system and the first book notation system. At this time the library catalog was written on scrolls of fine silk and stored in silk bags. There is also evidence of those libraries at Nippur of about 1900 B.C. and those at Nineveh 5 of about 700 B.C. as showing a library classification system. In Persia, many libraries were established by the Zoroastrian elite and the Persian Kings. Among the first ones was a royal library in Isfahan. One of the most important public libraries established around 667 AD in south-western Iran was the Library of Gundishapur. It was a part of a bigger scientific complex located at the Academy of Gundishapur. In the West, the first public libraries were established under the Roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove to open one or many which outshone that of his predecessor. Unlike the Greek libraries, readers had direct access to the scrolls, which were kept on shelves built into the walls of a large room. Reading or copying was normally done in the room itself. The surviving records give only a few instances of lending features. As a rule Roman public libraries were bilingual: they had a Latin room and a Greek room. Most of the large Roman baths were also cultural centers, built from the start with a library, with the usual two room arrangement for Greek and Latin texts. In the sixth century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. Cassiodorus, minister to Theodoric, established a monastery at Vivarium in the heel of Italy with a library where he attempted to bring Greek learning to Latin readers and preserve texts both sacred and secular for future generations. As its unofficial librarian, Cassiodorus not only collected as many manuscripts as he could, he also wrote treatises aimed at instructing his monks in the proper uses of reading and methods for copying texts accurately. In the end, however, the library at Vivarium was dispersed and lost within a century. Elsewhere in the Early Middle Ages, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and before the rise of the large Western Christian monastery libraries beginning at Montecassino, libraries were found in scattered places in the Christian Middle East. Upon the rise of Islam, libraries in newly Islamic lands knew a brief period of expansion in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Spain. Like the Christian libraries, they mostly contained books which were made of paper, and took a codex or modern form instead of scrolls; they could be found in mosques, private homes, and universities. Some mosques sponsored public libraries. Ibn al-Nadim's bibliography Fihrist demonstrates the devotion of medieval Muslim scholars to books and reliable sources; it contains a description of thousands of books circulating in the Islamic world circa 1000, including an entire section for books about the doctrines of other religions. Unfortunately, modern Islamic libraries for the most part do not hold these antique books; many were lost, destroyed by Mongols, or removed to 6 European libraries and museums during the colonial period. By the 8th century first Iranians and then Arabs had imported the craft of paper making from China, with a mill already at work in Baghdad in 794. By the 9th century completely public libraries started to appear in many Islamic cities. They were called "halls of Science" or dar al-'ilm. They were each endowed by Islamic sects with the purpose of representing their tenets as well as promoting the dissemination of secular knowledge. The libraries often employed translators and copyists in large numbers, in order to render into Arabic the bulk of the available Persian, Greek and Roman non-fiction and the classics of literature. This flowering of Islamic learning ceased after a few centuries as the Islamic world began to turn against experimentation and learning. After a few centuries many of these libraries were destroyed by Mongolian invasion. Others were victim of wars and religious strife in the Islamic world. However, a few examples of these medieval libraries, such as the libraries of Chinguetti in West Africa, remain intact and relatively unchanged even today. Another ancient library from this period which is still operational and expanding is the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi in the Iranian city of Mashhad, which has been operating for more than six centuries. The contents of these Islamic libraries were copied by Christian monks in Muslim/Christian border areas, particularly Spain and Sicily. From there they eventually made their way into other parts of Christian Europe. These copies joined works that had been preserved directly by Christian monks from Greek and Roman originals, as well as copies Western Christian monks made of Byzantine works. The resulting conglomerate libraries are the basis of every modern library today. Medieval library design reflected the fact that these manuscriptscreated via the labor-intensive process of hand copyingwere valuable possessions. Library architecture developed in response to the need for security. Librarians often chained books to lecterns, armaria (wooden chests), or shelves, in well-lit rooms. Despite this protectiveness, many libraries were willing to lend their books if provided with security deposits (usually money or a book of equal value). Monastic libraries lent and borrowed books from each other frequently and lending policy was often theologically grounded. For example, the Franciscan monasteries loaned books to each other without a security deposit since according to their vow of poverty only the entire order could own property. In 1212 the council of Paris condemned those monasteries that still forbade loaning books, reminding them that lending is "one of the chief works 7 of mercy." The earliest example in England of a library to be endowed for the benefit of users who were not members of an institution such as a cathedral or college was the Francis Trigge Chained Library in Grantham, Lincolnshire, established in 1598. The library still exists and can justifiably claim to be the forerunner of later public library systems. The early libraries located in monastic cloisters and associated with scriptoria were collections of lecterns with books chained to them. Shelves built above and between back-to-back lecterns were the beginning of book-presses. The chain was attached at the fore-edge of a book rather than to its spine. Book presses came to be arranged in carrels (perpendicular to the walls and therefore to the windows) in order to maximize lighting, with low bookcases in front of the windows. This stall system (fixed bookcases perpendicular to exterior walls pierced by closely spaced windows) was characteristic of English institutional libraries. In Continental libraries, bookcases were arranged parallel to and against the walls. This wall system was first introduced on a large scale in Spain's El Escorial. As books became more common, the need for chaining them lessened. But as the number of books in libraries increased, so did the need for compact storage and access with adequate lighting, giving birth to the stack system, which involved keeping a library's collection of books in a space separate from the reading room, an arrangement which arose in the 19th century. Book stacks quickly evolved into a fairly standard form in which the cast iron and steel frameworks supporting the bookshelves also supported the floors, which often were built of translucent blocks to permit the passage of light (but were not transparent, for reasons of modesty). With the introduction of electrical lighting, it had a huge impact on how the library operated. Also, the use of glass floors was largely discontinued, though floors were still often composed of metal grating to allow air to circulate in multi-story stacks. Ultimately, even more space was needed, and a method of moving shelves on tracks (compact shelving) was introduced to cut down on otherwise wasted aisle space. Also, the governments of most major countries support national libraries. Three noteworthy examples are the U.S. Library of Congress, Canada's Library and Archives Canada, and the British Library. A typically broad sample of libraries in one state in the U.S. can be explored at Every Library in Illinois. Libraries almost invariably contain long aisles with rows and rows and rows of books. Libraries have materials arranged in a specified order according to a library classification system, so that items may be located quickly and collections may be browsed efficiently. Some libraries have additional galleries beyond the public ones, where reference materials are stored. These reference stacks may be open to selected members of the public. Others require patrons to submit a "stack request," which is a request for an assistant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks. REFERENCESCHAPTER THREE BOOKMAKING HISTORY Briefs on Bookmaking History Mankind has made books in some form for almost as long as there has been the written word. The books may look very different from today’s books, but they served the same purpose-to record the everyday workings of civilization and to preserve its legacy. One of the earliest known books is the clay tablets of the Babylonian sand Assyrians. They were written in cuneiform-wedge-shaped characters-on the clay. They were often stored in clay “envelopes” that protected the tablets much as a modern library book cover does today. Even then, there were libraries full of clay books. The Royal Library of Nineveh-capital of the ancient empire of the Assyrians-contained thousands of clay books on every subject from astronomy to recipes to love poems to legends. The papyrus scroll was made by ancient Egyptians from the aquatic, reed- like plant Cyprus papyrus that grew along the banks of the Nile River. The stems were cut into thin strips and laid next to each other, one slightly overlapping the next. Another layer was placed on top, perpendicular to the first. These were lightly pounded to bind them together. Since the sheets were small, several were glued together end-to-end to form a scroll. The scroll was then wound around a wooden stick. The Egyptians wrote their hieroglyphics with a length of reed cut into a pen. One of the oldest papyrus scrolls dates from 2500 BC. Since the brittle nature of papyrus did not lend itself to being folded, animal skins helped the move toward the codex form (our modern style) of the book. The use of animal skins as a writing surface has been noted as far back as 500 BC until the appearance of good parchment in the 1st or 2nd century AD. Parchment was