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Lecture notes Library and Information science

explain how library and information science professionals be considered as knowledge professionals and library and information science research pdf free download
FUNDAMENTALS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ABDULWAHAB OLANREWAJU ISSA, Ph.D. PRINCIPAL LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE, THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, OFFA, KWARA STATE First published in 2009 by (C) 2009 Abdulwahab O. Issa All Rights Reserved This book may not be reproduced in part or in full, or stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise (except for quotations in critical articles, or reviews) without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. ISBN: CataloguinginPublication Data ISSA, Abdulwahab O. Fundamentals of Library and Information Science/ Abdulwahab O. Issa. – Ilorin Publisher, 2009. iv, 101p. Includes bibliography and index. ISBN DEDICATION To the Almighty God For His love, guidance and abundant blessings And To the memories of my late father and late uncle For what they both meant to me. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FOREWARD PREFACE TABLE OF CONTENTS Dedication…………………………………………………………………… Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………. Foreword……………………………………………………………………. Preface………………………………………………………………………. CHAPTER ONE: THE MEANING, NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIBRARY Introduction…………………………………………………………………. The Issues……………………………………………………………………. Towards a Definition………………………………………………………… Now a Definition Attempted………………………………………………… CHAPTER TWO: LIBRARY HISTORY Briefs on Library History…………………………………………………….. CHAPTER THREE: BOOKMAKING HISTORY Briefs on Bookmaking History……………………………………………….. Famous Libraries in History………………………………………………….. CHAPTER FOUR: CARNEGIE CORPORATION’S LIBRARY PROGRAMMES The Briefs…………………………………………………………………….. CHAPTER FIVE: THE LIBRARY AND THE BOOK: A RELATIONSHIP ESTABLISHED Introduction…………………………………………………………………… The Issues……………………………………………………………………… Purposes of the Book………………………………………………………….. The Significance of the Library……………………………………………….. CHAPTER SIX: THE BOOK AND ITS IMPORTANCE Earliest Forms of Writing……………………………………………………… Definition of a Book Attempted………………………………………………. The Importance of the Book…………………………………………………… CHAPTER SEVEN: CONSTITUENT PARTS OF A LIBRARY The Concept of a System………………………………………………………. The Library System…………………………………………………………….. The Library and its Personnel………………………………………………….. CHAPTER EIGHT: THE DIFFERENT FEATURES OF THE LIBRARIAN Introduction……………………………………………………………………… The Librarian as a Generalist…………………………………………………….. The Librarian as a Specialist……………………………………………………… The Librarian as an Information Scientist………………………………………… The Librarian as a Person…………………………………………………………. CHAPTER NINE: CATEGORIES OF LIBRARY COLLECTIONS Introduction………………………………………………………………………. Library Collections……………………………………………………………….. CHAPTER TEN: THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIBRARIES Introduction………………………………………………………………………. Libraries and their Types…………………………………………………………. The Public Libraries……………………………………………………………… The School Libraries……………………………………………………………… The Academic Libraries………………………………………………………….. The Research Libraries…………………………………………………………… The National Libraries……………………………………………………………. CHAPTER ELEVEN: NEW TRENDS IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRACTICE Introduction………………………………………………………………………. The Trends…………………………………………………………………………. CHAPTER TWELVE: IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRENDS FOR LIBRARY SERVICES DELIVERY Introduction……………………………………………………………………….. The Implications………………………………………………………………….. CHAPTER THIRTEEN: THE PLACE OF THE LIBRARY IN THE INTERNET AGE: THE MYTH AND REALITY Introduction……………………………………………………………………… The Myth and Reality……………………………………………………………. CHAPTER ONE THE MEANING, NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIBRARY Introduction The term ‘library’ means different things to different people depending on where they stand on the enlightenment spectrum. To some, it is a bookstore; a building where books are kept for safe custody overseen by a sternlooking watchman in the name of a librarian, essentially ensuring that the books are not tampered with unduly. To many, the library is a place of reading and studying; where examinationwriting candidates make their second homes to read their textbooks and notebooks in preparation. This explains why many libraries have seasonal uses as their patrons have a wellknown pattern of visits and usage, which are at the designated examination periods. Only a few others conceive of the library as an organization of information resources meant for use. The Issues The above perceptions underpin the justification for a variety of definitions of the library by different people. The answer to such question as “what is a library’’ may seem quite simple and straightforward to provide; since many would quickly jump to the conclusion “a room or building where books are kept”, “a reading room”, “a storehouse of books” etc. Even though these conceptions of a library are not completely wrong in themselves, they however provide the foundations upon which the highly misrepresented and misconceived idea of what a library truly is was laid. Even the Librarian Glossary was not spared of this tendency in defining a library as “a collection of books and other literary materials kept for reading, study and consultation”, “a place, building, room or rooms set 1 apart for the keeping and use of a collection of books”. Incidentally, there is an historical antecedent to this line of conception of what a library is. Evidence of this can be readily found in the Oxford English Dictionary, which affirmed that the word “library” has been used in English in the sense of being a place where books were kept for “reading, study, or reference” th since 1374. By the 19 Century, the understanding metamorphosed into “a building, room, or set of rooms containing a collection of books for the use of the public or some portion of it, or the members of society; … a public institution or 2 establishment charged with the care of a collection of books.” Then, as time went by, additional concepts of “circulation” and “administration” featured in the definition of a library. No doubt therefore that the concept ‘library’ has long been established in our language, and the more reason for the agelong misconceptions about the true nature of the library, which is essentially dynamic (thus, everchanging); and for which those definitions, though correct to some extent, are no longer sacrosanct in the face of an avalanche of new additions to the world of the library and the librarianship profession today. These new additions have impacted tremendously on the nature of the modernday library; thereby rendering those either definitions inadequate for capturing the true essence of what a typical library has come to represent. Hence, the need for a reexamination of the concept towards a re definition that will reflect the emerging trends. Towards a Redefinition Granted that a great number of authors point at the fact that the term “library” derives from the Latin word ‘Liber’ (i.e. book); equating the library with an assemblage of books in a room or as a bookstore; as others would conceive of it, have remained largely untenable. Superficially taken, there can be equivalence; especially if such a purpose was to establish an historical perspective to the issue. As such, the idea remained everrelevant in that context. But the need for advancement from an historical perspective was long overdue; as we needed to rise above our inability to conceive of the book in its most widely generic sense. The huge confirmation of the position is evidently rooted in the fact that: the library is older than the book as we now know it, older than paper, older than print. It extends back to the scrolls, papyri, and clay tablets that appear near the dawn of writingback to ancient Mesopotamia and Egyptian 3 civilization. From the above, it becomes clear that the “book” in its multidimension of variants had always occupied a centrestage in the business of all the libraries that have existed. As much as this assertion remains incontrovertible, it is certainly not in the rather cheap sense of taking the book to mean the printed pages as they are known to us today alone. Otherwise, it will remain substantially difficult to arrive at a better conception and representation of the idea of a library. There is yet another angle to the issue which needed to be addressed for a good startingpoint to be established, which is the perception of a library as a bookstore or a place where books are kept for their safety mainly. While not disputing the agelong custodianship responsibility of the library and the librarian towards the effective safekeep of the library material contents, the situation whereby such a responsibility was positioned to submerge the functionality of the library’s materials (typified in their use), remained absolutely contentious. Probably in anticipation of the occurrence of this rather distorted perception, Ranganathan, in his Five Laws of Library Science, posited “books are for use” as his very first. By this First Law emphasizing use, Ranganathan has superimposed the use (i.e. service) aspect of the library’s responsibility/function above all others, more than anything else. Emerging from the above background, one can therefore not but agree with the wellinformed declaration made by Shera to the effect that “an assembly of 5 books is not a library, nor is a library only a place where books are kept”. These two parameters, though popular and commonly used in establishing what a library is, have become inadequate to capture the real essence of a library. This is the point driven home by Sharr in the opening remarks to his famous report when he unequivocally declared that “a library is not a building as such, any more than a hospital is a building. A quantity of books is not a library any more than a quantity 6 of drugs is a hospital”. These proclamations have profound significance in more than just one regard. On the one hand, they represent an authentic declaration as to what the library is not; given the two explicit allusions, which are selfexplanatory in themselves. This is important because they are good ways of taking our minds away from what the library is not; having, in the process, enriched our understanding. On the other hand however, they serve as the corollary by pointing, quite fundamentally, at a good start to exploring a sound understanding of what truly a library is or should be. Now a ReDefinition Attempted Deriving from our enriched knowledge of what the library is not, as postulated in the foregoing, one ought to have been thoroughly prepared for a good understanding of what a library actually is. The approach to be used in the presentation of this segment will be a review of relevant and useful definitions by some authorities in the subject areas. Olanipekun and Ifabiyi once described the library as “a collection of information materials such as films, magazines, maps, 7 manuscripts and phonograph records) made available for use” . The phrase “for use” in the definition is of great import as “books and other information materials brought together for other purposes do not necessary constitute a library”. This is to emphasize the need for underscoring “use” as of a high premium to the collection of information materials to be found in the library contrary to other such collections as could be found elsewhere. Thus, the library is defined as the repository, lender, acquirer and borrower of organized information with the most emphases being on prepackaged information for ready access and delivery to users. Furthermore, Shera’s definition of a library as “an organization”, a system 8 designed to preserve and facilitate the use of graphic records” is also very instructive. The points of note in this definition are the terms “organization” and “a system”; both of which imply elements of coordination of interrelated units/parts all of which are geared towards same ends. The ends to which the “organization” or “system” would be targeted are “preservation and facilitation of the use of graphic records”. Thus, the system here is expected to evolve devices with which information materials could be presented and facilitated for use. The term “graphic records” usedthis definition should be understood from an allinclusive perspective covering all kinds of formats of communication media from the past to the present and even the future. Thus, this definition does not delimit as to what particular kinds of material are to be found in a library. Also in line with the first definition, this also emphasizes “use” as a critical component of what constitutes a library. Even more elaborate and explicit is the approach adopted by Sharr in defining a library as “an organization of one or more trained people who use carefully selected and organized books, periodicals and other familiar materials as a means of giving to those who may appropriately use it, to the fullest extent of their needs or desires, the information, enrichment and delight which is to be had from the written 9 words.” A careful look at this definition reveals that not only did it also underscores the ‘’use’’ component but went further to touch on library professional personnel, duties and responsibilities, among others. This organization, as far as Sharr was concerned, comprises “one or more trained people” (referring to professional personnel), whose material stocks have been “carefully selected”, (acquired) and organized. Then is the variety of information materials to be found in the library ranging from “books, periodicals and other familiar materials” (i.e. unlimited and unrestricted in coverage). Lastly is the multitude of uses to which these information materials are put by all categories of users namely; for “meeting needs or desires, the information, enrichment or delight”, which are derivable from such uses generally. Similarly, Aguolu, in yet a functional approach to the subject, defined a library as “collection of records of human culture in diverse formats and languages, preserved organized and interpreted to meet broad and varying needs of individuals 10 for information, knowledge, recreation and aesthetic enjoyment”. As the one just before it, this definition essentially points at the functional ingredients of a library as they are geared towards spelling out the fundamental responsibilities of a library. From the foregoing therefore, it is apparent the term “library” is in almost everybody’s vocabulary and an institution, which is a part of almost everybody’s experience. However, the meanings that the individuals bring to it depend largely upon the nature and extent of their experiences. Thus, the library has been frequently referred to, albeit variously, as the “heart of the institution”, “the mind 11 of society” … “the only effective repository of ... the racial memory”; a live depository of the cultural past and sustainer of the intellectual activity that 12 anticipates the future”. Evidently, the library is the only agency devoted solely to the purpose of collecting, preserving, making available, transmitting and securing the widest and most effective use of the records of civilization by the society of which it is a part. Fundamentally however, the library, on its own and all by itself, cannot carry out these functions. This is because, the library is essentially a human enterprise and like all such enterprises, it must depend “ultimately upon the skilled minds and 13 talents of librarians for it to perform its proper role in our everchanging society”. Finally, possible interpretation and of the above definitions in a number of ways demands that they are all taken together in the following ways: 1. That a library is a social instrument created to form a link in the communication system that is to any society or culture. In other words, communication should be seen as so indispensable that without it, there can hardly be a society. 2. Even more so is that without some form of graphic records and a means for their preservation, no culture can possibly endure. 3. In conclusion, it becomes apparent that from time to time, the library may assume certain marginal functions, even though its basic purpose remain generically the same, which is, serving as a link in the communication chain that is concerned with the custody of recorded knowledge. REFERENCES CHAPTER TWO LIBRARY HISTORY Briefs on Library History The first libraries were only partly libraries, being composed for the most part of unpublished records, which are usually viewed as archives, not libraries. Archaeological findings from the ancient citystates of Sumer have revealed temple rooms full of clay tablets in cuneiform script. These archives were made up almost completely of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, with only a few documents touching theological matters, historical records or legends. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt. The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit; besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practicetexts for teaching new scribes. Private or personal libraries made up of nonfiction and fiction books (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) first appeared in classical Greece. The first ones appeared some time near the 5th century BC. The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic Antiquity 1 were listed in the late second century in Deipnosophistae: Polycrates of Samos and Pisistratus who was tyrant of Athens, and Euclides 2 who was himself also an Athenian and Nicorrates of Samos and even the kings of Pergamos, and Euripides the poet and Aristotle the philosopher, and Nelius his 3 librarian; from whom they say our countryman Ptolemæus, surnamed Philadelphus, bought them all, and transported them, with all those which he had 4 collected at Athens and at Rhodes to his own beautiful Alexandria. All these libraries were Greek; the cultivated Hellenized diners in Deipnosophistae pass over the libraries of Rome in silence. At the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, apparently the villa of Caesar's fatherinlaw, the Greek library has been partly preserved in volcanic ash; archaeologists speculate that a Latin library, kept separate from the Greek one, may await discovery at the site. Libraries were filled with parchment scrolls as at Pergamum and on papyrus scrolls as at Alexandria: export of prepared writing materials was a staple of commerce. There were a few institutional or royal libraries like the Library of Alexandria which were open to an educated public, but on the whole collections were private. In those rare cases where it was possible for a scholar to consult library books there seems to have been no direct access to the stacks. In all recorded cases the books were kept in a relatively small room where the staff went to get them for the readers, who had to consult them in an adjoining hall or covered walkway. Little is known about early Chinese libraries, save what is written about the imperial library which began with the Qin Dynasty. One of the curators of the imperial library in the Han Dynasty is believed to have been the first to establish a library classification system and the first book notation system. At this time the library catalog was written on scrolls of fine silk and stored in silk bags. There is also evidence of those libraries at Nippur of about 1900 B.C. and those at Nineveh 5 of about 700 B.C. as showing a library classification system. In Persia, many libraries were established by the Zoroastrian elite and the Persian Kings. Among the first ones was a royal library in Isfahan. One of the most important public libraries established around 667 AD in southwestern Iran was the Library of Gundishapur. It was a part of a bigger scientific complex located at the Academy of Gundishapur. In the West, the first public libraries were established under the Roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove to open one or many which outshone that of his predecessor. Unlike the Greek libraries, readers had direct access to the scrolls, which were kept on shelves built into the walls of a large room. Reading or copying was normally done in the room itself. The surviving records give only a few instances of lending features. As a rule Roman public libraries were bilingual: they had a Latin room and a Greek room. Most of the large Roman baths were also cultural centers, built from the start with a library, with the usual two room arrangement for Greek and Latin texts. In the sixth century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. Cassiodorus, minister to Theodoric, established a monastery at Vivarium in the heel of Italy with a library where he attempted to bring Greek learning to Latin readers and preserve texts both sacred and secular for future generations. As its unofficial librarian, Cassiodorus not only collected as many manuscripts as he could, he also wrote treatises aimed at instructing his monks in the proper uses of reading and methods for copying texts accurately. In the end, however, the library at Vivarium was dispersed and lost within a century. Elsewhere in the Early Middle Ages, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and before the rise of the large Western Christian monastery libraries beginning at Montecassino, libraries were found in scattered places in the Christian Middle East. Upon the rise of Islam, libraries in newly Islamic lands knew a brief period of expansion in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Spain. Like the Christian libraries, they mostly contained books which were made of paper, and took a codex or modern form instead of scrolls; they could be found in mosques, private homes, and universities. Some mosques sponsored public libraries. Ibn alNadim's bibliography Fihrist demonstrates the devotion of medieval Muslim scholars to books and reliable sources; it contains a description of thousands of books circulating in the Islamic world circa 1000, including an entire section for books about the doctrines of other religions. Unfortunately, modern Islamic libraries for the most part do not hold these antique books; many were lost, destroyed by Mongols, or removed to 6 European libraries and museums during the colonial period. By the 8th century first Iranians and then Arabs had imported the craft of paper making from China, with a mill already at work in Baghdad in 794. By the 9th century completely public libraries started to appear in many Islamic cities. They were called "halls of Science" or dar al'ilm. They were each endowed by Islamic sects with the purpose of representing their tenets as well as promoting the dissemination of secular knowledge. The libraries often employed translators and copyists in large numbers, in order to render into Arabic the bulk of the available Persian, Greek and Roman nonfiction and the classics of literature. This flowering of Islamic learning ceased after a few centuries as the Islamic world began to turn against experimentation and learning. After a few centuries many of these libraries were destroyed by Mongolian invasion. Others were victim of wars and religious strife in the Islamic world. However, a few examples of these medieval libraries, such as the libraries of Chinguetti in West Africa, remain intact and relatively unchanged even today. Another ancient library from this period which is still operational and expanding is the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi in the Iranian city of Mashhad, which has been operating for more than six centuries. The contents of these Islamic libraries were copied by Christian monks in Muslim/Christian border areas, particularly Spain and Sicily. From there they eventually made their way into other parts of Christian Europe. These copies joined works that had been preserved directly by Christian monks from Greek and Roman originals, as well as copies Western Christian monks made of Byzantine works. The resulting conglomerate libraries are the basis of every modern library today. Medieval library design reflected the fact that these manuscriptscreated via the laborintensive process of hand copyingwere valuable possessions. Library architecture developed in response to the need for security. Librarians often chained books to lecterns, armaria (wooden chests), or shelves, in welllit rooms. Despite this protectiveness, many libraries were willing to lend their books if provided with security deposits (usually money or a book of equal value). Monastic libraries lent and borrowed books from each other frequently and lending policy was often theologically grounded. For example, the Franciscan monasteries loaned books to each other without a security deposit since according to their vow of poverty only the entire order could own property. In 1212 the council of Paris condemned those monasteries that still forbade loaning books, reminding them that lending is "one of the chief works 7 of mercy." The earliest example in England of a library to be endowed for the benefit of users who were not members of an institution such as a cathedral or college was the Francis Trigge Chained Library in Grantham, Lincolnshire, established in 1598. The library still exists and can justifiably claim to be the forerunner of later public library systems. The early libraries located in monastic cloisters and associated with scriptoria were collections of lecterns with books chained to them. Shelves built above and between backtoback lecterns were the beginning of bookpresses. The chain was attached at the foreedge of a book rather than to its spine. Book presses came to be arranged in carrels (perpendicular to the walls and therefore to the windows) in order to maximize lighting, with low bookcases in front of the windows. This stall system (fixed bookcases perpendicular to exterior walls pierced by closely spaced windows) was characteristic of English institutional libraries. In Continental libraries, bookcases were arranged parallel to and against the walls. This wall system was first introduced on a large scale in Spain's El Escorial. As books became more common, the need for chaining them lessened. But as the number of books in libraries increased, so did the need for compact storage and access with adequate lighting, giving birth to the stack system, which involved keeping a library's collection of books in a space separate from the reading room, an arrangement which arose in the 19th century. Book stacks quickly evolved into a fairly standard form in which the cast iron and steel frameworks supporting the bookshelves also supported the floors, which often were built of translucent blocks to permit the passage of light (but were not transparent, for reasons of modesty). With the introduction of electrical lighting, it had a huge impact on how the library operated. Also, the use of glass floors was largely discontinued, though floors were still often composed of metal grating to allow air to circulate in multistory stacks. Ultimately, even more space was needed, and a method of moving shelves on tracks (compact shelving) was introduced to cut down on otherwise wasted aisle space. Also, the governments of most major countries support national libraries. Three noteworthy examples are the U.S. Library of Congress, Canada's Library and Archives Canada, and the British Library. A typically broad sample of libraries in one state in the U.S. can be explored at Every Library in Illinois. Libraries almost invariably contain long aisles with rows and rows and rows of books. Libraries have materials arranged in a specified order according to a library classification system, so that items may be located quickly and collections may be browsed efficiently. Some libraries have additional galleries beyond the public ones, where reference materials are stored. These reference stacks may be open to selected members of the public. Others require patrons to submit a "stack request," which is a request for an assistant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks. REFERENCESCHAPTER THREE BOOKMAKING HISTORY Briefs on Bookmaking History Mankind has made books in some form for almost as long as there has been the written word. The books may look very different from today’s books, but they served the same purposeto record the everyday workings of civilization and to preserve its legacy. One of the earliest known books is the clay tablets of the Babylonian sand Assyrians. They were written in cuneiformwedgeshaped characterson the clay. They were often stored in clay “envelopes” that protected the tablets much as a modern library book cover does today. Even then, there were libraries full of clay books. The Royal Library of Ninevehcapital of the ancient empire of the Assyrianscontained thousands of clay books on every subject from astronomy to recipes to love poems to legends. The papyrus scroll was made by ancient Egyptians from the aquatic, reed like plant Cyprus papyrus that grew along the banks of the Nile River. The stems were cut into thin strips and laid next to each other, one slightly overlapping the next. Another layer was placed on top, perpendicular to the first. These were lightly pounded to bind them together. Since the sheets were small, several were glued together endtoend to form a scroll. The scroll was then wound around a wooden stick. The Egyptians wrote their hieroglyphics with a length of reed cut into a pen. One of the oldest papyrus scrolls dates from 2500 BC. Since the brittle nature of papyrus did not lend itself to being folded, animal skins helped the move toward the codex form (our modern style) of the book. The use of animal skins as a writing surface has been noted as far back as 500 BC until the appearance of good parchment in the 1st or 2nd century AD. Parchment was also used in scroll form, but could bend without cracking and was quickly adapted into the more convenient codex form. The Romans used wax tablets. These books were made of pieces of wood with a slight hollow carver in them to hold a layer of blackened wax. They wrote by making indentations with an iron stylus (similar to our pencil) and erased by rubbing out the words with the flattened end o the stylus or their finger. Mainly used for business transaction, several of them could be strung together to make something similar to our threering binders. Children also used them for their school lessons. Another interesting form is the leaf book. Palm leaves were trimmed to size and the letters were cut into the leaf. Charcoal was rubbed onto the letters to darken their outlines and several leaves were strung together to make a book. Between the 5th and 11th centuries, the decoration of books was mostly done with precious jewels, carved ivory and gold. The Copts of Alexandria, Egypt decorated their leather bindings with lines and dots made with metal punches. In the 12th century, leather tooling became very popular in England. Designs and ornamentation were stamped into the leather. In the 15th century, gold tooling was introduced by Italian and French craftsmen working under the influences of the Arabs of Morocco. Thin pieces of gold were laid on the leather with some adhesive and the design was pressed into the leather. In the 16th century, embroidered fabric became popular and Queen Elizabeth I was said to have embroidered cloth for book covers. Silks, velvet, seed pearls, silver and gold threads were all used to make the beautiful covers. With the invention of the printing press, movable type and the introduction of paper to the West, the nature of bookbinding changed. More books were produced and the binder had to find new, faster methods to bind and decorate them. In 1861, David Smyth invented a book sewing machine. While the trend of mechanized binding continues today, there are still craftspeople who bind books by hand and much of modern hand bookbinding owes a great debt to the 19th century 18 Arts and Crafts movement. Some Famous Libraries in History Some of the greatest libraries in the world are research libraries. The most famous ones include The Humanities and Social Sciences Library of the New York Public Library in New York City, the Russian National Library in St Petersburg, the British Library in London, Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris, and the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.. 1. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh, founded between 669631 BC. 2. Egypt's Library of Alexandria (founded in 3rd century BC) and modern Bibliotheca Alexandrina. 3. Baghdad's House of Wisdom, founded in 8th century AD. 4. Islamic Spain's library of Cordoba, founded in 9th century. 5. Egypt's library of Cairo, founded in 10th century. 6. Tripoli's Dar il'ilm, destroyed in 1109. 7. Ambrosian Library in Milan opened to the public, December 8, 1609. 8. Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BNF) in Paris, 1720. 9. Boston Public Library in Boston, 1826. 10. Bodleian Library at University of Oxford 1602, books collection begin around 1252. 11. British Library in London created in 1973 by the British Library Act of 1972. 12. British Library of Political and Economic Science in London, 1896. 13. Butler Library at Columbia University, 1934 14. Cambridge University Library at University of Cambridge, 1931. 15. Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, 1895. 16. Carolina Rediviva at Uppsala University, 1841 17. Dutch Royal Library in The Hague, 1798 18. The European Library, 2004 19. Firestone Library at Princeton University, 1948 20. Fisher Library at the University of Sydney (largest in the Southern Hemisphere), 1908 21. Franklin Public Library in Franklin, Massachusetts (the first public library in the U.S.; original books donated by Benjamin Franklin in 1731) 22. Free Library of Philadelphia in Philadelphia established February 18, 1891. 23. Garrison Library in Gibraltar, 1793. 24. Harold B. Lee Library at Brigham Young University, 1924, probably the largest singlebuilding university library in the world. 25. House of Commons Library, Westminster, London. Established 1818. 26. Jenkins Law Library in Philadelphia founded 1802. 27. Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem, Israel, 1892. 28. John Rylands Library in Manchester 1972. 29. Leiden University Library at Leiden University in Leiden began at 1575 with confiscated monastery books. Officially open in October 31, 1587. 30. Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. 1800. 31. Library of Sir Thomas Browne, 1711 32. Mitchell Library in Glasgow (Europe's largest public reference library) 33. National Library of Belarus in Minsk, 2006. 34. National Library of Australia in Canberra, Australia 35. National Library of Ireland, Dublin 36. New York Public Library in New York 37. Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada 38. Sassanid's ancient Library of Gondishapur around 489. 39. National Library of Iran, 1937. 40. Powell Library at UCLA, part of the UCLA Library. 41. Russian State Library in Moscow, 1862. 42. Royal Library in Copenhagen, 1793. 43. Seattle Central Library 44. Staatsbibliothek in Berlin 45. State Library of Victoria in Melbourne 46. Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University, 1931. 47. Vatican Library in Vatican City, 1448 (but existed before). 48. Widener Library at Harvard University (Harvard University Library including all branches has the largest academic collection overall.) 49. The St. Phillips Church Parsonage Provincial Library, established in 1698 in Charleston, South Carolina, was the first public lending library in the American Colonies. 50. Boston Public Library, an early public lending library in America, was established in 1848. 51. Haskell Free Library and Opera House, which straddles the CanadaUS border. 52. St. Marys Church, Reigate, Surrey houses the first public lending library in England. Opened 14 March 1701. REFERENCES CHAPTER FOUR BRIEFS ON THE CARNEGIE CORPORATION’S LIBRARY PROGRAMMES The Briefs Andrew Carnegie established more than 20 organizations in the U.S. and abroad dedicated to philanthropy, promoting international peace, rewarding selfless heroism and pursuing other goals aimed at improving people’s lives across the globe. To many however, his name is still synonymous with creating libraries. Beginning in 1886, Carnegie, and later Carnegie Corporation, in its early years, collectively spent 56 million to create 1,681 public libraries in nearly all U.S. communities and 828 libraries in other parts of the world. Carnegie Corporation of New York, as it was later known, inherited its interest in libraries from its founder and president from its establishment in 1911 until 1919, the year of his death, and who initiated a library program at the foundation. During the early years, the program emphasized the construction of new library buildings across the country; between 1918 and 1925. Although the Corporation continued to make some grants for library development, its efforts were primarily devoted to appraisal and evaluation of its library program until then. Beginning in 1926, the Corporation embarked on a largescale expansion of its libraryrelated efforts, aimed mainly at strengthening the library profession, but also at the enhancement of central services. For these programs, the Corporation spent an average of about 830,000 a year until 1941. Rural library services were greatly enhanced under Corporation grants in the 1920s and 1930s, especially in the South. As to academic libraries, between 1930 and 1943, the Corporation appropriated nearly 2.5 million to more than 200 liberal arts colleges in a series of grants for library development and services and for the purchase of books for undergraduate reading. Although the Corporation’s charter permitted it to make grants in the countries that are now known as the former British Commonwealth, it did not extend its library interests, except for public library buildings, beyond the Western Hemisphere until 1928, when, coinciding with the Corporation’s initiation of grants to countries in Africa, it began promoting the concept of free library services in subSaharan Africa. The majority of Corporation funds went to the Central State Library of South Africa, which stimulated the development of free library services throughout the four provinces that made up the South Africa Union at that time. Substantial grants also went for the development of libraries and the purchase of books and training in Gambia, Nigeria, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Uganda and other Commonwealth countries. After World War II, grants for library purposes received a decreasing share of the Corporation’s funds, except in Africa. More emphasis was placed on grants for central services provided by the American Library Association, the Association of Research Libraries, the Library of Congress and other organizations and for new technologies and equipment aimed at facilitating library use. In the past 25 years, the Corporation has not had a program of support for domestic libraries, with the exception of a few grants for specific purposes. With the reassessment of Corporation strategies under its current president, Vartan Gregorian, who was previously president of the New York Public Library in the 1990s, the Corporation decided to reform its International Development Program and support the revitalization of universities and libraries in Africa. The foundation’s most recent libraryrelated efforts have focused on sub Saharan Africa with the goal of developing national libraries, revitalizing selected public libraries and consolidating the development of university libraries in countries and institutions that have strategic intervention programs funded by the Corporation. “The public library revitalization program supports the development of selected public libraries in order to create ‘model centers of excellence’ that help their system lobby for greater resources and public support of library services”. Based on criteria such as relevance to the country and community, types of library services provided and strength of leadership, the Corporation, to date, has provided support to public library systems in Kenya, Botswana and South Africa. In addition to its library program in Africa, the Corporationwhile not maintaining a program of support for U.S. librarieshas continued to make special initiative grants to domestic public libraries in recent years. Some highlights include: in 1999, the Corporation awarded 15 million to promote literacy services to children and adolescents, preservation and special collections at The New York Public Library, Brooklyn Public Library, Queens Borough Public Library and libraries in 22 other cities serving large, culturally diverse populations. The grants commemorated the centennial period of Andrew Carnegie’s gifts to establish public libraries in New York City and more than 1,350 other communities across America. Almost all of the grant recipients were originally funded by Andrew Carnegie between 1899 and 1906. All were chosen according to the size and diversity of population served, geographic spread and/or historical relationship to Andrew Carnegie, according to Corporation president Vartan Gregorian. In May 2003, the Corporation made a 4.5 million grant to support the book collection at The New York Public Library and at the Brooklyn and Queens libraries in memory of those who lost their lives on September 11th. It was the second award made as part of the Corporation’s 10 million pledge to support the unmet needs of the communities in New York and Washington, D.C. following the terrorist attacks. Each book purchased through this challenge fund will have a bookplate commemorating those who died in the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11th, so that years from now, new readers will not forget the sacrifice made by so many in the name of America’s freedom, values and way of life. These grants were also made as a challenge to other funders with the hope that they will contribute to libraries and other New York City institutions and serve as a catalyst for other publicprivate partnerships. In June 2003, along with the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and Bill Melinda Gates Foundation, the Corporation made a one time contribution to the Laura Bush Foundation for America’s Libraries for its administration costs. The mission of the Laura Bush Foundation is to support the education of the nation’s children by providing funds to update, extend and diversify the book and print collections of America’s school libraries. REFERENCES CHAPTER FIVE THE LIBRARY AND THE BOOK: A RELATIONSHIP ESTABLISHED Introduction It goes almost without saying that the primary concern of the library, right from the very beginning, has been the communication of knowledge, ideas and thoughts from one person, group of persons or generation to the other. Even so it is for the book, which originated as a sort solution to the social problem that storing and transmitting information from one person, culture or geography to another became in the ancient word. That was the time when the only key instrument for information storing and transmitting was the human memory with its attendant shortcomings. Thus, there is a parallel between the library and the book as both served as information storage and transmitter. But then, the knowledge, ideas, information and thoughts, which the library seeks to store and transmit are essentially intangibles which could not be handled unless they are encoded and embodied. Consequent upon this, it is only expected that they find embodiment in such physical objects as book and other nonbook formats. Our inability to rise above the challenge of distinguishing between the physical object and the intellectual content, which is the reality, probably accounted for the equation of libraries with books. The Issues The critical issue here is that a book, by itself, is no more than a physical representation of the author’s thoughts and ideas, just as its utility varies from one reader to the other, especially regarding what the individuals bring to it in understanding. Considering its three cardinal functions throughout history namely: to collect, preserve and makeavailable, it becomes abundantly clear that the library had served as an essential instrument for the maximum realization of the great benefits of the book as all other materials that have been used before it. This does not, in any way whatsoever, rub off the great significance of an individual book, scroll or codex as the case may be, in itself. The argument simply, is that to realize its full benefits, such a medium must be a part of a wellselected aggregate of books. Once a part of the library collections, the user is immediately with an unlimited power, through the unrestricted access that the book allows for pursuing to its depth, a study of one’s choice. This way, a user possibly gets translated into “whatever time and place of his wish as he ceases to be a servant of a given view or the prisoner of a single dogma, but master over an empire of knowledge”. Thus, it is undeniable that “a library of a thousand books brought together serves a function different from and 1 far greater than any that can be served by a thousand volumes in separate places”. Purposes of the Book Incidentally, books have been found to endure the way most other works of man could not. Not only have they served as a veritable tool for communicating ideas, knowledge and information from one generation to the other as does the library, they have also served a number of purposes some of which include that they: 1. Provide the union of understanding that links the generations. 2. Enable us share human experience down through time. 3. Allow us cast our vision of life. 4. Enable us forge out a future we shall not see. However, to realize all these, the indispensable role of the library comes to the fore as it again serves as the essential instrument for giving reality to the potentials of books for immortality. By this, we mean that the library, more than any instrument of society, opens to public use, the treasury embedded in books. Furthermore, it can be gleaned from the above that without libraries, perhaps only the rich and the wealthy would be availed exclusive access to a wide range of books. Even at that, it is significant to note that the most that any man of great wealth will be able to command can only amount to just a fraction of the 2 intellectual riches open to any user of a reasonably good library”. Thus, in general, libraries are said to have come into existence primarily, in response to society’s need for an agency to: 1. Preserve and make widely accessible the records of human experience. 2. Stimulate thoughtful people everywhere to come up with positive insights and values from the past and to assimilate them into the new order. 3. Identify relationships in this fastchanging world. 4. Maintain the records of new ideas, technologies and values, so that individuals and institutions can perceive and then control the direction of 3 change as it relates to each person’s particular life experience. The Significance of the Library People are what a library is all about. A library serves all who use it and reaches out to all who do not or cannot. That is what the materials in a library, and the people who work there, are for. It is common for a public library to have story hours for children, including preschoolers. There are also picture books for them to page through, filmstrips and films to watch, and records to listen to. Children can see an exhibit of dolls or mobiles, watch a puppet show, or take part in an art contest. Some public libraries even have educational toys to play with and to take home. Tables, chairs, and shelves in a children's department are built to smaller and more convenient scale. Children's librarians introduce children's books to parents and help children choose books that are right for them. Sometimes storytellers are sent out into a community, and children in some places can call on the telephone to have a story read to them. For those attending school, there is the school as well as the public library. Books andwhere these are availablerecords, even cassettes and cassette players, can be taken home. Study booths and tables allow youngsters to work alone or in groups. Screening rooms in some libraries are for viewing of films, filmstrips, and videotapes. For sound tapes and records there are usually special listening areas. Both school and public librarians teach students how to use a library. From secondary school on, young people are served by many kinds of libraries. Public libraries may have young adult sections with books and other materials of interest to young people. Young adult librarians plan film programs, pottery or karate workshops, and discussions on topics that concern the young in that particular community. In a few school and academic libraries, a student can dial to get a foreign language lesson or hear a lecture that has been stored in an information retrieval bank. Research libraries, when not part of a university, usually do not loan their materials. But all types of materials can be checked out of many other libraries. What cannot be checked out can often be borrowed through interlibrary loan or photocopiedmany libraries have photocopy machines, or copiers, for people to use. There may also be machines called microfilm, microcard, and microfiche readers. With these, a person can read books, magazines, and newspapers that have been photographed and much reduced in size. Adults, too, are served by many kinds of libraries. Film programs and discussion groups, concerts and plays held in library auditoriums, and art exhibitions often are planned. In many places, women's groups, business management groups, labour groups, and others can request materials and conference rooms for meetings. Librarians provide materials and guidance on recreation, income tax, travel, health, and retirement. Adults who do not speak the language of the country well or who have little schooling can attend special programmes at public libraries. Public librarians also reach out with books and services to such places as schools, nursing homes for the elderly, jails, factories, union halls, and housing projects. In special libraries, librarians not only find information for company workers but often summarize it for them. For people of all ages, there are librarians specially trained to answer questions or help people get materials. There are also reference books such as encyclopedias to use in finding information without help. Finding out is easier for people interested in special subjects because library collections are arranged by subject. Library interiors are designed to be inviting and comfortable for reading, listening, viewing, and studying. Special devices such as wheelchair ramps are installed for the physically handicapped. Many public libraries are community centres, with local artists showing their work, or community leaders giving talks. A public library in the city has branch libraries and bookmobiles. For people in the country, there are books by mail, bookmobiles, book sleds, book boats, book trains, and even book planes. “Talking books” and the record players to use them are sent to the blind. So are magazines and books in Braille, as well as books with large type for people with poor eyesight. Libraries reach out to help deaf, sick, poor, and forgotten people. A library in ancient Egypt was called “The Healing Place of the Soul.” That goes a long way towards explaining the essence of a library. The following is a vivid summary of the significance of the library: 1. Library is a busy workshop where persons of all ages can seek and acquire knowledge. 2. A Library makes it possible for us to show the experiences of many other persons by reading about their thoughts, ideals, feelings, opinions and achievements. 3. The information sources in the holding of a library give us the ideas and facts that have collected for thousands of years. 4. Libraries also provide uptodate information in all fields with collections of books, journals, newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, photographs, records, motion pictures and other Information Technology related databases. 5. The library has been described as the “memory of the human race”. It is like a giant brain that remembers all that scientists, historians, poets, philosophers and others have thought and learned. 6. It is a meeting place for the ideas and words of persons who have influenced the human race and his world. 7. It also serves as a place where the experience of the past can meet the needs of the present. 8. Libraries served us in our school work, as aid in our daily undertaking and for pleasure in our leisure time just as young people learn to use the library as part of their everyday school activities. 9. Libraries are one of the most conducive atmospheres for reading, studying and researches. 10. The library is one element in the total communication system by which a 4 society is held together and a culture is created and maintained. REFERENCES Harrod, L.M. (1971) The Librarians’ Glossary of Terms Used in Librarianship, rd Documentation and the Book Crafts and Reference Book. 3 rev. ed. London: Andre Deutsch Limited. Lacy, D. (1988) “Library”. Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition. Vol. 17. Connectus: Grolier Incorporated. The World Book Encyclopedia (1964) Large Type Edition. Vol.5. Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corporation.CHAPTER SIX THE BOOK AND ITS IMPORTANCE Introduction Right from the time when man started to live in a state of society as a member of a group, the necessity for communication has arisen. This is for the simple fact that man can hardly live in that state of society without interacting with fellow group members. It was in an effort to fulfill this fundamental obligation that the spoken language evolved as one of the earliest systems of communication known to man. Through the spoken language then, all manners of information, knowledge and experience on a variety of subjectmatters varying from world history, rituals, stories, prayers, medicine etc, were transmitted from generation to generation. At this stage in history, the human memory was the only key instrument for such storage and transmission necessities. But this obviously came with its spectacular limitations. For instance, at a point whereby oral tradition became too voluminous for continuous and effective retention by human memory, there arose the serious problem of loss of vital information. It was in an effort to arrest this unfortunate situation that the written words (i.e the book) came as a form of insurance. This was evident in the contents of early forms of books, which were mainly “collections of magic formulas, prayers and rituals, epics and sagas, dynastic records, laws, accumulated medical experience and observations of the physical 17 universe”. The realization that the spoken words could be represented by visual symbols actually heralded the coming of the written language. Earliest Forms of Writings It is significant to note that the earliest forms of writings were largely crude pictures carved on rocks, stones, bark, metal, clay or whatever materials were then at hand. The three main antecedents of the earliest writings were the “pictographic,” (representing an object); the “ideographic”, (representing the idea suggested by the object) and finally the “phonographic” (indicating the sound of the object or idea). With just a few survivors, “vegetable, fiber, cloth, wood back, animal skin, clay and metal” were the major materials used then for crude picture writing. In any case, their significance lies in the fact that they served as the antecedents to the modernday books as well as the other systems of writing. Initially, single copies of a given text would be made, from which more copies could be copied as the needs arose. A significant factor in the history of Western culture was the phenomenal rate of increase in the ability to multiply a text. Thus, in Classical Rome, it was possible within a relatively short time to provide hundred copies of the new work of a popular author. Given the same amount of time still, several thousand copies were produced using the early printer; while in the Machine age, books were conveniently printed in millions of copies. Today, books are seen and used almost everywhere serving either as familiar friends or useful tools. This was in contrast to the earlier periods when only a very few learned persons even saw or read books. No doubt, therefore, that the oldest 19 books were quite unlike our modern ones. Definition of a Book Attempted Efforts at providing a definition of books may turn out to be an interesting exercise even though it might not be as simple and straight forward as it may seem at first. The fact that a book is composed of two major characteristic from which it can be approached partly accounted for this; as much will depend on which of the physical or functional perspective one has chosen to explain the concept. Taken from the physical point of view, “any object that is an assembly of leaves held together along one of four edges and protected on front and back with a cover of 20 more durable materials”, qualifies as a book. Thus, in this very loose sense, not only a novel or a Bible but also a checkbook, ledger, or notebook can be referred to as a book. From the functional perspective, however, a book can be defined as “a more or less coherent body of graphic communication assembled into one or several units for the purpose of systematic presentation and preservation of lastingly 21 valuable materials”. This definition is highly instructive for its several functional elements which include: (i) The element of preservation (ii) The element of retention of experiences, observations and creative expressions of lasting value that distinguished the book from the variety of more transitory communication. Technically, “a set of blank sheets of paper bound along one edge and enclosed within protective covers to form a volume, especially a written or printed 22 literary composition presented in this way” has been referred to as a book. At a UNESCO conference in 1964, a book was defined as “a nonperiodical printed 23 publication of at least fortynine pages, exclusion of cover pages”. Thus, a book is a division of a literary work, separately published with an independent physical existence, whose pagination sometimes continued with other volumes. In ordinary use, the word “book” means written or printed matter on paper leaves held together and protected by a cover. The term is thus used for a variety of printed products. The Importance of the Book There is a unique value of the book to the healthy growth of a free and enlightened democracy all over the world. This makes for the efforts to preserve and to further the dignity and the beauty of the book in the modern world. Hence, some of the specific values or importance of the book include: 1. Book serves as a vital and indispensible form of communication. 2. It serves primarily as the storehouse of facts and figures. 3. It represents beauty as a work of art in itself. 4. It is a means of transmitting spiritual values and ideas. 5. Reading it or random browsing through brings about some form of physical joy. 6. It brings about a kind of informal, spontaneous and entirely voluntary communication between author and reader. CHAPTER SEVEN CONSTITUENT PARTS OF A LIBRARY The Concept of a System The Microsoft Encarta (2008) defines a system as a complex whole formed from related parts: a combination of related parts organized into a complex whole; set of principles: a scheme of ideas or principles by which something is organized. Quite simply put, a system is a number of individual components of a whole; all of which are expected to function together in order to achieve a common, set goal(s). A good illustration of this is the Sound System; made up of the Deck, Amplifier and Speaker(s); all the three components are quite essential to the production of sound. This is to the extent that the lack of, or inadequate functioning of one automatically affects the others; as all the components must be in good and functioning conditions for a system to exist. Even more explicit is the Human system, comprising such subsystems as the Digestive, Respiratory, Excretory, Nervous and Circulatory. However slight the discomfort in one translates into same for the rest to the extent that these others are as discomforted as the one that was directly affected. Thus, all the sub components of a system are not only interrelated but more importantly, interdependent and indeed, interconnected. This is the typical conception of a system. The Library System A typical library is composed of a number of departments, sections or units, which include: Circulation, Technical, Reference, Serials, Media, Reserved and Readers’ Services as the case may be from one library to the other; due to slight variations existing in different types of libraries. As a system, library is a complex of relations between people and information processes, within larger social, economic and political systems. Systems are not synonyms with computers; in librarianship, they are communication system of ideas interrelated with an operational system using computers in its physical processes. In the systems approach, information is essential; it is communicated by libraries, which "as the medium for organization and transfer of information are society's work of art." A library "is a group of things that have been brought together to provide specific knowledge for the use of specific people to serve a specific purpose at a specific point in time." It is defined as "an organized collection of the carriers of knowledge." Organization is "both a way of referring to an ability to locate library materials, and a way to show the interrelationships between them." Collection is the basic concept in library work and its professionalism. Carriers define the library's function as a knowledge storehouse. Knowledge is the information packaged into higher level of organization. A library "is a group of things that have been brought together to provide specific knowledge for the use of specific people to serve a specific purpose at a specific point in time." "Libraries represent basic knowledge availability systems that are far more than mere repositories for storing books. Changing library designs over the past hundred years has reflected and been closely associated with changing conceptions of the underlying rationality and order in knowledge. The proliferation of new activities have led to the emergence of new professions and disciplines whose main intellectual and practical responsibility is for management, storage, and retrieval of bodies of knowledge in a formal, rather than a substantive way. Instead of the earlier predominance of a substantive focus on the classification and storing of relevant bodies of knowledge, these new disciplines domains and techniques focus on structures of relevance, ways in which information can be traced within bodies of knowledge, and ways of charting the various channels of knowledge flow through social systems. The ALA Glossary defines library science as "the knowledge, demands and skills by which recorded information is selected, acquired, organized and utilized in meeting the information needs of a community of users." Library science is a study of the principles relating to the generation, collection, organization and classification of information for storage and retrieval. Major responsibility is for dissemination of all forms of information to appropriate audiences. Library science is the knowledge and skill needed to recognize, collect, organize and utilize printed records in terms of the patron need; collecting rather than accumulating, organizing rather than arranging library materials. The library is defined as "an organized collection of the carriers of knowledge." Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics relating to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. Historically, library science has also included archival science. The distinction between a library and an archive is relatively modern. This includes how information resources are organized to serve the needs of select user groups, how people interact with classification systems and technology, how information is acquired, evaluated and applied by people in and outside of libraries as well as crossculturally, how people are trained and educated for careers in libraries, the ethics that guide library service and organization, the legal status of libraries and information resources, and the applied science of computer technology used in documentation and records management. Academic courses in library science include Collection Management, Information Systems and Technology, Cataloguing and Classification, Preservation, Reference, Statistics and Management. Library science is constantly evolving, incorporating new topics like Database Management, Information Architecture and Knowledge Management. There is no generally agreed distinction between library science, library and information science, and librarianship. To a certain extent they can be considered equivalent terms, perhaps adopted to increase the "science" aspect, or improve the popular image of librarians. The term Library and Information Science (LIS) is sometimes used; most librarians consider it as only a terminological variation, intended to emphasize the scientific and technical foundations of the subject, and its relationship with information science. LIS should not be confused with information theory, the mathematical study of the concept of information, or information science, a field related to computer science and cognitive science. One operational view, implied by some textbooks, is that librarianship means the professional aspects of work as a librarian, such as certification, inservice training and issues of gender equality. The ALA Glossary defines librarianship as "the profession concerned with the application of knowledge of media and those principles, theories, techniques and technologies which contribute to the establishment, preservation, organization, and utilization of collections of library materials and to the dissemination of information through media." The Library and its Personnel The typical library staff consists of three levels of employees: professional librarians, support staff, and parttime assistants. The proportion of each of these in any given institution depends on the type of library, its budget, and the types of users it serves. Professional librarians usually constitute the smallest number of a library’s employees. Most professional librarians have earned at least a master’s degree in library science or information science, the study of information and the manner in which it is generated, recorded, stored, retrieved, transmitted, and used. Some professional librarians have earned additional graduate degrees also. Professional librarians require a wide range of skills and talents. They must have solid bibliographic and technological skills, as well as strong communication and interpersonal abilities. Advances in library technologies have also led to a high demand for professional skills such as database searching and competence in using the Internet and other computer networks and systems. The librarian in charge of administering the entire institution is usually referred to as the director. Other professional librarians typically administer the library’s various departments. In small libraries, however, the director may be solely responsible for managing all of the library’s departments. In addition to their managerial work, professional librarians assume primary responsibility for providing reference assistance, developing and managing the collections, and overseeing cataloging. Nonprofessional support staff commonly assume most of the responsibility for directly serving library users. Their activities include essential functions such as inputting, coding, and verifying bibliographic and other data; ordering library materials; assisting with catalog development; performing circulation duties such as checking out books to users; and performing other services vital to the library’s daily operation. Most libraries employ parttime staff members in addition to fulltime professional and support staff. Parttime staff members typically shelve books, perform lowlevel clerical duties, and carry out other relatively simple but essential tasks. In academic libraries, large numbers of parttime studentassistants play a critical role in the daytoday functioning of the library. Public libraries also hire socalled library pages to help perform tasks that require no professional training, such as shelving books and periodicals. In addition, many public libraries make use of community volunteers to assist library staff in simple tasks. Many professional librarians were first attracted to the profession while they were working as library assistants, pages, or volunteers. In small libraries, librarians might perform a range of tasks, with one or two librarians and possibly a clerk handling all of the activities of the library. Because of the small size of the staff, a single librarian might combine clerical and professional tasks. In large libraries, the support staff have taken on many of the tasks previously performed by professionals. Much of this transfer of responsibility has been made possible by the introduction of relatively simple and efficient computer technology, which has permitted support staff to accomplish large portions of cataloging that were once done by professionals. Additionally, while professional librarians usually manage library functions such as circulation and acquisition, support staff or parttime workers often perform the bulk of the actual tasks in these departments. The patterns of library staffing vary from country to country. In general, libraries in more developed countries distinguish clearly between the tasks done by professional and nonprofessional staff. In less developed countries, the smaller size of staffs and a lack of new, efficient computer technology have made this separation more difficult. Library assistants or technicians might do any of the following: shelving (in the absence of shelvers), circulation duties (check in, check out, supervision), derived cataloguing, programming, ordering, answering ready reference questions or materials processing. Librarians might do any of the following professional tasks: book selection, original cataloguing, making library policy, evaluating performance of others, answering more complex reference questions, or dealing with the complaints and concerns of patrons. Librarians may do nonprofessional tasks in the absence of technicians and shelvers. Library technicians and assistants may do professional tasks in the absence of professional staff. A library is more than a place, more than books and films and records. Basically a library is a gathering of ideas, of informationput in order and shared. Thus, most libraries are not run by librarians alone. If it were not for other library workers, in many places a person could not get a library card, find a clipping in the vertical file, use a microfilm reader, or take out a book. On any given day, one person may return half a dozen books, a magazine or two, and several records to the library. Multiply that by several hundred or several thousand and the result is a mountain of materials that must be sorted and put back in the right place. This is usually the work of a library page. Sorting and shelving are also done by temporary student employees, or student assistants. Pages have to be accuratea book or magazine or record misplaced is as good as lost for days, weeks, or months. Library clerks work out in front or behind the scenes. A clerk who deals with the public may help a youngster register for a library card; check materials in and out, collect overdue fines, help renew or reserve materials, or show someone how to operate a copying machine. A copying machine or chargeout machine can be mastered in a matter of minutes. What can't be mastered as easily is a pleasant attitude toward all people, springing from a desire to help them. Such an attitude is a must for all library people dealing with the public. A clerk who prefers to work behind the scenes may file and keep records, check in new materials and get them ready for use, type overdue notices in libraries where this isn't done by computer, operate a teletype, feed a computer the information needed to order a book or record or film. Both outfront and behind the scenes clerks need a high school diploma usually, or the ability to pass a civil service exam. All clerks work under the supervision of a librarian or library aide, and student assistants often do clerical work. Library aides assist with many of the librarian's jobs. A library aide dealing with the public may help people find materials, answer easier reference questions, explain the library's services. Behindthescenes aides may operate audiovisual equipment, arrange displays, keep up the vertical file, look up prices and other information the librarian needs to order materials, supervise pages and clerks. For supervising others, aides must be tactful, firm, and able to follow the librarian's instructions as well as translate those instructions to others. A job as library aide requires at least a high school diploma, and many who do such work are library technicians, with two years of college. Aides who are college graduates are sometimes called library associates. Often they and library technicians do the more skilled types of library work. Other library workers include audiovisual technicians to inspect and repair the audiovisual hardware of a library, book repairers to mend and rebind books and other materials, artists and photographers to prepare displays and public relations materials, and maintenance workers to keep library buildings in good condition. People with advanced training in related fields such as computer science and accounting also work in libraries. From the foregoing, it becomes obvious that without people, a library would be a mere place, a warehouse. Above all it is people using a library who make it come alive, but people are also needed to make a library work. Even the computerized memory cells of the future could not function without library people; namely: the professionals called librarians and the many who help them. Thus, in conclusion, librarians are said to have many different faces such that a librarian in a modern school may be called a media specialist. In a computerized business library, the librarian may be called an information scientist, or documentalist. There are children's librarians and young adult librarians in public libraries, institutional librarians in hospital and prison libraries, university librarians in university libraries. All librarians, whatever their work, have this in common: they are members of a profession in the service of mankind like teachers, like doctors. Librarians also share knowledge and skills learned in college, in library school after college, and on the job. CHAPTER EIGHT THE DIFFERENT FEATURES OF THE LIBRARIAN Introduction A librarian does three main kinds of work: selecting materials for the library, organizing them so that they will be easy to find and use and helping people get materials or information they need. To select materials, a librarian finds out what the library's users and potential users need. Rarely, if ever, can a library afford to buy all materials needed. So the librarian must be an expert not only on what materials are available but on which are more dependable, more useful to the library than others. To make room for new materials, the librarian regularly reviews the library collection, removing materials no longer useful. A good collection offers many points of view on any given subject. An important part of the librarian's job is to resist pressure from special groups who want to get rid ofor addmaterials because of the point of view. The Librarian as a Generalist If it were not arranged, if it did not have a catalog, a library would be a trackless jungle of information. That is where the organizer of materials comes in. This librarian examines every new book, record, film, or other item to determine what it is about. After the librarian decides what the subject is and how the item is related to other materials in the library, the item is catalogued, or described. Most libraries use card catalogues, but some modern libraries use a book catalog made and printed by computer. Helping people get materials or information they need is circulation and reference work. The librarian in charge of circulation supervises the use of all materials. In many large libraries, this librarian works behind the scenes in a private office. Clerks usually issue library cards, lend and receive materials, keep records of materials borrowed, collect fines for materials that are overdue, and even help people find materials they want. The way in which each such job is done is determined by the librarian in charge. Much circulation work is automated in libraries todaythere are computerized systems to keep a record of materials lent and returned, for instance. Nobody knows all the answers. The librarian in reference pursues a deeper wisdomto understand all the questions. To learn what exactly the questioner is trying to find out, a reference librarian must be an expert interviewer. The whole point of reference work is personal assistance, either finding the answer or guiding a person to it. The same question may call for different types of helpfor people of different ages and backgrounds, for example. Much reference work can be done by phone. The Librarian as a Specialist The three main kinds of library work are part of every librarian's education. But, as in other professions, many librarians become specialists. An acquisitions librarian specializes in locating and ordering materials, a cataloger in organizing materials, a reference librarian in helping people get information. In many school and public libraries, there are media specialists and readers' advisers. A media specialist is an expert on the use of all materials, both print and nonprint. A readers' adviser helps choose materials or prepares a special reading list for a particular person. Readers' advisers in hospital and prison libraries practice bibliotherapy, helping treat the sick, the disturbed, the downhearted with books and other materials. Public librarians may specialize by age group of user. A children's librarian must know about such things as child behavior, what children study in school, non print materials and their uses, the teaching of reading, children's literature, and how to tell a story. Guiding children in their reading is an important part of the work. So are selecting materials, holding story hours, working with parents and ParentTeacher Associations, visiting nearby classrooms, teaching the use of the library, and planning such special projects as Book Week. A young adult librarian works with roughly the teenage group. Such a librarian must know what young adults are like, what they study in school, what they read and listen to and look at in their free time. It is especially important for a librarian working with this age group to be outgoing, unflappable, imaginative, and socially aware. The young adult librarian selects materials, keeping up with everchanging teenage interests; acts as a readers' adviser; visits schools to talk about books and other materials; and explains how to use a library. An important part of work with young adults is planning programmes for them. A public librarian may also specialize in the hardtoreach, neglected, and unserved. These include school dropouts, the elderly, the uneducated, ghetto dwellers, the rural poor, and minorities. Many in such groups have reading problems and are reluctant or unable to come to a library. If there is one ingredient a librarian in such work needs above all, it is heart. To bring hope to the hopeless and a feeling of belonging to the outcast, professionalism is not enough. Also needed are initiative and imagination to draw such people to the library as well as to take the library to the people. A contagious enthusiasm for books is a must. So is a strong background in nonprint materials because they draw many people in such groups. The librarian should also know about the teaching of reading and the use of easytoread materials for adults. Many academic and research librarians are subject or language specialists. Such librarians usually have special training in music, or African materials, or Spanish and Portuguese literature, or the sciences, etc. Subject specialists are found also in government librariesarchivists specializing in historical papers, librarians specializing in law. There are many subject specialists in special libraries. The special librarian makes searches for informationhelping an engineer gather materials for a report, preparing a reading list on water pollution for a steel company executive. Because engineers, doctors, and other specialists do not have time to read everything published in their field, the special librarian may review and summarize new articles and reports. Such summaries, or abstracts, keep busy people up to date and help them decide what to read for more information. Another part of special library work is having important articles and reports translated. Information searches are made more and more with the help of computers. Some translation, too, is done by machine, but there are serious problems involved. Because special librarians often make much use of other libraries, they must know not only their own but other library collections in their subjects. Special librarians often have advanced training in the field of concentration of their library. They should also have a background in library technology, automation being common in special libraries. Many librarians do not specialize. They are generalists, working with a variety of groups and subjects. Included among generalists are most school librarians. School librarians work closely with teachers in helping students get the reading habit, learn study skills, and understand how to use a library. Besides an understanding of children or young adults, school librarians need a background in print and nonprint materials. In many places also, a school librarian must be qualified as a teacher. This is especially important as the school library becomes more and more a learning laboratory, an extension of the classroom. The Librarian as an Information Scientist A librarian is a mover of ideas, of information from one mind to another. So it is not enough to know library science. A librarian must understand the bigger picture called information science, of which library science is only a part. To teach the use of a library, a librarian must understand how people think when they attack lookitup problems. That is part of information science. To index a vertical file a librarian must understand how language works. That, too, is part of information science. A librarian often has to know something about computers to work with them. In addition, he or she may need some mathematics to use computer language. Both mathematics and computer technology are part of information science. To run a library, the librarian must learn techniques for analyzing and improving a system. Information science includes systems management, too. Many librarians who work in automated libraries are called information scientists. But the term is not used by all such librarians. Basically, every librarian must be an information scientist. The Librarian as a Person The libraries of the world have room enoughand work enoughfor many types of people. There are reference jobs for the Iwanttoworkwithpeople type; jobs with the underprivileged for the Iwanttoimprovetheworld type; jobs as cataloguers and bibliographers for the Iwanttodoresearch type. There are jobs for closetohome and awayfromhome types, for smalllibrary and largelibrary types, for specialists and generalists, book addicts and nonbook addicts, teacher types, leader types. While librarians do not run to one type, though, they do have some things in common; some of which include: 1. A librarian serves the people of a communitya college, a school, a plastics companyeither directly or indirectly. 2. A librarian is a matchmaker, bringing people and knowledge together. 3. A librarian is sometimes the uninvited. Not everyone who needs help asks for it so a librarian must be able to take the initiative. 4. A librarian is a voracious reader. Ideas come in many kinds of packages, most of them books, and a librarian has to be broadly knowledgeable. 5. A librarian is curious. He or she has not only an appetite for knowledge but an open mind that does not fear new ideas. 6. A librarian has a sense of order. Everybody who works in a library has to know where things are and how to find them, quickly. CHAPTER NINE CATEGORIES OF LIBRARY COLLECTIONS Introduction There are different types of library materials especially the reference books, differently arranged. Each answers different kinds of questions. Library Collections A Dictionary answers questions about words. It gives meanings and spellings of a word, tells how it may be pronounced, breaks it up into syllables, shows where it came from, even lists synonyms and antonyms. At the tops of pages, guide words show first and last words on a page. They help in finding words faster. In the back may be special sectionsfacts about famous people, facts about places. In the front, how to use the dictionary is usually explained. A General Encyclopedia, usually a set of books, covers just about every subject. It has information about people, places, and things. Like a dictionary, an encyclopedia is alphabetically arranged. Every year parts of it are brought up to date, and a yearbook that goes along with it is put out. To help find information, an encyclopedia has outside guides (letters printed on the spine of each book, showing what part of the alphabet it covers), inside guides (guide words on top of each page), headings and subheadings to break up larger subjects, and an index. Some encyclopedias are devoted to only one subject, such as religion, the sciences, psychology, or art. These are called subject encyclopedias. An Atlas is a book of maps. It also contains charts, tables, and other geographical facts. There are political maps to locate countries and cities, rivers and mountains; physical maps to show the highs and lows of the land; economic maps to show farming and business and industry; historical maps to show important places and events in history. To read a map, a person needs to know the map symbols. These are explained in the front part of an atlas. The index in back helps locate places on a map. A Gazetteer is a geographical dictionary. Names of places, rivers, mountains, and so on are listed in alphabetical order. From a gazetteer a person can find out such facts as where a place is, how many people live in it, the height of a mountain, the length of a river. ‘Webster's Geographical Dictionary' is an example of a popular gazetteer. Yearbooks, Almanacs, and Handbooks are sometimes hard to tell apart. A yearbook mostly reviews the important happenings or facts of a particular year. Examples include encyclopedia yearbooks. An almanac, too, comes out every year. But it concentrates more on giving uptodate facts about hundreds of subjects sports, births and deaths, foreign countries, famous people, radio and TV, dams and rivers. One of the best known is ‘The World Almanac and Book of Facts'. It is one of the very few reference books in English with the index in front. A handbook is a guide to a particular subject. Examples include ‘Crowell's Handbook of Classical Mythology', ‘Guinness Book of World Records', and ‘Chilton's Auto Repair Manual'. A Biographical Dictionary is a book of important people's names, with facts about their lives. Order is alphabetical by last name. Some biographical dictionaries list only living people (‘Who's Who'), others only dead people (‘Who Was Who'). Some biographical dictionaries list people from many countries, others from only one country. Before using a biographical dictionary, it's important to know whether a person is still alive and what country that person comes from. Who is and isn't included is explained in the front part of the book. A Book of Quotations is used to find out who said something worth quoting and exactly what the words were. It's a collection of phrases and sentences, usually from the works of many authors. But some such collections are from one author (Walt Whitman) or work (the Bible). Quotations may be arranged alphabetically by subject or by authoreither alphabetically or by date, from ancient to modern times. Each such book has a large index that includes not only the subjects of quotations but also the key words. An Index can be a book by itself. It tells where to find information and items in other books or materials. ‘Index to Plays in Collections', for instance, tells in which book or books a particular play can be found. To read an index, a person has to understand the many abbreviations explained in front of the book. A person may also have to ask the librarian for help in getting materials mentioned in the index. Generally not all of them are in the library. A Bibliography, too, can be a book by itself. Some bibliographies not only list books and other materials but tell something about them. Often a bibliography is on a particular subject. A Directory gives information about people, organizations, or institutions. Names and addresses are listed. A telephone book is a directory. Dictionaries and Encyclopedias are probably the most used of all the types of library collections. They are also the first works to consult, as a rule. It's difficult to look up a subject that is not spelled right or to find out about things that aren't clearly understood. Those are the problems a Dictionary can help solve. An encyclopedia, too, can make things clearer. In trying to find out about a subject, the person who checks the Encyclopedia firsteven before the catalogcan get a fast focus on the big picture. Even an Encyclopedia is just the beginning. In each subject, there are hundreds of special reference works such as Handbooks, Indexes, and Bibliographies. Someone who wants to dig has to find out what the reference works in a particular subject have to offer. It's also important to check more than one reference work to compare different ways of looking at the same facts. Nonbooks: magazines and newspapers. Because it takes time to put out a book, even a brandnew one is yesterday's facts. For many kinds of informationthe height of a mountain, the spelling of a wordnewness is not too important. Such things aren't likely to change or change much for a long time. But for what is happening now, special kinds of materials are needed. These include magazines and newspapers. A Magazine comes out periodicallyweekly, twice a month, monthly. So magazines are sometimes called periodicals. Every six months or so, a library puts the back issues of some magazines together and has them bound in book covers. This is called a volume. A Card in the catalog tells the name of a magazine, which volumes are in the library, and so on. But if someone wants articles on a certain subject, the card won't help. For that kind of information, there are special indexes. Of these, probably the best known is the ‘Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature', which indexes articles of about 150 magazines. Like those magazines, ‘Readers' Guide' itself is a periodical. So it comes in volumes, each volume covering one or two years, with the dates printed on the spine. More Nonbooks: Vertical File. Every library has a place for clippings. Such things as newspaper articles on local people and places are worth cutting out and keeping. This is also true of special articles and pictures from magazines. Clippings are usually put in folders, alphabetically arranged by subject. The Folders are kept in a Deepdrawer Cabinet called a Vertical File. There are no catalog cards for individual clippings, but many catalogs have cross reference cards to the subjects in the file. The Vertical File has Pamphlets, too. These are paperbound booklets, each often dealing with one subject. Like newspapers and magazines, many pamphlets give fast, uptodate factson jobs, for instancetoo new to be in books. Information that's hard to get elsewhere often comes in pamphlet form. Some libraries have special shelves or boxes for pamphlets, where they are arranged by subject. There are indexes for pamphlets as well as for magazines. The Vertical File Index is widely known. A Vertical File may also include maps, charts, graphs, posters, postcards, photos, and even sheet music. Some such items may be kept in a separate placein a picture file or map file, for example. Nonbooks: Talking and otherwise. The what of a library is books, including paperbacks; magazines and newspapers; clippings and pamphlets and other vertical file materials; and more, much more. Anything that is to learn with and to dream withis the stuff of libraries. There are records and sound tapes of music, poetry, language lessons; videotapes of neighborhood people and places, of amateur plays. For wouldbe artists and art lovers, color slides of buildings and paintings and sculpture are available. Films and filmstrips show the growth of a plant, the pollution of a stream, the agony of a violin lesson. Not even the best map shows relationships between places as well as a globe, so libraries have globes and other models. Specimens are sometimes arranged to show how a piece of tree becomes a pencil, or how crude oil is taken from the ground and shipped to refineries to be changed into gasoline. Large amounts of printed material can be photographically reduced for storage on microfilm. Then, there are Mininonbooks: Microfilm, Microcard, Microfiche. These hold greatly reduced pictures of newspapers, magazines, and book pages that must be read with machines. The way records, films, and other nonbook materials are arranged varies from one library to another. Such materials may be listed in the main catalog or in separate catalogs near where they are kept. CHAPTER TEN THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIBRARIES Introduction The Library as an institution is a collection of books and other informational materials made available to people for reading, study, or reference. The word library comes from liber, the Latin word for “book.” However, library collections have almost always contained a variety of materials. Contemporary libraries maintain collections that include not only printed materials such as manuscripts, books, newspapers, and magazines, but also art reproductions, films, sound and video recordings, maps, photographs, microfiches, CDROMs, computer software, online databases, and other media. In addition to maintaining collections within library buildings, modern libraries often feature telecommunications links that provide users with access to information at remote sites. The central mission of a library is to collect, organize, preserve, and provide access to knowledge and information. In fulfilling this mission, libraries preserve a valuable record of culture that can be passed down to succeeding generations. Libraries are an essential link in this communication between the past, present, and future. Whether the cultural record is contained in books or in electronic formats, libraries ensure that the record is preserved and made available for later use. Libraries provide people with access to the information they need to work, play, learn, and govern. People in many professions use library resources to assist them in their work. People also use library resources to gain information about personal interests or to obtain recreational materials such as films and novels. Students use libraries to supplement and enhance their classroom experiences, to learn skills in locating sources of information, and to develop good reading and study habits. Public officials use libraries to research legislation and public policy issues. One of the most valued of all cultural institutions, the library provides information and services that are essential to learning and progress. Libraries and their Different Types Because no single library can contain the information sought by every potential user, different types of libraries exist to serve different needs. Libraries fall into six basic categories: (1) public libraries, which serve all members of the general public; (2) school libraries, which serve students and faculty through the high school level; (3) college and university libraries, which serve students and faculty in higher education; (4) research libraries, which serve the needs of advanced scholars; (5) special libraries, which serve various organizations, industries, and governmental agencies; and (6) government libraries, which serve governmental departments and agencies, and often the general public as well. In general, libraries are classified into four major categories: public (as in your local library, often funded by city/county/state), school media centers (the libraries that cater to primary and secondary school students), academic (libraries at public and private universities and institutions of higher learning), and special libraries (libraries that deal specifically with special items like legal or medical resources, or libraries that are part of institutions dedicated to the study of special subjects). Note, however, that these categories are fluid and can often overlap (for example, a law school's library may be considered both special and academic; a local historical society might also be both public in that members of the local community may be able to borrow books, and may even receive public funds, but might also be considered "special" due to a concentration of holdings on a specific topic). Also, many academic libraries have what is called a "Special Collections" section in which books and other media related to a specific topic are collected and cataloged for use by scholars and members of the public (although nonuniversity supported persons may need special permission to use these resources as they are sometimes old, fragile, and in need of special upkeep or preservation). Each type of library develops its mission statement, collections, services, and facilities to satisfy the needs of its particular clientele. Public Libraries All types of libraries, from very early times, have a common objective which is collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of knowledge. The library came into existence due to the felt needs of the society for an information service mechanism. It has become a very important institution of the civilized society. Public library, by preserving and transmitting from generation to generation the recorded human experience on which all future activities are to be based, plays a very important role in development. Public library system is an integrated nationwide network of public libraries giving free library and information services to one and all the citizensliterate or illiterate, rich or poor, rural or urban. Public libraries exist in most nations of the world and are often considered an essential part of having an educated and literate population. In addition to print books and periodicals, most public libraries today have a wide array of other media including music CDs, computer software, movies on video tape, and DVD, as well as facilities to access the Internet. Many public libraries also provide access to digital books and music that can be downloaded directly to Mp3 players. Public libraries may also provide other services, such as community meeting rooms, storytimes for infants, toddlers and children, or afterschool programmes. In person and online programmes for homework help, language learning and other community service programs are common offerings. One of the most popular programs offered in public libraries are summer reading programmes for children, families, and adults. In rural areas, the local public library may have, in addition to its main branch, a mobile library service, consisting of one or more buses furnished as a small public library, serving the countryside according to a regular schedule. Public libraries are distinct from research libraries, school libraries, or other special libraries in that their mandate is to serve the public's information needs generally (rather than serve a particular school, institution, or research population). Public libraries typically are lending libraries, circulating books and other materials to the users. They also have noncirculating reference collections; typically focus on popular materials such as popular fiction and videos, as well as educational and nonfiction materials of interest to the general public. In the larger cities, they are, to some extent, reference libraries as well and offer free access to online databases with resources for business, healthcare, parenting, consumer education, career counseling, and education. Public libraries also provide materials for children, including books, videos and DVDs, music CDs and other materials (fiction and nonfiction), often housed in a special section. Child oriented websites with online educational games and programmes, specifically designed for younger library users, are becoming increasingly common. They may also provide services for other particular groups, such as large print or Braille materials, young adult literature and other materials for teenagers, or materials in other than the national language. Public libraries do not work on their own but (ideally) in cooperation with other educational and cultural institutions. In future it will become even more important for public libraries to set up strategic partnerships. Often it is not possible for a public library any more to fulfill its mission without partners. Most public librarians provide reference and research help to the general public, usually at a reference desk but can often be done by telephone interview. As online discussion and social networking allow for remote access, reference is becoming available virtually through the use of the Internet and email. Depending on the size of the library, there may be more than one desk; at some smaller libraries all transactions may occur at one desk, while large urban public libraries may employ subjectspecialist librarians with the ability to staff multiple reference or information desks to answer queries about particular topics at any time of the day or night. Often, the children's section in a public library has its own reference desk. The School Library School libraries serve elementary schools, middle schools, junior high schools, and high schools. The main function of a school library is to support various educational programmes and to develop students’ skills in locating and using information. Teachers use school libraries to access information needed to develop and support their classroom instructions. Students use the materials in school libraries to perform their class work. School libraries usually maintain collections in a variety of media. In addition to books, magazines, and newspapers, they may contain photographs, films, sound and video recordings, computers, CDROMs, games, and maps. Some school libraries contain realia, or real artifacts such as various types of stones for the study of geology. An increasing number of school libraries have computer labs with computer workstations, software, and Internet connections. Because school libraries often emphasize the variety of media in their collections, they are sometimes referred to as library media centers. Most school libraries further enhance their collections by becoming members of school library networks; this allows them to share resources with libraries in other schools. School librarianssometimes called media specialistsselect library materials and offer instruction to promote access, delivery, and interpretation of information (e.g. ensuring that their library’s collections contain information to assist students in completing particular classroom assignments). They might also offer classes in searching online catalogues for research materials. Once students locate materials, school librarians might help them interpret the information contained in these resources and apply it to their classroom assignments. School librarians typically should have credentials in teaching as well as in library science. This allows them to participate in school administration and curriculum development in addition to managing their library duties. Students at each educational level have unique needs and interests. Accordingly, libraries that serve different school levels maintain different types of collections and offer a different range of services. Today’s school library media specialist (i.e. librarian) works with both students and teachers to facilitate access to information in a wide variety of formats, instruct students and teachers how to acquire, evaluate and use information and the technology needed in this process, and introduces children and young adults to literature and other resources to broaden their horizons. As a collaborator, change agent, and leader, the school library media specialist develops, promotes and implements a program that will help prepare students to be effective users of ideas and information, a lifelong skill. The Academic Library Research plays a central role in the academic work of students and faculty at colleges and universities. As a result, college and university librariesalso called academic librariesare often considered the most important resource of an institution of higher education. Because students and faculty at these institutions may wish to conduct research within any conceivable academic discipline, the collections of academic libraries usually reflect a vast range of interests and formats. Academic libraries range in size from the modest collections found in small liberal arts colleges to the immense collections found at research universities. Research universities maintain some of the largest libraries in the world. Most academic libraries are linked to other libraries in cooperative networks, enabling them to share scarce and littleused materials required for advanced research. Many academic libraries open their collections to the public, although borrowing privileges are often limited for users not affiliated with the college or university. Large research universities often have separate libraries within individual academic departments, schools, or colleges (e.g. academic branch libraries may devote their collections exclusively to agriculture, art, chemistry, mathematics, psychology, or other academic disciplines). Universities may also divide their libraries into undergraduate and graduate divisions. Undergraduate libraries typically offer relatively general materials needed to support study toward a four year, undergraduate degree. Graduate libraries contain materials for more specialized study toward an advanced, graduate degree. Some academic libraries also have separate buildings for rare books, handwritten manuscripts, maps, and other specialized collections. Academic libraries generally attempt to expand their holdings on an ongoing basis. However, during the 1990s acquisition of expensive printed materials began slowing at most academic libraries as more funds were devoted to the acquisition of new computers, telecommunications equipment for access to the Internet, and online databases. Because of the complexity, range, and diversity of formats and information in academic libraries, colleges and universities offer programmes to introduce incoming students and faculty to the institution’s library services. These programs are designed to teach new users effective ways to make use of a variety of reference tools and library search mechanisms. The Research Libraries Research libraries contain collections of unique materials to support the needs of advanced and highly specialized scholarship. These collections may include rare manuscripts and books, scientific documents, important printings of literary works, regional histories, genealogies, original musical scores, or other distinctive scholarly resources. Because these collections may contain many rare and valuable materials, their use is typically confined to the library buildings. Research libraries often publish scholarly studies of the materials in their collections, sponsor lectures and colloquia, and arrange exhibitions of their most important holdings. Most colleges and universities have rare books or special collections departments in their libraries, and many maintain research libraries devoted entirely to such collections. For example, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, maintains early manuscripts and rare books in the fields of literature, theology, history, and the natural sciences. Also notable is the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library at the University of Toronto. This library maintains diverse collections ranging from a 1789 BC Babylonian cuneiform tablet to British and French literature and to works by contemporary Canadian writers. Many important research libraries are unaffiliated with a college or university. For example, the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C., is an independent library that maintains the world’s largest collection of printed works by English poet and playwright William Shakespeare, in addition to books and manuscripts from the Renaissance on a variety of subjects. The Newberry Library in Chicago houses notable collections in history, literature, and the fine arts. The Library Company of Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania, specializes in American history from the 17th through the 19th century. The library of the American Philosophical Society, also in Philadelphia, is a center for research in the histories of science, medicine, and technology. The American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts, maintains collections in early American history. The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California, has an extensive collection of rare books and manuscripts of British and American history and literature. The Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah, has the world’s largest collection of genealogical materials. It is operated by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints. The Pierpont Morgan Library in New York City contains large collections of early printed books, medieval manuscripts, early book bindings, and American historical documents. Although some research libraries permit only selected scholars to access their collections, many notable research libraries in the United States open their collections to the general public. The four research centers of the New York Public Library contain more than 40 million items, making it the world’s largest publicly accessible research library complex. Its research centers consist of the Center for the Humanities, housed in the Central Research Building of the library; the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, located in the Lincoln Center complex; the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, in Harlem; and the Science, Industry and Business Library, located in the Manhattan business district on Madison Avenue. The rare books and manuscripts division, housed in the Center for the Humanities, maintains a strong collection of Americana, especially books printed before 1801. Notable rarities include the only known copy of the 1493 Barcelona, Spain printing of the letter by Italian Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus announcing his arrival in the New World; the Bay Psalm Book, printed in 1640, which was the first book printed in what would become the United States; and a copy of the first printing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. The division also has a complete copy of a Gutenberg Bible, printed sometime between 1450 and 1456, as well as impressive collections in the fields of English and American literature, children’s literature, and science fiction. The library’s manuscript holdings include British and American historical documents and excellent examples of medieval illuminated manuscripts. CHAPTER ELEVEN NEW TRENDS IN THE LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRACTICE Introduction A library is a collection of information, sources, resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, it means a collection of books. This collection and services are used by people who choose not toor cannot afford to purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. However, with the collection of media other than books for storing information, many libraries are now also repositories and access points for maps, prints or other documents and artworks on various storage media such as microfilm, microfiche, audio tapes, CDs, LPs, cassettes, video tapes and DVDs, and provide public facilities to access CDROM and subscription databases and the Internet. The Trends Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. In addition to providing materials, they also provide the services of specialists who are experts in matters related to finding and organizing information and interpreting information needs, called librarians. More recently, libraries are understood as extending beyond the physical walls of a building, by including material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of knowledge with a variety of digital tools. The term "library" has itself acquired a secondary meaning: "a collection of useful material for common use," and in this sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics and statistics, electronics and biology. Libraries are faced with an increasingly unmanageable quantity of information. Fortunately, the availability of sophisticated computer technology and the willingness of librarians to adopt it have helped libraries to meet the needs of users. Libraries now have information data bases and computerized indexes and catalogs. Computers, especially personal computers (PCs), are now used in nearly all library functions, from ordering and cataloging library materials to providing online information. Although manual catalogs still exist in many libraries, an increasing number of libraries are converting to computerbased catalogs called online public access catalogs (OPACs). Libraries want to make their collections available not only to those who come into the library but also to remote users who need to have access to library resources from their homes or offices. Such remote access is offered around the clock, including weekends. For example, some public libraries’ online catalogues, especially in the advanced countries, offer access not only to their catalogues but also to various periodical indexes, catalogues of other cooperating libraries, bulletin boards, and other information data bases. Traditionally, to overcome the problems of storage and access caused by the growth of information, libraries have acquired documents on microfilm and microfiche, which make it possible to store a large amount of information in little space. For example, one microfiche card can hold up to 1,000 pages of a book and an ultrafiche can hold up to 3,000 pages. The introduction of compact discread only memory (CDROM) technology has revolutionized the way the information is stored, accessed, and retrieved. A CDROM has a large storage capacity and can hold an entire encyclopedia and other reference sources. It can store about 250,000 pages of text, 7,000 pictures, and 72 minutes of video. Multimedia CDROMs provide access to standard text and also allow manipulation of visuals, sound, and animation. A wide range of products, such as periodical indexes, fulltext reference sources, and full text periodicals, are now available on CDROMs. Although CDROMs were originally designed to be handled by just one person at a time, networking and multidrive players now provide multiuser access. Participation in multitype library networks (networks composed of several kinds of libraries, such as school, special, academic, and public) has helped librarians cope with the rapid growth of information. This has resulted in coordinated collection development, resource sharing, and a more efficient reference service. Cooperation among libraries and library networks is growing rapidly in the United States. The availability and affordability of PCs and telecommunication technology have played major roles in library automation and networking. For example, OCLC (Online Computer Library Center), a bibliographic and data base vendor, provides remote online services for thousands of libraries. Regional and state networks have been formed to provide their members such services as shared cataloging and access to materials located in other libraries. For example, in Illinois there are about 2,600 libraries belonging to 17 regional library systems, and these systems belong to ILLINET (Illinois Library and Information Network). A statewide system for material delivery, ILLINET Online, and ILLINET/OCLC are some of the services available to ILLINET members. ILLINET Online is a computerized library catalog that provides information about materials located at some 800 Illinois libraries. Anyone with a personal computer or a terminal with a modem may dial into ILLINET Online. There are also other types of networks that serve only certain kinds of library, such as academic and research libraries. The CARL (Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries) system, for example, has projects that include the cooperative purchase of expensive materials and support for the loading of nonbibliographic and nontraditional data bases on its network. The success of resource sharing through various electronic systems depends on good delivery systems. The installation of facsimile, or fax, machines in libraries has played a major role in speeding delivery of documents. Photocopying still remains a fast, cheap, and easy way of making copies of parts of books, magazines, newspapers, and other materials for users. Copyright law regulates the photocopying of published material. Libraries should be aware of the copyright regulations and the law's fairuse provisions, which allow some photocopying and exchanging of photocopies among libraries or users. The emergence of photocopying has become useful to research and scholarship; for example, research that involves rare books could not be accomplished as easily without photocopying. The power of automation has even reached bookmobiles, which are used to make libraries accessible to many people. Online bookmobiles feature automated circulation systems, CDROM workstations, copiers, or fax machines. With cellular telephone technology, many bookmobiles have full online access to the library's main collection. The more advanced technologies are often too expensive for smaller libraries. However, to a large extent, the use of inexpensive, powerful PCs in library automation has unmistakably changed the services libraries provide and how they operate. CHAPTER TWELVE IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRENDS FOR LIBRARY SERVICES DELIVERY Introduction Libraries throughout the world provide citizens with public access to networked information. With the adopting of emerging technologies, libraries seek to facilitate information retrieval more thoroughly, effectively and attractively. Libraries need to establish a service profile across the community. They cannot afford to be tucked away in intimidating buildings or on obscure sites. They need to increase the visibility and accessibility of their services. For instance, library information kiosks need to become a regular feature in shopping centres, licensed clubs and community facilities. The Implications In the past, learning institutions were designed to disperse information and knowledge. Educators assumed that students were like an empty vessel. Rote learning simply had to be poured into them. In the future, learning institutions will need to help people to manage information. The vessel is, in fact, already full. The challenge for the education system is to draw out and develop the learning interests and capabilities of its students. Information management is critical to this task. It is possible to conceptualize two types of knowledge: the subjects we already know well; and the ones we know how to find out about. This reflects the true meaning of the information age: information access is power. Libraries are well suited to this challenge. They offer a range of learning resources, rather than formal courses. They have the capacity to act as learning brokersbuilding their services around individual users; customizing the delivery of materials to suit the information needs of particular clients. This is also a revenue opportunity for libraries. In the new economy, a growing proportion of disposable income is being spent on information services. Libraries need to tap into this market, particularly among knowledge workers and information based corporations. In the past, learning institutions were positioned within a strict educational hierarchy. Universities were at the top of this pecking order, with a monopoly on research functions and funding. Community education providers such as libraries were often positioned at the bottom of the hierarchy. In the future, all learning institutions will need to develop research capabilities. This is one of the consequences of the information ageit is flattening the traditional hierarchy and opening up new sources of knowledge creation. Higher education has lost its 900 year monopoly on the development and distribution of knowledge. It faces intense competition from entrepreneurs in both the business and social sectors. The Internet and digital TV are making the tools of research widely available. Libraries can play a creative role in this process. They can provide a venue and resources for self starting researchers, offering a range of information management services. Partnerships of this kind have tremendous commercial possibilities. Libraries should no longer restrict their role to the dispersal of information. In the information age, they need to be part of the creation of knowledge. In the past, learning institutions were organized around a single use. In the future, they will need to function on a multipurpose basis. Libraries are a logical focal point for the delivery of relevant services, especially in regional and remote areas. They also have enormous potential as a service provider in adult and community education. For lifelong learning to achieve universality, libraries, with their impressive resources and information management skills, can usefully add to the delivery of adult and community education services. They should position themselves at the centre of community based learning. In the past, learning institutions were designed as standalone organizations. The education system, as with much of the public sector, has functioned like a series of silos, with little collaboration between service providers. In the future, learning institutions will need to be heavily networked. This is the nature of the new technology. Advanced IT allows the centre of an organization to communicate directly with its component parts. It flattens organizational hierarchies and facilitates the creation of new alliances and partnerships. Libraries need to join the network revolution by forming a series of alliances with community groups committed to lifelong learning. This is an opportunity for creative policy makingidentifying fresh opportunities for the extension of library services. Two examples of what this might mean in practice are as provided here. Libraries should be part of this initiative, offering information management services. As new learners join the program, they can then be introduced to the advantages of library use. This is an effective way of breaking down the attitudinal barriers to lifelong learning among adult learners. It is a good example of a partnership model. The benefit of community education lies in the relevance of its curriculum, plus its use of informal settings. Libraries need to be part of this experience. They need to be proactive in forming collaborative partnerships across the community. In the past, learning institutions were quite insular, working on the premise that students and clients would come to them. In the future, they will need to develop a range of outreach programs, bringing disadvantaged groups into contact with the learning process. Libraries need to become agents of this socially inclusive approach. They need to further develop their housebound services, teaching people with disabilities how to use the internet and access library materials online. They need to become more user friendly, again harnessing the potential of the net. In the past, learning institutions delivered their services within built facilitiesbooks, bricks and mortar. Obviously in the future, the supply of online services will increase. Public libraries cannot afford to be left behind in this process. In the past learning institutions had to scramble and compete for scarce public resources. Left wing politics has argued for the primacy of public funding. Right wing politics has argued for funding deregulation and greater reliance on the private sector. In the future, learning institutions will need to leverage additional resources from all parts of society. This is the logic of lifelong learning. It is such a huge taskall citizens learning through all parts of their livesthat it cannot be achieved from a single resource base. All sections of a learning society; such as governments, corporations, households and communities, need to do more. The challenge for public policy is to mobilize these resources in an equitable fashion. This is why the partnerships model is so important. Through seed funding and other pilot programs, governments can bring organizations closer together, establishing synergies of educational effort. For libraries, this is the critical agenda. They need to think the unthinkable: forming alliances with licensed clubs, shopping centres, sporting organizations, community groups, business mentors and other learning institutions. They can no longer rely solely on public sector budgets. Every level of government needs to do more for the creation of a learning society. In the past, public libraries had to rely on varying amounts of local and state funding. In the future, the federal government will need to take greater responsibility for the resourcing of libraries. Libraries are a victim of Australia's complex and overlapping federal system of government. The quality of service differs greatly across the country. This reflects wide variations in the level of state and local funding support. CHAPTER THIRTEEN THE PLACE OF THE LIBRARY IN THE INTERNET AGE: THE MYTH AND REALITY Introduction Libraries and the Internet, together, contain the intellectual record 1. of all times, 2. from all places 3. and all cultures, 4. in all languages, 5. with contributions from all individuals who wanted to share their ideas, insights, memories, experience, and opinions. Navigating this enormous universe cannot be very easy. Much work on making it easier began a long time ago, and it will continue for a long time to come. Libraries have been among the first to make use of the Internet to improve their services to the public. But the Internet is only one component. Many predict that the digital age will wipe public bookshelves clean, and permanently end the centuriesold era of libraries. Technology's baffling prowess and progress even has one librarian predicting the institution's demise. He could be right. But if he is, then the loss will be irreplaceable. As libraries' relevance comes into question, they face an existential crisis at a time they are perhaps needed the most. Despite their perceived obsoleteness in the digital age both librariesand librariansare irreplaceable for many reasons. Thirtythree of such reasons are hereby provided as given by Will Sherman in an establishing the fact that libraries and librarians are still extremely important. The Myth and Reality 1. Not everything is available on the Internet The amazing amount of useful information on the web has, for some, engendered the false assumption everything can be found online. It is simply not true. Google Book Search recognizes this, which is why they are taking on the monolith task of digitizing millions of books from the World's largest libraries. But even if Google does successfully digitize the sum of human knowledge, it is unlikely that the sum of contemporary authors and publishers will not allow their works to be freely accessible over the Internet. It is already prohibited by law to make copyrighted books fully accessible through Google Book Search; only snippets. And it will be a long time before that mustread New York Times bestseller gets put up for free on the Internet: current copyright law protects works for 70 years beyond the death of the author. Even some public domain works are off limits. If an outofcopyright copy includes prefaces, introductions, or appendices that are still in copyright, the whole work falls under copyrighted status. 2. Digital Libraries are not the Internet A fundamental understanding of what the Internet isand what it is notcan help more clearly define what a library is, and why libraries are still extremely important. The Elmer E. Rasmuson Library at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks clearly spells out the difference between "Online Collections" and the . The "Internet or Web Sources" Internet, this site explains, is a mass of largely unpublished materials produced by organizations, businesses, individuals, experimental projects, entrepreneurial webmasters, etc. "Online Collections", however, are different; in that they are typically provided by libraries and include materials that have been published via rigorous editorial processes. Works selected for inclusion in a library catalogue undergo vetting from qualified staff. Types of materials include books, journals, documents, newspapers, magazines and reports which are digitized, stored and indexed through a limited access database. While one might use the Internet or a search engine to find these databases, deeper access to them requires registration. You are still online, but you are no longer on the Internet. You are in a library. 3. The Internet is not Free While Project Gutenberg boasts 20,000 free, downloadable eBooks on its homepage, we are promptly reminded that these books are only accessible because they are no longer in copyright. And books are just the tip of the iceberg. Numerous academic research papers, journals and other important materials are virtually inaccessible to someone seeking to pull them off the web for free. Rather, access is restricted to expensive subscription accounts, which are typically paid for by libraries. Visiting the library in person, or logging in to the library through your member account, is therefore the only way to affordably access necessary archived resources. 4. The Internet Complements Libraries, but it does not Replace Them To guide people in finding information, the Long Island University provides a helpful explanation of what types of resources can be accessed through the library. These include news, journals, books and other resources. Interestingly, the World Wide Web is among these resources as yet another approach to finding information. But it is not a replacement. The page goes on to differentiate and explain the advantages of libraries over the Internet for research. It does cite the benefits of the Internet, including "sampling public opinion", gathering "quick facts" and "a wide range of ideas". Overall, the point is well made: libraries are completely different institutions from the web. In this light, to talk about one replacing the other begins to seem absurd. 5. School Libraries and Librarians Improve Student Test Scores A 2005 study of the Illinois School Libraries shows that students who frequently visit wellstocked and wellstaffed school libraries end up with higher ACT scores and perform better on reading and writing exams. Interestingly, the study points out that access to digital technology plays a strong role in test results, noting that "high schools with computers that connect to library catalogs and databases average 6.2 improvement on ACT scores". 6. Digitization does not mean Destruction The eagerness with which libraries have jumped into partnership with Google Book Search is not the work of a lemming mentality. Libraries including Oxford University, University of Michigan, Harvard, the Complutense University in Madrid, the New York Public Library, the University of Texas, the University of California and many others have teamed up with the Google's project, not eschewed it. In return for opening up their stacks, these libraries will have all their books electronically available for their own members. While it can be expected that fully outofcopyright books will, on many occasions, be made fully accessible to the public, copyrighted materials–including subscription journals–will still be kept under restricted access. The reason for this is in part because Google Book Search's indemnity clauses do not reach that far; Google Book Search would not shield libraries from any liability that they might incur for overstepping the bounds of copyright. And there is a real cause for caution–Google Book Search is currently facing two major lawsuits from authors and publishers. 7. In fact, Digitization means Survival Daniel Greenstein of the University of California cites a very practical reason for digitizing books: in electronic form, books aren't vulnerable to natural disasters or pulverization that comes with age. He even cites the libraries destroyed by Hurricane Katrina as an important reminder of the vulnerability of "cultural memory". 8. Digitization is going to take a while; A long while While book search has developed the air of an unstoppable movement rapidly breaking down library walls and exposing untouched treasure troves, it is breathtakingly far from reaching its goal. With an estimated 100 million books in print since the invention of movable type, the process has hardly made headway. Digitizing is expensive and complicated, and so far Google's million books digitized is just a drop in the bucket. "The majority of Information", said Jens Redmer, Google Book Search's European director, "lies outside the Internet". But how long will it take to index the world's knowledge In 2002, Larry Page boasted that Google could digitize approximately seven million books in six years. Since 2004 Google Book Search has been plugging along through a series of fits and starts. By 2007, they have managed to index a million books. So, at the rate of approximately half a million books per year, digitizing 100 million books would take about" 200 years. Assuming Google could shake off the legal and logistical challenges and crank out 7 million books every 6 years, the earliest possible completion date would still be 2092. In the meantime, a larger user base will rely on local libraries, or online collections of what have been digitized. Dumping physical libraries before digitization is complete would leave library patrons in the lurch. 9. Libraries are not just Books Technology is integrating itself into the library system, not bulldozing it. Pushing this trend to its logical extreme (although it is likely not to happen), we could eventually see libraries' entire stacks relegated to databases, and have books only accessible digitally. So where does that leave librarians Are they being overtaken by technology, the timeless enemy of labor Not this time. In fact, technology is revealing that the real work of librarians is not just placing books on bookshelves. Rather, their work involves guiding and educating visitors on how to find information, regardless of whether it is in book or digital form. Technology provides better access to information, but it is a more complex tool, often requiring specialized knowhow. This is a librarian's specialty, as they dedicate themselves to learning the most advanced techniques to help visitors access information effectively. It is in their job description. 10. Mobile Devices are not the End of Books or Libraries Predictions of the End of the Book are a predictable response to digitization and other technologies, and the crystal ball of some in the propaper crowd seems to also reveal a concomitant crumbling of civilization. One of the latest dark threats to paper (and society) seems to be Google's plan to make ebooks downloadable to mobile devices. The iPod version of the novel is here. Google has already scanned a million books. Japanese train commuters are reading entire bestsellers on their cell phones. The end is near. But if the mobile ebook is a hit and a lasting phenomenon, it is unlikely that they will be an allconsuming transition for readers. Radio lives on despite TV, film is still in high demand despite video, people still talk on the telephone despite email. People who like paper books will continue to read paper books even if mobile downloads prompt the majority of publishers to release ebooks instead of paper. After all, an immense backlog of printed books will still be accessible to readers. Where do libraries fit in supposing that mobile ebooks actually do completely overtake printed books, the presence of the digital library will continue to be extremely important, whether it is paper or electronically based. 11. The Hype might really just be Hype Paper books are not exactly doomed, even years after the invention of the e book. In fact, by contrasting the merits of the ebook to those of the paper book, one could argue that paper books are actually a better product. It would be premature to write off libraries and their freely accessible books amidst predictions of ebooks' impending prominence. Society could lose valuable access to a trusted mediumeven if ebooks do take off. 12. Library Attendance is not FallingIt is just more Virtual now With approximately 50,000 visitors a year, attendance at the American History Archives at Wisconsin Historical Society has dropped 40 since 1987. This statistic, when set alone, may prove sufficient for anybody casually predicting the collapse of the Library. But it is only half the story. The archives have also been digitized and placed online. Every year the library receives 85,000 unique online visitors. The number of online schools offering online degrees is constantly on the rise as well. Many of these schools are improving their virtual libraries by the day. 13. Like Businesses, Digital Libraries still need Human Staffing Even online businesses rely on quality support for better sales and customer satisfaction. The availability of email, phone and live chat services improve the experience of people seeking goods and services. The same goes for people seeking information. In return for paying taxes or library fees packaged with University tuition, library members should expect reliable "customer support" in exchange for their dues. Librarians are indeed very important in servicing their visitors. And still today, there is no equivalent replacement to the library, which provides access to mountains of content that is not available through search engines or even Google Books Search, which only provides snippets and links to retailers where books can be bought. 14. We just cannot count on Physical Libraries Disappearing Physical libraries would not ever go away. Even as Google Book Search picks up the pace and libraries finance their own digitization projects, the future of physical library space continues to be necessary. This is because many libraries are not digitizing yet and many may never digitize. There is a good reason: it is expensive. At a low estimate of 10 per book (and probably much more for older, more delicate works), digitizing an entire library of, say, more than 10,000 books well, it adds up. And for many library users, they still depend on this traditional, effective approach to pinpointing information with onsite computers or librarians available to assist them. 15. Google Book Search "don't work" If a Googlestyle indexing of all the world's books were to mirror the company's wellknown search service, one might have that much more fodder for the argument against keeping libraries around. After all, Google has great technology for searching the web, right Could we not just bypass libraries But experts point out that Google Book Search is far off from such userfriendliness as experienced with the company's Internet search service. The lofty ideals of informationforeverybody are hindered not only by copyright lawsuits, but by the Google's own desire to be top dog. They are not about to hand over their index to other competitors, like Microsoft, Yahoo, Amazon and other nonpartnered digitizing projects. The user loses out by not being able to access everything through his or her preferred book search service. By not giving up digital archives to their competitors, companies that take this competitive, corporate approach to digitization risk veering off the map, away from the philosophy of the public library. In the meantime, libraries should remain intact and available to the general public. 16. Physical Libraries can adapt to Cultural Change The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) is just one among countless groups that study and debate the evolving role of the physical library in the digital age. In a 2006 symposium the NCLIS created a report that calls for a refining of what physical library space is. Less like "warehouses" was one of the conclusions, and more like "intellectual crossroads for working, learning, teaching, and new types of programs." 17. Physical Libraries are adapting to Cultural Change Anyone subscribing to the theories of 20th century thinker Marshal McLuhan might say that along with changed life patterns brought on by electronic technology, knowledge that was once encased in books and compartmentalized by subject area is now being liberally disseminated in an explosion of democracy, rendering obsolete the austerity of the lonely, echoing corridors of the library. Interestingly McLuhan, who died in 1980, once even said: "the future of the book is the blurb". Indeed, this cultural change predates widespread use of the Internet, as well as Google Book Search. For decades, society has been seeking a more holistic understanding of the world, and increased access to information. The search for new methods of organizing educational structures (including libraries) has long been active. And while libraries might not be on many peoples' "Top Ten Cutting Edge List" , they have been adapting. Washington State University Director of Libraries, Virginia Steel, for example, is a proponent of maximizing the social and interactive nature of physical library space. Group study, art exhibits, food and coffee–talking, not whispering; this is the new library. It is not obsolete, it is just changing. 18. Eliminating Libraries would cut short an important Process of Cultural Evolution The library that we are most familiar with todaya public or academic institution that lends out books for freeis a product of the democratization of knowledge. In the old days, books were not always so affordable and private libraries, or book clubs, were a privilege of the rich. This started changing during the 1800's, with more public libraries popping up and the invention of the Dewey Decimal Classification system to standardize the catalogues and indexes. Libraries began blossoming under the watch of President Franklin Roosevelt, in part as a tool to differentiate the United States from bookburning Nazis. This increased interest in building a more perfect, liberal society culminated in 1956 with the Library Services Act, which introduced federal funding for the first time. Today there are tens of thousands public libraries in the United States. 19. The Internet isn't DIY It could be said that the Internet has endowed society with a giddy sense of independence. Access to all the world's informationand free search engines to browse it withcalls into question the need for librarians, moderators or other such middlemen; the web, it might seem, is a doityourself medium. But a quick look at the driving forces of today's Internet shows us something different. The Internet is intensely social and interactive, and has created communities of users that are often remarkably as tightknit as they are large. The Internet is serving as a tool for humans to fulfill their natural community building instinctssharing, interacting and doing business. The online economy is driven in large part by the web 2.0 philosophy of human interaction, peer review and the democratization of knowledge and analysis. Search engines rank web pages based on their popularity, social networking platforms pull in millions of visitors daily and the Internet's most popular encyclopedia is written by the same people who read it. Like Wikipedia, the most popular online meeting grounds are often the best moderated. Since riffraff and spammers are an inevitable part of any society (whether physical or virtual), quality control helps contribute to the best online experiences. Good citizenship among online communities (intelligently contributing to the discussion, not spamming) is a surefire way to bolster your reputation as a helpful member of the group. In order to be fostered, this type of environment must be moderated. Interestingly, the role of the moderator very much parallels the role of the librarian: to safeguard an environment in which knowledge can be accessed and ideas can be shared. The notion that libraries are a thing of the past and that humankind has sprouted wings and flown into a new era of selfguided Truth is nothing short of farcical. Unfortunately, it is this same notion that could lead to the dismemberment of libraries as stuffy and outofdate. In reality, the quality of the web depends on guidance from the academic library model. While moderators do have brush to clear in the new and savage cyberscape, librarians have trail blazed significant parts of the journey. 20. Wisdom of Crowds is Untrustworthy, because of the Tipping Point The high visibility of certain viewpoints, analysis and even facts found online through social networking sites and wikis is engineeredideallyto be the result of objective group consensus. Google's algorithm also hinges on this collective principle: rather than an inhouse "expert" arbitrarily deciding what resource is the most authoritative, let the web decide. Sites with higher link popularity tend to rank higher in the search engines. The algorithm is based on the principle that group consensus reveals a better, more accurate analysis of reality than a single expert ever could. Writer James Surowiecki calls this phenomenon "the wisdom of crowds." In a vacuum, crowds probably are very wise. But all too often we see the caveat to James Surowiecki's crowd wisdom in Malcom Gladwell's "tipping point", which, in this context, explains that groups are easily influenced by their vanguard –those who are the first to do something and who automatically have extra influence, even if what they are doing is not necessarily the best idea. The highly social nature of the web therefore makes it highly susceptible to, for example, sensationalized, lowquality information with the sole merit of being popular. Libraries, in contrast, provide quality control in the form of a stopgap. Only information that is carefully vetted is allowed in. Libraries are likely to stay separate from the Internet, even if they can be found online. Therefore, it is extremely important that libraries remain alive and well, as a counterpoint to the fragile populism of the web. 21. Librarians are the Irreplaceable Counterparts to Web Moderators Individuals who voluntarily devote their time to moderating online forums and wikis are playing a similar role to librarians who oversee the stacks–and those who visit the stacks. The chief difference between librarians and moderators is that while the former guides users through a collection of highly authoritative, published works, the moderator is responsible for taking the helm as consensus is created. While the roles are distinct, each is evolving along with the fast paced growth of the Internet and the evolving nature of libraries. Both moderators and librarians will have a lot to learn from each other, so it is important that they both stick around. 22. Unlike Moderators, Librarians must Straddle the line between Libraries and the Internet Admittedly, libraries are no longer both the beginning and ending point of all scholarly research. The Internet is effectively pulling students away from the stacks and revealing a wealth of information, especially to one who is equipped with the tools to find it. Indeed, the dream of cutting out the middleman is possible to attain. But at what price Media literacy, although an extremely important asset for scholars and researchers, is far from universal. Who is going to teach media literacy Many argue that librarians are the best fit to educate people about the web. After all, web moderators are concerned primarily with the environment which they oversee and less so with teaching web skills to strangers. Teachers and professors are busy with their subjects and specializations. Librarians, therefore, must be the ones who cross over into the Internet to make information more easily accessible. Instead of eliminating the need for librarians, technology is reinforcing their validity. 23. The Internet is a Mess As one prolibrarian website puts it, "The Internet in very few ways resembles a library. A library provides a clear, standardized set of easily retrievable resources". Despite the slightly combative nature of this oneliner, its premise is essentially correct. Despite improvements in search technology and the creation of amazingly comprehensive sites like Wikipedia, the Internet is still, in many ways, a freeforall. Flooded with sites from all sorts of sources that inexplicably languish about or jockey for top positions in the rankings, the web is like an overpopulated Wild West. Many have confronted this chaos with grass roots social networking sites or large, complex and highly successful efforts to organized information (Google, Wikipedia, et al). But despite these efforts, a morass of questionable pages still tends to be served up in many search results, and the credibility of each source accessed must inherently come into question. Not that that is a bad thing. The oceans of information, uncertainty and spontaneity on the web can provide an exciting, enriching experience. But if you need to limit your search to logically indexed resources that have been published and then vetted by a professional staff, then the library is still your best bet. 24. The Internet is Subject to Manipulation As long as the bright minds behind Google are coming up with a better search algorithm, the bright minds of search engine optimizers will continue to crack it. This could involve conforming to Google's quality standards or, in many cases, skirting around them. It is important for the user to keep in mind the limitations of Google. In many cases the search giant succeeds in serving up good information. But in many cases it still falls short. In contrast, it is extremely hard to enter into libraries' indexes. Books, journals and other resources must be nothing less than high caliber, published materials. If they are not, they simply do not get in. Furthermore, the economic incentive to manipulate library collections is much less fierce than on the internet. It is estimated that only 4 of book titles are being monetized. Meanwhile, Google alone is experiencing incredible earnings through online advertising, not to mention everyone else positioning for a piece of the Internet pie. But libraries simply are not facing this kind of pressure. Their way of providing information, therefore, will inherently be less influenced by corporate interests. 25. Libraries' Collections employ a wellformulated System of Citation Books and journals found in libraries will have been published under rigorous guidelines of citation and accuracy and are thereby allowed into libraries' collections. These standards are simply not imposed on websites. They can show up in search results whether or not they provide citation. With enough research, the accuracy of web resources often can be determined. But it's very time consuming. Libraries make research much more efficient. 26. It can be hard to Isolate Concise Information on the Internet Certain subject areas like medical conditions or financial advice are very well mapped on the web. Quality sites for more marginal subject areas, however, are less easy to find through web search. One would have to know which site to go to, and Google isn't necessarily going to serve you exactly what you are looking for. Wikipedia, which ranks well for a wide variety of specialized subject areas, is improving web concision. But Wikipedia is just one site, that anyone can edit, and its veracity is not guaranteed. Libraries retain a much more comprehensive and concisely indexed collection off research materials. 27. Libraries can Preserve the Book Experience Consuming 900 pages on the intellectual history of Russia is an experience unique to the book. In general, the book provides a focused, yet comprehensive study that summarizes years of research by an authoror team of authorswho have devoted their academic to a particular subject area. Through Google Book Search, the internet can be a tool to find where to buy a book. Normal search results also reveal a variety of book resellers, academic courses or upcoming web projects. But even when the internet does provide actual content (as in a search for the history of Russia) the information is often snacksized or the overall experience cursorya sort of quickreference browsing. Knowledge can be found, but the experience of delving into a book for hundreds of pages just doesn't happen online. The preservation of stacks, therefore, will help preserve access to this approach to learning and the more traditional form of scholarship can continue alongside the new. 28. Libraries are Stable while the Web is Transient In an effort to improve their service and shake out the spammers, search engines are constantly updating their algorithms. Often, however, collateral damage will knock out innocent sites including, perhaps, authoritative resources. In addition, websites commonly go offline or their addresses change. Other sites that point to these resources (which were once good) could easily and unwittingly house a number of "broken links". These sites can remain unedited for years. Libraries, on the other hand, have a wellaccountedfor stock of available resources and a standard indexing system that will deliver stable, reliable results consistently. 29. Libraries can be Surprisingly Helpful for News Collections and Archives In many ways, libraries fall short of the internet when it comes to aggregating news content. Online TV, radio and newspaper sourcesnot to mention an abundance of blogs referencing and commenting on daily events around the worldcan often satiate anyone from the casual headline browser to the news junkie. Meanwhile, libraries continue to subscribe and stock a certain list of newspapers, and archive the back issues. This effort may seem humble alongside the lengthy lists of online news aggregators and instantaneous access to articles published within the minute. Nevertheless, a library's news cataloguing can provide a number of advantages. For starters, many publications continue to exist offline. For someone seeking a specific article by a specific journalist, a library could yield better resultseven if the publication had to be tracked down through interlibrary loan. Libraries often provide freely accessible issues of major periodicals that would otherwise require online subscription, like many sections of the New York Times. In addition, archives often disappear offline, or become increasingly expensive online. (Try Google's news archive search). This can leave libraries with the only accessible copies. 30. Not everyone has Access to the Internet In less developed nations or even poorer parts of the United States, library access is often the only clearcut way for an individual to conduct serious research. There are at least two major reasons that the Internet may not provide even an illusory alternative to libraries. Firstly, online access may be much more difficult to attain than library access. A public library may have but one computer console, while other internet access points may charge someone who simply doesn't have the means to pay. Secondly, even if internet access is obtained, the lack of technological education in poorer areas of the world will render the technology much less useful than it would be for the person who has more experience navigating the web. 31. Not Everyone can Afford Books Outside of developed nations, books are more rare and often more expensive than their firstworld counterparts. Compounding the problem is an incredibly low minimum wage making the real cost of books astronomical. The public library, wherever it exists, therefore becomes much more crucial to democratizing information. Since the United States tends to be a trend leader, especially technologically, it must underscore the importance of libraries even as technology moves forward. Touting a culture of BlackBerry devices over books may jeopardize the existence of traditional libraries, leaving poor people without books or BlackBerrys. 32. Libraries are a Stopgap to Antiintellectualism It is not that the Internet is antiintellectual; its academic roots and the immense quantity of scholarly sites certainly attest to it being a smart medium. But for some, the alluring immediacy of the internet can lead to the false impression that only immediate, interactive and onthespot online discussion is of value. Dusty books on tall shelves then seem to represent stagnant knowledge, and their curators (librarians), behind the times. Books and reading easily gets regarded as elitist and inactive, while blogging becomes the hereandnow. But, as mentioned earlier, not everything is on the internet. Access to books and theories from hundreds of years of cultural history is essential to progress. Without this, technology could become the ironic tool of the sensational and retrograde cultural tendencies. Preserving libraries to store knowledge and teach the limitations of technology can help prevent the hubris and narcissism of technological novelty. 33. Old Books are Valuable The idea of a library becoming a "book museum" in the age of digitization is sometimes tossed about as an apocalyptic figure of speech. It's a real scare for librarians. The term insinuates that, rather than become contemporary and useful, libraries could turn into historical fetishes like vinyl records or typewriters. And instead of continuing on as research professionals, librarians would be forced to become like museum curatorsor, more likely, they would just lose their jobs. But if the evolution of libraries grows to become an interactive meeting place for cultural events and the exchange of ideas, the preservation and exhibition of archival literary relics could be yet another facet to their importance (and, yes, intrigue). Indeed, old books are not only monetarily valuable, but they are part of cultural, historical memory that mustn't be lost to digitization. Conclusion Society is not ready to abandon the library, and it probably won't ever be. Libraries can adapt to social and technological changes, but they can't be replaced. While libraries are distinct from the internet, librarians are the most suited professionals to guide scholars and citizens toward a better understanding of how to find valuable information online. Indeed, a lot of information is online. But a lot is still on paper. Instead of regarding libraries as obsolete, state and federal governments should increase funding for improved staffing and technology. Rather than lope blindly through the digital age, guided only by the corporate interests of web economics, society should foster a culture of guides and guideposts. 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Dickinson, G.K. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources (Libraries Unlimited, 1994). Wright, K.C. The Challenge of Technology: Action Strategies for the School Library Media Specialist (ALA, 1994).1989). Zuck, Gregory, and others, eds. Automation for School Libraries: How to Do It from Those Who Have Done It (ALA, 1994). Eberts, Marjorie, and Gisler, Margaret. Careers for Bookworms and Other Literary Types (NTC, 1994). Hiem, Kathleen, and Myers, Margaret. Opportunities in Library and Information Science Careers (NTC, 1992). Jaspersohn, William. My Hometown Library (Houghton, 1994). Kurshan, Barbara. Internet for Kids (SYBEX, 1995). Lengel, Jim, and Kendall, Diane S. Kids, Computers Homework (Random, 1995). Pitter, Keiko, and others. Every Student's Guide to the Internet (McGraw, 1995). Salzman, Marian, and Pondiscio, Robert. Kids OnLine (Avon/Camelot, 1995). Weil, Lisl. Let's Go to the Library (Holiday, 1990). Like their counterparts in other parts of the world, national libraries in Africa are maintained by the federal government. They serve various branches of the government and function as a link between their countries and others in the interchange of information. They also function as legal depositories for publications in their countries, receiving copies of all publications submitted for copyright protection. Some African national libraries are responsible for public library development in their countries. The need for universities, and therefore university libraries, was for many years a higher priority than the establishment of national libraries in most African countries. As a result, many university libraries performed the functions of national libraries. For example, the library of the University of Ibadan, in Nigeria, acted as a legal depository for all Nigerian publications and also published the National Bibliography of Nigeria until the National Library of Nigeria was established in 1962. The same is true of the libraries at the University of Addis Ababa, in Ethiopia; the University of Khartoum, in Sudan; University College of Swaziland; and Makerere University, in Uganda. By the 1990s nearly every African country had a national library located in the capital city of the country. Among the Englishspeaking countries of Africa, some of the most notable national libraries are the National Library of Nigeria in Lagos, the National Library of Kenya in Nairobi, the National Library of Swaziland in Mbabane, the National Library of Lesotho in Maseru, and the National Library of Gambia in Banjul. Frenchspeaking countries maintain national libraries in Lomé, Togo; Tunis, Tunisia; Algiers, Algeria; Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Antananarivo, Madagascar; and Yaoundé, Cameroon. The national libraries of the Portuguesespeaking countries of Mozambique and Angola are located in Maputo and Luanda, respectively. South Africa maintains two national libraries: the South African Library in Cape Town and the State Library in Pretoria.
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