Question? Leave a message!

Stephen king story connections

Stephen king story collection and Stephen king short stories online pdf
ll SCRIBNER 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 Visit us on the World Wide Web Copyright © 2000 by Stephen King All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. SCRIBNER and design are trademarks of Macmillan Library Reference USA, Inc., used under license by Simon Schuster, the publisher of this work. DESIGNED BY ERICH HOBBING Set in Garamond No. 3 Library of Congress Publication data is available King, Stephen, 1947– On writing : a memoir of the craft / by Stephen King. p. cm. 1. King, Stephen, 1947– 2. Authors, American—20th century—Biography. 3. King, Stephen, 1947—Authorship. 4. Horror tales—Authorship. 5. Authorship. I. Title. PS3561.I483 Z475 2000 813'.54—dc21 00030105 B ISBN 0743211537 Author’s Note Unless otherwise attributed, all prose examples, both good and evil, were composed by the author. Permissions There Is a Mountain words and music by Donovan Leitch. Copyright © 1967 by Donovan (Music) Ltd. Administered by Peer International Corporation. Copyright renewed. International copyright secured. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Granpa Was a Carpenter by John Prine © Walden Music, Inc. (ASCAP). All rights administered by WB Music Corp. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Warner Bros. Publications U.S. Inc., Miami, FL 33014.Honesty’s the best policy. —Miguel de Cervantes Liars prosper. —AnonymousFirst Foreword In the early nineties (it might have been 1992, but it’s hard to remember when you’re having a good time) I joined a rock androll band composed mostly of writers. The Rock Bottom Remainders were the brainchild of Kathi Kamen Goldmark, a book publicist and musician from San Francisco. The group included Dave Barry on lead guitar, Ridley Pearson on bass, Barbara Kingsolver on keyboards, Robert Fulghum on man dolin, and me on rhythm guitar. There was also a trio of “chick singers,” à la the Dixie Cups, made up (usually) of Kathi, Tad Bartimus, and Amy Tan. The group was intended as a oneshot deal—we would play two shows at the American Booksellers Convention, get a few laughs, recapture our misspent youth for three or four hours, then go our separate ways. It didn’t happen that way, because the group never quite broke up. We found that we liked playing together too much to quit, and with a couple of “ringer” musicians on sax and drums (plus, in the early days, our musical guru, Al Kooper, at the heart of the group), we sounded pretty good. You’d pay to hear us. Not a lot, not U2 or E Street Band prices, but maybe what the oldtimers call “roadhouse money.” We took the group on tour, wrote a book about it (my wife took the pho 7Stephen King tos and danced whenever the spirit took her, which was quite often), and continue to play now and then, sometimes as The Remainders, sometimes as Raymond Burr’s Legs. The per sonnel comes and goes—columnist Mitch Albom has replaced Barbara on keyboards, and Al doesn’t play with the group any more ’cause he and Kathi don’t get along—but the core has remained Kathi, Amy, Ridley, Dave, Mitch Albom, and me . . . plus Josh Kelly on drums and Erasmo Paolo on sax. We do it for the music, but we also do it for the compan ionship. We like each other, and we like having a chance to talk sometimes about the real job, the day job people are always telling us not to quit. We are writers, and we never ask one another where we get our ideas; we know we don’t know. One night while we were eating Chinese before a gig in Miami Beach, I asked Amy if there was any one question she was never asked during the QandA that follows almost every writer’s talk—that question you never get to answer when you’re standing in front of a group of authorstruck fans and pretending you don’t put your pants on one leg at a time like everyone else. Amy paused, thinking it over very carefully, and then said: “No one ever asks about the language.” I owe an immense debt of gratitude to her for saying that. I had been playing with the idea of writing a little book about writing for a year or more at that time, but had held back because I didn’t trust my own motivations—why did I want to write about writing What made me think I had anything worth saying The easy answer is that someone who has sold as many books of fiction as I have must have something worthwhile to say about writing it, but the easy answer isn’t always the truth. Colonel Sanders sold a hell of a lot of fried chicken, but I’m not sure anyone wants to know how he made it. If I was going to 8On Writing be presumptuous enough to tell people how to write, I felt there had to be a better reason than my popular success. Put another way, I didn’t want to write a book, even a short one like this, that would leave me feeling like either a literary gas bag or a transcendental asshole. There are enough of those books—and those writers—on the market already, thanks. But Amy was right: nobody ever asks about the language. They ask the DeLillos and the Updikes and the Styrons, but they don’t ask popular novelists. Yet many of us proles also care about the language, in our humble way, and care pas sionately about the art and craft of telling stories on paper. What follows is an attempt to put down, briefly and simply, how I came to the craft, what I know about it now, and how it’s done. It’s about the day job; it’s about the language. This book is dedicated to Amy Tan, who told me in a very simple and direct way that it was okay to write it. 9Second Foreword This is a short book because most books about writing are filled with bullshit. Fiction writers, present company included, don’t understand very much about what they do—not why it works when it’s good, not why it doesn’t when it’s bad. I fig ured the shorter the book, the less the bullshit. One notable exception to the bullshit rule is The Elements of Style, by William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White. There is little or no detectable bullshit in that book. (Of course it’s short; at eightyfive pages it’s much shorter than this one.) I’ll tell you right now that every aspiring writer should read The Elements of Style. Rule 17 in the chapter titled Principles of Composi tion is “Omit needless words.” I will try to do that here. 11Third Foreword One rule of the road not directly stated elsewhere in this book: “The editor is always right.” The corollary is that no writer will take all of his or her editor’s advice; for all have sinned and fallen short of editorial perfection. Put another way, to write is human, to edit is divine. Chuck Verrill edited this book, as he has so many of my novels. And as usual, Chuck, you were divine. —Steve 13C.V.I was stunned by Mary Karr’s memoir, The Liars’ Club. Not just by its ferocity, its beauty, and by her delightful grasp of the vernacular, but by its totality—she is a woman who remembers everything about her early years. I’m not that way. I lived an odd, herkyjerky childhood, raised by a single parent who moved around a lot in my ear liest years and who—I am not completely sure of this—may have farmed my brother and me out to one of her sisters for awhile because she was economically or emotionally unable to cope with us for a time. Perhaps she was only chasing our father, who piled up all sorts of bills and then did a runout when I was two and my brother David was four. If so, she never succeeded in finding him. My mom, Nellie Ruth Pills bury King, was one of America’s early liberated women, but not by choice. Mary Karr presents her childhood in an almost unbroken panorama. Mine is a foggedout landscape from which occa sional memories appear like isolated trees . . . the kind that look as if they might like to grab and eat you. What follows are some of those memories, plus assorted snapshots from the somewhat more coherent days of my ado lescence and young manhood. This is not an autobiography. It 17Stephen King is, rather, a kind of curriculum vitae—my attempt to show how one writer was formed. Not how one writer was made; I don’t believe writers can be made, either by circumstances or by self will (although I did believe those things once). The equipment comes with the original package. Yet it is by no means unusual equipment; I believe large numbers of people have at least some talent as writers and storytellers, and that those tal ents can be strengthened and sharpened. If I didn’t believe that, writing a book like this would be a waste of time. This is how it was for me, that’s all—a disjointed growth process in which ambition, desire, luck, and a little talent all played a part. Don’t bother trying to read between the lines, and don’t look for a throughline. There are no lines—only snapshots, most out of focus. – – 1 My earliest memory is of imagining I was someone else— imagining that I was, in fact, the Ringling Brothers Circus Strongboy. This was at my Aunt Ethelyn and Uncle Oren’s house in Durham, Maine. My aunt remembers this quite clearly, and says I was two and a half or maybe three years old. I had found a cement cinderblock in a corner of the garage and had managed to pick it up. I carried it slowly across the garage’s smooth cement floor, except in my mind I was dressed in an animal skin singlet (probably a leopard skin) and carrying the cinderblock across the center ring. The vast crowd was silent. A brilliant bluewhite spotlight marked my remarkable progress. Their wondering faces told the story: never had they seen such an incredibly strong kid. “And he’s only two” someone muttered in disbelief. 18On Writing Unknown to me, wasps had constructed a small nest in the lower half of the cinderblock. One of them, perhaps pissed off at being relocated, flew out and stung me on the ear. The pain was brilliant, like a poisonous inspiration. It was the worst pain I had ever suffered in my short life, but it only held the top spot for a few seconds. When I dropped the cinderblock on one bare foot, mashing all five toes, I forgot all about the wasp. I can’t remember if I was taken to the doctor, and nei ther can my Aunt Ethelyn (Uncle Oren, to whom the Evil Cinderblock surely belonged, is almost twenty years dead), but she remembers the sting, the mashed toes, and my reac tion. “How you howled, Stephen” she said. “You were cer tainly in fine voice that day.” – – 2 A year or so later, my mother, my brother, and I were in West De Pere, Wisconsin. I don’t know why. Another of my mother’s sisters, Cal (a WAAC beauty queen during World War II), lived in Wisconsin with her convivial beerdrinking husband, and maybe Mom had moved to be near them. If so, I don’t remember seeing much of the Weimers. Any of them, actually. My mother was working, but I can’t remember what her job was, either. I want to say it was a bakery she worked in, but I think that came later, when we moved to Connecticut to live near her sister Lois and her husband (no beer for Fred, and not much in the way of conviviality, either; he was a crewcut daddy who was proud of driving his con vertible with the top up, God knows why). There was a stream of babysitters during our Wisconsin period. I don’t know if they left because David and I were a 19Stephen King handful, or because they found betterpaying jobs, or because my mother insisted on higher standards than they were willing to rise to; all I know is that there were a lot of them. The only one I remember with any clarity is Eula, or maybe she was Beulah. She was a teenager, she was as big as a house, and she laughed a lot. EulaBeulah had a wonderful sense of humor, even at four I could recognize that, but it was a dangerous sense of humor—there seemed to be a potential thunderclap hidden inside each handpatting, buttrocking, headtossing outburst of glee. When I see those hidden camera sequences where reallife babysitters and nannies just all of a sudden wind up and clout the kids, it’s my days with EulaBeulah I always think of. Was she as hard on my brother David as she was on me I don’t know. He’s not in any of these pictures. Besides, he would have been less at risk from Hurricane EulaBeulah’s dangerous winds; at six, he would have been in the first grade and off the gunnery range for most of the day. EulaBeulah would be on the phone, laughing with some one, and beckon me over. She would hug me, tickle me, get me laughing, and then, still laughing, go upside my head hard enough to knock me down. Then she would tickle me with her bare feet until we were both laughing again. EulaBeulah was prone to farts—the kind that are both loud and smelly. Sometimes when she was so afflicted, she would throw me on the couch, drop her woolskirted butt on my face, and let loose. “Pow” she’d cry in high glee. It was like being buried in marshgas fireworks. I remember the dark, the sense that I was suffocating, and I remember laugh ing. Because, while what was happening was sort of horrible, it was also sort of funny. In many ways, EulaBeulah prepared me for literary criticism. After having a twohundredpound 20On Writing babysitter fart on your face and yell Pow, The Village Voice holds few terrors. I don’t know what happened to the other sitters, but Eula Beulah was fired. It was because of the eggs. One morning EulaBeulah fried me an egg for breakfast. I ate it and asked for another one. EulaBeulah fried me a second egg, then asked if I wanted another one. She had a look in her eye that said, “You don’t dare eat another one, Stevie.” So I asked for another one. And another one. And so on. I stopped after seven, I think—seven is the number that sticks in my mind, and quite clearly. Maybe we ran out of eggs. Maybe I cried off. Or maybe EulaBeulah got scared. I don’t know, but probably it was good that the game ended at seven. Seven eggs is quite a few for a fouryearold. I felt all right for awhile, and then I yarked all over the floor. EulaBeulah laughed, then went upside my head, then shoved me into the closet and locked the door. Pow. If she’d locked me in the bathroom, she might have saved her job, but she didn’t. As for me, I didn’t really mind being in the closet. It was dark, but it smelled of my mother’s Coty perfume, and there was a comforting line of light under the door. I crawled to the back of the closet, Mom’s coats and dresses brushing along my back. I began to belch—long loud belches that burned like fire. I don’t remember being sick to my stomach but I must have been, because when I opened my mouth to let out another burning belch, I yarked again instead. All over my mother’s shoes. That was the end for EulaBeulah. When my mother came home from work that day, the babysitter was fast asleep on the couch and little Stevie was locked in the closet, fast asleep with halfdigested fried eggs drying in his hair. 21Stephen King – – 3 Our stay in West De Pere was neither long nor successful. We were evicted from our thirdfloor apartment when a neighbor spotted my sixyearold brother crawling around on the roof and called the police. I don’t know where my mother was when this happened. I don’t know where the babysitter of the week was, either. I only know that I was in the bathroom, standing with my bare feet on the heater, watching to see if my brother would fall off the roof or make it back into the bathroom okay. He made it back. He is now fiftyfive and liv ing in New Hampshire. – – 4 When I was five or six, I asked my mother if she had ever seen anyone die. Yes, she said, she had seen one person die and had heard another one. I asked how you could hear a person die and she told me that it was a girl who had drowned off Prout’s Neck in the 1920s. She said the girl swam out past the rip, couldn’t get back in, and began screaming for help. Sev eral men tried to reach her, but that day’s rip had developed a vicious undertow, and they were all forced back. In the end they could only stand around, tourists and townies, the teenager who became my mother among them, waiting for a rescue boat that never came and listening to that girl scream until her strength gave out and she went under. Her body washed up in New Hampshire, my mother said. I asked how old the girl was. Mom said she was fourteen, then read me a 22On Writing comic book and packed me off to bed. On some other day she told me about the one she saw—a sailor who jumped off the roof of the Graymore Hotel in Portland, Maine, and landed in the street. “He splattered,” my mother said in her most matterof fact tone. She paused, then added, “The stuff that came out of him was green. I have never forgotten it.” That makes two of us, Mom. – – 5 Most of the nine months I should have spent in the first grade I spent in bed. My problems started with the measles— a perfectly ordinary case—and then got steadily worse. I had bout after bout of what I mistakenly thought was called “stripe throat”; I lay in bed drinking cold water and imagin ing my throat in alternating stripes of red and white (this was probably not so far wrong). At some point my ears became involved, and one day my mother called a taxi (she did not drive) and took me to a doc tor too important to make house calls—an ear specialist. (For some reason I got the idea that this sort of doctor was called an otiologist.) I didn’t care whether he specialized in ears or assholes. I had a fever of a hundred and four degrees, and each time I swallowed, pain lit up the sides of my face like a jukebox. The doctor looked in my ears, spending most of his time (I think) on the left one. Then he laid me down on his examin ing table. “Lift up a minute, Stevie,” his nurse said, and put a large absorbent cloth—it might have been a diaper—under my head, so that my cheek rested on it when I lay back 23Stephen King down. I should have guessed that something was rotten in Denmark. Who knows, maybe I did. There was a sharp smell of alcohol. A clank as the ear doc tor opened his sterilizer. I saw the needle in his hand—it looked as long as the ruler in my school pencilbox—and tensed. The ear doctor smiled reassuringly and spoke the lie for which doctors should be immediately jailed (time of incarceration to be doubled when the lie is told to a child): “Relax, Stevie, this won’t hurt.” I believed him. He slid the needle into my ear and punctured my eardrum with it. The pain was beyond anything I have ever felt since—the only thing close was the first month of recovery after being struck by a van in the summer of 1999. That pain was longer in duration but not so intense. The puncturing of my eardrum was pain beyond the world. I screamed. There was a sound inside my head—a loud kissing sound. Hot fluid ran out of my ear—it was as if I had started to cry out of the wrong hole. God knows I was crying enough out of the right ones by then. I raised my streaming face and looked unbe lieving at the ear doctor and the ear doctor’s nurse. Then I looked at the cloth the nurse had spread over the top third of the exam table. It had a big wet patch on it. There were fine tendrils of yellow pus on it as well. “There,” the ear doctor said, patting my shoulder. “You were very brave, Stevie, and it’s all over.” The next week my mother called another taxi, we went back to the ear doctor’s, and I found myself once more lying on my side with the absorbent square of cloth under my head. The ear doctor once again produced the smell of alco hol—a smell I still associate, as I suppose many people do, with pain and sickness and terror—and with it, the long nee dle. He once more assured me that it wouldn’t hurt, and I 24On Writing once more believed him. Not completely, but enough to be quiet while the needle slid into my ear. It did hurt. Almost as much as the first time, in fact. The smooching sound in my head was louder, too; this time it was giants kissing (“suckin’ face and rotatin’ tongues,” as we used to say). “There,” the ear doctor’s nurse said when it was over and I lay there crying in a puddle of watery pus. “It only hurts a little, and you don’t want to be deaf, do you Besides, it’s all over.” I believed that for about five days, and then another taxi came. We went back to the ear doctor’s. I remember the cab driver telling my mother that he was going to pull over and let us out if she couldn’t shut that kid up. Once again it was me on the exam table with the diaper under my head and my mom out in the waiting room with a magazine she was probably incapable of reading (or so I like to imagine). Once again the pungent smell of alcohol and the doctor turning to me with a needle that looked as long as my school ruler. Once more the smile, the approach, the assur ance that this time it wouldn’t hurt. Since the repeated eardrumlancings when I was six, one of my life’s firmest principles has been this: Fool me once, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me. Fool me three times, shame on both of us. The third time on the ear doc tor’s table I struggled and screamed and thrashed and fought. Each time the needle came near the side of my face, I knocked it away. Finally the nurse called my mother in from the waiting room, and the two of them managed to hold me long enough for the doctor to get his needle in. I screamed so long and so loud that I can still hear it. In fact, I think that in some deep valley of my head that last scream is still echoing. 25Stephen King – – 6 In a dull cold month not too long after that—it would have been January or February of 1954, if I’ve got the sequence right—the taxi came again. This time the specialist wasn’t the ear doctor but a throat doctor. Once again my mother sat in the waiting room, once again I sat on the examining table with a nurse hovering nearby, and once again there was that sharp smell of alcohol, an aroma that still has the power to double my heartbeat in the space of five seconds. All that appeared this time, however, was some sort of throat swab. It stung, and it tasted awful, but after the ear doctor’s long needle it was a walk in the park. The throat doctor donned an interesting gadget that went around his head on a strap. It had a mirror in the middle, and a bright fierce light that shone out of it like a third eye. He looked down my gullet for a long time, urging me to open wider until my jaws creaked, but he did not put needles into me and so I loved him. After awhile he allowed me to close my mouth and summoned my mother. “The problem is his tonsils,” the doctor said. “They look like a cat clawed them. They’ll have to come out.” At some point after that, I remember being wheeled under bright lights. A man in a white mask bent over me. He was standing at the head of the table I was lying on (1953 and 1954 were my years for lying on tables), and to me he looked upside down. “Stephen,” he said. “Can you hear me” I said I could. 26On Writing “I want you to breathe deep,” he said. “When you wake up, you can have all the ice cream you want.” He lowered a gadget over my face. In the eye of my mem ory, it looks like an outboard motor. I took a deep breath, and everything went black. When I woke up I was indeed allowed all the ice cream I wanted, which was a fine joke on me because I didn’t want any. My throat felt swollen and fat. But it was better than the old needleintheear trick. Oh yes. Anything would have been better than the old needleinthe ear trick. Take my tonsils if you have to, put a steel birdcage on my leg if you must, but God save me from the otiologist. – – 7 That year my brother David jumped ahead to the fourth grade and I was pulled out of school entirely. I had missed too much of the first grade, my mother and the school agreed; I could start it fresh in the fall of the year, if my health was good. Most of that year I spent either in bed or housebound. I read my way through approximately six tons of comic books, pro gressed to Tom Swift and Dave Dawson (a heroic World War II pilot whose various planes were always “propclawing for altitude”), then moved on to Jack London’s bloodcurdling ani mal tales. At some point I began to write my own stories. Imi tation preceded creation; I would copy Combat Casey comics word for word in my Blue Horse tablet, sometimes adding my own descriptions where they seemed appropriate. “They were camped in a big dratty farmhouse room,” I might write; it was another year or two before I discovered that drat and draft were 27Stephen King different words. During that same period I remember believ ing that details were dentals and that a bitch was an extremely tall woman. A son of a bitch was apt to be a basketball player. When you’re six, most of your Bingo balls are still floating around in the drawtank. Eventually I showed one of these copycat hybrids to my mother, and she was charmed—I remember her slightly amazed smile, as if she was unable to believe a kid of hers could be so smart—practically a damned prodigy, for God’s sake. I had never seen that look on her face before—not on my account, anyway—and I absolutely loved it. She asked me if I had made the story up myself, and I was forced to admit that I had copied most of it out of a funny book. She seemed disappointed, and that drained away much of my pleasure. At last she handed back my tablet. “Write one of your own, Stevie,” she said. “Those Combat Casey funny books are just junk—he’s always knocking someone’s teeth out. I bet you could do better. Write one of your own.” – – 8 I remember an immense feeling of possibility at the idea, as if I had been ushered into a vast building filled with closed doors and had been given leave to open any I liked. There were more doors than one person could ever open in a life time, I thought (and still think). I eventually wrote a story about four magic animals who rode around in an old car, helping out little kids. Their leader was a large white bunny named Mr. Rabbit Trick. He got to drive the car. The story was four pages long, laboriously printed in pencil. No one in it, so far as I can remember, 28On Writing jumped from the roof of the Graymore Hotel. When I fin ished, I gave it to my mother, who sat down in the living room, put her pocketbook on the floor beside her, and read it all at once. I could tell she liked it—she laughed in all the right places—but I couldn’t tell if that was because she liked me and wanted me to feel good or because it really was good. “You didn’t copy this one” she asked when she had fin ished. I said no, I hadn’t. She said it was good enough to be in a book. Nothing anyone has said to me since has made me feel any happier. I wrote four more stories about Mr. Rabbit Trick and his friends. She gave me a quarter apiece for them and sent them around to her four sisters, who pitied her a lit tle, I think. They were all still married, after all; their men had stuck. It was true that Uncle Fred didn’t have much sense of humor and was stubborn about keeping the top of his con vertible up, it was also true that Uncle Oren drank quite a bit and had dark theories about how the Jews were running the world, but they were there. Ruth, on the other hand, had been left holding the baby when Don ran out. She wanted them to see that he was a talented baby, at least. Four stories. A quarter apiece. That was the first buck I made in this business. – – 9 We moved to Stratford, Connecticut. By then I was in the second grade and stone in love with the pretty teenage girl who lived next door. She never looked twice at me in the day time, but at night, as I lay in bed and drifted toward sleep, we ran away from the cruel world of reality again and again. My new teacher was Mrs. Taylor, a kind lady with gray Elsa 29Stephen King Lanchester–Bride of Frankenstein hair and protruding eyes. “When we’re talking I always want to cup my hands under Mrs. Taylor’s peepers in case they fall out,” my mom said. Our new thirdfloor apartment was on West Broad Street. A block down the hill, not far from Teddy’s Market and across from Burrets Building Materials, was a huge tangled wilderness area with a junkyard on the far side and a train track running through the middle. This is one of the places I keep returning to in my imagination; it turns up in my books and stories again and again, under a variety of names. The kids in It called it the Barrens; we called it the jungle. Dave and I explored it for the first time not long after we had moved into our new place. It was summer. It was hot. It was great. We were deep into the green mysteries of this cool new playground when I was struck by an urgent need to move my bowels. “Dave,” I said. “Take me home I have to push” (This was the word we were given for this particular function.) David didn’t want to hear it. “Go do it in the woods,” he said. It would take at least half an hour to walk me home, and he had no intention of giving up such a shining stretch of time just because his little brother had to take a dump. “I can’t” I said, shocked by the idea. “I won’t be able to wipe” “Sure you will,” Dave said. “Wipe yourself with some leaves. That’s how the cowboys and Indians did it.” By then it was probably too late to get home, anyway; I have an idea I was out of options. Besides, I was enchanted by the idea of shitting like a cowboy. I pretended I was Hopalong Cassidy, squatting in the underbrush with my gun drawn, not to be caught unawares even at such a personal moment. I did my business, and took care of the cleanup as 30On Writing my older brother had suggested, carefully wiping my ass with big handfuls of shiny green leaves. These turned out to be poison ivy. Two days later I was bright red from the backs of my knees to my shoulderblades. My penis was spared, but my testicles turned into stoplights. My ass itched all the way up to my ribcage, it seemed. Yet worst of all was the hand I had wiped with; it swelled to the size of Mickey Mouse’s after Donald Duck has bopped it with a hammer, and gigantic blisters formed at the places where the fingers rubbed together. When they burst they left deep divots of raw pink flesh. For six weeks I sat in lukewarm starch baths, feeling miserable and humil iated and stupid, listening through the open door as my mother and brother laughed and listened to Peter Tripp’s countdown on the radio and played Crazy Eights. – – 10 Dave was a great brother, but too smart for a tenyearold. His brains were always getting him in trouble, and he learned at some point (probably after I had wiped my ass with poison ivy) that it was usually possible to get Brother Stevie to join him in the point position when trouble was in the wind. Dave never asked me to shoulder all the blame for his often brilliant fuckups—he was neither a sneak nor a coward—but on several occasions I was asked to share it. Which was, I think, why we both got in trouble when Dave dammed up the stream running through the jungle and flooded much of lower West Broad Street. Sharing the blame was also the reason we both ran the risk of getting killed while imple menting his potentially lethal school science project. 31Stephen King This was probably 1958. I was at Center Grammar School; Dave was at Stratford Junior High. Mom was working at the Stratford Laundry, where she was the only white lady on the mangle crew. That’s what she was doing—feeding sheets into the mangle—while Dave constructed his Science Fair project. My big brother wasn’t the sort of boy to content him self drawing frogdiagrams on construction paper or making The House of the Future out of plastic Tyco bricks and painted toilettissue rolls; Dave aimed for the stars. His project that year was Dave’s Super Duper Electromagnet. My brother had great affection for things which were super duper and things which began with his own name; this latter habit culminated with Dave’s Rag, which we will come to shortly. His first stab at the Super Duper Electromagnet wasn’t very super duper; in fact, it may not have worked at all—I don’t remember for sure. It did come out of an actual book, rather than Dave’s head, however. The idea was this: you magnetized a spike nail by rubbing it against a regular mag net. The magnetic charge imparted to the spike would be weak, the book said, but enough to pick up a few iron filings. After trying this, you were supposed to wrap a length of cop per wire around the barrel of the spike, and attach the ends of the wire to the terminals of a drycell battery. According to the book, the electricity would strengthen the magnetism, and you could pick up a lot more iron filings. Dave didn’t just want to pick up a stupid pile of metal flakes, though; Dave wanted to pick up Buicks, railroad box cars, possibly Army transport planes. Dave wanted to turn on the juice and move the world in its orbit. Pow Super We each had our part to play in creating the Super Duper Electromagnet. Dave’s part was to build it. My part would 32On Writing be to test it. Little Stevie King, Stratford’s answer to Chuck Yeager. Dave’s new version of the experiment bypassed the pokey old dry cell (which was probably flat anyway when we bought it at the hardware store, he reasoned) in favor of actual wall current. Dave cut the electrical cord off an old lamp someone had put out on the curb with the trash, stripped the coating all the way down to the plug, then wrapped his magnetized spike in spirals of bare wire. Then, sitting on the floor in the kitchen of our West Broad Street apartment, he offered me the Super Duper Electromagnet and bade me do my part and plug it in. I hesitated—give me at least that much credit—but in the end, Dave’s manic enthusiasm was too much to withstand. I plugged it in. There was no noticeable magnetism, but the gadget did blow out every light and electrical appliance in our apartment, every light and electrical appliance in the building, and every light and electrical appliance in the building next door (where my dreamgirl lived in the groundfloor apart ment). Something popped in the electrical transformer out front, and some cops came. Dave and I spent a horrible hour watching from our mother’s bedroom window, the only one that looked out on the street (all the others had a good view of the grassless, turdstudded yard behind us, where the only living thing was a mangy canine named RoopRoop). When the cops left, a power truck arrived. A man in spiked shoes climbed the pole between the two apartment houses to exam ine the transformer. Under other circumstances, this would have absorbed us completely, but not that day. That day we could only wonder if our mother would come and see us in reform school. Eventually, the lights came back on and the power truck went away. We were not caught and lived to 33Stephen King fight another day. Dave decided he might build a Super Duper Glider instead of a Super Duper Electromagnet for his science project. I, he told me, would get to take the first ride. Wouldn’t that be great – – 11 I was born in 1947 and we didn’t get our first television until 1958. The first thing I remember watching on it was Robot Monster, a film in which a guy dressed in an apesuit with a goldfish bowl on his head—RoMan, he was called—ran around trying to kill the last survivors of a nuclear war. I felt this was art of quite a high nature. I also watched Highway Patrol with Broderick Crawford as the fearless Dan Matthews, and One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, the man with the world’s spookiest eyes. There was Cheyenne and Sea Hunt, Your Hit Parade and Annie Oakley; there was Tommy Rettig as the first of Lassie’s many friends, Jock Mahoney as The Range Rider, and Andy Devine yowling, “Hey, Wild Bill, wait for me” in his odd, high voice. There was a whole world of vicarious adventure which came packaged in blackandwhite, fourteen inches across and sponsored by brand names which still sound like poetry to me. I loved it all. But TV came relatively late to the King household, and I’m glad. I am, when you stop to think of it, a member of a fairly select group: the final handful of American novelists who learned to read and write before they learned to eat a daily helping of video bullshit. This might not be important. On the other hand, if you’re just starting out as a writer, you could do worse than strip your television’s electric plugwire, 34On Writing wrap a spike around it, and then stick it back into the wall. See what blows, and how far. Just an idea. – – 12 In the late 1950s, a literary agent and compulsive science fic tion memorabilia collector named Forrest J. Ackerman changed the lives of thousands of kids—I was one—when he began editing a magazine called Famous Monsters of Filmland. Ask anyone who has been associated with the fantasy–hor ror–science fiction genres in the last thirty years about this magazine, and you’ll get a laugh, a flash of the eyes, and a stream of bright memories—I practically guarantee it. Around 1960, Forry (who sometimes referred to himself as “the Ackermonster”) spun off the shortlived but interesting Spacemen, a magazine which covered science fiction films. In 1960, I sent a story to Spacemen. It was, as well as I can remember, the first story I ever submitted for publication. I don’t recall the title, but I was still in the RoMan phase of my development, and this particular tale undoubtedly owed a great deal to the killer ape with the goldfish bowl on his head. My story was rejected, but Forry kept it. (Forry keeps everything, which anyone who has ever toured his house—the Ackermansion—will tell you.) About twenty years later, while I was signing autographs at a Los Angeles bookstore, Forry turned up in line . . . with my story, singlespaced and typed with the longvanished Royal typewriter my mom gave me for Christmas the year I was eleven. He wanted me to sign it to him, and I guess I did, although the whole encounter was so 35Stephen King surreal I can’t be completely sure. Talk about your ghosts. Man oh man. – – 13 The first story I did actually publish was in a horror fanzine issued by Mike Garrett of Birmingham, Alabama (Mike is still around, and still in the biz). He published this novella under the title “In a HalfWorld of Terror,” but I still like my title much better. Mine was “I Was a TeenAge Grave robber.” Super Duper Pow – – 14 My first really original story idea—you always know the first one, I think—came near the end of Ike’s eightyear reign of benignity. I was sitting at the kitchen table of our house in Durham, Maine, and watching my mother stick sheets of SH Green Stamps into a book. (For more colorful stories about Green Stamps, see The Liars’ Club.) Our little family troika had moved back to Maine so our mom could take care of her parents in their declining years. Mama was about eighty at that time, obese and hypertensive and mostly blind; Daddy Guy was eightytwo, scrawny, morose, and prone to the occasional Donald Duck outburst which only my mother could understand. Mom called Daddy Guy “Fazza.” My mother’s sisters had gotten my mom this job, perhaps thinking they could kill two birds with one stone—the aged Ps would be taken care of in a homey environment by a lov ing daughter, and The Nagging Problem of Ruth would be 36On Writing solved. She would no longer be adrift, trying to take care of two boys while she floated almost aimlessly from Indiana to Wisconsin to Connecticut, baking cookies at five in the morning or pressing sheets in a laundry where the tempera tures often soared to a hundred and ten in the summer and the foreman gave out salt pills at one and three every after noon from July to the end of September. She hated her new job, I think—in their effort to take care of her, her sisters turned our selfsufficient, funny, slightly nutty mother into a sharecropper living a largely cashless exis tence. The money the sisters sent her each month covered the groceries but little else. They sent boxes of clothes for us. Toward the end of each summer, Uncle Clayt and Aunt Ella (who were not, I think, real relatives at all) would bring car tons of canned vegetables and preserves. The house we lived in belonged to Aunt Ethelyn and Uncle Oren. And once she was there, Mom was caught. She got another actual job after the old folks died, but she lived in that house until the cancer got her. When she left Durham for the last time—David and his wife Linda cared for her during the final weeks of her final ill ness—I have an idea she was probably more than ready to go. – – 15 Let’s get one thing clear right now, shall we There is no Idea Dump, no Story Central, no Island of the Buried Bestsellers; good story ideas seem to come quite literally from nowhere, sailing at you right out of the empty sky: two previously unrelated ideas come together and make something new under the sun. Your job isn’t to find these ideas but to recog nize them when they show up. 37Stephen King On the day this particular idea—the first really good one—came sailing at me, my mother remarked that she needed six more books of stamps to get a lamp she wanted to give her sister Molly for Christmas, and she didn’t think she would make it in time. “I guess it will have to be for her birthday, instead,” she said. “These cussed things always look like a lot until you stick them in a book.” Then she crossed her eyes and ran her tongue out at me. When she did, I saw her tongue was SH green. I thought how nice it would be if you could make those damned stamps in your basement, and in that instant a story called “Happy Stamps” was born. The concept of counterfeiting Green Stamps and the sight of my mother’s green tongue created it in an instant. The hero of my story was your classic Poor Schmuck, a guy named Roger who had done jail time twice for counter feiting money—one more bust would make him a three time loser. Instead of money, he began to counterfeit Happy Stamps . . . except, he discovered, the design of Happy Stamps was so moronically simple that he wasn’t really coun terfeiting at all; he was creating reams of the actual article. In a funny scene—probably the first really competent scene I ever wrote—Roger sits in the living room with his old mom, the two of them mooning over the Happy Stamps catalogue while the printing press runs downstairs, ejecting bale after bale of those same trading stamps. “Great Scott” Mom says. “According to the fine print, you can get anything with Happy Stamps, Roger—you tell them what you want, and they figure out how many books you need to get it. Why, for six or seven million books, we could probably get a Happy Stamps house in the suburbs” Roger discovers, however, that although the stamps are perfect, the glue is defective. If you lap the stamps and stick 38On Writing them in the book they’re fine, but if you send them through a mechanical licker, the pink Happy Stamps turn blue. At the end of the story, Roger is in the basement, standing in front of a mirror. Behind him, on the table, are roughly ninety books of Happy Stamps, each book filled with individually licked sheets of stamps. Our hero’s lips are pink. He runs out his tongue; that’s even pinker. Even his teeth are turning pink. Mom calls cheerily down the stairs, saying she has just gotten off the phone with the Happy Stamps National Redemption Center in Terre Haute, and the lady said they could probably get a nice Tudor home in Weston for only eleven million, six hundred thousand books of Happy Stamps. “That’s nice, Mom,” Roger says. He looks at himself a moment longer in the mirror, lips pink and eyes bleak, then slowly returns to the table. Behind him, billions of Happy Stamps are stuffed into basement storage bins. Slowly, our hero opens a fresh stampbook, then begins to lick sheets and stick them in. Only eleven million, five hundred and ninety thousand books to go, he thinks as the story ends, and Mom can have her Tudor. There were things wrong with this story (the biggest hole was probably Roger’s failure simply to start over with a dif ferent glue), but it was cute, it was fairly original, and I knew I had done some pretty good writing. After a long time spent studying the markets in my beatup Writer’s Digest, I sent “Happy Stamps” off to Alfred Hitchcock’s Mystery Magazine. It came back three weeks later with a form rejection slip attached. This slip bore Alfred Hitchcock’s unmistakable profile in red ink and wished me good luck with my story. At the bottom was an unsigned jotted message, the only per sonal response I got from AHMM over eight years of periodic submissions. “Don’t staple manuscripts,” the postscript read. 39Stephen King “Loose pages plus paperclip equal correct way to submit copy.” This was pretty cold advice, I thought, but useful in its way. I have never stapled a manuscript since. – – 16 My room in our Durham house was upstairs, under the eaves. At night I could lie in bed beneath one of these eaves—if I sat up suddenly, I was apt to whack my head a good one—and read by the light of a gooseneck lamp that put an amusing boa constrictor of shadow on the ceiling. Sometimes the house was quiet except for the whoosh of the furnace and the patter of rats in the attic; sometimes my grandmother would spend an hour or so around midnight yelling for someone to check Dick—she was afraid he hadn’t been fed. Dick, a horse she’d had in her days as a schoolteacher, was at least forty years dead. I had a desk beneath the room’s other eave, my old Royal typewriter, and a hundred or so paperback books, mostly science fiction, which I lined up along the baseboard. On my bureau was a Bible won for memorizing verses in Methodist Youth Fellowship and a Webcor phonograph with an automatic changer and a turntable covered in soft green velvet. On it I played my records, mostly 45s by Elvis, Chuck Berry, Freddy Cannon, and Fats Domino. I liked Fats; he knew how to rock, and you could tell he was having fun. When I got the rejection slip from AHMM, I pounded a nail into the wall above the Webcor, wrote “Happy Stamps” on the rejection slip, and poked it onto the nail. Then I sat on my bed and listened to Fats sing “I’m Ready.” I felt pretty good, actually. When you’re still too young to shave, opti mism is a perfectly legitimate response to failure. 40On Writing By the time I was fourteen (and shaving twice a week whether I needed to or not) the nail in my wall would no longer support the weight of the rejection slips impaled upon it. I replaced the nail with a spike and went on writing. By the time I was sixteen I’d begun to get rejection slips with hand written notes a little more encouraging than the advice to stop using staples and start using paperclips. The first of these hope ful notes was from Algis Budrys, then the editor of Fantasy and Science Fiction, who read a story of mine called “The Night of the Tiger” (the inspiration was, I think, an episode of The Fugi tive in which Dr. Richard Kimble worked as an attendant cleaning out cages in a zoo or a circus) and wrote: “This is good. Not for us, but good. You have talent. Submit again.” Those four brief sentences, scribbled by a fountain pen that left big ragged blotches in its wake, brightened the dis mal winter of my sixteenth year. Ten years or so later, after I’d sold a couple of novels, I discovered “The Night of the Tiger” in a box of old manuscripts and thought it was still a perfectly respectable tale, albeit one obviously written by a guy who had only begun to learn his chops. I rewrote it and on a whim resubmitted it to FSF. This time they bought it. One thing I’ve noticed is that when you’ve had a little success, magazines are a lot less apt to use that phrase, “Not for us.” – – 17 Although he was a year younger than his classmates, my big brother was bored with high school. Some of this had to do with his intellect—Dave’s IQ tested in the 150s or 160s— but I think it was mostly his restless nature. For Dave, high 41Stephen King school just wasn’t super duper enough—there was no pow, no wham, no fun. He solved the problem, at least temporar ily, by creating a newspaper which he called Dave’s Rag. The Rag’s office was a table located in the dirtfloored, rockwalled, spiderinfested confines of our basement, some where north of the furnace and east of the rootcellar, where Clayt and Ella’s endless cartons of preserves and canned veg etables were kept. The Rag was an odd combination of fam ily newsletter and smalltown biweekly. Sometimes it was a monthly, if Dave got sidetracked by other interests (maple sugaring, cidermaking, rocketbuilding, and carcustomizing, just to name a few), and then there would be jokes I didn’t understand about how Dave’s Rag was a little late this month or how we shouldn’t bother Dave, because he was down in the basement, on the Rag. Jokes or no jokes, circulation rose slowly from about five copies per issue (sold to nearby family members) to some thing like fifty or sixty, with our relatives and the relatives of neighbors in our small town (Durham’s population in 1962 was about nine hundred) eagerly awaiting each new edition. A typical number would let people know how Charley Har rington’s broken leg was mending, what guest speakers might be coming to the West Durham Methodist Church, how much water the King boys were hauling from the town pump to keep from draining the well behind the house (of course it went dry every fucking summer no matter how much water we hauled), who was visiting the Browns or the Halls on the other side of Methodist Corners, and whose rel atives were due to hit town each summer. Dave also included sports, wordgames, weather reports (“It’s been pretty dry, but local farmer Harold Davis says if we don’t have at least one good rain in August he will smile and kiss a pig”), 42On Writing recipes, a continuing story (I wrote that), and Dave’s Jokes and Humor, which included nuggets like these: Stan: “What did the beaver say to the oak tree” Jan: “It was nice gnawing you” 1st Beatnik: “How do you get to Carnegie Hall” 2nd Beatnik: “Practice man practice” During the Rag’s first year, the print was purple—those issues were produced on a flat plate of jelly called a hecto graph. My brother quickly decided the hectograph was a pain in the butt. It was just too slow for him. Even as a kid in short pants, Dave hated to be halted. Whenever Milt, our mom’s boyfriend (“Sweeter than smart,” Mom said to me one day a few months after she dropped him), got stuck in traffic or at a stoplight, Dave would lean over from the back seat of Milt’s Buick and yell, “Drive over em, Uncle Milt Drive over em” As a teenager, waiting for the hectograph to “freshen” between pages printed (while “freshening,” the print would melt into a vague purple membrane which hung in the jelly like a manatee’s shadow) drove David all but insane with impatience. Also, he badly wanted to add photographs to the newspaper. He took good ones, and by age sixteen he was developing them, as well. He rigged a darkroom in a closet and from its tiny, chemicalstinking confines produced pic tures which were often startling in their clarity and composi tion (the photo on the back of The Regulators, showing me with a copy of the magazine containing my first published story, was taken by Dave with an old Kodak and developed in his closet darkroom). 43Stephen King In addition to these frustrations, the flats of hectograph jelly had a tendency to incubate and support colonies of strange, sporelike growths in the unsavory atmosphere of our basement, no matter how meticulous we were about cover ing the damned old slowcoach thing once the day’s printing chores were done. What looked fairly ordinary on Monday sometimes looked like something out of an H. P. Lovecraft horror tale by the weekend. In Brunswick, where he went to high school, Dave found a shop with a small drum printing press for sale. It worked— barely. You typed up your copy on stencils which could be purchased in a local officesupply store for nineteen cents apiece—my brother called this chore “cutting stencil,” and it was usually my job, as I was less prone to make typing errors. The stencils were attached to the drum of the press, lathered up with the world’s stinkiest, oogiest ink, and then you were off to the races—crank ’til your arm falls off, son. We were able to put together in two nights what had previously taken a week with the hectograph, and while the drumpress was messy, it did not look infected with a potentially fatal disease. Dave’s Rag entered its brief golden age. – – 18 I wasn’t much interested in the printing process, and I wasn’t interested at all in the arcana of first developing and then reproducing photographs. I didn’t care about putting Hearst shifters in cars, making cider, or seeing if a certain formula would send a plastic rocket into the stratosphere (usually they didn’t even make it over the house). What I cared about most between 1958 and 1966 was movies. 44On Writing As the fifties gave way to the sixties, there were only two movie theaters in the area, both in Lewiston. The Empire was the firstrun house, showing Disney pictures, Bible epics, and musicals in which widescreen ensembles of wellscrubbed folks danced and sang. I went to these if I had a ride—a movie was a movie, after all—but I didn’t like them very much. They were boringly wholesome. They were pre dictable. During The Parent Trap, I kept hoping Hayley Mills would run into Vic Morrow from The Blackboard Jungle. That would have livened things up a little, by God. I felt that one look at Vic’s switchblade knife and gimlet gaze would have put Hayley’s piddling domestic problems in some kind of rea sonable perspective. And when I lay in bed at night under my eave, listening to the wind in the trees or the rats in the attic, it was not Debbie Reynolds as Tammy or Sandra Dee as Gidget that I dreamed of, but Yvette Vickers from Attack of the Giant Leeches or Luana Anders from Dementia 13. Never mind sweet; never mind uplifting; never mind Snow White and the Seven Goddam Dwarfs. At thirteen I wanted mon sters that ate whole cities, radioactive corpses that came out of the ocean and ate surfers, and girls in black bras who looked like trailer trash. Horror movies, science fiction movies, movies about teenage gangs on the prowl, movies about losers on motor cycles—this was the stuff that turned my dials up to ten. The place to get all of this was not at the Empire, on the upper end of Lisbon Street, but at the Ritz, down at the lower end, amid the pawnshops and not far from Louie’s Clothing, where in 1964 I bought my first pair of Beatle boots. The distance from my house to the Ritz was fourteen miles, and I hitch hiked there almost every weekend during the eight years between 1958 and 1966, when I finally got my driver’s 45Stephen King license. Sometimes I went with my friend Chris Chesley, sometimes I went alone, but unless I was sick or something, I always went. It was at the Ritz that I saw I Married a Mon ster from Outer Space, with Tom Tryon; The Haunting, with Claire Bloom and Julie Harris; The Wild Angels, with Peter Fonda and Nancy Sinatra. I saw Olivia de Havilland put out James Caan’s eyes with makeshift knives in Lady in a Cage, saw Joseph Cotten come back from the dead in Hush . . . Hush, Sweet Charlotte, and watched with held breath (and not a little prurient interest) to see if Allison Hayes would grow all the way out of her clothes in Attack of the 50 Ft. Woman. At the Ritz, all the finer things in life were available . . . or might be available, if you only sat in the third row, paid close attention, and did not blink at the wrong moment. Chris and I liked just about any horror movie, but our faves were the string of AmericanInternational films, most directed by Roger Corman, with titles cribbed from Edgar Allan Poe. I wouldn’t say based upon the works of Edgar Allan Poe, because there is little in any of them which has anything to do with Poe’s actual stories and poems (The Raven was filmed as a comedy—no kidding). And yet the best of them—The Haunted Palace, The Conqueror Worm, The Masque of the Red Death—achieved a hallucinatory eeriness that made them special. Chris and I had our own name for these films, one that made them into a separate genre. There were westerns, there were love stories, there were war stories . . . and there were Poepictures. “Wanna hitch to the show Saturday afternoon” Chris would ask. “Go to the Ritz” “What’s on” I’d ask. “A motorcycle picture and a Poepicture,” he’d say. I, of course, was on that combo like white on rice. Bruce Dern 46On Writing going batshit on a Harley and Vincent Price going batshit in a haunted castle overlooking a restless ocean: who could ask for more You might even get Hazel Court wandering around in a lacy lowcut nightgown, if you were lucky. Of all the Poepictures, the one that affected Chris and me the most deeply was The Pit and the Pendulum. Written by Richard Matheson and filmed in both widescreen and Tech nicolor (color horror pictures were still a rarity in 1961, when this one came out), Pit took a bunch of standard gothic ingre dients and turned them into something special. It might have been the last really great studio horror picture before George Romero’s ferocious indie The Night of the Living Dead came along and changed everything forever (in some few cases for the better, in most for the worse). The best scene— the one which froze Chris and me into our seats—depicted John Kerr digging into a castle wall and discovering the corpse of his sister, who was obviously buried alive. I have never forgotten the corpse’s closeup, shot through a red fil ter and a distorting lens which elongated the face into a huge silent scream. On the long hitch home that night (if rides were slow in coming, you might end up walking four or five miles and not get home until well after dark) I had a wonderful idea: I would turn The Pit and the Pendulum into a book Would nov elize it, as Monarch Books had novelized such undying film classics as Jack the Ripper, Gorgo, and Konga. But I wouldn’t just write this masterpiece; I would also print it, using the drum press in our basement, and sell copies at school Zap Kapow As it was conceived, so was it done. Working with the care and deliberation for which I would later be critically acclaimed, I turned out my “novel version” of The Pit and the Pendulum in two days, composing directly onto the stencils from which I’d 47Stephen King print. Although no copies of that particular masterpiece sur vive (at least to my knowledge), I believe it was eight pages long, each page singlespaced and paragraph breaks kept to an absolute minimum (each stencil cost nineteen cents, remem ber). I printed sheets on both sides, just as in a standard book, and added a title page on which I drew a rudimentary pendulum dripping small black blotches which I hoped would look like blood. At the last moment I realized I had forgotten to identify the publishing house. After a halfhour or so of pleasant mulling, I typed the words A V.I.B. BOOK in the upper right corner of my title page. V.I.B. stood for Very Important Book. I ran off about forty copies of The Pit and the Pendulum, blissfully unaware that I was in violation of every plagiarism and copyright statute in the history of the world; my thoughts were focused almost entirely on how much money I might make if my story was a hit at school. The stencils had cost me 1.71 (having to use up one whole stencil for the title page seemed a hideous waste of money, but you had to look good, I’d reluctantly decided; you had to go out there with a bit of the old attitude), the paper had cost another two bits or so, the staples were free, cribbed from my brother (you might have to paperclip stories you were sending out to magazines, but this was a book, this was the bigtime). After some further thought, I priced V.I.B. 1, The Pit and the Pendulum by Steve King, at a quarter a copy. I thought I might be able to sell ten (my mother would buy one to get me started; she could always be counted on), and that would add up to 2.50. I’d make about forty cents, which would be enough to finance another educational trip to the Ritz. If I sold two more, I could get a big sack of popcorn and a Coke, as well. The Pit and the Pendulum turned out to be my first best 48On Writing seller. I took the entire printrun to school in my bookbag (in 1961 I would have been an eighthgrader at Durham’s newly built fourroom elementary school), and by noon that day I had sold two dozen. By the end of lunch hour, when word had gotten around about the lady buried in the wall (“They stared with horror at the bones sticking out from the ends of her fin gers, realizing she had died scratcheing madley for escape”), I had sold three dozen. I had nine dollars in change weighing down the bottom of my bookbag (upon which Durham’s answer to Daddy Cool had carefully printed most of the lyrics to “The Lion Sleeps Tonight”) and was walking around in a kind of dream, unable to believe my sudden ascension to previously unsuspected realms of wealth. It all seemed too good to be true. It was. When the school day ended at two o’clock, I was summoned to the principal’s office, where I was told I couldn’t turn the school into a marketplace, especially not, Miss Hisler said, to sell such trash as The Pit and the Pendulum. Her attitude didn’t much surprise me. Miss Hisler had been the teacher at my previous school, the oneroomer at Methodist Corners, where I went to the fifth and sixth grades. During that time she had spied me reading a rather sensational “teenage rum ble” novel (The Amboy Dukes, by Irving Shulman), and had taken it away. This was just more of the same, and I was dis gusted with myself for not seeing the outcome in advance. In those days we called someone who did an idiotic thing a dub ber (pronounced dubba if you were from Maine). I had just dubbed up bigtime. “What I don’t understand, Stevie,” she said, “is why you’d write junk like this in the first place. You’re talented. Why do you want to waste your abilities” She had rolled up a copy of V.I.B. 1 and was brandishing it at me the way a person 49Stephen King might brandish a rolledup newspaper at a dog that has pid dled on the rug. She waited for me to answer—to her credit, the question was not entirely rhetorical—but I had no answer to give. I was ashamed. I have spent a good many years since—too many, I think—being ashamed about what I write. I think I was forty before I realized that almost every writer of fiction and poetry who has ever published a line has been accused by someone of wasting his or her Godgiven tal ent. If you write (or paint or dance or sculpt or sing, I sup pose), someone will try to make you feel lousy about it, that’s all. I’m not editorializing, just trying to give you the facts as I see them. Miss Hisler told me I would have to give everyone’s money back. I did so with no argument, even to those kids (and there were quite a few, I’m happy to say) who insisted on keeping their copies of V.I.B. 1. I ended up losing money on the deal after all, but when summer vacation came I printed four dozen copies of a new story, an original called The Invasion of the StarCreatures, and sold all but four or five. I guess that means I won in the end, at least in a financial sense. But in my heart I stayed ashamed. I kept hearing Miss Hisler asking why I wanted to waste my talent, why I wanted to waste my time, why I wanted to write junk. – – 19 Doing a serial story for Dave’s Rag was fun, but my other jour nalistic duties bored me. Still, I had worked for a newspaper of sorts, word got around, and during my sophomore year at Lisbon High I became editor of our school newspaper, The Drum. I don’t recall being given any choice in this matter; I 50On Writing think I was simply appointed. My secondincommand, Danny Emond, had even less interest in the paper than I did. Danny just liked the idea that Room 4, where we did our work, was near the girls’ bathroom. “Someday I’ll just go crazy and hack my way in there, Steve,” he told me on more than one occasion. “Hack, hack, hack.” Once he added, per haps in an effort to justify himself: “The prettiest girls in school pull up their skirts in there.” This struck me as so fun damentally stupid it might actually be wise, like a Zen koan or an early story by John Updike. The Drum did not prosper under my editorship. Then as now, I tend to go through periods of idleness followed by peri ods of workaholic frenzy. In the schoolyear 1963–1964, The Drum published just one issue, but that one was a monster thicker than the Lisbon Falls telephone book. One night— sick to death of Class Reports, Cheerleading Updates, and some lamebrain’s efforts to write a school poem—I created a satiric high school newspaper of my own when I should have been captioning photographs for The Drum. What resulted was a foursheet which I called The Village Vomit. The boxed motto in the upper lefthand corner was not “All the News That’s Fit to Print” but “All the Shit That Will Stick.” That piece of dimwit humor got me into the only real trouble of my high school career. It also led me to the most useful writing lesson I ever got. In typical Mad magazine style (“What, me worry”), I filled the Vomit with fictional tidbits about the LHS faculty, using teacher nicknames the student body would immedi ately recognize. Thus Miss Raypach, the studyhall monitor, became Miss Rat Pack; Mr. Ricker, the collegetrack English teacher (and the school’s most urbane faculty member—he looked quite a bit like Craig Stevens in Peter Gunn), became 51Stephen King Cow Man because his family owned Ricker Dairy; Mr. Diehl, the earthscience teacher, became Old Raw Diehl. As all sophomoric humorists must be, I was totally blown away by my own wit. What a funny fellow I was A regular milltown H. L. Mencken I simply must take the Vomit to school and show all my friends They would bust a collective gut As a matter of fact, they did bust a collective gut; I had some good ideas about what tickled the funnybones of high school kids, and most of them were showcased in The Village Vomit. In one article, Cow Man’s prize Jersey won a livestock farting contest at Topsham Fair; in another, Old Raw Diehl was fired for sticking the eyeballs of specimen fetal pigs up his nostrils. Humor in the grand Swiftian manner, you see. Pretty sophisticated, eh During period four, three of my friends were laughing so hard in the back of studyhall that Miss Raypach (Rat Pack to you, chum) crept up on them to see what was so funny. She confiscated The Village Vomit, on which I had, either out of over weening pride or almost unbelievable naiveté, put my name as Editor in Chief Grand High Poobah, and at the close of school I was for the second time in my student career sum moned to the office on account of something I had written. This time the trouble was a good deal more serious. Most of the teachers were inclined to be good sports about my teasing—even Old Raw Diehl was willing to let bygones be bygones concerning the pigs’ eyeballs—but one was not. This was Miss Margitan, who taught shorthand and typing to the girls in the business courses. She commanded both respect and fear; in the tradition of teachers from an earlier era, Miss Margitan did not want to be your pal, your psychologist, or your inspiration. She was there to teach business skills, and 52On Writing she wanted all learning to be done by the rules. Her rules. Girls in Miss Margitan’s classes were sometimes asked to kneel on the floor, and if the hems of their skirts didn’t touch the linoleum, they were sent home to change. No amount of tearful begging could soften her, no reasoning could modify her view of the world. Her detention lists were the longest of any teacher in the school, but her girls were routinely selected as valedictorians or salutatorians and usually went on to good jobs. Many came to love her. Others loathed her then and likely still do now, all these years later. These latter girls called her “Maggot” Margitan, as their mothers had no doubt before them. And in The Village Vomit I had an item which began, “Miss Margitan, known affectionately to Lisbonians everywhere as Maggot . . .” Mr. Higgins, our bald principal (breezily referred to in the Vomit as Old CueBall), told me that Miss Margitan had been very hurt and very upset by what I had written. She was apparently not too hurt to remember that old scriptural admonition which goes “Vengeance is mine, saith the short hand teacher,” however; Mr. Higgins said she wanted me suspended from school. In my character, a kind of wildness and a deep conser vatism are wound together like hair in a braid. It was the crazy part of me that had first written The Village Vomit and then carried it to school; now that troublesome Mr. Hyde had dubbed up and slunk out the back door. Dr. Jekyll was left to consider how my mom would look at me if she found out I had been suspended—her hurt eyes. I had to put thoughts of her out of my mind, and fast. I was a sophomore, I was a year older than most others in my class, and at six feet two I was one of the bigger boys in school. I desperately didn’t want to cry in Mr. Higgins’s office—not with kids surging through 53Stephen King the halls and looking curiously in the window at us: Mr. Higgins behind his desk, me in the Bad Boy Seat. In the end, Miss Margitan settled for a formal apology and two weeks of detention for the bad boy who had dared call her Maggot in print. It was bad, but what in high school is not At the time we’re stuck in it, like hostages locked in a Turk ish bath, high school seems the most serious business in the world to just about all of us. It’s not until the second or third class reunion that we start realizing how absurd the whole thing was. A day or two later I was ushered into Mr. Higgins’s office and made to stand in front of her. Miss Margitan sat ramrod straight with her arthritic hands folded in her lap and her gray eyes fixed unflinchingly on my face, and I realized that some thing about her was different from any other adult I had ever met. I didn’t pinpoint that difference at once, but I knew that there would be no charming this lady, no winning her over. Later, while I was flying paper planes with the other bad boys and bad girls in detention hall (detention turned out to be not so bad), I decided that it was pretty simple: Miss Margitan didn’t like boys. She was the first woman I ever met in my life who didn’t like boys, not even one little bit. If it makes any difference, my apology was heartfelt. Miss Margitan really had been hurt by what I wrote, and that much I could understand. I doubt that she hated me—she was probably too busy—but she was the National Honor Society advisor at LHS, and when my name showed up on the candidate list two years later, she vetoed me. The Honor Society did not need boys “of his type,” she said. I have come to believe she was right. A boy who once wiped his ass with poison ivy probably doesn’t belong in a smart people’s club. I haven’t trucked much with satire since then. 54On Writing – – 20 Hardly a week after being sprung from detention hall, I was once more invited to step down to the principal’s office. I went with a sinking heart, wondering what new shit I’d stepped in. It wasn’t Mr. Higgins who wanted to see me, at least; this time the school guidance counsellor had issued the sum mons. There had been discussions about me, he said, and how to turn my “restless pen” into more constructive chan nels. He had enquired of John Gould, editor of Lisbon’s weekly newspaper, and had discovered Gould had an open ing for a sports reporter. While the school couldn’t insist that I take this job, everyone in the front office felt it would be a good idea. Do it or die, the G.C.’s eyes suggested. Maybe that was just paranoia, but even now, almost forty years later, I don’t think so. I groaned inside. I was shut of Dave’s Rag, almost shut of The Drum, and now here was the Lisbon Weekly Enterprise. Instead of being haunted by waters, like Norman Maclean in A River Runs Through It, I was as a teenager haunted by newspapers. Still, what could I do I rechecked the look in the guidance counsellor’s eyes and said I would be delighted to interview for the job. Gould—not the wellknown New England humorist or the novelist who wrote The Greenleaf Fires but a relation of both, I think—greeted me warily but with some interest. We would try each other out, he said, if that suited me. Now that I was away from the administrative offices of Lisbon High, I felt able to muster a little honesty. I told Mr. 55Stephen King Gould that I didn’t know much about sports. Gould said, “These are games people understand when they’re watching them drunk in bars. You’ll learn if you try.” He gave me a huge roll of yellow paper on which to type my copy—I think I still have it somewhere—and promised me a wage of half a cent a word. It was the first time someone had promised me wages for writing. The first two pieces I turned in had to do with a basketball game in which an LHS player broke the school scoring record. One was a straight piece of reporting. The other was a sidebar about Robert Ransom’s recordbreaking perfor mance. I brought both to Gould the day after the game so he’d have them for Friday, which was when the paper came out. He read the game piece, made two minor corrections, and spiked it. Then he started in on the feature piece with a large black pen. I took my fair share of English Lit classes in my two remain ing years at Lisbon, and my fair share of composition, fiction, and poetry classes in college, but John Gould taught me more than any of them, and in no more than ten minutes. I wish I still had the piece—it deserves to be framed, editorial corrections and all—but I can remember pretty well how it went and how it looked after Gould had combed through it with that black pen of his. Here’s an example: Last night, in the wellloved gymnasium of Lisbon High School, partisans and Jay Hills fans alike were stunned by an athletic performance unequalled in school history. Bob Ransom, known as “Bullet” Bob for both his size and accuracy, scored thirtyseven points. Yes, you heard me right. Plus he did it with grace, speed . . . and with an odd courtesy as well, 56On Writing committing only two personal fouls in his knightlike quest for a record which has eluded Lisbon thinclads since the years of Korea . . . Gould stopped at “the years of Korea” and looked up at me. “What year was the last record made” he asked. Luckily, I had my notes. “1953,” I said. Gould grunted and went back to work. When he finished marking my copy in the manner indicated above, he looked up and saw something on my face. I think he must have mistaken it for horror. It wasn’t; it was pure revelation. Why, I wondered, didn’t English teachers ever do this It was like the Visible Man Old Raw Diehl had on his desk in the biology room. “I only took out the bad parts, you know,” Gould said. “Most of it’s pretty good.” “I know,” I said, meaning both things: yes, most of it was good—okay anyway, serviceable—and yes, he had only taken out the bad parts. “I won’t do it again.” He laughed. “If that’s true, you’ll never have to work for a living. You can do this instead. Do I have to explain any of these marks” “No,” I said. “When you write a story, you’re telling yourself the story,” he said. “When you rewrite, your main job is taking out all the things that are not the story.” Gould said something else that was interesting on the day I turned in my first two pieces: write with the door closed, rewrite with the door open. Your stuff starts out being just for you, in other words, but then it goes out. Once you know what the story is and get it right—as right as you can, any way—it belongs to anyone who wants to read it. Or criticize it. If you’re very lucky (this is my idea, not John Gould’s, but 57Stephen King I believe he would have subscribed to the notion), more will want to do the former than the latter. – – 21 Just after the senior class trip to Washington, D.C., I got a job at Worumbo Mills and Weaving, in Lisbon Falls. I didn’t want it—the work was hard and boring, the mill itself a dingy fuckhole overhanging the polluted Androscoggin River like a workhouse in a Charles Dickens novel—but I needed the paycheck. My mother was making lousy wages as a housekeeper at a facility for the mentally ill in New Glouces ter, but she was determined I was going to college like my brother David (University of Maine, class of ’66, cum laude). In her mind, the education had become almost secondary. Durham and Lisbon Falls and the University of Maine at Orono were part of a small world where folks neighbored and still minded each other’s business on the four and sixparty lines which then served the Sticksville townships. In the big world, boys who didn’t go to college were being sent overseas to fight in Mr. Johnson’s undeclared war, and many of them were coming home in boxes. My mother liked Lyndon’s War on Poverty (“That’s the war I’m in,” she sometimes said), but not what he was up to in Southeast Asia. Once I told her that enlisting and going over there might be good for me—surely there would be a book in it, I said. “Don’t be an idiot, Stephen,” she said. “With your eyes, you’d be the first one to get shot. You can’t write if you’re dead.” She meant it; her head was set and so was her heart. Con sequently, I applied for scholarships, I applied for loans, and I 58On Writing went to work in the mill. I certainly wouldn’t get far on the five and six dollars a week I could make writing about bowl ing tournaments and Soap Box Derby races for the Enterprise. During my final weeks at Lisbon High, my schedule looked like this: up at seven, off to school at seventhirty, last bell at two o’clock, punch in on the third floor of Worumbo at 2:58, bag loose fabric for eight hours, punch out at 11:02, get home around quarter of twelve, eat a bowl of cereal, fall into bed, get up the next morning, do it all again. On a few occa sions I worked double shifts, slept in my ’60 Ford Galaxie (Dave’s old car) for an hour or so before school, then slept through periods five and six in the nurse’s cubicle after lunch. Once summer vacation came, things got easier. I was moved down to the dyehouse in the basement, for one thing, where it was thirty degrees cooler. My job was dyeing swatches of melton cloth purple or navy blue. I imagine there are still folks in New England with jackets in their closets dyed by yours truly. It wasn’t the best summer I ever spent, but I managed to avoid being sucked into the machinery or stitching my fingers together with one of the heavyduty sewing machines we used to belt the undyed cloth. During Fourth of July week, the mill closed. Employees with five years or more at Worumbo got the week off with pay. Those with fewer than five years were offered work on a crew that was going to clean the mill from top to bottom, includ ing the basement, which hadn’t been touched in forty or fifty years. I probably would have agreed to work on this crew—it was time and a half—but all the positions were filled long before the foreman got down to the high school kids, who’d be gone in September. When I got back to work the following week, one of the dyehouse guys told me I should have been there, it was wild. “The rats down in that basement were big 59Stephen King as cats,” he said. “Some of them, goddam if they weren’t as big as dogs.” Rats as big as dogs Yow One day late in my final semester at college, finals over and at loose ends, I recalled the dyehouse guy’s story about the rats under the mill—big as cats, goddam, some as big as dogs—and started writing a story called “Graveyard Shift.” I was only passing the time on a late spring afternoon, but two months later Cavalier magazine bought the story for two hundred dollars. I had sold two other stories previous to this, but they had brought in a total of just sixtyfive dollars. This was three times that, and at a single stroke. It took my breath away, it did. I was rich. – – 22 During the summer of 1969 I got a workstudy job in the University of Maine library. That was a season both fair and foul. In Vietnam, Nixon was executing his plan to end the war, which seemed to consist of bombing most of Southeast Asia into Kibbles ’n Bits. “Meet the new boss,” The Who sang, “same as the old boss.” Eugene McCarthy was concen trating on his poetry, and happy hippies wore bellbottom pants and teeshirts that said things like KILLING FOR PEACE IS LIKE FUCKING FOR CHASTITY. I had a great set of muttonchop side burns. Creedence Clearwater Revival was singing “Green River”—barefoot girls, dancing in the moonlight—and Kenny Rogers was still with The First Edition. Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy were dead, but Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison, Bob “The Bear” Hite, Jimi Hendrix, Cass Elliot, John Lennon, and Elvis Presley were still alive and making 60On Writing music. I was staying just off campus in Ed Price’s Rooms (seven bucks a week, one change of sheets included). Men had landed on the moon, and I had landed on the Dean’s List. Miracles and wonders abounded. One day in late June of that summer, a bunch of us library guys had lunch on the grass behind the university bookstore. Sitting between Paolo Silva and Eddie Marsh was a trim girl with a raucous laugh, redtinted hair, and the prettiest legs I had ever seen, welldisplayed beneath a short yellow skirt. She was carrying a copy of Soul on Ice, by Eldridge Cleaver. I hadn’t run across her in the library, and I didn’t believe a col lege student could utter such a wonderful, unafraid laugh. Also, heavy reading or no heavy reading, she swore like a mill worker instead of a coed. (Having been a millworker, I was qualified to judge.) Her name was Tabitha Spruce. We got married a year and a half later. We’re still married, and she has never let me forget that the first time I met her I thought she was Eddie Marsh’s townie girlfriend. Maybe a bookreading waitress from the local pizza joint on her afternoon off. – – 23 It’s worked. Our marriage has outlasted all of the world’s leaders except for Castro, and if we keep talking, arguing, making love, and dancing to the Ramones—gabbagabba hey—it’ll probably keep working. We came from different religions, but as a feminist Tabby has never been crazy about the Catholics, where the men make the rules (including the Godgiven directive to always go in bareback) and the women wash the underwear. And while I believe in God I have no use for organized religion. We came from similar workingclass 61Stephen King backgrounds, we both ate meat, we were both political Democrats with typical Yankee suspicions of life outside New England. We were sexually compatible and monogamous by nature. Yet what ties us most strongly are the words, the lan guage, and the work of our lives. We met when we were working in a library, and I fell in love with her during a poetry workshop in the fall of 1969, when I was a senior and Tabby was a junior. I fell in love with her partly because I understood what she was doing with her work. I fell because she understood what she was doing with it. I also fell because she was wearing a sexy black dress and silk stockings, the kind that hook with garters. I don’t want to speak too disparagingly of my generation (actually I do, we had a chance to change the world and opted for the Home Shopping Network instead), but there was a view among the student writers I knew at that time that good writing came spontaneously, in an uprush of feel ing that had to be caught at once; when you were building that allimportant stairway to heaven, you couldn’t just stand around with your hammer in your hand. Ars poetica in 1969 was perhaps best expressed by a Donovan Leitch song that went, “First there is a mountain / Then there is no mountain / Then there is.” Wouldbe poets were living in a dewy Tolkientinged world, catching poems out of the ether. It was pretty much unanimous: serious art came from . . . out there Writers were blessed stenographers taking divine dicta tion. I don’t want to embarrass any of my old mates from that period, so here is a fictionalized version of what I’m talk ing about, created from bits of many actual poems: i close my eyes in th dark i see 62On Writing Rodan Rimbaud in th dark i swallow th cloth of loneliness crow i am here raven i am here If you were to ask the poet what this poem meant, you’d likely get a look of contempt. A slightly uncomfortable silence was apt to emanate from the rest. Certainly the fact that the poet would likely have been unable to tell you any thing about the mechanics of creation would not have been considered important. If pressed, he or she might have said that there were no mechanics, only that seminal spurt of feel ing: first there is a mountain, then there is no mountain, then there is. And if the resulting poem is sloppy, based on the assumption that such general words as “loneliness” mean the same thing to all of us—hey man, so what, let go of that out dated bullshit and just dig the heaviness. I didn’t cop to much of this attitude (although I didn’t dare say so out loud, at least not in so many words), and was overjoyed to find that the pretty girl in the black dress and the silk stockings didn’t cop to much of it, either. She didn’t come right out and say so, but she didn’t need to. Her work spoke for her. The workshop group met once or twice a week in the liv ing room of instructor Jim Bishop’s house, perhaps a dozen undergrads and three or four faculty members working in a marvellous atmosphere of equality. Poems were typed up and mimeographed in the English Department office on the day of each workshop. Poets read while the rest of us followed along on our copies. Here is one of Tabby’s poems from that fall: 63Stephen King A GRADUAL CANTICLE FOR AUGUSTINE The thinnest bear is awakened in the winter by the sleeplaughter of locusts, by the dreamblustering of bees, by the honeyed scent of desert sands that the wind carries in her womb into the distant hills, into the houses of Cedar. The bear has heard a sure promise. Certain words are edible; they nourish more than snow heaped upon silver plates or ice overflowing golden bowls. Chips of ice from the mouth of a lover are not always better, Nor a desert dreaming always a mirage. The rising bear sings a gradual canticle woven of sand that conquers cities by a slow cycle. His praise seduces a passing wind, traveling to the sea wherein a fish, caught in a careful net, hears a bear’s song in the coolscented snow. There was silence when Tabby finished reading. No one knew exactly how to react. Cables seemed to run through the poem, tightening the lines until they almost hummed. I found the combination of crafty diction and delirious imagery exciting and illuminating. Her poem also made me feel that I wasn’t alone in my belief that good writing can be simultaneously intoxicating and ideadriven. If stonesober people can fuck like they’re out of their minds—can actually be out of their minds while caught in that throe—why shouldn’t writers be able to go bonkers and still stay sane 64On Writing There was also a workethic in the poem that I liked, something that suggested writing poems (or stories, or essays) had as much in common with sweeping the floor as with mythy moments of revelation. There’s a place in A Raisin in the Sun where a character cries out: “I want to fly I want to touch the sun” to which his wife replies, “First eat your eggs.” In the discussion that followed Tab’s reading, it became clear to me that she understood her own poem. She knew exactly what she had meant to say, and had said most of it. Saint Augustine (A.D. 354–430) she knew both as a Catholic and as a history major. Augustine’s mother (a saint herself) was a Christian, his father a pagan. Before his conversion, Augustine pursued both money and women. Following it he continued to struggle with his sexual impulses, and is known for the Libertine’s Prayer, which goes: “O Lord, make me chaste . . . but not yet.” In his writing he focused on man’s struggle to give up belief in self in favor of belief in God. And he sometimes likened himself to a bear. Tabby has a way of tilting her chin down when she smiles—it makes her look both wise and severely cute. She did that then, I remember, and said, “Besides, I like bears.” The canticle is gradual perhaps because the bear’s awak ening is gradual. The bear is powerful and sensual, although thin because he is out of his time. In a way, Tabby said when called upon to explicate, the bear can be seen as a symbol of mankind’s troubling and wonderful habit of dreaming the right dreams at the wrong time. Such dreams are difficult because they’re inappropriate, but also wonderful in their promise. The poem also suggests that dreams are power ful—the bear’s is strong enough to seduce the wind into bringing his song to a fish caught in a net. 65Stephen King I won’t try to argue that “A Gradual Canticle” is a great poem (although I think it’s a pretty good one). The point is that it was a reasonable poem in a hysterical time, one sprung from a writing ethic that resonated all through my heart and soul. Tabby was in one of Jim Bishop’s rocking chairs that night. I was sitting on the floor beside her. I put my hand on her calf as she spoke, cupping the curve of warm flesh through her stocking. She smiled at me. I smiled back. Sometimes these things are not accidents. I’m almost sure of it. – – 24 We had two kids by the time we’d been married three years. They were neither planned nor unplanned; they came when they came, and we were glad to have them. Naomi was prone to ear infections. Joe was healthy enough but never seemed to sleep. When Tabby went into labor with him, I was at a drivein movie in Brewer with a friend—it was a Memorial Day triple feature, three horror films. We were on the third movie (The Corpse Grinders) and the second sixpack when the guy in the office broke in with an announcement. There were still polespeakers in those days; when you parked your car you lifted one off and hung it over your window. The man ager’s announcement thus rang across the entire parking lot: “STEVE KING, PLEASE GO HOME YOUR WIFE IS IN LABOR STEVE KING, PLEASE GO HOME YOUR WIFE IS GOING TO HAVE THE BABY” As I drove our old Plymouth toward the exit, a couple of hundred horns blared a satiric salute. Many people flicked their headlights on and off, bathing me in a stuttery glow. My friend Jimmy Smith laughed so hard he slid into the footwell 66On Writing on the passenger side of the front seat. There he remained for most of the trip back to Bangor, chortling among the beer cans. When I got home, Tabby was calm and packed. She gave birth to Joe less than three hours later. He entered the world easily. For the next five years or so, nothing else about Joe was easy. But he was a treat. Both of them were, really. Even when Naomi was tearing off the wallpaper above her crib (maybe she thought she was housekeeping) and Joe was shitting in the wicker seat of the rocker we kept on the porch of our apartment on Sanford Street, they were a treat. – – 25 My mother knew I wanted to be a writer (with all those rejection slips hanging from the spike on my bedroom wall, how could she not), but she encouraged me to get a teacher’s credential “so you’ll have something to fall back on.” “You may want to get married, Stephen, and a garret by the Seine is only romantic if you’re a bachelor,” she’d said once. “It’s no place to raise a family.” I did as she suggested, entering the College of Education at UMO and emerging four years later with a teacher’s cer tificate . . . sort of like a golden retriever emerging from a pond with a dead duck in its jaws. It was dead, all right. I couldn’t find a teaching job and so went to work at New Franklin Laundry for wages not much higher than those I had been making at Worumbo Mills and Weaving four years before. I was keeping my family in a series of garrets which overlooked not the Seine but some of Bangor’s less appetiz ing streets, the ones where the police cruisers always seemed to show up at two o’clock on Saturday morning. 67Stephen King I never saw personal laundry at New Franklin unless it was a “fire order” being paid for by an insurance company (most fire orders consisted of clothes that looked okay but smelled like barbecued monkeymeat). The greater part of what I loaded and pulled were motel sheets from Maine’s coastal towns and table linen from Maine’s coastal restaurants. The table linen was desperately nasty. When tourists go out to dinner in Maine, they usually want clams and lobster. Mostly lobster. By the time the tablecloths upon which these delica cies had been served reached me, they stank to high heaven and were often boiling with maggots. The maggots would try to crawl up your arms as you loaded the washers; it was as if the little fuckers knew you were planning to cook them. I thought I’d get used to them in time but I never did. The maggots were bad; the smell of decomposing clams and lob stermeat was even worse. Why are people such slobs I would wonder, loading feverish linens from Testa’s of Bar Harbor into my machines. Why are people such fucking slobs Hospital sheets and linens were even worse. These also crawled with maggots in the summertime, but it was blood they were feeding on instead of lobstermeat and clamjelly. Clothes, sheets, and pillowslips deemed to be infected were stuffed inside what we called “plaguebags” which dissolved when the hot water hit them, but blood was not, in those times, considered to be especially dangerous. There were often little extras in the hospital laundry; those loads were like nasty boxes of Cracker Jacks with weird prizes in them. I found a steel bedpan in one load and a pair of surgical shears in another (the bedpan was of no practical use, but the shears were a damned handy kitchen implement). Ernest “Rocky” Rockwell, the guy I worked with, found twenty dollars in a load from Eastern Maine Medical Center and punched out at 68On Writing noon to start drinking. (Rocky referred to quitting time as “Slitz o’clock.”) On one occasion I heard a strange clicking from inside one of the Washex threepockets which were my responsibil ity. I hit the Emergency Stop button, thinking the goddam thing was stripping its gears or something. I opened the doors and hauled out a huge wad of dripping surgical tunics and green caps, soaking myself in the process. Below them, lying scattered across the colanderlike inner sleeve of the middle pocket, was what looked like a complete set of human teeth. It crossed my mind that they would make an interest ing necklace, then I scooped them out and tossed them in the trash. My wife has put up with a lot from me over the years, but her sense of humor stretches only so far. – – 26 From a financial point of view, two kids were probably two too many for college grads working in a laundry and the sec ond shift at Dunkin’ Donuts. The only edge we had came courtesy of magazines like Dude, Cavalier, Adam,and Swank— what my Uncle Oren used to call “the titty books.” By 1972 they were showing quite a lot more than bare breasts and fic tion was on its way out, but I was lucky enough to ride the last wave. I wrote after work; when we lived on Grove Street, which was close to the New Franklin, I would sometimes write a little on my lunch hour, too. I suppose that sounds almost impossibly Abe Lincoln, but it was no big deal—I was having fun. Those stories, grim as some of them were, served as brief escapes from the boss, Mr. Brooks, and Harry the floorman. 69Stephen King Harry had hooks instead of hands as a result of a tumble into the sheetmangler during World War II (he was dusting the beams above the machine and fell off). A comedian at heart, he would sometimes duck into the bathroom and run water from the cold tap over one hook and water from the hot tap over the other. Then he’d sneak up behind you while you were loading laundry and lay the steel hooks on the back of your neck. Rocky and I spent a fair amount of time specu lating on how Harry accomplished certain bathroom cleanup activities. “Well,” Rocky said one day while we were drinking our lunch in his car, “at least he don’t need to wash his hands.” There were times—especially in summer, while swallow ing my afternoon saltpill—when it occurred to me that I was simply repeating my mother’s life. Usually this thought struck me as funny. But if I happened to be tired, or if there were extra bills to pay and no money to pay them with, it seemed awful. I’d think This isn’t the way our lives are supposed to be going. Then I’d think Half the world has the same idea. The stories I sold to the men’s magazines between August of 1970, when I got my twohundreddollar check for “Grave yard Shift,” and the winter of 1973–1974 were just enough to create a rough sliding margin between us and the welfare office (my mother, a Republican all her life, had communicated her deep horror of “going on the county” to me; Tabby had some of that same horror). My clearest memory of those days is of our coming back to the Grove Street apartment one Sunday afternoon after spending the weekend at my mother’s house in Durham— this would have been right around the time the symptoms of the cancer which killed her started to show themselves. I have a picture from that day—Mom, looking both tired and 70On Writing amused, is sitting in a chair in her dooryard, holding Joe in her lap while Naomi stands sturdily beside her. Naomi wasn’t so sturdy by Sunday afternoon, however; she had come down with an ear infection, and was burning with fever. Trudging from the car to our apartment building on that summer afternoon was a low point. I was carrying Naomi and a totebag full of baby survival equipment (bottles, lotions, diapers, sleep suits, undershirts, socks) while Tabby carried Joe, who had spit up on her. She was dragging a sack of dirty diapers behind her. We both knew Naomi needed THE PINK STUFF, which was what we called liquid amoxicillin. THE PINK STUFF was expensive, and we were broke. I mean stony. I managed to get the downstairs door open without drop ping my daughter and was easing her inside (she was so fever ish she glowed against my chest like a banked coal) when I saw there was an envelope sticking out of our mailbox—a rare Saturday delivery. Young marrieds don’t get much mail; everyone but the gas and electric companies seems to forget they are alive. I snagged it, praying it wouldn’t turn out to be another bill. It wasn’t. My friends at the Dugent Publishing Corporation, purveyors of Cavalier and many other fine adult publications, had sent me a check for “Sometimes They Come Back,” a long story I hadn’t believed would sell anywhere. The check was for five hundred dollars, easily the largest sum I’d ever received. Suddenly we were able to afford not only a doctor’s visit and a bottle of THE PINK STUFF, but also a nice Sundaynight meal. And I imagine that once the kids were asleep, Tabby and I got friendly. I think we had a lot of happiness in those days, but we were scared a lot, too. We weren’t much more than kids our selves (as the saying goes), and being friendly helped keep 71Stephen King the mean reds away. We took care of ourselves and the kids and each other as best we could. Tabby wore her pink uni form out to Dunkin’ Donuts and called the cops when the drunks who came in for coffee got obstreperous. I washed motel sheets and kept writing onereel horror movies. – – 27 By the time I started Carrie, I had landed a job teaching English in the nearby town of Hampden. I would be paid sixtyfour hundred dollars a year, which seemed an unthink able sum after earning a dollarsixty an hour at the laundry. If I’d done the math, being careful to add in all the time spent in afterschool conferences and correcting papers at home, I might have seen it was a very thinkable sum indeed, and that our situation was worse than ever. By the late winter of 1973 we were living in a doublewide trailer in Hermon, a little town west of Bangor. (Much later, when asked to do the Playboy Interview, I called Hermon “The asshole of the world.” Her monites were infuriated by that, and I hereby apologize. Her mon is really no more than the armpit of the world.) I was driving a Buick with transmission problems we couldn’t afford to fix, Tabby was still working at Dunkin’ Donuts, and we had no telephone. We simply couldn’t afford the monthly charge. Tabby tried her hand at confession stories during that period (“Too Pretty to Be a Virgin”—stuff like that), and got personal responses of the thisisn’tquiterightforusbut tryagain type immediately. She would have broken through if given an extra hour or two in every day, but she was stuck with the usual twentyfour. Besides, any amusement value the confessionmag formula (it’s called the Three R’s—Rebel 72On Writing lion, Ruin, and Redemption) might have had for her at the start wore off in a hurry. I wasn’t having much success with my own writing, either. Horror, science fiction, and crime stories in the men’s maga zines were being replaced by increasingly graphic tales of sex. That was part of the trouble, but not all of it. The bigger deal was that, for the first time in my life, writing was hard. The problem was the teaching. I liked my coworkers and loved the kids—even the Beavis and ButtHead types in Liv ing with English could be interesting—but by most Friday afternoons I felt as if I’d spent the week with jumper cables clamped to my brain. If I ever came close to despairing about my future as a writer, it was then. I could see myself thirty years on, wearing the same shabby tweed coats with patches on the elbows, potbelly rolling over my Gap khakis from too much beer. I’d have a cigarette cough from too many packs of Pall Malls, thicker glasses, more dandruff, and in my desk drawer, six or seven unfinished manuscripts which I would take out and tinker with from time to time, usually when drunk. If asked what I did in my spare time, I’d tell people I was writing a book—what else does any self respecting creativewriting teacher do with his or her spare time And of course I’d lie to myself, telling myself there was still time, it wasn’t too late, there were novelists who didn’t get started until they were fifty, hell, even sixty. Probably plenty of them. My wife made a crucial difference during those two years I spent teaching at Hampden (and washing sheets at New Franklin Laundry during the summer vacation). If she had suggested that the time I spent writing stories on the front porch of our rented house on Pond Street or in the laundry room of our rented trailer on Klatt Road in Hermon was 73Stephen King wasted time, I think a lot of the heart would have gone out of me. Tabby never voiced a single doubt, however. Her support was a constant, one of the few good things I could take as a given. And whenever I see a first novel dedicated to a wife (or a husband), I smile and think, There’s someone who knows. Writ ing is a lonely job. Having someone who believes in you makes a lot of difference. They don’t have to make speeches. Just believing is usually enough. – – 28 While he was going to college my brother Dave worked summers as a janitor at Brunswick High, his old alma mater. For part of one summer I worked there, too. I can’t remem ber which year, only that it was before I met Tabby but after I started to smoke. That would have made me nineteen or twenty, I suppose. I got paired with a guy named Harry, who wore green fatigues, a big keychain, and walked with a limp. (He did have hands instead of hooks, however.) One lunch hour Harry told me what it had been like to face a Japanese banzai charge on the island of Tarawa, all the Japanese offi cers waving swords made out of Maxwell House coffee cans, all the screaming enlisted men behind them stoned out of their gourds and smelling of burned poppies. Quite a racon teur was my pal Harry. One day he and I were supposed to scrub the ruststains off the walls in the girls’ shower. I looked around the locker room with the interest of a Muslim youth who for some rea son finds himself deep within the women’s quarters. It was the same as the boys’ locker room, and yet completely differ ent. There were no urinals, of course, and there were two extra 74On Writing metal boxes on the tile walls—unmarked, and the wrong size for paper towels. I asked what was in them. “Pussy plugs,” Harry said. “For them certain days of the month.” I also noticed that the showers, unlike those in the boys’ locker room, had chrome Urings with pink plastic curtains attached. You could actually shower in privacy. I mentioned this to Harry, and he shrugged. “I guess young girls are a bit more shy about being undressed.” This memory came back to me one day while I was work ing at the laundry, and I started seeing the opening scene of a story: girls showering in a locker room where there were no Urings, pink plastic curtains, or privacy. And this one girl starts to have her period. Only she doesn’t know what it is, and the other girls—grossed out, horrified, amused—start pelting her with sanitary napkins. Or with tampons, which Harry had called pussyplugs. The girl begins to scream. All that blood She thinks she’s dying, that the other girls are making fun of her even while she’s bleeding to death . . . she reacts . . . fights back . . . but how I’d read an article in Life magazine some years before, sug gesting that at least some reported poltergeist activity might actually be telekinetic phenomena—telekinesis being the abil ity to move objects just by thinking about them. There was some evidence to suggest that young people might have such powers, the article said, especially girls in early adolescence, right around the time of their first— Pow Two unrelated ideas, adolescent cruelty and telekine sis, came together, and I had an idea. I didn’t leave my post at Washex 2, didn’t go running around the laundry waving my arms and shouting “Eureka,” however. I’d had many other ideas as good and some that were better. Still, I thought I might have the basis for a good Cavalier yarn, with the 75Stephen King possibility of Playboy lurking in the back of my mind. Playboy paid up to two thousand dollars for short fiction. Two thou sand bucks would buy a new transmission for the Buick with plenty left over for groceries. The story remained on the back burner for awhile, simmering away in that place that’s not quite the conscious but not quite the subconscious, either. I had started my teaching career before I sat down one night to give it a shot. I did three singlespaced pages of a first draft, then crumpled them up in disgust and threw them away. I had four problems with what I’d written. First and least important was the fact that the story didn’t move me emo tionally. Second and slightly more important was the fact that I didn’t much like the lead character. Carrie White seemed thick and passive, a readymade victim. The other girls were chucking tampons and sanitary napkins at her, chanting “Plug it up Plug it up” and I just didn’t care. Third and more important still was not feeling at home with either the surroundings or my allgirl cast of supporting char acters. I had landed on Planet Female, and one sortie into the girls’ locker room at Brunswick High School years before wasn’t much help in navigating there. For me writing has always been best when it’s intimate, as sexy as skin on skin. With Carrie I felt as if I were wearing a rubber wetsuit I couldn’t pull off. Fourth and most important of all was the realization that the story wouldn’t pay off unless it was pretty long, probably even longer than “Sometimes They Come Back,” which had been at the absolute outer limit of what the men’s magazine market could accept in terms of wordcount. You had to save plenty of room for those pictures of cheer leaders who had somehow forgotten to put on their under pants—they were what guys really bought the magazines for. I couldn’t see wasting two weeks, maybe even a month, cre 76On Writing ating a novella I didn’t like and wouldn’t be able to sell. So I threw it away. The next night, when I came home from school, Tabby had the pages. She’d spied them while emptying my waste basket, had shaken the cigarette ashes off the crumpled balls of paper, smoothed them out, and sat down to read them. She wanted me to go on with it, she said. She wanted to know the rest of the story. I told her I didn’t know jack shit about high school girls. She said she’d help me with that part. She had her chin tilted down and was smiling in that severely cute way of hers. “You’ve got something here,” she said. “I really think you do.” – – 29 I never got to like Carrie White and I never trusted Sue Snell’s motives in sending her boyfriend to the prom with her, but I did have something there. Like a whole career. Tabby somehow knew it, and by the time I had piled up fifty single spaced pages, I knew it, too. For one thing, I didn’t think any of the characters who went to Carrie White’s prom would ever forget it. Those few who lived through it, that was. I had written three other novels before Carrie—Rage, The Long Walk, and The Running Man were later published. Rage is the most troubling of them. The Long Walk may be the best of them. But none of them taught me the things I learned from Carrie White. The most important is that the writer’s original perception of a character or characters may be as erroneous as the reader’s. Running a close second was the realization that stopping a piece of work just because it’s hard, either emo tionally or imaginatively, is a bad idea. Sometimes you have to 77Stephen King go on when you don’t feel like it, and sometimes you’re doing good work when it feels like all you’re managing is to shovel shit from a sitting position. Tabby helped me, beginning with the information that the sanitarynapkin dispensers in high schools were usually not coinop—faculty and administration didn’t like the idea of girls’ walking around with blood all over their skirts just because they happened to come to school short a quarter, my wife said. And I also helped myself, digging back to my memories of high school (my job teaching English didn’t help; I was twentysix by then, and on the wrong side of the desk), remembering what I knew about the two loneliest, most reviled girls in my class—how they looked, how they acted, how they were treated. Very rarely in my career have I explored more distasteful territory. I’ll call one of these girls Sondra. She and her mother lived in a trailer home not too far from me, with their dog, Ched dar Cheese. Sondra had a burbly, uneven voice, as if she were always speaking through a throatful of tightly packed phlegm. She wasn’t fat, but her flesh had a loose, pale look, like the undersides of some mushrooms. Her hair clung to her pimply cheeks in tight Little Orphan Annie curls. She had no friends (except for Cheddar Cheese, I guess). One day her mother hired me to move some furniture. Dominating the trailer’s living room was a nearly lifesized crucified Jesus, eyes turned up, mouth turned down, blood dribbling from beneath the crown of thorns on his head. He was naked except for a rag twisted around his hips and loins. Above this bit of breechclout were the hollowed belly and the jutting ribs of a concentrationcamp inmate. It occurred to me that Son dra had grown up beneath the agonal gaze of this dying god, and doing so had undoubtedly played a part in making her 78On Writing what she was when I knew her: a timid and homely outcast who went scuttling through the halls of Lisbon High like a frightened mouse. “That’s Jesus Christ, my Lord and Savior,” Sondra’s mother said, following my gaze. “Have you been saved, Steve” I hastened to tell her I was saved as saved could be, although I didn’t think you could ever be good enough to have that ver sion of Jesus intervene on your behalf. The pain had driven him out of his mind. You could see it on his face. If that guy came back, he probably wouldn’t be in a saving mood. The other girl I’ll call Dodie Franklin, only the other girls called her Dodo or Doodoo. Her parents were interested in only one thing, and that was entering contests. They were good at them, too; they had won all sorts of odd stuff, includ ing a year’s supply of Three Diamonds Brand Fancy Tuna and Jack Benny’s Maxwell automobile. The Maxwell sat off to the left of their house in that part of Durham known as Southwest Bend, gradually sinking into the landscape. Every year or two, one of the local papers—the Portland PressHerald, the Lewis ton Sun, the Lisbon Weekly Enterprise—would do a piece on all the weird shit Dodie’s folks had won in raffles and sweep stakes and giant prize drawings. Usually there would be a photo of the Maxwell, or Jack Benny with his violin, or both. Whatever the Franklins might have won, a supply of clothes for growing teenagers wasn’t part of the haul. Dodie and her brother Bill wore the same stuff every day for the first year and a half of high school: black pants and a short sleeved checked sport shirt for him, a long black skirt, gray kneesocks, and a sleeveless white blouse for her. Some of my readers may not believe I am being literal when I say every day, but those who grew up in country towns during the fifties and sixties will know that I am. In the Durham of my 79Stephen King childhood, life wore little or any makeup. I went to school with kids who wore the same neckdirt for months, kids whose skin festered with sores and rashes, kids with the eerie driedappledoll faces that result from untreated burns, kids who were sent to school with stones in their dinnerbuckets and nothing but air in their Thermoses. It wasn’t Arcadia; for the most part it was Dogpatch with no sense of humor. Dodie and Bill Franklin got on all right at Durham Ele mentary, but high school meant a much bigger town, and for children like Dodie and Bill, Lisbon Falls meant ridicule and ruin. We watched in amusement and horror as Bill’s sport shirt faded and began to unravel from the short sleeves up. He replaced a missing button with a paperclip. Tape, carefully colored black with a crayon to match his pants, appeared over a rip behind one knee. Dodie’s sleeveless white blouse began to grow yellow with wear, age, and accumulated sweatstains. As it grew thinner, the straps of her bra showed through more and more clearly. The other girls made fun of her, at first behind her back and then to her face. Teasing became taunt ing. The boys weren’t a part of it; we had Bill to take care of (yes, I helped—not a whole lot, but I was there). Dodie had it worse, I think. The girls didn’t just laugh at Dodie; they hated her, too. Dodie was everything they were afraid of. After Christmas vacation of our sophomore year, Dodie came back to school resplendent. The dowdy old black skirt had been replaced by a cranberrycolored one that stopped at her knees instead of halfway down her shins. The tatty knee socks had been replaced by nylon stockings, which looked pretty good because she had finally shaved the luxuriant mat of black hair off her legs. The ancient sleeveless blouse had given way to a soft wool sweater. She’d even had a permanent. Dodie was a girl transformed, and you could see by her face 80On Writing that she knew it. I have no idea if she saved for those new clothes, if they were given to her for Christmas by her parents, or if she went through a hell of begging that finally bore div idends. It doesn’t matter, because mere clothes changed noth ing. The teasing that day was worse than ever. Her peers had no intention of letting her out of the box they’d put her in; she was punished for even trying to break free. I had several classes with her, and was able to observe Dodie’s ruination at first hand. I saw her smile fade, saw the light in her eyes first dim and then go out. By the end of the day she was the girl she’d been before Christmas vacation—a doughfaced and frecklecheeked wraith, scurrying through the halls with her eyes down and her books clasped to her chest. She wore the new skirt and sweater the next day. And the next. And the next. When the school year ended she was still wearing them, although by then the weather was much too hot for wool and there were always beads of sweat at her tem ples and on her upper lip. The home permanent wasn’t repeated and the new clothes took on a matted, dispirited look, but the teasing had dropped back to its preChristmas levels and the taunting stopped entirely. Someone made a break for the fence and had to be knocked down, that was all. Once the escape was foiled and the entire company of prisoners was once more accounted for, life could go back to normal. Both Sondra and Dodie were dead by the time I started writing Carrie. Sondra moved out of the trailer in Durham, out from beneath the agonal gaze of the dying savior, and into an apartment in Lisbon Falls. She must have worked some where close by, probably in one of the mills or shoe factories. She was epileptic and died during a seizure. She lived alone, so there was no one to help her when she went down with her head bent the wrong way. Dodie married a TV weatherman 81Stephen King who gained something of a reputation in New England for his drawling downeast delivery. Following the birth of a child— I think it was their second—Dodie went into the cellar and put a .22 bullet in her abdomen. It was a lucky shot (or unlucky, depending on your point of view, I guess), hitting the portal vein and killing her. In town they said it was postpar tum depression, how sad. Myself, I suspected high school hangover might have had something to do with it. I never liked Carrie, that female version of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, but through Sondra and Dodie I came at last to understand her a little. I pitied her and I pitied her class mates as well, because I had been one of them once upon a time. – – 30 The manuscript of Carrie went off to Doubleday, where I had made a friend named William Thompson. I pretty much for got about it and moved on with my life, which at that time consisted of teaching school, raising kids, loving my wife, getting drunk on Friday afternoons, and writing stories. My free period that semester was five, right after lunch. I usually spent it in the teachers’ room, grading papers and wishing I could stretch out on the couch and take a nap—in the early afternoon I have all the energy of a boa constrictor that’s just swallowed a goat. The intercom came on and Colleen Sites in the office asked if I was there. I said I was, and she asked me to come to the office. I had a phone call. My wife. The walk from the teachers’ room in the lower wing to the main office seemed long even with classes in session and the 82On Writing halls mostly empty. I hurried, not quite running, my heart beating hard. Tabby would have had to dress the kids in their boots and jackets to use the neighbors’ phone, and I could think of only two reasons she might have done so. Either Joe or Naomi had fallen off the stoop and broken a leg, or I had sold Carrie. My wife, sounding out of breath but deliriously happy, read me a telegram. Bill Thompson (who would later go on to discover a Mississippi scribbler named John Grisham) had sent it after trying to call and discovering the Kings no longer had a phone. CONGRATULATIONS, it read. CARRIE OFFICIALLY A DOUBLEDAY BOOK. IS 2500 ADVANCE OKAY THE FUTURE LIES AHEAD. LOVE, BILL. Twentyfive hundred dollars was a very small advance, even for the early seventies, but I didn’t know that and had no literary agent to know it for me. Before it occurred to me that I might actually need an agent, I had generated well over three million dollars’ worth of income, a good deal of it for the publisher. (The standard Doubleday contract in those days was better than indentured servitude, but not much.) And my little high school horror novel marched toward publication with excruciating slowness. Although it was accepted in late March or early April of 1973, publication wasn’t slated until the spring of 1974. This wasn’t unusual. In those days Dou bleday was an enormous fictionmill churning out mysteries, romances, science fiction yarns, and Double D westerns at a rate of fifty or more a month, all of this in addition to a robust frontlist including books by heavy hitters like Leon Uris and Allen Drury. I was only one small fish in a very busy river. Tabby asked if I could quit teaching. I told her no, not based on a twentyfivehundreddollar advance and only nebulous possibilities beyond that. If I’d been on my own, 83Stephen King maybe (hell, probably). But with a wife and two kids Not happening. I remember the two of us lying in bed that night, eating toast and talking until the small hours of the morn ing. Tabby asked me how much we’d make if Doubleday was able to sell paperback reprint rights to Carrie, and I said I didn’t know. I’d read that Mario Puzo had just scored a huge advance for paperback rights to The Godfather—four hun dred thousand dollars according to the newspaper—but I didn’t believe Carrie would fetch anything near that, assum ing it sold to paperback at all. Tabby asked—rather timidly for my normally outspoken wife—if I thought the book would find a paperback pub lisher. I told her I thought the chances were pretty good, maybe seven or eight in ten. She asked how much it might bring. I said my best guess would be somewhere between ten and sixty thousand dollars. “Sixty thousand dollars” She sounded almost shocked. “Is that much even possible” I said it was—not likely, perhaps, but possible. I also reminded her that my contract specified a fiftyfifty paperback split, which meant that if Ballantine or Dell did pay sixty grand, we’d only get thirty. Tabby didn’t dignify this with a reply—she didn’t have to. Thirty thousand dollars was what I could expect to make in four years of teaching, even with annual salary increases thrown in. It was a lot of money. Probably just pie in the sky, but it was a night for dreaming. – – 31 Carrie inched along toward publication. We spent the advance on a new car (a standard shift which Tabby hated 84On Writing and reviled in her most colorful millworker’s language) and I signed a teaching contract for the 1973–1974 academic year. I was writing a new novel, a peculiar combination of Peyton Place and Dracula which I called Second Coming. We had moved to a groundfloor apartment back in Bangor, a real pit, but we were in town again, we had a car covered by an actual warranty, and we had a telephone. To tell you the truth, Carrie had fallen off my radar screen almost completely. The kids were a handful, both the ones at school and the ones at home, and I had begun to worry about my mother. She was sixtyone, still working at Pineland Training Center and as funny as ever, but Dave said she didn’t feel very well a lot of the time. Her bedside table was covered with prescription painkillers, and he was afraid there might be something seriously wrong with her. “She’s always smoked like a chimney, you know,” Dave said. He was a great one to talk, since he smoked like a chimney himself (so did I, and how my wife hated the expense and the constant ashy dirt of it), but I knew what he meant. And although I didn’t live as close to her as Dave and didn’t see her as often, the last time I had seen her I could tell she had lost weight. “What can we do” I asked. Behind the question was all we knew of our mother, who “kept herself to herself,” as she liked to say. The result of that philosophy was a vast gray space where other families have histories; Dave and I knew almost nothing about our father or his family, and little enough about our own mother’s past, which included an incredible (to me, at least) eight dead brothers and sisters and her own failed ambition to become a concert pianist (she did play the organ on some of the NBC radio soaps and Sunday church shows during the war, she claimed). “We can’t do anything,” Dave replied, “until she asks.” 85Stephen King One Sunday not long after that call, I got another one from Bill Thompson at Doubleday. I was alone in the apart ment; Tabby had packed the kids off to her mother’s for a visit, and I was working on the new book, which I thought of as Vampires in Our Town. “Are you sitting down” Bill asked. “No,” I said. Our phone hung on the kitchen wall, and I was standing in the doorway between the kitchen and the living room. “Do I need to” “You might,” he said. “The paperback rights to Carrie went to Signet Books for four hundred thousand dollars.” When I was a little kid, Daddy Guy had once said to my mother: “Why don’t you shut that kid up, Ruth When Stephen opens his mouth, all his guts fall out.” It was true then, has been true all my life, but on that Mother’s Day in May of 1973 I was completely speechless. I stood there in the doorway, casting the same shadow as always, but I couldn’t talk. Bill asked if I was still there, kind of laughing as he said it. He knew I was. I hadn’t heard him right. Couldn’t have. The idea allowed me to find my voice again, at least. “Did you say it went for forty thousand dollars” “Four hundred thousand dollars,” he said. “Under the rules of the road”—meaning the contract I’d signed—“two hun dred K of it’s yours. Congratulations, Steve.” I was still standing in the doorway, looking across the liv ing room toward our bedroom and the crib where Joe slept. Our place on Sanford Street rented for ninety dollars a month and this man I’d only met once facetoface was telling me I’d just won the lottery. The strength ran out of my legs. I didn’t fall, exactly, but I kind of whooshed down to a sitting position there in the doorway. 86On Writing “Are you sure” I asked Bill. He said he was. I asked him to say the number again, very slowly and very clearly, so I could be sure I hadn’t misunder stood. He said the number was a four followed by five zeros. “After that a decimal point and two more zeros,” he added. We talked for another half an hour, but I don’t remember a single word of what we said. When the conversation was over, I tried to call Tabby at her mother’s. Her youngest sister, Marcella, said Tab had already left. I walked back and forth through the apartment in my stocking feet, exploding with good news and without an ear to hear it. I was shaking all over. At last I pulled on my shoes and walked downtown. The only store that was open on Bangor’s Main Street was LaVerdiere’s Drug. I suddenly felt that I had to buy Tabby a Mother’s Day present, something wild and extravagant. I tried, but here’s one of life’s true facts: there’s nothing really wild and extravagant for sale at LaVerdiere’s. I did the best I could. I got her a hairdryer. When I got back home she was in the kitchen, unpacking the baby bags and singing along with the radio. I gave her the hairdryer. She looked at it as if she’d never seen one before. “What’s this for” she asked. I took her by the shoulders. I told her about the paperback sale. She didn’t appear to understand. I told her again. Tabby looked over my shoulder at our shitty little fourroom apart ment, just as I had, and began to cry. – – 32 I got drunk for the first time in 1966. This was on the senior class trip to Washington. We went on a bus, about forty kids 87Stephen King and three chaperones (one of them was Old CueBall, as a matter of fact), and spent the first night in New York, where the drinking age was then eighteen. Thanks to my bad ears and shitty tonsils, I was almost nineteen. Room to spare. A bunch of us more adventurous boys found a package store around the corner from the hotel. I cast an eye over the shelves, aware that my spending money was far from a for tune. There was too much—too many bottles, too many brands, too many prices over ten dollars. Finally I gave up and asked the guy behind the counter (the same bald, bored looking, graycoated guy who has, I’m convinced, sold alco hol virgins their first bottle since the dawn of commerce) what was cheap. Without a word, he put a pint of Old Log Cabin whiskey down on the Winston mat beside the cash reg ister. The sticker on the label said 1.95. The price was right. I have a memory of being led onto the elevator later that night—or maybe it was early the next morning—by Peter Higgins (Old CueBall’s son), Butch Michaud, Lenny Par tridge, and John Chizmar. This memory is more like a scene from a TV show than a real memory. I seem to be outside of myself, watching the whole thing. There’s just enough of me left inside to know that I am globally, perhaps even galacti cally, fucked up. The camera watches as we go up to the girls’ floor. The cam era watches as I am propelled up and down the hall, a kind of rolling exhibit. An amusing one, it seems. The girls are in nighties, robes, curlers, cold cream. They are all laughing at me, but their laughter seems goodnatured enough. The sound is muted, as if I am hearing them through cotton. I am trying to tell Carole Lemke that I love the way she wears her hair, and that she has the most beautiful blue eyes in the world. What comes out is something like “Ugginwugginblue eyes, 88On Writing wugginrugginwhole world.” Carole laughs and nods as if she understands completely. I am very happy. The world is seeing an asshole, no doubt, but he is a happy asshole, and everyone loves him. I spend several minutes trying to tell Gloria Moore that I’ve discovered The Secret Life of Dean Martin. At some point after that I am in my bed. The bed holds still but the room starts to spin around it, faster and faster. It occurs to me that it’s spinning like the turntable of my Web cor phonograph, on which I used to play Fats Domino and now play Dylan and the Dave Clark Five. The room is the turntable, I am the spindle, and pretty soon the spindle is going to start tossing its platters. I go away for a little bit. When I wake up, I’m on my knees in the bathroom of the double room I’m sharing with my friend Louis Purington. I have no idea how I got in there, but it’s good that I did because the toilet is full of bright yellow puke. Looks like Niblets, I think, and that’s all it takes to get me going again. Nothing comes up but whiskeyflavored strings of spit, but my head feels like it’s going to explode. I can’t walk. I crawl back to bed with my sweaty hair hanging in my eyes. I’ll feel better tomorrow, I think, and then I go away again. In the morning my stomach has settled a little but my diaphragm is sore from vomiting and my head is throbbing like a mouthful of infected teeth. My eyes have turned into magnifying glasses; the hideously bright morning light com ing in through the hotel windows is being concentrated by them and will soon set my brains on fire. Participating in that day’s scheduled activities—a walk to Times Square, a boat ride to the Statue of Liberty, a climb to the top of the Empire State Building—is out of the question. Walking Urk. Boats Double urk. Elevators Urk to the 89Stephen King fourth power. Christ, I can hardly move. I make some sort of feeble excuse and spend most of the day in bed. By late after noon I’m feeling a little better. I dress, creep down the hall to the elevator, and descend to the first floor. Eating is still impossible, but I believe I’m ready for a ginger ale, a cigarette, and a magazine. And who should I see in the lobby, sitting in a chair and reading a newspaper, but Mr. Earl Higgins, alias Old CueBall. I pass him as silently as I can, but it’s no good. When I come back from the gift shop he’s sitting with his newspaper in his lap, looking at me. I feel my stomach drop. Here is more trouble with the principal, probably even worse than the trouble I got into over The Village Vomit. He calls me over and I discover something interesting: Mr. Higgins is actually an okay guy. He bounced me pretty hard over my joke newspaper, but perhaps Miss Margitan had insisted on that. And I’d just been sixteen, after all. On the day of my first hangover I’m going on nineteen, I’ve been accepted at the state university, and I have a mill job waiting for me when the class trip is over. “I understand you were too sick to tour New York with the rest of the boys and girls,” Old CueBall says. He eyes me up and down. I say that’s right, I’d been sick. “A shame for you to miss the fun,” Old CueBall says. “Feeling better now” Yes, I was feeling better. Probably stomach flu, one of those twentyfourhour bugs. “I hope you won’t get that bug again,” he says. “At least not on this trip.” He looks at me for a moment longer, his eyes asking if we understand each other. “I’m sure I won’t,” I say, meaning it. I know what drunk is like, now—a vague sense of roaring goodwill, a clearer sense 90On Writing that most of your consciousness is out of your body, hovering like a camera in a science fiction movie and filming every thing, and then the sickness, the puking, the aching head. No, I won’t get that bug again, I tell myself, not on this trip, not ever. Once is enough, just to find out what it’s like. Only an idiot would make a second experiment, and only a lunatic—a masochistic lunatic—would make booze a regular part of his life. The next day we go on to Washington, making one stop in Amish country on the way. There’s a liquor store near where the bus parks. I go in and look around. Although the drink ing age in Pennsylvania is twentyone, I must look easily that in my one good suit and Fazza’s old black overcoat—in fact, I probably look like a freshly released young convict, tall and hungry and very likely not bolted together right. The clerk sells me a fifth of Four Roses without asking to see any ID, and by the time we stop for the night I’m drunk again. Ten years or so later I’m in an Irish saloon with Bill Thomp son. We have lots to celebrate, not the least of which is the completion of my third book, The Shining. That’s the one which just happens to be about an alcoholic writer and ex schoolteacher. It’s July, the night of the AllStar baseball game. Our plan is to eat a good oldfashioned meal from the dishes set out on the steam table, then get shitfaced. We begin with a couple at the bar, and I start reading all the signs. HAVE A MANHATTAN IN MANHATTAN, says one. TUESDAYS ARE TWOFORS, says another. WORK IS THE CURSE OF THE DRINKING CLASS, says a third. And there, right in front of me, is one which reads: EARLY BIRD SPECIAL SCREWDRIVERS A BUCK MONDAY–FRIDAY 8–10 A.M. I motion to the bartender. He comes over. He’s bald, he’s wearing a gray jacket, he could be the guy who sold me my first pint back in 1966. Probably he is. I point to the sign and 91Stephen King ask, “Who comes in at eightfifteen in the morning and orders a screwdriver” I’m smiling but he doesn’t smile back. “College boys,” he replies. “Just like you.” – – 33 In 1971 or ’72, Mom’s sister Carolyn Weimer died of breast cancer. My mother and my Aunt Ethelyn (Carolyn’s twin) flew out to Aunt Cal’s funeral in Minnesota. It was the first time my mother had flown in twenty years. On the plane trip back, she began to bleed profusely from what she would have called “her privates.” Although long past her change of life by that point, she told herself it was simply one final menstrual period. Locked in the tiny bathroom of a bouncing TWA jet, she stanched the bleeding with tampons (plug it up, plug it up, as Sue Snell and her friends might have cried), then returned to her seat. She said nothing to Ethelyn and nothing to David and me. She didn’t go to see Joe Mendes in Lisbon Falls, her physician since time out of mind. Instead of any of those things, she did what she always did in times of trouble: kept herself to herself. For awhile, things seemed to be all right. She enjoyed her job, she enjoyed her friends, and she enjoyed her four grandchildren, two from Dave’s family and two from mine. Then things stopped being all right. In August of 1973, during a checkup following an operation to “strip” some of her outrageously varicose veins, my mother was diag nosed with uterine cancer. I think Nellie Ruth Pillsbury King, who once dumped a bowl of JellO on the floor and then danced in it while her two boys lay collapsed in the corner, screaming with laughter, actually died of embarrassment. 92On Writing The end came in February of 1974. By then a little of the money from Carrie had begun to flow and I was able to help with some of the medical expenses—there was that much to be glad about. And I was there for the last of it, staying in the back bedroom of Dave and Linda’s place. I’d been drunk the night before but was only moderately hungover, which was good. One wouldn’t want to be too hungover at the deathbed of one’s mother. Dave woke me at 6:15 in the morning, calling softly through the door that he thought she was going. When I got into the master bedroom he was sitting beside her on the bed and holding a Kool for her to smoke. This she did between harsh gasps for breath. She was only semiconscious, her eyes going from Dave to me and then back to Dave again. I sat next to Dave, took the cigarette, and held it to her mouth. Her lips stretched out to clamp on the filter. Beside her bed, reflected over and over again in a cluster of glasses, was an early bound galley of Carrie. Aunt Ethelyn had read it to her aloud a month or so before she died. Mom’s eyes went from Dave to me, Dave to me, Dave to me. She had gone from one hundred and sixty pounds to about ninety. Her skin was yellow and so tightly stretched that she looked like one of those mummies they parade through the streets of Mexico on the Day of the Dead. We took turns hold ing the cigarette for her, and when it was down to the filter, I put it out. “My boys,” she said, then lapsed into what might have been sleep or unconsciousness. My head ached. I took a cou ple of aspirin from one of the many bottles of medicine on her table. Dave held one of her hands and I held the other. Under the sheet was not the body of our mother but that of a starved and deformed child. Dave and I smoked and talked a 93Stephen King little. I don’t remember what we said. It had rained the night before, then the temperature had dropped and the morning streets were filled with ice. We could hear the pause after each rasping breath she drew growing longer and longer. Finally there were no more breaths and it was all pause. – – 34 My mother was buried out of the Congregational Church at Southwest Bend; the church she’d attended in Methodist Corners, where my brother and I grew up, was closed because of the cold. I gave the eulogy. I think I did a pretty good job, considering how drunk I was. – – 35 Alcoholics build defenses like the Dutch build dikes. I spent the first twelve years or so of my married life assuring myself that I “just liked to drink.” I also employed the worldfamous Hemingway Defense. Although never clearly articulated (it would not be manly to do so), the Hemingway Defense goes something like this: as a writer, I am a very sensitive fellow, but I am also a man, and real men don’t give in to their sensitiv ities. Only sissymen do that. Therefore I drink. How else can I face the existential horror of it all and continue to work Besides, come on, I can handle it. A real man always can. Then, in the early eighties, Maine’s legislature enacted a returnablebottle and can law. Instead of going into the trash, my sixteenounce cans of Miller Lite started going into a plastic container in the garage. One Thursday night I went 94On Writing out there to toss in a few dead soldiers and saw that this con tainer, which had been empty on Monday night, was now almost full. And since I was the only one in the house who drank Miller Lite— Holy shit, I’m an alcoholic, I thought, and there was no dis senting opinion from inside my head—I was, after all, the guy who had written The Shining without even realizing (at least until that night) that I was writing about myself. My reaction to this idea wasn’t denial or disagreement; it was what I’d call frightened determination. You have to be careful, then, I clearly remember thinking. Because if you fuck up— If I fucked up, rolled my car over on a back road some night or blew an interview on live TV , someone would tell me I ought to get control of my drinking, and telling an alco holic to control his drinking is like telling a guy suffering the world’s most cataclysmic case of diarrhea to control his shit ting. A friend of mine who has been through this tells an amusing story about his first tentative effort to get a grip on his increasingly slippery life. He went to a counsellor and said his wife was worried that he was drinking too much. “How much do you drink” the counsellor asked. My friend looked at the counsellor with disbelief. “All of it,” he said, as if that should have been selfevident. I know how he felt. It’s been almost twelve years since I took a drink, and I’m still struck by disbelief when I see someone in a restaurant with a halffinished glass of wine near at hand. I want to get up, go over, and yell “Finish that Why don’t you finish that” into his or her face. I found the idea of social drinking ludicrous—if you didn’t want to get drunk, why not just have a Coke My nights during the last five years of my drinking always ended with the same ritual: I’d pour any beers left in the 95Stephen King refrigerator down the sink. If I didn’t, they’d talk to me as I lay in bed until I got up and had another. And another. And one more. – – 36 By 1985 I had added drug addiction to my alcohol problem, yet I continued to function, as a good many substance abusers do, on a marginally competent level. I was terrified not to; by then I had no idea of how to live any other life. I hid the drugs I was taking as well as I could, both out of terror—what would happen to me without dope I had forgotten the trick of being straight—and out of shame. I was wiping my ass with poison ivy again, this time on a daily basis, but I couldn’t ask for help. That’s not the way you did things in my family. In my family what you did was smoke your cigarettes and dance in the JellO and keep yourself to yourself. Yet the part of me that writes the stories, the deep part that knew I was an alcoholic as early as 1975, when I wrote The Shining, wouldn’t accept that. Silence isn’t what that part is about. It began to scream for help in the only way it knew how, through my fiction and through my monsters. In late 1985 and early 1986 I wrote Misery (the title quite aptly described my state of mind), in which a writer is held pris oner and tortured by a psychotic nurse. In the spring and summer of 1986 I wrote The Tommyknockers, often working until midnight with my heart running at a hundred and thirty beats a minute and cotton swabs stuck up my nose to stem the cokeinduced bleeding. Tommyknockers is a fortiesstyle science fiction tale in which the writerheroine discovers an alien spacecraft buried in the 96On Writing ground. The crew is still on board, not dead but only hiber nating. These alien creatures got into your head and just started . . . well, tommyknocking around in there. What you got was energy and a kind of superficial intelligence (the writer, Bobbi Anderson, creates a telepathic typewriter and an atomic hotwater heater, among other things). What you gave up in exchange was your soul. It was the best metaphor for drugs and alcohol my tired, overstressed mind could come up with. Not long after that my wife, finally convinced that I wasn’t going to pull out of this ugly downward spiral on my own, stepped in. It couldn’t have been easy—by then I was no longer within shouting distance of my right mind—but she did it. She organized an intervention group formed of family and friends, and I was treated to a kind of This Is Your Life in hell. Tabby began by dumping a trashbag full of stuff from my office out on the rug: beercans, cigarette butts, cocaine in gram bottles and cocaine in plastic Baggies, coke spoons caked with snot and blood, Valium, Xanax, bottles of Robi tussin cough syrup and NyQuil cold medicine, even bottles of mouthwash. A year or so before, observing the rapidity with which huge bottles of Listerine were disappearing from the bathroom, Tabby asked me if I drank the stuff. I responded with selfrighteous hauteur that I most certainly did not. Nor did I. I drank the Scope instead. It was tastier, had that hint of mint. The point of this intervention, which was certainly as unpleasant for my wife and kids and friends as it was for me, was that I was dying in front of them. Tabby said I had my choice: I could get help at a rehab or I could get the hell out of the house. She said that she and the kids loved me, and for that very reason none of them wanted to witness my suicide. 97Stephen King I bargained, because that’s what addicts do. I was charm ing, because that’s what addicts are. In the end I got two weeks to think about it. In retrospect, this seems to summa rize all the insanity of that time. Guy is standing on top of a burning building. Helicopter arrives, hovers, drops a rope ladder. Climb up the man leaning out of the helicopter’s door shouts. Guy on top of the burning building responds, Give me two weeks to think about it. I did think, though—as well as I could in my addled state—and what finally decided me was Annie Wilkes, the psycho nurse in Misery. Annie was coke, Annie was booze, and I decided I was tired of being Annie’s pet writer. I was afraid that I wouldn’t be able to work anymore if I quit drinking and drugging, but I decided (again, so far as I was able to decide anything in my distraught and depressed state of mind) that I would trade writing for staying married and watching the kids grow up. If it came to that. It didn’t, of course. The idea that creative endeavor and mindaltering substances are entwined is one of the great popintellectual myths of our time. The four twentieth century writers whose work is most responsible for it are probably Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson, and the poet Dylan Thomas. They are the writers who largely formed our vision of an existential Englishspeaking waste land where people have been cut off from one another and live in an atmosphere of emotional strangulation and despair. These concepts are very familiar to most alcoholics; the common reaction to them is amusement. Substance abusing writers are just substance abusers—common gar denvariety drunks and druggies, in other words. Any claims that the drugs and alcohol are necessary to dull a finer sensi bility are just the usual selfserving bullshit. I’ve heard alco 98On Writing holic snowplow drivers make the same claim, that they drink to still the demons. It doesn’t matter if you’re James Jones, John Cheever, or a stewbum snoozing in Penn Station; for an addict, the right to the drink or drug of choice must be pre served at all costs. Hemingway and Fitzgerald didn’t drink because they were creative, alienated, or morally weak. They drank because it’s what alkies are wired up to do. Creative people probably do run a greater risk of alcoholism and addiction than those in some other jobs, but so what We all look pretty much the same when we’re puking in the gutter. – – 37 At the end of my adventures I was drinking a case of sixteen ounce tallboys a night, and there’s one novel, Cujo, that I barely remember writing at all. I don’t say that with pride or shame, only with a vague sense of sorrow and loss. I like that book. I wish I could remember enjoying the good parts as I put them down on the page. At the worst of it I no longer wanted to drink and no longer wanted to be sober, either. I felt evicted from life. At the start of the road back I just tried to believe the people who said that things would get better if I gave them time to do so. And I never stopped writing. Some of the stuff that came out was tentative and flat, but at least it was there. I buried those unhappy, lackluster pages in the bottom drawer of my desk and got on to the next project. Little by little I found the beat again, and after that I found the joy again. I came back to my family with gratitude, and back to my work with relief—I came back to it the way folks come back to a sum mer cottage after a long winter, checking first to make sure 99Stephen King nothing has been stolen or broken during the cold season. Nothing had been. It was still all there, still all whole. Once the pipes were thawed out and the electricity was turned back on, everything worked fine. – – 38 The last thing I want to tell you in this part is about my desk. For years I dreamed of having the sort of massive oak slab that would dominate a room—no more child’s desk in a trailer laundrycloset, no more cramped kneehole in a rented house. In 1981 I got the one I wanted and placed it in the middle of a spacious, skylighted study (it’s a converted stable loft at the rear of the house). For six years I sat behind that desk either drunk or wrecked out of my mind, like a ship’s captain in charge of a voyage to nowhere. A year or two after I sobered up, I got rid of that mon strosity and put in a livingroom suite where it had been, picking out the pieces and a nice Turkish rug with my wife’s help. In the early nineties, before they moved on to their own lives, my kids sometimes came up in the evening to watch a basketball game or a movie and eat pizza. They usu ally left a boxful of crusts behind when they moved on, but I didn’t care. They came, they seemed to enjoy being with me, and I know I enjoyed being with them. I got another desk—it’s handmade, beautiful, and half the size of the T. rex desk. I put it at the far west end of the office, in a corner under the eave. That eave is very like the one I slept under in Durham, but there are no rats in the walls and no senile grandmother downstairs yelling for someone to feed Dick the horse. I’m sitting under it now, a fiftythreeyearold man 100On Writing with bad eyes, a gimp leg, and no hangover. I’m doing what I know how to do, and as well as I know how to do it. I came through all the stuff I told you about (and plenty more that I didn’t), and now I’m going to tell you as much as I can about the job. As promised, it won’t take long. It starts with this: put your desk in the corner, and every time you sit down there to write, remind yourself why it isn’t in the middle of the room. Life isn’t a supportsystem for art. It’s the other way around. 101What Writing Is Telepathy, of course. It’s amusing when you stop to think about it—for years people have argued about whether or not such a thing exists, folks like J. B. Rhine have busted their brains trying to create a valid testing process to isolate it, and all the time it’s been right there, lying out in the open like Mr. Poe’s Purloined Letter. All the arts depend upon telepathy to some degree, but I believe that writing offers the purest dis tillation. Perhaps I’m prejudiced, but even if I am we may as well stick with writing, since it’s what we came here to think and talk about. My name is Stephen King. I’m writing the first draft of this part at my desk (the one under the eave) on a snowy morning in December of 1997. There are things on my mind. Some are worries (bad eyes, Christmas shopping not even started, wife under the weather with a virus), some are good things (our younger son made a surprise visit home from college, I got to play Vince Taylor’s “Brand New Cadillac” with The Wall flowers at a concert), but right now all that stuff is up top. I’m in another place, a basement place where there are lots of bright lights and clear images. This is a place I’ve built for myself over the years. It’s a farseeing place. I know it’s a lit tle strange, a little bit of a contradiction, that a farseeing place 103Stephen King should also be a basement place, but that’s how it is with me. If you construct your own farseeing place, you might put it in a treetop or on the roof of the World Trade Center or on the edge of the Grand Canyon. That’s your little red wagon, as Robert McCammon says in one of his novels. This book is scheduled to be published in the late summer or early fall of 2000. If that’s how things work out, then you are somewhere downstream on the timeline from me . . . but you’re quite likely in your own farseeing place, the one where you go to receive telepathic messages. Not that you have to be there; books are a uniquely portable magic. I usually listen to one in the car (always unabridged; I think abridged audio books are the pits), and carry another wherever I go. You just never know when you’ll want an escape hatch: milelong lines at tollbooth plazas, the fifteen minutes you have to spend in the hall of some boring college building waiting for your advisor (who’s got some yankoff in there threatening to commit suicide because he/she is flunking Custom Kurm furling 101) to come out so you can get his signature on a dropcard, airport boarding lounges, laundromats on rainy afternoons, and the absolute worst, which is the doctor’s office when the guy is running late and you have to wait half an hour in order to have something sensitive mauled. At such times I find a book vital. If I have to spend time in pur gatory before going to one place or the other, I guess I’ll be all right as long as there’s a lending library (if there is it’s prob ably stocked with nothing but novels by Danielle Steel and Chicken Soup books, haha, joke’s on you, Steve). So I read where I can, but I have a favorite place and prob ably you do, too—a place where the light is good and the vibe is usually strong. For me it’s the blue chair in my study. For you it might be the couch on the sunporch, the rocker in 104On Writing the kitchen, or maybe it’s propped up in your bed—reading in bed can be heaven, assuming you can get just the right amount of light on the page and aren’t prone to spilling your coffee or cognac on the sheets. So let’s assume that you’re in your favorite receiving place just as I am in the place where I do my best transmitting. We’ll have to perform our mentalist routine not just over distance but over time as well, yet that presents no real prob lem; if we can still read Dickens, Shakespeare, and (with the help of a footnote or two) Herodotus, I think we can manage the gap between 1997 and 2000. And here we go—actual telepathy in action. You’ll notice I have nothing up my sleeves and that my lips never move. Neither, most likely, do yours. Look—here’s a table covered with a red cloth. On it is a cage the size of a small fish aquarium. In the cage is a white rabbit with a pink nose and pinkrimmed eyes. In its front paws is a carrotstub upon which it is contentedly munching. On its back, clearly marked in blue ink, is the numeral 8. Do we see the same thing We’d have to get together and compare notes to make absolutely sure, but I think we do. There will be necessary variations, of course: some receivers will see a cloth which is turkey red, some will see one that’s scarlet, while others may see still other shades. (To color blind receivers, the red tablecloth is the dark gray of cigar ashes.) Some may see scalloped edges, some may see straight ones. Decorative souls may add a little lace, and welcome— my tablecloth is your tablecloth, knock yourself out. Likewise, the matter of the cage leaves quite a lot of room for individual interpretation. For one thing, it is described in terms of rough comparison, which is useful only if you and I see the world and measure the things in it with similar eyes. It’s easy to become careless when making rough comparisons, but 105Stephen King the alternative is a prissy attention to detail that takes all the fun out of writing. What am I going to say, “on the table is a cage three feet, six inches in length, two feet in width, and fourteen inches high” That’s not prose, that’s an instruction manual. The paragraph also doesn’t tell us what sort of mate rial the cage is made of—wire mesh steel rods glass—but does it really matter We all understand the cage is a see through medium; beyond that, we don’t care. The most interesting thing here isn’t even the carrotmunching rabbit in the cage, but the number on its back. Not a six, not a four, not nineteenpointfive. It’s an eight. This is what we’re look ing at, and we all see it. I didn’t tell you. You didn’t ask me. I never opened my mouth and you never opened yours. We’re not even in the same year together, let alone the same room . . . except we are together. We’re close. We’re having a meeting of the minds. I sent you a table with a red cloth on it, a cage, a rabbit, and the number eight in blue ink. You got them all, espe cially that blue eight. We’ve engaged in an act of telepathy. No mythymountain shit; real telepathy. I’m not going to belabor the point, but before we go any further you have to understand that I’m not trying to be cute; there is a point to be made. You can approach the act of writing with nervousness, excitement, hopefulness, or even despair—the sense that you can never completely put on the page what’s in your mind and heart. You can come to the act with your fists clenched and your eyes narrowed, ready to kick ass and take down names. You can come to it because you want a girl to marry you or because you want to change the world. Come to it any way but lightly. Let me say it again: you must not come lightly to the blank page. 106On Writing I’m not asking you to come reverently or unquestioningly; I’m not asking you to be politically correct or cast aside your sense of humor (please God you have one). This isn’t a popu larity contest, it’s not the moral Olympics, and it’s not church. But it’s writing, damn it, not washing the car or putting on eyeliner. If you can take it seriously, we can do business. If you can’t or won’t, it’s time for you to close the book and do something else. Wash the car, maybe. 107TOOLBOXGrandpa was a carpenter, he built houses, stores and banks, he chainsmoked Camel cigarettes and hammered nails in planks. He was levelonthelevel, shaved even every door, and voted for Eisenhower ’cause Lincoln won the war. That’s one of my favorite John Prine lyrics, probably because my grandpa was also a carpenter. I don’t know about stores and banks, but Guy Pillsbury built his share of houses and spent a good many years making sure the Atlantic Ocean and the harsh seacoast winters didn’t wash away the Winslow Homer estate in Prout’s Neck. Fazza smoked cigars, though, not Camels. It was my Uncle Oren, also a carpenter, who smoked the Camels. And when Fazza retired, it was Uncle Oren who inherited the old fellow’s toolbox. I don’t remem ber its being there in the garage on the day I dropped the cin derblock on my foot, but it probably was sitting in its accustomed place just outside the nook where my cousin Donald kept his hockey sticks, ice skates, and baseball glove. 111Stephen King The toolbox was what we called a big ’un. It had three lev els, the top two removable, all three containing little drawers as cunning as Chinese boxes. It was handmade, of course. Dark wooden slats were bound together by tiny nails and strips of brass. The lid was held down by big latches; to my child’s eye they looked like the latches on a giant’s lunchbox. Inside the top was a silk lining, rather odd in such a context and made more striking still by the pattern, which was pink ishred cabbage roses fading into a smog of grease and dirt. On the sides were great big grabhandles. You never saw a toolbox like this one for sale at WalMart or Western Auto, believe me. When my uncle first got it, he found a brass etching of a famous Homer painting—I believe it was The Undertow—lying in the bottom. Some years later Uncle Oren had it authenticated by a Homer expert in New York, and a few years after that I believe he sold it for a good piece of money. Exactly how or why Fazza came by the engraving in the first place is a mystery, but there was no mystery about the origins of the toolbox—he made it himself. One summer day I helped Uncle Oren replace a broken screen on the far side of the house. I might have been eight or nine at the time. I remember following him with the replace ment screen balanced on my head, like a native bearer in a Tarzan movie. He had the toolbox by the grabhandles, hors ing it along at thigh level. As always, Uncle Oren was wear ing khaki pants and a clean white teeshirt. Sweat gleamed in his graying Army crewcut. A Camel hung from his lower lip. (When I came in years later with a pack of Chesterfields in my breast pocket, Uncle Oren sneered at them and called them “stockade cigarettes.”) We finally reached the window with the broken screen and he set the toolbox down with an audible sigh of relief. 112On Writing When Dave and I tried to lift it from its place on the garage floor, each of us holding one of the handles, we could barely budge it. Of course we were just little kids back then, but even so I’d guess that Fazza’s fully loaded toolbox weighed between eighty and a hundred and twenty pounds. Uncle Oren let me undo the big latches. The common tools were all on the top layer of the box. There was a ham mer, a saw, the pliers, a couple of sized wrenches and an adjustable; there was a level with that mystic yellow window in the middle, a drill (the various bits were neatly drawered farther down in the depths), and two screwdrivers. Uncle Oren asked me for a screwdriver. “Which one” I asked. “Eitheror,” he replied. The broken screen was held on by loophead screws, and it really didn’t matter whether he used a regular screwdriver or the Phillips on them; with loopheads you just stuck the screwdriver’s barrel through the hole at the top of the screw and then spun it the way you spin a tire iron once you’ve got the lugnuts loose. Uncle Oren took the screws out—there were eight, which he handed to me for safekeeping—and then removed the old screen. He set it against the house and held up the new one. The holes in the screen’s frame mated up neatly with the holes in the windowframe. Uncle Oren grunted with approval when he saw this. He took the loophead screws back from me, one after the other, got them started with his fingers, then tightened them down just as he’d loosened them, by inserting the screwdriver’s barrel through the loops and turning them. When the screen was secure, Uncle Oren gave me the screwdriver and told me to put it back in the toolbox and “latch her up.” I did, but I was puzzled. I asked him why he’d 113Stephen King lugged Fazza’s toolbox all the way around the house, if all he’d needed was that one screwdriver. He could have carried a screwdriver in the back pocket of his khakis. “Yeah, but Stevie,” he said, bending to grasp the handles, “I didn’t know what else I might find to do once I got out here, did I It’s best to have your tools with you. If you don’t, you’re apt to find something you didn’t expect and get dis couraged.” I want to suggest that to write to your best abilities, it behooves you to construct your own toolbox and then build up enough muscle so you can carry it with you. Then, instead of looking at a hard job and getting discouraged, you will perhaps seize the correct tool and get immediately to work. Fazza’s toolbox had three levels. I think that yours should have at least four. You could have five or six, I suppose, but there comes a point where a toolbox becomes too large to be portable and thus loses its chief virtue. You’ll also want all those little drawers for your screws and nuts and bolts, but where you put those drawers and what you put in them . . . well, that’s your little red wagon, isn’t it You’ll find you have most of the tools you need already, but I advise you to look at each one again as you load it into your box. Try to see each one new, remind yourself of its function, and if some are rusty (as they may be if you haven’t done this seriously in awhile), clean them off. Common tools go on top. The commonest of all, the bread of writing, is vocabulary. In this case, you can happily pack what you have without the slightest bit of guilt and inferior ity. As the whore said to the bashful sailor, “It ain’t how much you’ve got, honey, it’s how you use it.” Some writers have enormous vocabularies; these are folks 114On Writing who’d know if there really is such a thing as an insalubrious dithyramb or a cozening raconteur, people who haven’t missed a multiplechoice answer in Wilfred Funk’s It Pays to Increase Your Word Power in oh, thirty years or so. For example: The leathery, undeteriorative, and almost indestruc tible quality was an inherent attribute of the thing’s form of organization, and pertained to some paleogean cycle of invertebrate evolution utterly beyond our pow ers of speculation. —H. P. Lovecraft, At the Mountains of Madness Like it Here’s another: In some of the cups there was no evidence whatever that anything had been planted; in others, wilted brown stalks gave testimony to some inscrutable depredation. —T. Coraghessan Boyle, Budding Prospects And yet a third—this is a good one, you’ll like it: Someone snatched the old woman’s blindfold from her and she and the juggler were clouted away and when the company turned in to sleep and the low fire was roaring in the blast like a thing alive these four yet crouched at the edge of the firelight among their strange chattels and watched how the ragged flames fled down the wind as if sucked by some maelstrom out there in the void, some vortex in that waste apposite to which man’s transit and his reckonings alike lay abrogate. —Cormac McCarthy, Blood Meridian 115Stephen King Other writers use smaller, simpler vocabularies. Examples of this hardly seem necessary, but I’ll offer a couple of my favorites, just the same: He came to the river. The river was there. —Ernest Hemingway, “Big TwoHearted River” They caught the kid doing something nasty under the bleachers. —Theodore Sturgeon, Some of Your Blood This is what happened. —Douglas Fairbairn, Shoot Some of the owner men were kind because they hated what they had to do, and some of them were angry because they hated to be cruel, and some of them were cold because they had long ago found that one could not be an owner unless one were cold. —John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath The Steinbeck sentence is especially interesting. It’s fifty words long. Of those fifty words, thirtynine have but one syllable. That leaves eleven, but even that number is decep tive; Steinbeck uses because three times, owner twice, and hated twice. There is no word longer than two syllables in the entire sentence. The structure is complex; the vocabulary is not far removed from the old Dick and Jane primers. The Grapes of Wrath is, of course, a fine novel. I believe that Blood Meridian is another, although there are great whacks of it that I don’t fully understand. What of that I can’t decipher the words to many of the popular songs I love, either. 116On Writing There’s also stuff you’ll never find in the dictionary, but it’s still vocabulary. Check out the following: “Egggh, whaddaya Whaddaya want from me” “Here come Hymie” “Unnh Unnnh Unnnhh” “Chew my willie, Yo’ Honor.” “Yeggghhh, fuck you, too, man” —Tom Wolfe, Bonfire of the Vanities This last is phonetically rendered street vocabulary. Few writers have Wolfe’s ability to translate such stuff to the page. (Elmore Leonard is another writer who can do it.) Some streetrap gets into the dictionary eventually, but not until it’s safely dead. And I don’t think you’ll ever find Yeggghhh in Webster’s Unabridged. Put your vocabulary on the top shelf of your toolbox, and don’t make any conscious effort to improve it. (You’ll be doing that as you read, of course . . . but that comes later.) One of the really bad things you can do to your writing is to dress up the vocabulary, looking for long words because you’re maybe a little bit ashamed of your short ones. This is like dressing up a household pet in evening clothes. The pet is embarrassed and the person who committed this act of pre meditated cuteness should be even more embarrassed. Make yourself a solemn promise right now that you’ll never use “emolument” when you mean “tip” and you’ll never say John stopped long enough to perform an act of excretion when you mean John stopped long enough to take a shit. If you believe “take a shit” would be considered offensive or inappropriate by your audience, feel free to say John stopped long enough to move his bowels (or perhaps John stopped 117Stephen King long enough to “push”). I’m not trying to get you to talk dirty, only plain and direct. Remember that the basic rule of vocabulary is use the first word that comes to your mind, if it is appropriate and colorful. If you hesitate and cogitate, you will come up with another word—of course you will, there’s always another word—but it probably won’t be as good as your first one, or as close to what you really mean. This business of meaning is a very big deal. If you doubt it, think of all the times you’ve heard someone say “I just can’t describe it” or “That isn’t what I mean.” Think of all the times you’ve said those things yourself, usually in a tone of mild or serious frustration. The word is only a representation of the meaning; even at its best, writing almost always falls short of full meaning. Given that, why in God’s name would you want to make things worse by choosing a word which is only cousin to the one you really wanted to use And do feel free to take appropriateness into account; as George Carlin once observed, in some company it’s perfectly all right to prick your finger, but very bad form to finger your prick. – – 2 You’ll also want grammar on the top shelf of your toolbox, and don’t annoy me with your moans of exasperation or your cries that you don’t understand grammar, you never did under stand grammar, you flunked that whole semester in Sophomore English, writing is fun but grammar sucks the big one. Relax. Chill. We won’t spend much time here because we don’t need to. One either absorbs the grammatical principles of one’s native language in conversation and in reading or 118On Writing one does not. What Sophomore English does (or tries to do) is little more than the naming of parts. And this isn’t high school. Now that you’re not worried that (a) your skirt is too short or too long and the other kids will laugh at you, (b) you’re not going to make the varsity swimming team, (c) you’re still going to be a pimplestudded virgin when you graduate (probably when you die, for that matter), (d) the physics teacher won’t grade the final on a curve, or (e) nobody really likes you anyway AND THEY NEVER DID . . . now that all that extraneous shit is out of the way, you can study certain academic matters with a degree of concen tration you could never manage while attending the local textbook loonybin. And once you start, you’ll find you know almost all of the stuff anyway—it is, as I said, mostly a mat ter of cleaning the rust off the drillbits and sharpening the blade of your saw. Plus . . . oh, to hell with it. If you can remember all the accessories that go with your best outfit, the contents of your purse, the starting lineup of the New York Yankees or the Houston Oilers, or what label “Hang On Sloopy” by The McCoys was on, you are capable of remembering the differ ence between a gerund (verb form used as a noun) and a par ticiple (verb form used as an adjective). I thought long and hard about whether or not to include a detailed section on grammar in this little book. Part of me would actually like to; I taught it successfully at high school (where it hid under the name Business English), and I enjoyed it as a student. American grammar doesn’t have the sturdiness of British grammar (a British advertising man with a proper education can make magazine copy for ribbed condoms sound like the Magna goddam Carta), but it has its own scruffy charm. 119Stephen King In the end I decided against it, probably for the same rea son William Strunk decided not to recap the basics when he wrote the first edition of The Elements of Style: if you don’t know, it’s too late. And those really incapable of grasping grammar— as I am incapable of playing certain guitar riffs and progres sions—will have little or no use for a book like this, anyway. In that sense I am preaching to the converted. Yet allow me to go on just a little bit further—will you indulge me Vocabulary used in speech or writing organizes itself in seven parts of speech (eight, if you count interjections such as Oh and Gosh and Fuhgeddaboudit). Communication composed of these parts of speech must be organized by rules of grammar upon which we agree. When these rules break down, confusion and misunderstanding result. Bad grammar produces bad sentences. My favorite example from Strunk and White is this one: “As a mother of five, with another one on the way, my ironing board is always up.” Nouns and verbs are the two indispensable parts of writ ing. Without one of each, no group of words can be a sen tence, since a sentence is, by definition, a group of words containing a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb); these strings of words begin with a capital letter, end with a period, and combine to make a complete thought which starts in the writer’s head and then leaps to the reader’s. Must you write complete sentences each time, every time Perish the thought. If your work consists only of fragments and floating clauses, the Grammar Police aren’t going to come and take you away. Even William Strunk, that Mus solini of rhetoric, recognized the delicious pliability of lan guage. “It is an old observation,” he writes, “that the best writers sometimes disregard the rules of rhetoric.” Yet he goes on to add this thought, which I urge you to consider: 120On Writing “Unless he is certain of doing well, the writer will probably do best to follow the rules.” The telling clause here is Unless he is certain of doing well. If you don’t have a rudimentary grasp of how the parts of speech translate into coherent sentences, how can you be cer tain that you are doing well How will you know if you’re doing ill, for that matter The answer, of course, is that you can’t, you won’t. One who does grasp the rudiments of grammar finds a comforting simplicity at its heart, where there need be only nouns, the words that name, and verbs, the words that act. Take any noun, put it with any verb, and you have a sen tence. It never fails. Rocks explode. Jane transmits. Moun tains float. These are all perfect sentences. Many such thoughts make little rational sense, but even the stranger ones (Plums deify) have a kind of poetic weight that’s nice. The simplicity of nounverb construction is useful—at the very least it can provide a safety net for your writing. Strunk and White caution against too many simple sentences in a row, but simple sentences provide a path you can follow when you fear getting lost in the tangles of rhetoric—all those restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses, those modifying phrases, those appositives and compoundcomplex sentences. If you start to freak out at the sight of such unmapped territory (unmapped by you, at least), just remind yourself that rocks explode, Jane transmits, mountains float, and plums deify. Grammar is not just a pain in the ass; it’s the pole you grab to get your thoughts up on their feet and walking. Besides, all those simple sentences worked for Hemingway, didn’t they Even when he was drunk on his ass, he was a fucking genius. If you want to refurbish your grammar, go to your local usedbook store and find a copy of Warriner’s English Grammar 121Stephen King and Composition—the same book most of us took home and dutifully covered with brown paper shoppingbags when we were sophomores and juniors in high school. You’ll be relieved and delighted, I think, to find that almost all you need is sum marized on the front and back endpapers of the book. – – 3 Despite the brevity of his style manual, William Strunk found room to discuss his own dislikes in matters of grammar and usage. He hated the phrase “student body,” for instance, insisting that “studentry” was both clearer and without the ghoulish connotations he saw in the former term. He thought “personalize” a pretentious word. (Strunk suggests “Get up a letterhead” to replace “Personalize your stationery.”) He hated phrases such as “the fact that” and “along these lines.” I have my own dislikes—I believe that anyone using the phrase “That’s so cool” should have to stand in the corner and that those using the far more odious phrases “at this point in time” and “at the end of the day” should be sent to bed without supper (or writingpaper, for that matter). Two of my other pet peeves have to do with this most basic level of writing, and I want to get them off my chest before we move along. Verbs come in two types, active and passive. With an active verb, the subject of the sentence is doing something. With a passive verb, something is being done to the subject of the sentence. The subject is just letting it happen. You should avoid the passive tense. I’m not the only one who says so; you can find the same advice in The Elements of Style. Messrs. Strunk and White don’t speculate as to why so 122On Writing many writers are attracted to passive verbs, but I’m willing to; I think timid writers like them for the same reason timid lovers like passive partners. The passive voice is safe. There is no troublesome action to contend with; the subject just has to close its eyes and think of England, to paraphrase Queen Victoria. I think unsure writers also feel the passive voice somehow lends their work authority, perhaps even a quality of majesty. If you find instruction manuals and lawyers’ torts majestic, I guess it does. The timid fellow writes The meeting will be held at seven o’clock because that somehow says to him, “Put it this way and people will believe you really know.” Purge this quis ling thought Don’t be a muggle Throw back your shoulders, stick out your chin, and put that meeting in charge Write The meeting’s at seven. There, by God Don’t you feel better I won’t say there’s no place for the passive tense. Suppose, for instance, a fellow dies in the kitchen but ends up some where else. The body was carried from the kitchen and placed on the parlor sofa is a fair way to put this, although “was carried” and “was placed” still irk the shit out of me. I accept them but I don’t embrace them. What I would embrace is Freddy and Myra carried the body out of the kitchen and laid it on the parlor sofa. Why does the body have to be the subject of the sentence, anyway It’s dead, for Christ’s sake Fuhgeddaboudit Two pages of the passive voice—just about any business document ever written, in other words, not to mention reams of bad fiction—make me want to scream. It’s weak, it’s cir cuitous, and it’s frequently tortuous, as well. How about this: My first kiss will always be recalled by me as how my romance with Shayna was begun. Oh, man—who farted, right A simpler way to express this idea—sweeter and more 123Stephen King forceful, as well—might be this: My romance with Shayna began with our first kiss. I’ll never forget it. I’m not in love with this because it uses with twice in four words, but at least we’re out of that awful passive voice. You might also notice how much simpler the thought is to understand when it’s broken up into two thoughts. This makes matters easier for the reader, and the reader must always be your main concern; without Constant Reader, you are just a voice quacking in the void. And it’s no walk in the park being the guy on the receiving end. “Will Strunk felt the reader was in serious trouble most of the time,” E. B. White writes in his introduction to The Elements of Style, “a man floundering in a swamp, and that it was the duty of any one trying to write English to drain this swamp quickly and get his man up on dry ground, or at least throw him a rope.” And remember: The writer threw the rope, not The rope was thrown by the writer. Please oh please. The other piece of advice I want to give you before moving on to the next level of the toolbox is this: The adverb is not your friend. Adverbs, you will remember from your own version of Business English, are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They’re the ones that usually end in ly. Adverbs, like the passive voice, seem to have been created with the timid writer in mind. With the passive voice, the writer usually expresses fear of not being taken seriously; it is the voice of little boys wearing shoepolish mustaches and lit tle girls clumping around in Mommy’s high heels. With adverbs, the writer usually tells us he or she is afraid he/she isn’t expressing himself/herself clearly, that he or she is not getting the point or the picture across. Consider the sentence He closed the door firmly. It’s by 124On Writing no means a terrible sentence (at least it’s got an active verb going for it), but ask yourself if firmly really has to be there. You can argue that it expresses a degree of difference between He closed the door and He slammed the door, and you’ll get no argument from me . . . but what about context What about all the enlightening (not to say emotionally moving) prose which came before He closed the door firmly Shouldn’t this tell us how he closed the door And if the foregoing prose does tell us, isn’t firmly an extra word Isn’t it redundant Someone out there is now accusing me of being tiresome and analretentive. I deny it. I believe the road to hell is paved with adverbs, and I will shout it from the rooftops. To put it another way, they’re like dandelions. If you have one on your lawn, it looks pretty and unique. If you fail to root it out, however, you find five the next day . . . fifty the day after that . . . and then, my brothers and sisters, your lawn is totally, completely, and profligately covered with dandelions. By then you see them for the weeds they really are, but by then it’s—GASP—too late. I can be a good sport about adverbs, though. Yes I can. With one exception: dialogue attribution. I insist that you use the adverb in dialogue attribution only in the rarest and most special of occasions . . . and not even then, if you can avoid it. Just to make sure we all know what we’re talking about, examine these three sentences: “Put it down” she shouted. “Give it back,” he pleaded, “it’s mine.” “Don’t be such a fool, Jekyll,” Utterson said. In these sentences, shouted, pleaded, and said are verbs of dialogue attribution. Now look at these dubious revisions: 125Stephen King “Put it down” she shouted menacingly. “Give it back,” he pleaded abjectly, “it’s mine.” “Don’t be such a fool, Jekyll,” Utterson said contemp tuously. The three latter sentences are all weaker than the three former ones, and most readers will see why immediately. “Don’t be such a fool, Jekyll,” Utterson said contemptu ously is the best of the lot; it is only a cliché, while the other two are actively ludicrous. Such dialogue attributions are sometimes known as “Swifties,” after Tom Swift, the brave inventorhero in a series of boys’ adventure novels written by Victor Appleton II. Appleton was fond of such sentences as “Do your worst” Tom cried bravely and “My father helped with the equations,” Tom said modestly. When I was a teenager there was a partygame based on one’s ability to create witty (or halfwitty) Swifties. “You got a nice butt, lady,” he said cheekily is one I remember; another is “I’m the plumber,” he said, with a flush. (In this case the mod ifier is an adverbial phrase.) When debating whether or not to make some pernicious dandelion of an adverb part of your dialogue attribution, I suggest you ask yourself if you really want to write the sort of prose that might wind up in a party game. Some writers try to evade the noadverb rule by shooting the attribution verb full of steroids. The result is familiar to any reader of pulp fiction or paperback originals: “Put down the gun, Utterson” Jekyll grated. “Never stop kissing me” Shayna gasped. “You damned tease” Bill jerked out. 126On Writing Don’t do these things. Please oh please. The best form of dialogue attribution is said, as in he said, she said, Bill said, Monica said. If you want to see this put stringently into practice, I urge you to read or reread a novel by Larry McMurtry, the Shane of dialogue attribution. That looks damned snide on the page, but I’m speaking with complete sincerity. McMurtry has allowed few adverbial dan delions to grow on his lawn. He believes in hesaid/shesaid even in moments of emotional crisis (and in Larry McMurtry novels there are a lot of those). Go and do thou likewise. Is this a case of “Do as I say, not as I do” The reader has a perfect right to ask the question, and I have a duty to provide an honest answer. Yes. It is. You need only look back through some of my own fiction to know that I’m just another ordi nary sinner. I’ve been pretty good about avoiding the passive tense, but I’ve spilled out my share of adverbs in my time, including some (it shames me to say it) in dialogue attribu tion. (I have never fallen so low as “he grated” or “Bill jerked out,” though.) When I do it, it’s usually for the same reason any writer does it: because I am afraid the reader won’t understand me if I don’t. I’m convinced that fear is at the root of most bad writing. If one is writing for one’s own pleasure, that fear may be mild—timidity is the word I’ve used here. If, however, one is working under deadline—a school paper, a newspaper arti cle, the SAT writing sample—that fear may be intense. Dumbo got airborne with the help of a magic feather; you may feel the urge to grasp a passive verb or one of those nasty adverbs for the same reason. Just remember before you do that Dumbo didn’t need the feather; the magic was in him. You probably do know what you’re talking about, and can 127Stephen King safely energize your prose with active verbs. And you proba bly have told your story well enough to believe that when you use he said, the reader will know how he said it—fast or slowly, happily or sadly. Your man may be floundering in a swamp, and by all means throw him a rope if he is . . . but there’s no need to knock him unconscious with ninety feet of steel cable. Good writing is often about letting go of fear and affecta tion. Affectation itself, beginning with the need to define some sorts of writing as “good” and other sorts as “bad,” is fear ful behavior. Good writing is also about making good choices when it comes to picking the tools you plan to work with. No writer is entirely without sin in these matters. Although William Strunk got E. B. White in his clutches when White was but a naive undergraduate at Cornell (give them to me when they’re young and they’re mine forever, hehhehheh), and although White both understood and shared Strunk’s prejudice against loose writing and the loose thinking which prompts it, he admits, “I suppose I have written the fact that a thousand times in the heat of composition, revised it out maybe five hundred times in the cool aftermath. To be batting only .500 this late in the season, to fail half the time to con nect with this fat pitch, saddens me . . .” Yet E. B. White went on to write for a good many years following his initial revisions of Strunk’s “little book” in 1957. I will go on writ ing in spite of such stupid lapses as “You can’t be serious,” Bill said unbelievingly. I expect you to do the same thing. There is a core simplicity to the English language and its American variant, but it’s a slippery core. All I ask is that you do as well as you can, and remember that, while to write adverbs is human, to write he said or she said is divine. 128On Writing – – 4 Lift out the top layer of your toolbox—your vocabulary and all the grammar stuff. On the layer beneath go those elements of style upon which I’ve already touched. Strunk and White offer the best tools (and the best rules) you could hope for, describing them simply and clearly. (They are offered with a refreshing strictness, beginning with the rule on how to form possessives: you always add ’s, even when the word you’re modifying ends in s—always write Thomas’s bike and never Thomas’ bike—and ending with ideas about where it’s best to place the most important parts of a sentence. They say at the end, and everyone’s entitled to his/her opinion, but I don’t believe With a hammer he killed Frank will ever replace He killed Frank with a hammer.) Before leaving the basic elements of form and style, we ought to think for a moment about the paragraph, the form of organization which comes after the sentence. To that end, grab a novel—preferably one you haven’t yet read—down from your shelf (the stuff I’m telling you applies to most prose, but since I’m a fiction writer, it’s fiction I usually think about when I think about writing). Open the book in the middle and look at any two pages. Observe the pattern—the lines of type, the margins, and most particularly the blocks of white space where paragraphs begin or leave off. You can tell without even reading if the book you’ve chosen is apt to be easy or hard, right Easy books contain lots of short paragraphs—including dialogue paragraphs which may only be a word or two long—and lots of white space. 129Stephen King They’re as airy as Dairy Queen ice cream cones. Hard books, ones full of ideas, narration, or description, have a stouter look. A packed look. Paragraphs are almost as important for how they look as for what they say; they are maps of intent. In expository prose, paragraphs can (and should) be neat and utilitarian. The ideal expository graf contains a topic sentence followed by others which explain or amplify the first. Here are two paragraphs from the everpopular “infor mal essay” which illustrate this simple but powerful form of writing: When I was ten, I feared my sister Megan. It was impos sible for her to come into my room without breaking at least one of my favorite toys, usually the favorite of favorites. Her gaze had some magical tapedestroying quality; any poster she looked at seemed to fall off the wall only seconds later. Wellloved articles of clothing disappeared from the closet. She didn’t take them (at least I don’t think so), only made them vanish. I’d usu ally find that treasured teeshirt or my favorite Nikes deep under the bed months later, looking sad and aban doned among the dust kitties. When Megan was in my room, stereo speakers blew, windowshades flew up with a bang, and the lamp on my desk usually went dead. She could be consciously cruel, too. On one occasion, Megan poured orange juice into my cereal. On another, she squirted toothpaste into the toes of my socks while I was taking a shower. And although she never admit ted it, I am positive that whenever I fell asleep on the couch during halftime of the Sunday afternoon pro football games on TV, she rubbed boogers in my hair. 130On Writing Informal essays are, by and large, silly and insubstantial things; unless you get a job as a columnist at your local news paper, writing such fluffery is a skill you’ll never use in the actual mallandfillingstation world. Teachers assign them when they can’t think of any other way to waste your time. The most notorious subject, of course, is “How I Spent My Summer Vacation.” I taught writing for a year at the Univer sity of Maine in Orono and had one class loaded with athletes and cheerleaders. They liked informal essays, greeting them like the old high school friends they were. I spent one whole semester fighting the urge to ask them to write two pages of wellturned prose on the subject of “If Jesus Were My Team mate.” What held me back was the sure and terrible knowl edge that most of them would take to the task with enthusiasm. Some might actually weep while in the throes of composition. Even in the informal essay, however, it’s possible to see how strong the basic paragraph form can be. Topicsentence followedbysupportanddescription insists that the writer organize his/her thoughts, and it also provides good insur ance against wandering away from the topic. Wandering isn’t a big deal in an informal essay, is practically de rigueur, as a matter of fact—but it’s a very bad habit to get into when working on more serious subjects in a more formal manner. Writing is refined thinking. If your master’s thesis is no more organized than a high school essay titled “Why Shania Twain Turns Me On,” you’re in big trouble. In fiction, the paragraph is less structured—it’s the beat instead of the actual melody. The more fiction you read and write, the more you’ll find your paragraphs forming on their own. And that’s what you want. When composing it’s best 131Stephen King not to think too much about where paragraphs begin and end; the trick is to let nature take its course. If you don’t like it later on, fix it then. That’s what rewrite is all about. Now check out the following: Big Tony’s room wasn’t what Dale had expected. The light had an odd yellowish cast that reminded him of cheap motels he’d stayed in, the ones where he always seemed to end up with a scenic view of the parking lot. The only picture was Miss May hanging askew on a pushpin. One shiny black shoe stuck out from under the bed. “I dunno why you keep askin me about O’Leary,” Big Tony said. “You think my story’s gonna change” “Is it” Dale asked. “When your story’s true it don’t change. The truth is always the same boring shit, day in and day out.” Big Tony sat down, lit a cigarette, ran a hand through his hair. “I ain’t seen that fuckin mick since last summer. I let him hang around because he made me laugh, once showed me this thing he wrote about what it woulda been like if Jesus was on his high school football team, had a picture of Christ in a helmet and kneepads and everythin, but what a troublesome little fuck he turned out to be I wish I’d never seen him” We could have a fiftyminute writing class on just this brief passage. It would encompass dialogue attribution (not necessary if we know who’s speaking; Rule 17, omit needless words, in action), phonetically rendered language (dunno, gonna), the use of the comma (there is none in the line 132On Writing When your story’s true it don’t change because I want you to hear it coming out all in one breath, without a pause), the decision not to use the apostrophe where the speaker has dropped a g . . . and all that stuff is just from the top level of the toolbox. Let’s stick with the paragraphs, though. Notice how easily they flow, with the turns and rhythms of the story dictating where each one begins and ends. The opening graf is of the classic type, beginning with a topic sentence that is sup ported by the sentences which follow. Others, however, exist solely to differentiate between Dale’s dialogue and Big Tony’s. The most interesting paragraph is the fifth one: Big Tony sat down, lit a cigarette, ran a hand through his hair. It’s only a single sentence long, and expository paragraphs almost never consist of a single sentence. It’s not even a very good sen tence, technically speaking; to make it perfect in the Warriner’s sense, there should be a conjunction (and). Also, what exactly is the purpose of this paragraph First, the sentence may be flawed in a technical sense, but it’s a good one in terms of the entire passage. Its brevity and telegraphic style vary the pace and keep the writing fresh. Suspense novelist Jonathan Kellerman uses this technique very successfully. In Survival of the Fittest, he writes: The boat was thirty feet of sleek white fiberglass with gray trim. Tall masts, the sails tied. Satori painted on the hull in black script edged with gold. It is possible to overuse the wellturned fragment (and Kellerman sometimes does), but frags can also work beauti fully to streamline narration, create clear images, and create tension as well as to vary the proseline. A series of grammat ically proper sentences can stiffen that line, make it less pli able. Purists hate to hear that and will deny it to their dying 133Stephen King breath, but it’s true. Language does not always have to wear a tie and laceup shoes. The object of fiction isn’t grammati cal correctness but to make the reader welcome and then tell a story . . . to make him/her forget, whenever possible, that he/she is reading a story at all. The singlesentence para graph more closely resembles talk than writing, and that’s good. Writing is seduction. Good talk is part of seduction. If not so, why do so many couples who start the evening at din ner wind up in bed The other uses of this paragraph include stage direction, minor but useful enhancement of character and setting, and a vital moment of transition. From protesting that his story is true, Big Tony moves on to his memories of O’Leary. Since the source of dialogue doesn’t change, Tony’s sitting down and lighting up could take place in the same paragraph, with the dialogue picking up again afterward, but the writer doesn’t elect to do it that way. Because Big Tony takes a new tack, the writer breaks the dialogue into two paragraphs. It’s a decision made instantaneously in the course of writing, one based entirely on the beat the writer hears in his/her own head. That beat is part of the genetic hardwiring (Kellerman writes a lot of frags because he hears a lot of frags), but it’s also the result of the thousands of hours that writer has spent composing, and the tens of thousands of hours he/she may have spent reading the compositions of others. I would argue that the paragraph, not the sentence, is the basic unit of writing—the place where coherence begins and words stand a chance of becoming more than mere words. If the moment of quickening is to come, it comes at the level of the paragraph. It is a marvellous and flexible instrument that can be a single word long or run on for pages (one paragraph in Don Robertson’s historical novel Paradise Falls is sixteen 134On Writing pages long; there are paragraphs in Ross Lockridge’s Raintree County which are nearly that). You must learn to use it well if you are to write well. What this means is lots of practice; you have to learn the beat. – – 5 Grab that book you were looking at off the shelf again, would you The weight of it in your hands tells you other stuff that you can take in without reading a single word. The book’s length, naturally, but more: the commitment the writer shouldered in order to create the work, the commitment Constant Reader must make to digest it. Not that length and weight alone indicate excellence; many epic tales are pretty much epic crap—just ask my critics, who will moan about entire Canadian forests massacred in order to print my drivel. Conversely, short doesn’t always mean sweet. In some cases (The Bridges of Madison County, for instance), short means far too sweet. But there is that matter of commitment, whether a book is good or bad, a failure or a success. Words have weight. Ask anyone who works in the shipping department of a book company warehouse, or in the storage room of a large book store. Words create sentences; sentences create paragraphs; some times paragraphs quicken and begin to breathe. Imagine, if you like, Frankenstein’s monster on its slab. Here comes lightning, not from the sky but from a humble paragraph of English words. Maybe it’s the first really good paragraph you ever wrote, something so fragile and yet full of possibility that you are frightened. You feel as Victor Frankenstein must have when the dead conglomeration of sewntogether spare 135Stephen King parts suddenly opened its watery yellow eyes. Oh my God, it’s breathing, you realize. Maybe it’s even thinking. What in hell’s name do I do next You go on to the third level, of course, and begin to write real fiction. Why shouldn’t you Why should you fear Car penters don’t build monsters, after all; they build houses, stores, and banks. They build some of wood a plank at a time and some of brick a brick at a time. You will build a para graph at a time, constructing these of your vocabulary and your knowledge of grammar and basic style. As long as you stay levelonthelevel and shave even every door, you can build whatever you like—whole mansions, if you have the energy. Is there any rationale for building entire mansions of words I think there is, and that the readers of Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind and Charles Dickens’s Bleak House under stand it: sometimes even a monster is no monster. Some times it’s beautiful and we fall in love with all that story, more than any film or TV program could ever hope to provide. Even after a thousand pages we don’t want to leave the world the writer has made for us, or the makebelieve people who live there. You wouldn’t leave after two thousand pages, if there were two thousand. The Rings trilogy of J. R. R. Tolkien is a perfect example of this. A thousand pages of hobbits hasn’t been enough for three generations of post–World War II fan tasy fans; even when you add in that clumsy, galumphing diri gible of an epilogue, The Silmarillion, it hasn’t been enough. Hence Terry Brooks, Piers Anthony, Robert Jordan, the quest ing rabbits of Watership Down, and half a hundred others. The writers of these books are creating the hobbits they still love and pine for; they are trying to bring Frodo and Sam back from the Grey Havens because Tolkien is no longer around to do it for them. 136On Writing At its most basic we are only discussing a learned skill, but do we not agree that sometimes the most basic skills can cre ate things far beyond our expectations We are talking about tools and carpentry, about words and style . . . but as we move along, you’d do well to remember that we are also talk ing about magic. 137ON WRITINGThere are no bad dogs, according to the title of a popular training manual, but don’t tell that to the parent of a child mauled by a pit bull or a rottweiler; he or she is apt to bust your beak for you. And no matter how much I want to encourage the man or woman trying for the first time to write seriously, I can’t lie and say there are no bad writers. Sorry, but there are lots of bad writers. Some are onstaff at your local newspaper, usually reviewing littletheater pro ductions or pontificating about the local sports teams. Some have scribbled their way to homes in the Caribbean, leaving a trail of pulsing adverbs, wooden characters, and vile passive voice constructions behind them. Others hold forth at open mike poetry slams, wearing black turtlenecks and wrinkled khaki pants; they spout doggerel about “my angry lesbian breasts” and “the tilted alley where I cried my mother’s name.” Writers form themselves into the pyramid we see in all areas of human talent and human creativity. At the bottom are the bad ones. Above them is a group which is slightly smaller but still large and welcoming; these are the compe tent writers. They may also be found on the staff of your local newspaper, on the racks at your local bookstore, and at 141Stephen King poetry readings on Open Mike Night. These are folks who somehow understand that although a lesbian may be angry, her breasts will remain breasts. The next level is much smaller. These are the really good writers. Above them—above almost all of us—are the Shakespeares, the Faulkners, the Yeatses, Shaws, and Eudora Weltys. They are geniuses, divine accidents, gifted in a way which is beyond our ability to understand, let alone attain. Shit, most geniuses aren’t able to understand themselves, and many of them lead miserable lives, realizing (at least on some level) that they are nothing but fortunate freaks, the intellectual version of runway models who just happen to be born with the right cheekbones and with breasts which fit the image of an age. I am approaching the heart of this book with two theses, both simple. The first is that good writing consists of master ing the fundamentals (vocabulary, grammar, the elements of style) and then filling the third level of your toolbox with the right instruments. The second is that while it is impossible to make a competent writer out of a bad writer, and while it is equally impossible to make a great writer out of a good one, it is possible, with lots of hard work, dedication, and timely help, to make a good writer out of a merely competent one. I’m afraid this idea is rejected by lots of critics and plenty of writing teachers, as well. Many of these are liberals in their politics but crustaceans in their chosen fields. Men and women who would take to the streets to protest the exclusion of AfricanAmericans or Native Americans (I can imagine what Mr. Strunk would have made of these politically correct but clunky terms) from the local country club are often the same men and women who tell their classes that writing ability is fixed and immutable; once a hack, always a hack. 142On Writing Even if a writer rises in the estimation of an influential critic or two, he/she always carries his/her early reputation along, like a respectable married woman who was a wild child as a teenager. Some people never forget, that’s all, and a good deal of literary criticism serves only to reinforce a caste system which is as old as the intellectual snobbery which nurtured it. Raymond Chandler may be recognized now as an important figure in twentiethcentury American literature, an early voice describing the anomie of urban life in the years after World War II, but there are plenty of critics who will reject such a judgment out of hand. He’s a hack they cry indig nantly. A hack with pretensions The worst kind The kind who thinks he can pass for one of us Critics who try to rise above this intellectual hardening of the arteries usually meet with limited success. Their col leagues may accept Chandler into the company of the great, but are apt to seat him at the foot of the table. And there are always those whispers: Came out of the pulp tradition, you know . . . carries himself well for one of those, doesn’t he . . . did you know he wrote for Black Mask in the thirties . . . yes, regrettable . . . Even Charles Dickens, the Shakespeare of the novel, has faced a constant critical attack as a result of his often sensa tional subject matter, his cheerful fecundity (when he wasn’t creating novels, he and his wife were creating children), and, of course, his success with the bookreading groundlings of his time and ours. Critics and scholars have always been sus picious of popular success. Often their suspicions are justi fied. In other cases, these suspicions are used as an excuse not to think. No one can be as intellectually slothful as a really smart person; give smart people half a chance and they will ship their oars and drift . . . dozing to Byzantium, you might say. 143Stephen King So yes—I expect to be accused by some of promoting a brainless and happy Horatio Alger philosophy, defending my own lessthanspotless reputation while I’m at it, and of encouraging people who are “just not our sort, old chap” to apply for membership at the country club. I guess I can live with that. But before we go on, let me repeat my basic premise: if you’re a bad writer, no one can help you become a good one, or even a competent one. If you’re good and want to be great . . . fuhgeddaboudit. What follows is everything I know about how to write good fiction. I’ll be as brief as possible, because your time is valuable and so is mine, and we both understand that the hours we spend talking about writing is time we don’t spend actually doing it. I’ll be as encouraging as possible, because it’s my nature and because I love this job. I want you to love it, too. But if you don’t want to work your ass off, you have no business trying to write well—settle back into compe tency and be grateful you have even that much to fall back on. There is a muse, but he’s not going to come fluttering down into your writing room and scatter creative fairydust all over your typewriter or computer station. He lives in the ground. He’s a basement guy. You have to descend to his level, and once you get down there you have to furnish an apartment for him to live in. You have to do all the grunt labor, in other words, while the muse sits and smokes cigars and admires his bowling trophies and pretends to ignore you. Do you think this is fair I think it’s fair. He may not be much to look at, that museguy, and he may not be much of a conversationalist (what I get out of mine is mostly surly Traditionally, the muses were women, but mine’s a guy; I’m afraid we’ll just have to live with that. 144On Writing grunts, unless he’s on duty), but he’s got the inspiration. It’s right that you should do all the work and burn all the mid night oil, because the guy with the cigar and the little wings has got a bag of magic. There’s stuff in there that can change your life. Believe me, I know. – – 1 If you want to be a writer, you must do two things above all others: read a lot and write a lot. There’s no way around these two things that I’m aware of, no shortcut. I’m a slow reader, but I usually get through seventy or eighty books a year, mostly fiction. I don’t read in order to study the craft; I read because I like to read. It’s what I do at night, kicked back in my blue chair. Similarly, I don’t read fiction to study the art of fiction, but simply because I like stories. Yet there is a learning process going on. Every book you pick up has its own lesson or lessons, and quite often the bad books have more to teach than the good ones. When I was in the eighth grade, I happened upon a paper back novel by Murray Leinster, a science fiction pulp writer who did most of his work during the forties and fifties, when magazines like Amazing Stories paid a penny a word. I had read other books by Mr. Leinster, enough to know that the quality of his writing was uneven. This particular tale, which was about mining in the asteroid belt, was one of his less success ful efforts. Only that’s too kind. It was terrible, actually, a story populated by paperthin characters and driven by out landish plot developments. Worst of all (or so it seemed to me at the time), Leinster had fallen in love with the word zestful. 145Stephen King Characters watched the approach of orebearing asteroids with zestful smiles. Characters sat down to supper aboard their mining ship with zestful anticipation. Near the end of the book, the hero swept the largebreasted, blonde heroine into a zestful embrace. For me, it was the literary equivalent of a smallpox vaccination: I have never, so far as I know, used the word zestful in a novel or a story. God willing, I never will. Asteroid Miners (which wasn’t the title, but that’s close enough) was an important book in my life as a reader. Almost everyone can remember losing his or her virginity, and most writers can remember the first book he/she put down think ing: I can do better than this. Hell, I am doing better than this What could be more encouraging to the struggling writer than to realize his/her work is unquestionably better than that of someone who actually got paid for his/her stuff One learns most clearly what not to do by reading bad prose—one novel like Asteroid Miners (or Valley of the Dolls, Flowers in the Attic, and The Bridges of Madison County, to name just a few) is worth a semester at a good writing school, even with the superstar guest lecturers thrown in. Good writing, on the other hand, teaches the learning writer about style, graceful narration, plot development, the creation of believable characters, and truthtelling. A novel like The Grapes of Wrath may fill a new writer with feelings of despair and good oldfashioned jealousy—“I’ll never be able to write anything that good, not if I live to be a thousand”— but such feelings can also serve as a spur, goading the writer to work harder and aim higher. Being swept away by a com bination of great story and great writing—of being flattened, in fact—is part of every writer’s necessary formation. You can not hope to sweep someone else away by the force of your writing until it has been done to you. 146On Writing So we read to experience the mediocre and the outright rot ten; such experience helps us to recognize those things when they begin to creep into our own work, and to steer clear of them. We also read in order to measure ourselves against the good and the great, to get a sense of all that can be done. And we read in order to experience different styles. You may find yourself adopting a style you find particularly exciting, and there’s nothing wrong with that. When I read Ray Bradbury as a kid, I wrote like Ray Bradbury—every thing green and wondrous and seen through a lens smeared with the grease of nostalgia. When I read James M. Cain, everything I wrote came out clipped and stripped and hard boiled. When I read Lovecraft, my prose became luxurious and Byzantine. I wrote stories in my teenage years where all these styles merged, creating a kind of hilarious stew. This sort of stylistic blending is a necessary part of developing one’s own style, but it doesn’t occur in a vacuum. You have to read widely, constantly refining (and redefining) your own work as you do so. It’s hard for me to believe that people who read very little (or not at all in some cases) should presume to write and expect people to like what they have written, but I know it’s true. If I had a nickel for every person who ever told me he/she wanted to become a writer but “didn’t have time to read,” I could buy myself a pretty good steak dinner. Can I be blunt on this subject If you don’t have time to read, you don’t have the time (or the tools) to write. Simple as that. Reading is the creative center of a writer’s life. I take a book with me everywhere I go, and find there are all sorts of opportunities to dip in. The trick is to teach yourself to read in small sips as well as in long swallows. Waiting rooms were made for books—of course But so are theater lobbies before the show, long and boring checkout lines, and everyone’s 147Stephen King favorite, the john. You can even read while you’re driving, thanks to the audiobook revolution. Of the books I read each year, anywhere from six to a dozen are on tape. As for all the wonderful radio you will be missing, come on—how many times can you listen to Deep Purple sing “Highway Star” Reading at meals is considered rude in polite society, but if you expect to succeed as a writer, rudeness should be the secondtoleast of your concerns. The least of all should be polite society and what it expects. If you intend to write as truthfully as you can, your days as a member of polite society are numbered, anyway. Where else can you read There’s always the treadmill, or whatever you use down at the local health club to get aerobic. I try to spend an hour doing that every day, and I think I’d go mad without a good novel to keep me company. Most exercise facilities (at home as well as outside it) are now equipped with TVs, but TV—while working out or anywhere else—really is about the last thing an aspiring writer needs. If you feel you must have the news analyst blowhards on CNN while you exercise, or the stock market blowhards on MSNBC, or the sports blowhards on ESPN, it’s time for you to question how serious you really are about becoming a writer. You must be prepared to do some serious turning inward toward the life of the imagination, and that means, I’m afraid, that Geraldo, Keith Obermann, and Jay Leno must go. Reading takes time, and the glass teat takes too much of it. Once weaned from the ephemeral craving for TV , most peo ple will find they enjoy the time they spend reading. I’d like to suggest that turning off that endlessly quacking box is apt to improve the quality of your life as well as the quality of your writing. And how much of a sacrifice are we talking about here How many Frasier and ER reruns does it take to make 148On Writing one American life complete How many Richard Simmons infomercials How many whiteboy/fatboy Beltway insiders on CNN Oh man, don’t get me started. JerrySpringerDr. DreJudgeJudyJerryFalwellDonnyandMarie, I rest my case. When my son Owen was seven or so, he fell in love with Bruce Springsteen’s E Street Band, particularly with Clarence Clemons, the band’s burly sax player. Owen decided he wanted to learn to play like Clarence. My wife and I were amused and delighted by this ambition. We were also hope ful, as any parent would be, that our kid would turn out to be talented, perhaps even some sort of prodigy. We got Owen a tenor saxophone for Christmas and lessons with Gordon Bowie, one of the local music men. Then we crossed our fin gers and hoped for the best. Seven months later I suggested to my wife that it was time to discontinue the sax lessons, if Owen concurred. Owen did, and with palpable relief—he hadn’t wanted to say it himself, especially not after asking for the sax in the first place, but seven months had been long enough for him to realize that, while he might love Clarence Clemons’s big sound, the saxo phone was simply not for him—God had not given him that particular talent. I knew, not because Owen stopped practicing, but because he was practicing only during the periods Mr. Bowie had set for him: half an hour after school four days a week, plus an hour on the weekends. Owen mastered the scales and the notes—nothing wrong with his memory, his lungs, or his eyehand coordination—but we never heard him taking off, surprising himself with something new, blissing himself out. And as soon as his practice time was over, it was back into the case with the horn, and there it stayed until the next lesson or 149Stephen King practicetime. What this suggested to me was that when it came to the sax and my son, there was never going to be any real playtime; it was all going to be rehearsal. That’s no good. If there’s no joy in it, it’s just no good. It’s best to go on to some other area, where the deposits of talent may be richer and the fun quotient higher. Talent renders the whole idea of rehearsal meaningless; when you find something at which you are talented, you do it (whatever it is) until your fingers bleed or your eyes are ready to fall out of your head. Even when no one is listening (or reading, or watching), every outing is a bravura perfor mance, because you as the creator are happy. Perhaps even ecstatic. That goes for reading and writing as well as for play ing a musical instrument, hitting a baseball, or running the fourforty. The sort of strenuous reading and writing pro gram I advocate—four to six hours a day, every day—will not seem strenuous if you really enjoy doing these things and have an aptitude for them; in fact, you may be following such a program already. If you feel you need permission to do all the reading and writing your little heart desires, however, consider it hereby granted by yours truly. The real importance of reading is that it creates an ease and intimacy with the process of writing; one comes to the country of the writer with one’s papers and identification pretty much in order. Constant reading will pull you into a place (a mindset, if you like the phrase) where you can write eagerly and without selfconsciousness. It also offers you a constantly growing knowledge of what has been done and what hasn’t, what is trite and what is fresh, what works and what just lies there dying (or dead) on the page. The more you read, the less apt you are to make a fool of yourself with your pen or word processor. 150On Writing – – 2 If “read a lot, write a lot” is the Great Commandment—and I assure you that it is—how much writing constitutes a lot That varies, of course, from writer to writer. One of my favorite stories on the subject—probably more myth than truth—concerns James Joyce. According to the story, a friend came to visit him one day and found the great man sprawled across his writing desk in a posture of utter despair. “James, what’s wrong” the friend asked. “Is it the work” Joyce indicated assent without even raising his head to look at the friend. Of course it was the work; isn’t it always “How many words did you get today” the friend pur sued. Joyce (still in despair, still sprawled facedown on his desk): “Seven.” “Seven But James . . . that’s good, at least for you” “Yes,” Joyce said, finally looking up. “I suppose it is . . . but I don’t know what order they go in” At the other end of the spectrum, there are writers like Anthony Trollope. He wrote humongous novels (Can You For give Her is a fair enough example; for modern audiences it might be retitled Can You Possibly Finish It), and he pumped them out with amazing regularity. His day job was as a clerk in the British Postal Department (the red public mailboxes all There are some great stories about Joyce. My absolute favorite is that, as his vision failed, he took to wearing a milkman’s uniform while writing. Supposedly he believed it caught the sunlight and reflected it down on his page. 151Stephen King over Britain were Anthony Trollope’s invention); he wrote for two and a half hours each morning before leaving for work. This schedule was ironclad. If he was in midsentence when the two and a half hours expired, he left that sentence unfin ished until the next morning. And if he happened to finish one of his sixhundredpage heavyweights with fifteen min utes of the session remaining, he wrote The End, set the manuscript aside, and began work on the next book. John Creasey, a British mystery novelist, wrote five hundred (yes, you read it correctly) novels under ten different names. I’ve written thirtyfive or so—some of Trollopian length—and am considered prolific, but I look positively blocked next to Creasey. Several other contemporary novelists (they include Ruth Rendell/Barbara Vine, Evan Hunter/Ed McBain, Dean Koontz, and Joyce Carol Oates) have written easily as much as I have; some have written a good deal more. On the other hand—the James Joyce hand—there is Harper Lee, who wrote only one book (the brilliant To Kill a Mockingbird). Any number of others, including James Agee, Malcolm Lowry, and Thomas Harris (so far), wrote under five. Which is okay, but I always wonder two things about these folks: how long did it take them to write the books they did write, and what did they do the rest of their time Knit afghans Organize church bazaars Deify plums I’m probably being snotty here, but I am also, believe me, hon estly curious. If God gives you something you can do, why in God’s name wouldn’t you do it My own schedule is pretty clearcut. Mornings belong to whatever is new—the current composition. Afternoons are for naps and letters. Evenings are for reading, family, Red Sox games on TV, and any revisions that just cannot wait. Basi cally, mornings are my prime writing time. 152On Writing Once I start work on a project, I don’t stop and I don’t slow down unless I absolutely have to. If I don’t write every day, the characters begin to stale off in my mind—they begin to seem like characters instead of real people. The tale’s narra tive cutting edge starts to rust and I begin to lose my hold on the story’s plot and pace. Worst of all, the excitement of spinning something new begins to fade. The work starts to feel like work, and for most writers that is the smooch of death. Writing is at its best—always, always, always—when it is a kind of inspired play for the writer. I can write in cold blood if I have to, but I like it best when it’s fresh and almost too hot to handle. I used to tell interviewers that I wrote every day except for Christmas, the Fourth of July, and my birthday. That was a lie. I told them that because if you agree to an interview you have to say something, and it plays better if it’s something at least halfclever. Also, I didn’t want to sound like a workaholic dweeb (just a workaholic, I guess). The truth is that when I’m writing, I write every day, workaholic dweeb or not. That includes Christmas, the Fourth, and my birthday (at my age you try to ignore your goddam birthday anyway). And when I’m not working, I’m not working at all, although during those periods of full stop I usually feel at loose ends with myself and have trouble sleeping. For me, not working is the real work. When I’m writing, it’s all the playground, and the worst three hours I ever spent there were still pretty damned good. I used to be faster than I am now; one of my books (The Running Man) was written in a single week, an accomplish ment John Creasey would perhaps have appreciated (although I have read that Creasey wrote several of his mysteries in two days). I think it was quitting smoking that slowed me down; 153Stephen King nicotine is a great synapse enhancer. The problem, of course, is that it’s killing you at the same time it’s helping you com pose. Still, I believe the first draft of a book—even a long one—should take no more than three months, the length of a season. Any longer and—for me, at least—the story begins to take on an odd foreign feel, like a dispatch from the Romanian Department of Public Affairs, or something broad cast on highband shortwave during a period of severe sunspot activity. I like to get ten pages a day, which amounts to 2,000 words. That’s 180,000 words over a threemonth span, a goodish length for a book—something in which the reader can get happily lost, if the tale is done well and stays fresh. On some days those ten pages come easily; I’m up and out and doing errands by eleventhirty in the morning, perky as a rat in liverwurst. More frequently, as I grow older, I find myself eating lunch at my desk and finishing the day’s work around onethirty in the afternoon. Sometimes, when the words come hard, I’m still fiddling around at teatime. Either way is fine with me, but only under dire circumstances do I allow myself to shut down before I get my 2,000 words. The biggest aid to regular (Trollopian) production is working in a serene atmosphere. It’s difficult for even the most naturally productive writer to work in an environment where alarms and excursions are the rule rather than the exception. When I’m asked for “the secret of my success” (an absurd idea, that, but impossible to get away from), I some times say there are two: I stayed physically healthy (at least until a van knocked me down by the side of the road in the summer of 1999), and I stayed married. It’s a good answer because it makes the question go away, and because there is an element of truth in it. The combination of a healthy body 154On Writing and a stable relationship with a selfreliant woman who takes zero shit from me or anyone else has made the continuity of my working life possible. And I believe the converse is also true: that my writing and the pleasure I take in it has con tributed to the stability of my health and my home life. – – 3 You can read anywhere, almost, but when it comes to writ ing, library carrels, park benches, and rented flats should be courts of last resort—Truman Capote said he did his best work in motel rooms, but he is an exception; most of us do our best in a place of our own. Until you get one, you’ll find your new resolution to write a lot hard to take seriously. Your writing room doesn’t have to sport a Playboy Philos ophy decor, and you don’t need an Early American rolltop desk in which to house your writing implements. I wrote my first two published novels, Carrie and ’Salem’s Lot, in the laundry room of a doublewide trailer, pounding away on my wife’s portable Olivetti typewriter and balancing a child’s desk on my thighs; John Cheever reputedly wrote in the basement of his Park Avenue apartment building, near the furnace. The space can be humble (probably should be, as I think I have already suggested), and it really needs only one thing: a door which you are willing to shut. The closed door is your way of telling the world and yourself that you mean business; you have made a serious commitment to write and intend to walk the walk as well as talk the talk. By the time you step into your new writing space and close the door, you should have settled on a daily writing goal. As with physical exercise, it would be best to set this 155Stephen King goal low at first, to avoid discouragement. I suggest a thou sand words a day, and because I’m feeling magnanimous, I’ll also suggest that you can take one day a week off, at least to begin with. No more; you’ll lose the urgency and immediacy of your story if you do. With that goal set, resolve to yourself that the door stays closed until that goal is met. Get busy putting those thousand words on paper or on a floppy disk. In an early interview (this was to promote Carrie, I think), a radio talkshow host asked me how I wrote. My reply—“One word at a time”—seemingly left him without a reply. I think he was trying to decide whether or not I was joking. I wasn’t. In the end, it’s always that simple. Whether it’s a vignette of a single page or an epic trilogy like The Lord of the Rings, the work is always accomplished one word at a time. The door closes the rest of the world out; it also serves to close you in and keep you focused on the job at hand. If possible, there should be no telephone in your writing room, certainly no TV or videogames for you to fool around with. If there’s a window, draw the curtains or pull down the shades unless it looks out at a blank wall. For any writer, but for the beginning writer in particular, it’s wise to eliminate every possible distraction. If you continue to write, you will begin to filter out these distractions naturally, but at the start it’s best to try and take care of them before you write. I work to loud music—hardrock stuff like AC/DC, Guns ’n Roses, and Metallica have always been particular favorites—but for me the music is just another way of shutting the door. It sur rounds me, keeps the mundane world out. When you write, you want to get rid of the world, do you not Of course you do. When you’re writing, you’re creating your own worlds. I think we’re actually talking about creative sleep. Like your bedroom, your writing room should be private, a place where 156On Writing you go to dream. Your schedule—in at about the same time every day, out when your thousand words are on paper or disk—exists in order to habituate yourself, to make yourself ready to dream just as you make yourself ready to sleep by going to bed at roughly the same time each night and fol lowing the same ritual as you go. In both writing and sleeping, we learn to be physically still at the same time we are encour aging our minds to unlock from the humdrum rational think ing of our daytime lives. And as your mind and body grow accustomed to a certain amount of sleep each night—six hours, seven, maybe the recommended eight—so can you train your waking mind to sleep creatively and work out the vividly imagined waking dreams which are successful works of fiction. But you need the room, you need the door, and you need the determination to shut the door. You need a concrete goal, as well. The longer you keep to these basics, the easier the act of writing will become. Don’t wait for the muse. As I’ve said, he’s a hardheaded guy who’s not susceptible to a lot of creative flut tering. This isn’t the Ouija board or the spiritworld we’re talk ing about here, but just another job like laying pipe or driving longhaul trucks. Your job is to make sure the muse knows where you’re going to be every day from nine ’til noon or seven ’til three. If he does know, I assure you that sooner or later he’ll start showing up, chomping his cigar and making his magic. – – 4 So okay—there you are in your room with the shade down and the door shut and the plug pulled out of the base of the telephone. You’ve blown up your TV and committed your self to a thousand words a day, come hell or high water. Now 157Stephen King comes the big question: What are you going to write about And the equally big answer: Anything you damn well want. Anything at all . . . as long as you tell the truth. The dictum in writing classes used to be “write what you know.” Which sounds good, but what if you want to write about starships exploring other planets or a man who mur ders his wife and then tries to dispose of her body with a woodchipper How does the writer square either of these, or a thousand other fanciful ideas, with the “writewhatyou know” directive I think you begin by interpreting “write what you know” as broadly and inclusively as possible. If you’re a plumber, you know plumbing, but that is far from the extent of your knowledge; the heart also knows things, and so does the imagination. Thank God. If not for heart and imagination, the world of fiction would be a pretty seedy place. It might not even exist at all. In terms of genre, it’s probably fair to assume that you will begin by writing what you love to read—certainly I have recounted my early love affair with the EC horror comics until the tale has gone stale. But I did love them, ditto horror movies like I Married a Monster from Outer Space, and the result was stories like “I Was a Teenage Graverobber.” Even today I’m not above writing slightly more sophisticated versions of that tale; I was built with a love of the night and the unquiet coffin, that’s all. If you disapprove, I can only shrug my shoulders. It’s what I have. If you happen to be a science fiction fan, it’s natural that you should want to write science fiction (and the more sf you’ve read, the less likely it is that you’ll simply revisit the field’s wellmined conventions, such as space opera and dystopian satire). If you’re a mystery fan, you’ll want to write 158On Writing mysteries, and if you enjoy romances, it’s natural for you to want to write romances of your own. There’s nothing wrong with writing any of these things. What would be very wrong, I think, is to turn away from what you know and like (or love, the way I loved those old ECs and blackandwhite horror flicks) in favor of things you believe will impress your friends, relatives, and writingcircle colleagues. What’s equally wrong is the deliberate turning toward some genre or type of fiction in order to make money. It’s morally wonky, for one thing— the job of fiction is to find the truth inside the story’s web of lies, not to commit intellectual dishonesty in the hunt for the buck. Also, brothers and sisters, it doesn’t work. When I’m asked why I decided to write the sort of thing I do write, I always think the question is more revealing than any answer I could possibly give. Wrapped within it, like the chewy stuff in the center of a Tootsie Pop, is the assumption that the writer controls the material instead of the other way around. The writer who is serious and committed is inca pable of sizing up story material the way an investor might size up various stock offerings, picking out the ones which seem likely to provide a good return. If it could indeed be done that way, every novel published would be a bestseller and the huge advances paid to a dozen or so “bigname writ ers” would not exist (publishers would like that). Grisham, Clancy, Crichton, and myself—among others— are paid these large sums of money because we are selling uncommonly large numbers of books to uncommonly large Kirby McCauley, my first real agent, used to quote science fiction writer Alfred Bester (The Stars My Destination, The Demolished Man) on this sub ject. “The book is the boss,” Alfie used to say in tones indicating that that closed the subject. 159Stephen King audiences. A critical assumption is sometimes made that we have access to some mystical vulgate that other (and often better) writers either cannot find or will not deign to use. I doubt if this is true. Nor do I believe the contention of some popular novelists (although she was not the only one, I am thinking of the late Jacqueline Susann) that their success is based on literary merit—that the public understands true greatness in ways the tightassed, consumedbyjealousy lit erary establishment cannot. This idea is ridiculous, a product of vanity and insecurity. Bookbuyers aren’t attracted, by and large, by the literary merits of a novel; bookbuyers want a good story to take with them on the airplane, something that will first fascinate them, then pull them in and keep them turning the pages. This happens, I think, when readers recognize the people in a book, their behaviors, their surroundings, and their talk. When the reader hears strong echoes of his or her own life and beliefs, he or she is apt to become more invested in the story. I’d argue that it’s impossible to make this sort of connection in a premeditated way, gauging the market like a racetrack tout with a hot tip. Stylistic imitation is one thing, a perfectly honorable way to get started as a writer (and impossible to avoid, really; some sort of imitation marks each new stage of a writer’s development), but one cannot imitate a writer’s approach to a particular genre, no matter how simple what that writer is doing may seem. You can’t aim a book like a cruise missile, in other words. People who decide to make a fortune writing like John Grisham or Tom Clancy produce nothing but pale imitations, by and large, because vocabulary is not the same thing as feeling and plot is lightyears from the truth as it is understood by the mind and the heart. When you see a novel 160On Writing with “In the tradition of (John Grisham/Patricia Corn well/Mary Higgins Clark/Dean Koontz)” on the cover, you know you are looking at one of these overcalculated (and likely boring) imitations. Write what you like, then imbue it with life and make it unique by blending in your own personal knowledge of life, friendship, relationships, sex, and work. Especially work. Peo ple love to read about work. God knows why, but they do. If you’re a plumber who enjoys science fiction, you might well consider a novel about a plumber aboard a starship or on an alien planet. Sound ludicrous The late Clifford D. Simak wrote a novel called Cosmic Engineers which is close to just that. And it’s a terrific read. What you need to remember is that there’s a difference between lecturing about what you know and using it to enrich the story. The latter is good. The former is not. Consider John Grisham’s breakout novel, The Firm. In this story, a young lawyer discovers that his first job, which seemed too good to be true, really is—he’s working for the Mafia. Suspenseful, involving, and paced at breakneck speed, The Firm sold roughly nine gazillion copies. What seemed to fas cinate its audience was the moral dilemma in which the young lawyer finds himself: working for the mob is bad, no argument there, but the frocking pay is great You can drive a Beemer, and that’s just for openers Audiences also enjoyed the lawyer’s resourceful efforts to extricate himself from his dilemma. It might not be the way most people would behave, and the deus ex machina clanks pretty steadily in the last fifty pages, but it is the way most of us would like to behave. And wouldn’t we also like to have a deus ex machina in our lives Although I don’t know for sure, I’d bet my dog and lot 161Stephen King that John Grisham never worked for the mob. All of that is total fabrication (and total fabrication is the fictionwriter’s purest delight). He was once a young lawyer, though, and he has clearly forgotten none of the struggle. Nor has he forgot ten the location of the various financial pitfalls and honey traps that make the field of corporate law so difficult. Using plainspun humor as a brilliant counterpoint and never sub stituting cant for story, he sketches a world of Darwinian struggle where all the savages wear threepiece suits. And— here’s the good part—this is a world impossible not to believe. Grisham has been there, spied out the land and the enemy positions, and brought back a full report. He told the truth of what he knew, and for that if nothing else, he deserves every buck The Firm made. Critics who dismissed The Firm and Grisham’s later books as poorly written and who profess themselves to be mystified by his success are either missing the point because it’s so big and obvious or because they are being deliberately obtuse. Grisham’s makebelieve tale is solidly based in a reality he knows, has personally experienced, and which he wrote about with total (almost naive) honesty. The result is a book which is—cardboard characters or no, we could argue about that— both brave and uniquely satisfying. You as a beginning writer would do well not to imitate the lawyersintrouble genre Grisham seems to have created but to emulate Grisham’s openness and inability to do anything other than get right to the point. John Grisham, of course, knows lawyers. What you know makes you unique in some other way. Be brave. Map the enemy’s positions, come back, tell us all you know. And remember that plumbers in space is not such a bad setup for a story. 162On Writing – – 5 In my view, stories and novels consist of three parts: narra tion, which moves the story from point A to point B and finally to point Z; description, which creates a sensory reality for the reader; and dialogue, which brings characters to life through their speech. You may wonder where plot is in all this. The answer—my answer, anyway—is nowhere. I won’t try to convince you that I’ve never plotted any more than I’d try to convince you that I’ve never told a lie, but I do both as infrequently as possible. I distrust plot for two reasons: first, because our lives are largely plotless, even when you add in all our reasonable precautions and careful planning; and second, because I believe plotting and the spontaneity of real creation aren’t compatible. It’s best that I be as clear about this as I can—I want you to understand that my basic belief about the making of stories is that they pretty much make themselves. The job of the writer is to give them a place to grow (and to transcribe them, of course). If you can see things this way (or at least try to), we can work together comfortably. If, on the other hand, you decide I’m crazy, that’s fine. You won’t be the first. When, during the course of an interview for The New Yorker, I told the interviewer (Mark Singer) that I believed sto ries are found things, like fossils in the ground, he said that he didn’t believe me. I replied that that was fine, as long as he believed that I believe it. And I do. Stories aren’t souvenir tee shirts or GameBoys. Stories are relics, part of an undiscovered preexisting world. The writer’s job is to use the tools in his or her toolbox to get as much of each one out of the ground 163Stephen King intact as possible. Sometimes the fossil you uncover is small; a seashell. Sometimes it’s enormous, a Tyrannosaurus Rex with all those gigantic ribs and grinning teeth. Either way, short story or thousandpage whopper of a novel, the techniques of excavation remain basically the same. No matter how good you are, no matter how much expe rience you have, it’s probably impossible to get the entire fos sil out of the ground without a few breaks and losses. To get even most of it, the shovel must give way to more delicate tools: airhose, palmpick, perhaps even a toothbrush. Plot is a far bigger tool, the writer’s jackhammer. You can liberate a fossil from hard ground with a jackhammer, no argument there, but you know as well as I do that the jackhammer is going to break almost as much stuff as it liberates. It’s clumsy, mechanical, anticreative. Plot is, I think, the good writer’s last resort and the dullard’s first choice. The story which results from it is apt to feel artificial and labored. I lean more heavily on intuition, and have been able to do that because my books tend to be based on situation rather than story. Some of the ideas which have produced those books are more complex than others, but the majority start out with the stark simplicity of a department store window display or a waxwork tableau. I want to put a group of characters (per haps a pair; perhaps even just one) in some sort of predicament and then watch them try to work themselves free. My job isn’t to help them work their way free, or manipulate them to safety—those are jobs which require the noisy jackhammer of plot—but to watch what happens and then write it down. The situation comes first. The characters—always flat and unfeatured, to begin with—come next. Once these things are fixed in my mind, I begin to narrate. I often have an idea of what the outcome may be, but I have never demanded of a set 164On Writing of characters that they do things my way. On the contrary, I want them to do things their way. In some instances, the outcome is what I visualized. In most, however, it’s something I never expected. For a suspense novelist, this is a great thing. I am, after all, not just the novel’s creator but its first reader. And if I’m not able to guess with any accuracy how the damned thing is going to turn out, even with my inside knowledge of coming events, I can be pretty sure of keeping the reader in a state of pageturning anxiety. And why worry about the ending anyway Why be such a control freak Sooner or later every story comes out somewhere. In the early 1980s, my wife and I went to London on a combined business/pleasure trip. I fell asleep on the plane and had a dream about a popular writer (it may or may not have been me, but it sure to God wasn’t James Caan) who fell into the clutches of a psychotic fan living on a farm somewhere out in the back of the beyond. The fan was a woman isolated by her growing paranoia. She kept some livestock in the barn, including her pet pig, Misery. The pig was named after the continuing main character in the writer’s bestselling bodice rippers. My clearest memory of this dream upon waking was something the woman said to the writer, who had a broken leg and was being kept prisoner in the back bedroom. I wrote it on an American Airlines cocktail napkin so I wouldn’t for get it, then put it in my pocket. I lost it somewhere, but can remember most of what I wrote down: She speaks earnestly but never quite makes eye contact. A big woman and solid all through; she is an absence of hiatus. (What ever that means; remember, I’d just woken up.) “I wasn’t try ing to be funny in a mean way when I named my pig Misery, no sir. Please don’t think that. No, I named her in the spirit of fan love, which is the purest love there is. You should be flattered.” 165Stephen King Tabby and I stayed at Brown’s Hotel in London, and on our first night there I was unable to sleep. Some of it was what sounded like a trio of littlegirl gymnasts in the room directly above ours, some of it was undoubtedly jet lag, but a lot of it was that airline cocktail napkin. Jotted on it was the seed of what I thought could be a really excellent story, one that might turn out funny and satiric as well as scary. I thought it was just too rich not to write. I got up, went downstairs, and asked the concierge if there was a quiet place where I could work longhand for a bit. He led me to a gorgeous desk on the secondfloor stair landing. It had been Rudyard Kipling’s desk, he told me with perhaps justifiable pride. I was a little intimidated by this intelli gence, but the spot was quiet and the desk seemed hos pitable enough; it featured about an acre of cherrywood working surface, for one thing. Stoked on cup after cup of tea (I drank it by the gallon when I wrote . . . unless I was drink ing beer, that is), I filled sixteen pages of a steno notebook. I like to work longhand, actually; the only problem is that, once I get jazzed, I can’t keep up with the lines forming in my head and I get frazzled. When I called it quits, I stopped in the lobby to thank the concierge again for letting me use Mr. Kipling’s beautiful desk. “I’m so glad you enjoyed it,” he replied. He was wear ing a misty, reminiscent little smile, as if he had known the writer himself. “Kipling died there, actually. Of a stroke. While he was writing.” I went back upstairs to catch a few hours’ sleep, thinking of how often we are given information we really could have done without. The working title of my story, which I thought would be a novella of about 30,000 words, was “The Annie Wilkes Edi 166On Writing tion.” When I sat down at Mr. Kipling’s beautiful desk I had the basic situation—crippled writer, psycho fan—firmly fixed in my mind. The actual story did not as then exist (well, it did, but as a relic buried—except for sixteen handwritten pages, that is—in the earth), but knowing the story wasn’t necessary for me to begin work. I had located the fossil; the rest, I knew, would consist of careful excavation. I’d suggest that what works for me may work equally well for you. If you are enslaved to (or intimidated by) the tire some tyranny of the outline and the notebook filled with “Character Notes,” it may liberate you. At the very least, it will turn your mind to something more interesting than Developing the Plot. (An amusing sidelight: the century’s greatest supporter of Developing the Plot may have been Edgar Wallace, a best selling potboiler novelist of the 1920s. Wallace invented— and patented—a device called the Edgar Wallace Plot Wheel. When you got stuck for the next Plot Development or needed an Amazing Turn of Events in a hurry, you simply spun the Plot Wheel and read what came up in the window: a fortu itous arrival, perhaps, or Heroine declares her love. These gadgets apparently sold like hotcakes.) By the time I had finished that first Brown’s Hotel session, in which Paul Sheldon wakes up to find himself Annie Wilkes’s prisoner, I thought I knew what was going to happen. Annie would demand that Paul write another novel about his plucky continuing character, Misery Chastain, one just for her. After first demurring, Paul would of course agree (a psychotic nurse, I thought, could be very persuasive). Annie would tell him she intended to sacrifice her beloved pig, Misery, to this project. Misery’s Return would, she’d say, consist of but one copy: a holo graphic manuscript bound in pigskin 167Stephen King Here we’d fade out, I thought, and return to Annie’s remote Colorado retreat six or eight months later for the sur prise ending. Paul is gone, his sickroom turned into a shrine to Misery Chastain, but Misery the pig is still very much in evidence, grunting serenely away in her sty beside the barn. On the walls of the “Misery Room” are book covers, stills from the Misery movies, pictures of Paul Sheldon, perhaps a newspa per headline reading FAMED ROMANCE NOVELIST STILL MISSING.In the center of the room, carefully spotlighted, is a single book on a small table (a cherrywood table, of course, in honor of Mr. Kipling). It is the Annie Wilkes Edition of Misery’s Return. The binding is beautiful, and it should be; it is the skin of Paul Sheldon. And Paul himself His bones might be buried behind the barn, but I thought it likely that the pig would have eaten the tasty parts. Not bad, and it would have made a pretty good story (not such a good novel, however; no one likes to root for a guy over the course of three hundred pages only to discover that between chapters sixteen and seventeen the pig ate him), but that wasn’t the way things eventually went. Paul Sheldon turned out to be a good deal more resourceful than I initially thought, and his efforts to play Scheherazade and save his life gave me a chance to say some things about the redemptive power of writing that I had long felt but never articulated. Annie also turned out to be more complex than I’d first imagined her, and she was great fun to write about—here was a woman pretty much stuck with “cockadoodie brat” when it came to profanity, but who felt absolutely no qualms about chopping off her favorite writer’s foot when he tried to get away from her. In the end, I felt that Annie was almost as much to be pitied as to be feared. And none of the story’s 168On Writing details and incidents proceeded from plot; they were organic, each arising naturally from the initial situation, each an uncovered part of the fossil. And I’m writing all this with a smile. As sick with drugs and alcohol as I was much of the time, I had such fun with that one. Gerald’s Game and The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon are two other purely situational novels. If Misery is “two characters in a house,” then Gerald is “one woman in a bedroom” and The Girl Who is “one kid lost in the woods.” As I told you, I have written plotted novels, but the results, in books like Insomnia and Rose Madder, have not been particularly inspiring. These are (much as I hate to admit it) stiff, tryingtoohard novels. The only plotdriven novel of mine which I really like is The Dead Zone (and in all fairness, I must say I like that one a great deal). One book which seems plotted—Bag of Bones—is actually another situation: “widowed writer in a haunted house.” The back story of Bag of Bones is satisfyingly gothic (at least I think so) and very complex, but none of the details were pre meditated. The history of TR90 and the story of what wid owed writer Mike Noonan’s wife was really up to during the last summer of her life arose spontaneously—all those details were parts of the fossil, in other words. A strong enough situation renders the whole question of plot moot, which is fine with me. The most interesting situ ations can usually be expressed as a Whatif question: What if vampires invaded a small New England village (’Salem’s Lot) What if a policeman in a remote Nevada town went berserk and started killing everyone in sight (Desperation) What if a cleaning woman suspected of a murder she got away with (her husband) fell under suspicion for a murder she did not commit (her employer) (Dolores Claiborne) 169Stephen King What if a young mother and her son became trapped in their stalled car by a rabid dog (Cujo) These were all situations which occurred to me—while showering, while driving, while taking my daily walk—and which I eventually turned into books. In no case were they plotted, not even to the extent of a single note jotted on a sin gle piece of scrap paper, although some of the stories (Dolores Claiborne, for instance) are almost as complex as those you find in murder mysteries. Please remember, however, that there is a huge difference between story and plot. Story is honorable and trustworthy; plot is shifty, and best kept under house arrest. Each of the novels summarized above was smoothed out and detailed by the editorial process, of course, but most of the elements existed to begin with. “A movie should be there in rough cut,” the film editor Paul Hirsch once told me. The same is true of books. I think it’s rare that incoherence or dull storytelling can be solved by something so minor as a second draft. This isn’t a textbook, and so there aren’t a lot of exercises, but I want to offer you one now, in case you feel that all this talk about situation replacing plot is so much woollyheaded bullshit. I am going to show you the location of a fossil. Your job is to write five or six pages of unplotted narration con cerning this fossil. Put another way, I want you to dig for the bones and see what they look like. I think you may be quite surprised and delighted with the results. Ready Here we go. Everyone is familiar with the basic details of the following story; with small variations, it seems to pop up in the Police Beat section of metropolitan daily papers every other week or so. A woman—call her Jane—marries a man who is bright, witty, and pulsing with sexual magnetism. We’ll call the guy 170On Writing Dick; it’s the world’s most Freudian name. Unfortunately, Dick has a dark side. He’s shorttempered, a control freak, perhaps even (you’ll find this out as he speaks and acts) a para noid. Jane tries mightily to overlook Dick’s faults and make the marriage work (why she tries so hard is something you will also find out; she will come onstage and tell you). They have a child, and for awhile things seem better. Then, when the little girl is three or so, the abuse and the jealous tirades begin again. The abuse is verbal at first, then physical. Dick is convinced that Jane is sleeping with someone, perhaps someone from her job. Is it someone specific I don’t know and don’t care. Eventually Dick may tell you who he suspects. If he does, we’ll both know, won’t we At last poor Jane can’t take it anymore. She divorces the schmuck and gets custody of their daughter, Little Nell. Dick begins to stalk her. Jane responds by getting a restrain ing order, a document about as useful as a parasol in a hurri cane, as many abused women will tell you. Finally, after an incident which you will write in vivid and scary detail—a public beating, perhaps—Richard the Schmuck is arrested and jailed. All of this is back story. How you work it in—and how much of it you work in—is up to you. In any case, it’s not the situation. What follows is the situation. One day shortly after Dick’s incarceration in the city jail, Jane picks up Little Nell at the daycare center and ferries her to a friend’s house for a birthday party. Jane then takes her self home, looking forward to two or three hours’ unaccus tomed peace and quiet. Perhaps, she thinks, I’ll take a nap. It’s a house she’s going to, even though she’s a young work ing woman—the situation sort of demands it. How she came by this house and why she has the afternoon off are things the story will tell you and which will look neatly plotted if 171Stephen King you come up with good reasons (perhaps the house belongs to her parents; perhaps she’s housesitting; perhaps another thing entirely). Something pings at her, just below the level of conscious ness, as she lets herself in, something that makes her uneasy. She can’t isolate it and tells herself it’s just nerves, a little fall out from her five years of hell with Mr. Congeniality. What else could it be Dick is under lock and key, after all. Before taking her nap, Jane decides to have a cup of herbal tea and watch the news. (Can you use that pot of boiling water on the stove later on Perhaps, perhaps.) The lead item on Action News at Three is a shocker: that morning, three men escaped from the city jail, killing a guard in the process. Two of the three bad guys were recaptured almost at once, but the third is still at large. None of the prisoners are identified by name (not in this newscast, at least), but Jane, sitting in her empty house (which you will now have plausibly explained), knows beyond a shadow of a doubt that one of them was Dick. She knows because she has finally identified that ping of unease she felt in the foyer. It was the smell, faint and fading, of Vitalis hairtonic. Dick’s hairtonic. Jane sits in her chair, her muscles lax with fright, unable to get up. And as she hears Dick’s footfalls begin to descend the stairs, she thinks: Only Dick would make sure he had hairtonic, even in jail. She must get up, must run, but she can’t move . . . It’s a pretty good story, yes I think so, but not exactly unique. As I’ve already pointed out, ESTRANGED HUBBY BEATS UP (or MURDERS) EXWIFE makes the paper every other week, sad but true. What I want you to do in this exercise is change the sexes of the antagonist and protagonist before beginning to work out the situation in your narrative—make the exwife the stalker, in other words (perhaps it’s a mental institution she’s 172On Writing escaped from instead of the city jail), the husband the victim. Narrate this without plotting—let the situation and that one unexpected inversion carry you along. I predict you will succeed swimmingly . . . if, that is, you are honest about how your characters speak and behave. Honesty in story telling makes up for a great many stylistic faults, as the work of woodenprose writers like Theodore Dreiser and Ayn Rand shows, but lying is the great unrepairable fault. Liars prosper, no question about it, but only in the grand sweep of things, never down in the jungles of actual composition, where you must take your objective one bloody word at a time. If you begin to lie about what you know and feel while you’re down there, everything falls down. When you finish your exercise, drop me a line at and tell me how it worked for you. I can’t promise to vet every reply, but I can promise to read at least some of your adventures with great interest. I’m curious to know what kind of fossil you dig up, and how much of it you are able to retrieve from the ground intact. – – 6 Description is what makes the reader a sensory participant in the story. Good description is a learned skill, one of the prime reasons why you cannot succeed unless you read a lot and write a lot. It’s not just a question of howto, you see; it’s also a question of how much to. Reading will help you answer how much, and only reams of writing will help you with the how. You can learn only by doing. Description begins with visualization of what it is you want the reader to experience. It ends with your translating 173Stephen King what you see in your mind into words on the page. It’s far from easy. As I’ve said, we’ve all heard someone say, “Man, it was so great (or so horrible/strange/funny) . . . I just can’t describe it” If you want to be a successful writer, you must be able to describe it, and in a way that will cause your reader to prickle with recognition. If you can do this, you will be paid for your labors, and deservedly so. If you can’t, you’re going to collect a lot of rejection slips and perhaps explore a career in the fascinating world of telemarketing. Thin description leaves the reader feeling bewildered and nearsighted. Overdescription buries him or her in details and images. The trick is to find a happy medium. It’s also impor tant to know what to describe and what can be left alone while you get on with your main job, which is telling a story. I’m not particularly keen on writing which exhaustively describes the physical characteristics of the people in the story and what they’re wearing (I find wardrobe inventory particularly irritating; if I want to read descriptions of clothes, I can always get a J. Crew catalogue). I can’t remember many cases where I felt I had to describe what the people in a story of mine looked like—I’d rather let the reader supply the faces, the builds, and the clothing as well. If I tell you that Carrie White is a high school outcast with a bad complexion and a fashionvictim wardrobe, I think you can do the rest, can’t you I don’t need to give you a pimplebypimple, skirtbyskirt rundown. We all remember one or more high school losers, after all; if I describe mine, it freezes out yours, and I lose a little bit of the bond of understanding I want to forge between us. Description begins in the writer’s imagi nation, but should finish in the reader’s. When it comes to actually pulling this off, the writer is much more fortunate than the filmmaker, who is almost always doomed to show 174On Writing too much . . . including, in nine cases out of ten, the zipper running up the monster’s back. I think locale and texture are much more important to the reader’s sense of actually being in the story than any physical description of the players. Nor do I think that physical descrip tion should be a shortcut to character. So spare me, if you please, the hero’s sharply intelligent blue eyes and outthrust determined chin; likewise the heroine’s arrogant cheek bones. This sort of thing is bad technique and lazy writing, the equivalent of all those tiresome adverbs. For me, good description usually consists of a few well chosen details that will stand for everything else. In most cases, these details will be the first ones that come to mind. Certainly they will do for a start. If you decide later on that you’d like to change, add, or delete, you can do so—it’s what rewrite was invented for. But I think you will find that, in most cases, your first visualized details will be the truest and best. You should remember (and your reading will prove it over and over again should you begin to doubt) that it’s as easy to overdescribe as to underdescribe. Probably easier. One of my favorite restaurants in New York is the steak house Palm Too on Second Avenue. If I decide to set a scene in Palm Too, I’ll certainly be writing about what I know, as I’ve been there on a number of occasions. Before beginning to write, I’ll take a moment to call up an image of the place, drawing from my memory and filling my mind’s eye, an eye whose vision grows sharper the more it is used. I call it a men tal eye because that’s the phrase with which we’re all familiar, but what I actually want to do is open all my senses. This memory search will be brief but intense, a kind of hypnotic recall. And, as with actual hypnosis, you’ll find it easier to accomplish the more you attempt it. 175Stephen King The first four things which come to my mind when I think of Palm Too are: (a) the darkness of the bar and the contrast ing brightness of the backbar mirror, which catches and reflects light from the street; (b) the sawdust on the floor; (c) the funky cartoon caricatures on the walls; (d) the smells of cooking steak and fish. If I think longer I can come up with more stuff (what I don’t remember I’ll make up—during the visualization process, fact and fiction become entwined), but there’s no need for more. This isn’t the Taj Mahal we’re visiting, after all, and I don’t want to sell you the place. It’s also important to remember it’s not about the setting, anyway—it’s about the story, and it’s always about the story. It will not behoove me (or you) to wander off into thickets of description just because it would be easy to do. We have other fish (and steak) to fry. Bearing that in mind, here’s a sample bit of narration which takes a character into Palm Too: The cab pulled up in front of Palm Too at quarter to four on a bright summer afternoon. Billy paid the driver, stepped out onto the sidewalk, and took a quick look around for Martin. Not in sight. Satisfied, Billy went inside. After the hot clarity of Second Avenue, Palm Too was as dark as a cave. The backbar mirror picked up some of the streetglare and glimmered in the gloom like a mirage. For a moment it was all Billy could see, and then his eyes began to adjust. There were a few solitary drinkers at the bar. Beyond them, the maître d’, his tie undone and his shirt cuffs rolled back to show his hairy wrists, was talking with the bartender. There was still 176On Writing sawdust sprinkled on the floor, Billy noted, as if this were a twenties speakeasy instead of a millennium eatery where you couldn’t smoke, let alone spit a gob of tobacco between your feet. And the cartoons dancing across the walls—gossipcolumn caricatures of down town political hustlers, newsmen who had long since retired or drunk themselves to death, celebrities you couldn’t quite recognize—still gambolled all the way to the ceiling. The air was redolent of steak and fried onions. All of it the same as it ever was. The maître d’ stepped forward. “Can I help you, sir We don’t open for dinner until six, but the bar—” “I’m looking for Richie Martin,” Billy said. Billy’s arrival in the cab is narration—action, if you like that word better. What follows after he steps through the door of the restaurant is pretty much straight description. I got in almost all of the details which first came to mind when I accessed my memories of the real Palm Too, and I added a few other things, as well—the maître d’ between shifts is pretty good, I think; I love the undone tie and the cuffs rolled up to expose the hairy wrists. It’s like a photo graph. The smell of fish is the only thing not here, and that’s because the smell of the onions was stronger. We come back to actual storytelling with a bit of narration (the maître d’ steps forward to center stage) and then the dia logue. By now we see our location clearly. There are plenty of details I could have added—the narrowness of the room, Tony Bennett on the sound system, the Yankees bumper sticker on the cash register—but what would be the point When it comes to scenesetting and all sorts of description, a meal is as good as a feast. We want to know if Billy has 177Stephen King located Richie Martin—that’s the story we paid our twenty four bucks to read. More about the restaurant would slow the pace of that story, perhaps annoying us enough to break the spell good fiction can weave. In many cases when a reader puts a story aside because it “got boring,” the boredom arose because the writer grew enchanted with his powers of descrip tion and lost sight of his priority, which is to keep the ball rolling. If the reader wants to know more about Palm Too than can be found above, he or she can either visit the next time he or she is in New York, or send for a brochure. I’ve already spilled enough ink here for me to indicate Palm Too will be a major setting for my story. If it turns out not to be, I’d do well to revise the descriptive stuff down by a few lines in the next draft. Certainly I couldn’t keep it in on the grounds that it’s good; it should be good, if I’m being paid to do it. What I’m not being paid to do is be selfindulgent. There is straight description (“a few solitary drinkers at the bar”) and a bit of rather more poetic description (“The backbar mirror . . . glimmered in the gloom like a mirage”) in my central descriptive paragraph about Palm Too. Both are okay, but I like the figurative stuff. The use of simile and other figurative language is one of the chief delights of fic tion—reading it and writing it, as well. When it’s on target, a simile delights us in much the same way meeting an old friend in a crowd of strangers does. By comparing two seem ingly unrelated objects—a restaurant bar and a cave, a mir ror and a mirage—we are sometimes able to see an old thing in a new and vivid way. Even if the result is mere clarity Although “dark as a cave” isn’t all that riveting; certainly we’ve heard it before. It is, truth to tell, a bit lazy, not quite a cliché but certainly in the neighborhood. 178On Writing instead of beauty, I think writer and reader are participating together in a kind of miracle. Maybe that’s drawing it a little strong, but yeah—it’s what I believe. When a simile or metaphor doesn’t work, the results are sometimes funny and sometimes embarrassing. Recently I read this sentence in a forthcoming novel I prefer not to name: “He sat stolidly beside the corpse, waiting for the medical examiner as patiently as a man waiting for a turkey sandwich.” If there is a clarifying connection here, I wasn’t able to make it. I consequently closed the book without read ing further. If a writer knows what he or she is doing, I’ll go along for the ride. If he or she doesn’t . . . well, I’m in my fifties now, and there are a lot of books out there. I don’t have time to waste with the poorly written ones. The Zen simile is only one potential pitfall of figurative language. The most common—and again, landing in this trap can usually be traced back to not enough reading—is the use of clichéd similes, metaphors, and images. He ran like a madman, she was pretty as a summer day, the guy was a hot ticket, Bob fought like a tiger . . . don’t waste my time (or anyone’s) with such chestnuts. It makes you look either lazy or ignorant. Neither description will do your rep utation as a writer much good. My alltime favorite similes, by the way, come from the hardboileddetective fiction of the forties and fifties, and the literary descendants of the dimedreadful writers. These favorites include “It was darker than a carload of assholes” (George V. Higgins) and “I lit a cigarette that tasted like a plumber’s handkerchief ” (Raymond Chandler). The key to good description begins with clear seeing and ends with clear writing, the kind of writing that employs fresh images and simple vocabulary. I began learning my 179Stephen King lessons in this regard by reading Chandler, Hammett, and Ross MacDonald; I gained perhaps even more respect for the power of compact, descriptive language from reading T. S. Eliot (those ragged claws scuttling across the ocean floor; those coffee spoons), and William Carlos Williams (white chickens, red wheelbarrow, the plums that were in the ice box, so sweet and so cold). As with all other aspects of the narrative art, you will improve with practice, but practice will never make you per fect. Why should it What fun would that be And the harder you try to be clear and simple, the more you will learn about the complexity of our American dialect. It be slippery, precious; aye, it be very slippery, indeed. Practice the art, always reminding yourself that your job is to say what you see, and then to get on with your story. – – 7 Let us now talk a little bit about dialogue, the audio portion of our programme. It’s dialogue that gives your cast their voices, and is crucial in defining their characters—only what people do tells us more about what they’re like, and talk is sneaky: what people say often conveys their character to oth ers in ways of which they—the speakers—are completely unaware. You can tell me via straight narration that your main char acter, Mistuh Butts, never did well in school, never even went much to school, but you can convey the same thing, and much more vividly, by his speech . . . and one of the cardinal rules of good fiction is never tell us a thing if you can show us, instead: 180On Writing “What you reckon” the boy asked. He doodled a stick in the dirt without looking up. What he drew could have been a ball, or a planet, or nothing but a circle. “You reckon the earth goes around the sun like they say” “I don’t know what they say,” Mistuh Butts replied. “I ain’t never studied what thisun or thatun says, because eachun says a different thing until your head is finally achin and you lose your aminite.” “What’s aminite” the boy asked. “You don’t never shut up the questions” Mistuh Butts cried. He seized the boy’s stick and snapped it. “Aminite is in your belly when it’s time to eat Less you sick And folks say I’m ignorant” “Oh, appetite,” the boy said placidly, and began draw ing again, this time with his finger. Wellcrafted dialogue will indicate if a character is smart or dumb (Mistuh Butts isn’t necessarily a moron just because he can’t say appetite; we must listen to him awhile longer before making up our minds on that score), honest or dis honest, amusing or an old sobersides. Good dialogue, such as that written by George V. Higgins, Peter Straub, or Graham Greene, is a delight to read; bad dialogue is deadly. Writers have different skill levels when it comes to dia logue. Your skills in this area can be improved, but, as a great man once said (actually it was Clint Eastwood), “A man’s got to know his limitations.” H. P. Lovecraft was a genius when it came to tales of the macabre, but a terrible dialogue writer. He seems to have known it, too, because in the millions of words of fiction he wrote, fewer than five thou sand are dialogue. The following passage from “The Colour Out of Space,” in which a dying farmer describes the alien 181Stephen King presence which has invaded his well, showcases Lovecraft’s dialogue problems. Folks, people just don’t talk like this, even on their deathbeds: “Nothin’ . . . nothin’ . . . the colour . . . it burns . . . cold an’ wet . . . but it burns . . . it lived in the well . . . I seen it . . . a kind o’ smoke . . . jest like the flowers last spring . . . the well shone at night . . . everything alive . . . sucked the life out of everything . . . in the stone . . . it must a’come in that stone . . . pizened the whole place . . . dun’t know what it wants . . . that round thing the men from the college dug out’n the stone . . . it was that same colour . . . jest the same, like the flowers an’ plants . . . seeds . . . I seen it the fust time this week . . . it beats down your mind an’ then gets ye . . . burns ye up . . . It come from some place whar things ain’t as they is here . . . one o’ them professors said so . . .” And so on and so forth, in carefully constructed elliptical bursts of information. It’s hard to say exactly what’s wrong with Lovecraft’s dialogue, other than the obvious: it’s stilted and lifeless, brimming with country cornpone (“some place whar things ain’t as they is here”). When dialogue is right, we know. When it’s wrong we also know—it jags on the ear like a badly tuned musical instrument. Lovecraft was, by all accounts, both snobbish and painfully shy (a galloping racist as well, his stories full of sin ister Africans and the sort of scheming Jews my Uncle Oren always worried about after four or five beers), the kind of writer who maintains a voluminous correspondence but gets along poorly with others in person—were he alive today, he’d likely exist most vibrantly in various Internet chat 182On Writing rooms. Dialogue is a skill best learned by people who enjoy talking and listening to others—particularly listening, pick ing up the accents, rhythms, dialect, and slang of various groups. Loners such as Lovecraft often write it badly, or with the care of someone who is composing in a language other than his or her native tongue. I don’t know if contemporary novelist John Katzenbach is a loner or not, but his novel Hart’s War contains some mem orably bad dialogue. Katzenbach is the sort of novelist who drives creativewriting teachers mad, a wonderful storyteller whose art is marred by selfrepetition (a fault which is cur able) and an ear for talk that is pure tin (a fault which proba bly isn’t). Hart’s War is a murder mystery set in a World War II POW camp—a neat idea, but problematic in Katzen bach’s hands once he really gets the pot boiling. Here is Wing Commander Phillip Pryce talking to his friends just before the Germans in charge of Stalag Luft 13 take him away, not to be repatriated as they claim, but probably to be shot in the woods. Pryce grabbed at Tommy once again. “Tommy,” he whispered, “this is not a coincidence Nothing is what it seems Dig deeper Save him, lad, save him For more than ever, now, I believe Scott is innocent . . . You’re on your own now, boys. And remember, I’m counting on you to live through this Survive Whatever happens” He turned back to the Germans. “All right, Haupt mann,” he said with a sudden, exceedingly calm deter mination. “I’m ready now. Do with me what you will.” Either Katzenbach does not realize that every line of the Wing Commander’s dialogue is a cliché from a lateforties 183Stephen King war movie or he’s trying to use that similarity deliberately to awaken feelings of pity, sadness, and perhaps nostalgia in his audience. Either way, it doesn’t work. The only feeling the passage evokes is a kind of impatient incredulity. You wonder if any editor ever saw it, and if so, what stayed his or her blue pencil. Given Katzenbach’s considerable talents in other areas, his failure here tends to reinforce my idea that writing good dialogue is art as well as craft. Many good dialogue writers simply seem to have been born with a welltuned ear, just as some musicians and singers have perfect or nearperfect pitch. Here’s a passage from Elmore Leonard’s novel Be Cool. You might compare it to the Lovecraft and Katzenbach passages above, noting first of all that here we’ve got an honesttoGod exchange going on, and not a stilted soliloquy: Chili . . . looked up again as Tommy said, “You doing okay” “You want to know if I’m making out” “I mean in your business. How’s it going I know you did okay with Get Leo, a terrific picture, terrific. And you know what else It was good. But the sequel—what was it called” “Get Lost.” “Yeah, well that’s what happened before I got a chance to see it, it disappeared.” “It didn’t open big so the studio walked away. I was against doing a sequel to begin with. But the guy run ning production at Tower says they’re making the pic ture, with me or without me. I thought, well, if I can come up with a good story . . .” 184On Writing Two guys at lunch in Beverly Hills, and right away we know they’re both players. They may be phonies (and maybe they’re not), but they’re an instant buy within the context of Leonard’s story; in fact, we welcome them with open arms. Their talk is so real that part of what we feel is the guilty pleasure of anyone first tuning in and then eavesdropping on an interesting conversation. We’re getting a sense of charac ter, as well, although only in faint strokes. This is early on in the novel (page two, actually), and Leonard is an old pro. He knows he doesn’t have to do it all at once. Still, don’t we learn something about Tommy’s character when he assures Chili that Get Leo is not only terrific, but also good We could ask ourselves if such dialogue is true to life or only to a certain idea of life, a certain stereotyped image of Hollywood players, Hollywood lunches, Hollywood deals. This is a fair enough question, and the answer is, perhaps not. Yet the dialogue does ring true to our ear; at his best (and although Be Cool is quite entertaining, it is far from Leonard’s best), Elmore Leonard is capable of a kind of street poetry. The skill necessary to write such dialogue comes from years of practice; the art comes from a creative imagination which is working hard and having fun. As with all other aspects of fiction, the key to writing good dialogue is honesty. And if you are honest about the words coming out of your characters’ mouths, you’ll find that you’ve let yourself in for a fair amount of criticism. Not a week goes by that I don’t receive at least one pissedoff letter (most weeks there are more) accusing me of being foul mouthed, bigoted, homophobic, murderous, frivolous, or downright psychopathic. In the majority of cases what my correspondents are hot under the collar about relates to 185Stephen King something in the dialogue: “Let’s get the fuck out of Dodge” or “We don’t cotton much to niggers around here” or “What do you think you’re doing, you fucking faggot” My mother, God rest her, didn’t approve of profanity or any such talk; she called it “the language of the ignorant.” This did not, however, keep her from yelling “Oh shit” if she burned the roast or nailed her thumb a good one while hammering a picturehook in the wall. Nor does it preclude most people, Christian as well as heathen, from saying some thing similar (or even stronger) when the dog barfs on the shag carpet or the car slips off the jack. It’s important to tell the truth; so much depends upon it, as William Carlos Williams almost said when he was writing about that red wheelbarrow. The Legion of Decency might not like the word shit, and you might not like it much, either, but some times you’re just stuck with it—no kid ever ran to his mother and said that his little sister just defecated in the tub. I suppose he might say pushed or went woowoo, but took a shit is, I fear, very much in the ballpark (little pitchers have big ears, after all). You must tell the truth if your dialogue is to have the reso nance and realism that Hart’s War, good story though it is, so sadly lacks—and that holds true all the way down to what folks say when they hit their thumb with the hammer. If you substitute “Oh sugar” for “Oh shit” because you’re think ing about the Legion of Decency, you are breaking the unspoken contract that exists between writer and reader— your promise to express the truth of how people act and talk through the medium of a madeup story. On the other hand, one of your characters (the protago nist’s old maid aunt, for instance) really might say Oh sugar instead of Oh shit after pounding her thumb with the hammer. 186On Writing You’ll know which to use if you know your character, and we’ll learn something about the speaker that will make him or her more vivid and interesting. The point is to let each char acter speak freely, without regard to what the Legion of Decency or the Christian Ladies’ Reading Circle may approve of. To do otherwise would be cowardly as well as dishonest, and believe me, writing fiction in America as we enter the twentyfirst century is no job for intellectual cowards. There are lots of wouldbe censors out there, and although they may have different agendas, they all want basically the same thing: for you to see the world they see . . . or to at least shut up about what you do see that’s different. They are agents of the status quo. Not necessarily bad guys, but dangerous guys if you happen to believe in intellectual freedom. As it happens, I agree with my mother: profanity and vul garity is the language of the ignorant and the verbally chal lenged. Mostly, that is; there are exceptions, including profane aphorisms of great color and vitality. They always fuck you at the drivethru; I’m busier than a onelegged man in an asskicking contest; wish in one hand, shit in the other, see which one fills up first—these phrases and others like them aren’t for the draw ingroom, but they are striking and pungent. Or consider this passage from Brain Storm, by Richard Dooling, where vul garity becomes poetry: “Exhibit A: One loutish, headstrong penis, a barbarous cuntivore without a flyspeck of decency in him. The capscallion of all rapscallions. A scurvy, vermiform scug with a serpentine twinkle in his solitary eye. An orgu lous Turk who strikes in the dark vaults of flesh like a penile thunderbolt. A greedy cur seeking shadows, slick crevices, tuna fish ecstasy, and sleep . . .” 187Stephen King Although not offered as dialogue, I want to reproduce another passage from Dooling here, because it speaks to the converse: that one can be quite admirably graphic without resorting to vulgarity or profanity at all: She straddled him and prepared to make the necessary port connections, male and female adapters ready, I/O enabled, server/client, master/slave. Just a couple of highend biological machines preparing to hotdock with cable modems and access each other’s frontend processors. If I were a Henry James or Jane Austen sort of guy, writ ing only about toffs or smart college folks, I’d hardly ever have to use a dirty word or a profane phrase; I might never have had a book banned from America’s school libraries or gotten a letter from some helpful fundamentalist fellow who wants me to know that I’m going to burn in hell, where all my millions of dollars won’t buy me so much as a single drink of water. I did not, however, grow up among folks of that sort. I grew up as a part of America’s lower middle class, and they’re the people I can write about with the most hon esty and knowledge. It means that they say shit more often than sugar when they bang their thumbs, but I’ve made my peace with that. Was never much at war with it in the first place, as a matter of fact. When I get one of Those Letters, or face another review that accuses me of being a vulgar lowbrow—which to some extent I am—I take comfort from the words of turnofthe century social realist Frank Norris, whose novels include The Octopus, The Pit, and McTeague, an authentically great book. Norris wrote about workingclass guys on ranches, in city 188On Writing laboring jobs, in factories. McTeague, the main character of Norris’s finest work, is an unschooled dentist. Norris’s books provoked a good deal of public outrage, to which Norris responded coolly and disdainfully: “What do I care for their opinions I never truckled. I told them the truth.” Some people don’t want to hear the truth, of course, but that’s not your problem. What would be is wanting to be a writer without wanting to shoot straight. Talk, whether ugly or beautiful, is an index of character; it can also be a breath of cool, refreshing air in a room some people would prefer to keep shut up. In the end, the important question has nothing to do with whether the talk in your story is sacred or profane; the only question is how it rings on the page and in the ear. If you expect it to ring true, then you must talk yourself. Even more important, you must shut up and listen to others talk. – – 8 Everything I’ve said about dialogue applies to building char acters in fiction. The job boils down to two things: paying attention to how the real people around you behave and then telling the truth about what you see. You may notice that your nextdoor neighbor picks his nose when he thinks no one is looking. This is a great detail, but noting it does you no good as a writer unless you’re willing to dump it into a story at some point. Are fictional characters drawn directly from life Obvi ously not, at least on a onetoone basis—you’d better not, unless you want to get sued or shot on your way to the mail box some fine morning. In many cases, such as roman à clef nov els like Valley of the Dolls, characters are drawn mostly from life, 189Stephen King but after readers get done playing the inevitable guessing game about who’s who, these stories tend to be unsatisfying, stuffed with shadowbox celebrities who bonk each other and then fade quickly from the reader’s mind. I read Valley of the Dolls shortly after it came out (I was a cook’s boy at a western Maine resort that summer), gobbling it up as eagerly as everyone else who bought it, I suppose, but I can’t remember much of what it was about. On the whole, I think I prefer the weekly codswallop served up by The National Enquirer, where I can get recipes and cheesecake photographs as well as scandal. For me, what happens to characters as a story progresses depends solely on what I discover about them as I go along— how they grow, in other words. Sometimes they grow a little. If they grow a lot, they begin to influence the course of the story instead of the other way around. I almost always start with something that’s situational. I don’t say that’s right, only that it’s the way I’ve always worked. If a story ends up that same way, however, I count it something of a failure no mat ter how interesting it may be to me or to others. I think the best stories always end up being about the people rather than the event, which is to say characterdriven. Once you get beyond the short story, though (two to four thousand words, let’s say), I’m not much of a believer in the socalled charac ter study; I think that in the end, the story should always be the boss. Hey, if you want a character study, buy a biography or get season tickets to your local college’s theaterlab pro ductions. You’ll get all the character you can stand. It’s also important to remember that no one is “the bad guy” or “the best friend” or “the whore with a heart of gold” in real life; in real life we each of us regard ourselves as the main character, the protagonist, the big cheese; the camera is on us, baby. If you can bring this attitude into your fiction, 190On Writing you may not find it easier to create brilliant characters, but it will be harder for you to create the sort of onedimensional dopes that populate so much pop fiction. Annie Wilkes, the nurse who holds Paul Sheldon prisoner in Misery, may seem psychopathic to us, but it’s important to remember that she seems perfectly sane and reasonable to her self—heroic, in fact, a beleaguered woman trying to survive in a hostile world filled with cockadoodie brats. We see her go through dangerous moodswings, but I tried never to come right out and say “Annie was depressed and possibly suicidal that day” or “Annie seemed particularly happy that day.” If I have to tell you, I lose. If, on the other hand, I can show you a silent, dirtyhaired woman who compulsively gobbles cake and candy, then have you draw the conclusion that Annie is in the depressive part of a manicdepressive cycle, I win. And if I am able, even briefly, to give you a Wilkes’eyeview of the world—if I can make you understand her madness—then per haps I can make her someone you sympathize with or even identify with. The result She’s more frightening than ever, because she’s close to real. If, on the other hand, I turn her into a cackling old crone, she’s just another popup bogeylady. In that case I lose bigtime, and so does the reader. Who would want to visit with such a stale shrew That version of Annie was old when The Wizard of Oz was in its first run. It would be fair enough to ask, I suppose, if Paul Sheldon in Misery is me. Certainly parts of him are . . . but I think you will find that, if you continue to write fiction, every character you create is partly you. When you ask yourself what a certain character will do given a certain set of circumstances, you’re making the decision based on what you yourself would (or, in the case of a bad guy, wouldn’t) do. Added to these versions of yourself are the character traits, both lovely and unlovely, 191Stephen King which you observe in others (a guy who picks his nose when he thinks no one is looking, for instance). There is also a wonderful third element: pure bluesky imagination. This is the part which allowed me to be a psychotic nurse for a little while when I was writing Misery. And being Annie was not, by and large, hard at all. In fact, it was sort of fun. I think being Paul was harder. He was sane, I’m sane, no four days at Disneyland there. My novel The Dead Zone arose from two questions: Can a political assassin ever be right And if he is, could you make him the protagonist of a novel The good guy These ideas called for a dangerously unstable politician, it seemed to me—a fellow who could climb the political ladder by show ing the world a jolly, jes’folks face and charming the voters by refusing to play the game in the usual way. (Greg Stillson’s campaign tactics as I imagined them twenty years ago were very similar to the ones Jesse Ventura used in his successful campaign for the governor’s seat in Minnesota. Thank good ness Ventura doesn’t seem like Stillson in any other ways.) The Dead Zone’s protagonist, Johnny Smith, is also an everyday, jes’folks sort of guy, only with Johnny it’s no act. The one thing that sets him apart is a limited ability to see the future, gained as the result of a childhood accident. When Johnny shakes Greg Stillson’s hand at a political rally, he has a vision of Stillson becoming the President of the United States and subsequently starting World War III. Johnny comes to the conclusion that the only way he can keep this from happening—the only way he can save the world, in other words—is by putting a bullet in Stillson’s head. Johnny is different from other violent, paranoid mystics in only one way: he really can see the future. Only don’t they all say that 192On Writing The situation had an edgy, outlaw feel to it that appealed to me. I thought the story would work if I could make Johnny a genuinely decent guy without turning him into a plaster saint. Same thing with Stillson, only backwards: I wanted him to be authentically nasty and really scare the reader, not just because Stillson is always boiling with potential violence but because he is so goddam persuasive. I wanted the reader to con stantly be thinking: “This guy is out of control—how come somebody can’t see through him” The fact that Johnny does see through him would, I thought, put the reader even more firmly in Johnny’s corner. When we first meet the potential assassin, he’s taking his girl to the county fair, riding the rides and playing the games. What could be more normal or likable The fact that he’s on the verge of proposing to Sarah makes us like him even more. Later, when Sarah suggests they cap a perfect date by sleeping together for the first time, Johnny tells her he wants to wait until they’re married. I felt I was walking a fine line on that one—I wanted readers to see Johnny as sincere and sincerely in love, a straight shooter but not a tightassed prude. I was able to cut his principled behavior a bit by giving him a childish sense of humor; he greets Sarah wearing a glowin thedark Halloween mask (the mask hopefully works in a symbolic way, too; certainly Johnny is perceived as a monster when he points a gun at candidate Stillson). “Same old Johnny,” Sarah says, laughing, and by the time the two of them are headed back from the fair in Johnny’s old Volkswa gen Bug, I think Johnny Smith has become our friend, just an average American guy who’s hoping to live happily ever after. The sort of guy who’d return your wallet with the money still in it if he found it on the street or stop and help you change your flat tire if he came upon you broke down by the side of 193Stephen King the road. Ever since John F. Kennedy was shot in Dallas, the great American bogeyman has been the guy with the rifle in a high place. I wanted to make this guy into the reader’s friend. Johnny was hard. Taking an average guy and making him vivid and interesting always is. Greg Stillson (like most vil lains) was easier and a lot more fun. I wanted to nail his dan gerous, divided character in the first scene of the book. Here, several years before he runs for the U.S. House of Represen tatives in New Hampshire, Stillson is a young travelling salesman hawking Bibles to midwest country folk. When he stops at one farm, he is menaced by a snarling dog. Stillson remains friendly and smiling—Mr. Jes’ Folks—until he’s positive no one’s home at the farm. Then he sprays teargas into the dog’s eyes and kicks it to death. If one is to measure success by reader response, the opening scene of The Dead Zone (my first numberone hardcover best seller) was one of my most successful ever. Certainly it struck a raw nerve; I was deluged with letters, most of them protest ing my outrageous cruelty to animals. I wrote back to these folks, pointing out the usual things: (a) Greg Stillson wasn’t real; (b) the dog wasn’t real; (c) I myself had never in my life put the boot to one of my pets, or anyone else’s. I also pointed out what might have been a little less obvious—it was impor tant to establish, right up front, that Gregory Ammas Stillson was an extremely dangerous man, and very good at camou flage. I continued to build the characters of Johnny and Greg in alternating scenes until the confrontation at the end of the book, when things resolve themselves in what I hoped would be an unexpected way. The characters of my protagonist and antagonist were determined by the story I had to tell—by the 194On Writing fossil, the found object, in other words. My job (and yours, if you decide this is a viable approach to storytelling) is to make sure these fictional folks behave in ways that will both help the story and seem reasonable to us, given what we know about them (and what we know about real life, of course). Sometimes villains feel selfdoubt (as Greg Stillson does); sometimes they feel pity (as Annie Wilkes does). And some times the good guy tries to turn away from doing the right thing, as Johnny Smith does . . . as Jesus Christ himself did, if you think about that prayer (“take this cup from my lips”) in the Garden of Gethsemane. And if you do your job, your characters will come to life and start doing stuff on their own. I know that sounds a little creepy if you haven’t actually experienced it, but it’s terrific fun when it happens. And it will solve a lot of your problems, believe me. – – 9 We’ve covered some basic aspects of good storytelling, all of which return to the same core ideas: that practice is invalu able (and should feel good, really not like practice at all) and that honesty is indispensable. Skills in description, dialogue, and character development all boil down to seeing or hearing clearly and then transcribing what you see or hear with equal clarity (and without using a lot of tiresome, unnecessary adverbs). There are lots of bells and whistles, too—onomatopoeia, incremental repetition, stream of consciousness, interior dia logue, changes of verbal tense (it has become quite fashionable to tell stories, especially shorter ones, in the present tense), the sticky question of back story (how do you get it in and how 195Stephen King much of it belongs), theme, pacing (we’ll touch on these last two), and a dozen other topics, all of which are covered— sometimes at exhausting length—in writing courses and standard writing texts. My take on all these things is pretty simple. It’s all on the table, every bit of it, and you should use anything that improves the quality of your writing and doesn’t get in the way of your story. If you like an alliterative phrase—the knights of nowhere battling the nabobs of nullity—by all means throw it in and see how it looks on paper. If it seems to work, it can stay. If it doesn’t (and to me this one sounds pretty bad, like Spiro Agnew crossed with Robert Jordan), well, that DELETE key is on your machine for a good reason. There is absolutely no need to be hidebound and conser vative in your work, just as you are under no obligation to write experimental, nonlinear prose because The Village Voice or The New York Review of Books says the novel is dead. Both the traditional and the modern are available to you. Shit, write upside down if you want to, or do it in Crayola pic tographs. But no matter how you do it, there comes a point when you must judge what you’ve written and how well you wrote it. I don’t believe a story or a novel should be allowed outside the door of your study or writing room unless you feel confident that it’s reasonably readerfriendly. You can’t please all of the readers all of the time; you can’t please even some of the readers all of the time, but you really ought to try to please at least some of the readers some of the time. I think William Shakespeare said that. And now that I’ve waved that caution flag, duly satisfying all OSHA, MENSA, NASA, and Writers’ Guild guidelines, let me reiterate that it’s all on the table, all up for grabs. Isn’t that an intoxicating thought I think it is. Try any goddam thing you like, no matter how 196On Writing boringly normal or outrageous. If it works, fine. If it doesn’t, toss it. Toss it even if you love it. Sir Arthur QuillerCouch once said, “Murder your darlings,” and he was right. I most often see chances to add the gracenotes and orna mental touches after my basic storytelling job is done. Once in awhile it comes earlier; not long after I began The Green Mile and realized my main character was an innocent man likely to be executed for the crime of another, I decided to give him the initials J.C., after the most famous innocent man of all time. I first saw this done in Light in August (still my favorite Faulkner novel), where the sacrificial lamb is named Joe Christmas. Thus deathrow inmate John Bowes became John Coffey. I wasn’t sure, right up to the end of the book, if my J.C. would live or die. I wanted him to live because I liked and pitied him, but I figured those initials couldn’t hurt, one way or the other. Mostly I don’t see stuff like that until the story’s done. Once it is, I’m able to kick back, read over what I’ve written, and look for underlying patterns. If I see some (and I almost always do), I can work at bringing them out in a second, more fully realized, draft of the story. Two examples of the sort of work second drafts were made for are symbolism and theme. If in school you ever studied the symbolism of the color white in MobyDick or Hawthorne’s symbolic use of the for est in such stories as “Young Goodman Brown” and came away from those classes feeling like a stupidnik, you may even now be backing off with your hands raised protectively in front of you, shaking your head and saying gee, no thanks, I gave at the office. A few critics accused me of being symbolically simplistic in the matter of John Coffey’s initials. And I’m like, “What is this, rocket science” I mean, come on, guys. 197Stephen King But wait. Symbolism doesn’t have to be difficult and relentlessly brainy. Nor does it have to be consciously crafted as a kind of ornamental Turkish rug upon which the furniture of the story stands. If you can go along with the concept of the story as a preexisting thing, a fossil in the ground, then symbolism must also be preexisting, right Just another bone (or set of them) in your new discovery. That’s if it’s there. If it isn’t, so what You’ve still got the story itself, don’t you If it is there and if you notice it, I think you should bring it out as well as you can, polishing it until it shines and then cutting it the way a jeweler would cut a precious or semi precious stone. Carrie, as I’ve already noted, is a short novel about a pickedon girl who discovers a telekinetic ability within her self—she can move objects by thinking about them. To atone for a vicious showerroom prank in which she has participated, Carrie’s classmate Susan Snell persuades her boyfriend to invite Carrie to the Senior Prom. They are elected King and Queen. During the celebration, another of Carrie’s class mates, the unpleasant Christine Hargensen, pulls a second prank on Carrie, this one deadly. Carrie takes her revenge by using her telekinetic power to kill most of her classmates (and her atrocious mother) before dying herself. That’s the whole deal, really; it’s as simple as a fairytale. There was no need to mess it up with bells and whistles, although I did add a number of epistolary interludes (passages from fictional books, a diary entry, letters, teletype bulletins) between nar rative segments. This was partly to inject a greater sense of realism (I was thinking of Orson Welles’s radio adaptation of War of the Worlds) but mostly because the first draft of the book was so damned short it barely seemed like a novel. 198On Writing When I read Carrie over prior to starting the second draft, I noticed there was blood at all three crucial points of the story: beginning (Carrie’s paranormal ability is apparently brought on by her first menstrual period), climax (the prank which sets Carrie off at the prom involves a bucket of pig’s blood— “pig’s blood for a pig,” Chris Hargensen tells her boyfriend), and end (Sue Snell, the girl who tries to help Carrie, discovers she is not pregnant as she had halfhoped and halffeared when she gets her own period). There’s plenty of blood in most horror stories, of course— it is our stockintrade, you might say. Still, the blood in Car rie seemed more than just splatter to me. It seemed to mean something. That meaning wasn’t consciously created, how ever. While writing Carrie I never once stopped to think: “Ah, all this blood symbolism will win me Brownie Points with the critics” or “Boy oh boy, this should certainly get me in a college bookstore or two” For one thing, a writer would have to be a lot crazier than I am to think of Carrie as any one’s intellectual treat. Intellectual treat or not, the significance of all that blood was hard to miss once I started reading over my beer and tea splattered firstdraft manuscript. So I started to play with the idea, image, and emotional connotations of blood, trying to think of as many associations as I could. There were lots, most of them pretty heavy. Blood is strongly linked to the idea of sacrifice; for young women it’s associated with reaching phys ical maturity and the ability to bear children; in the Christian religion (plenty of others, as well), it’s symbolic of both sin and salvation. Finally, it is associated with the handing down of family traits and talents. We are said to look like this or behave like that because “it’s in our blood.” We know this isn’t very scientific, that those things are really in our genes 199Stephen King and DNA patterns, but we use the one to summarize the other. It is that ability to summarize and encapsulate that makes symbolism so interesting, useful, and—when used well— arresting. You could argue that it’s really just another kind of figurative language. Does that make it necessary to the success of your story or novel Indeed not, and it can actually hurt, especially if you get carried away. Symbolism exists to adorn and enrich, not to create a sense of artificial profundity. None of the bells and whistles are about story, all right Only story is about story. (Are you tired of hearing that yet I hope not, ’cause I’m not even close to getting tired of saying it.) Symbolism (and the other adornments, too) does serve a use ful purpose, though—it’s more than just chrome on the grille. It can serve as a focusing device for both you and your reader, helping to create a more unified and pleasing work. I think that, when you read your manuscript over (and when you talk it over), you’ll see if symbolism, or the potential for it, exists. If it doesn’t, leave well enough alone. If it does, however—if it’s clearly a part of the fossil you’re working to unearth—go for it. Enhance it. You’re a monkey if you don’t. – – 10 The same things are true of theme. Writing and literature classes can be annoyingly preoccupied by (and pretentious about) theme, approaching it as the most sacred of sacred cows, but (don’t be shocked) it’s really no big deal. If you write a novel, spend weeks and then months catching it word by word, you owe it both to the book and to yourself to lean 200On Writing back (or take a long walk) when you’ve finished and ask yourself why you bothered—why you spent all that time, why it seemed so important. In other words, what’s it all about, Alfie When you write a book, you spend day after day scanning and identifying the trees. When you’re done, you have to step back and look at the forest. Not every book has to be loaded with symbolism, irony, or musical language (they call it prose for a reason, y’know), but it seems to me that every book—at least every one worth reading—is about something. Your job during or just after the first draft is to decide what something or somethings yours is about. Your job in the second draft— one of them, anyway—is to make that something even more clear. This may necessitate some big changes and revisions. The benefits to you and your reader will be clearer focus and a more unified story. It hardly ever fails. The book that took me the longest to write was The Stand. This is also the one my longtime readers still seem to like the best (there’s something a little depressing about such a united opinion that you did your best work twenty years ago, but we won’t go into that just now, thanks). I finished the first draft about sixteen months after I started it. The Stand took an especially long time because it nearly died going into the third turn and heading for home. I’d wanted to write a sprawling, multicharacter sort of novel—a fantasy epic, if I could manage it—and to that end I employed a shiftingperspective narrative, adding a major character in each chapter of the long first section. Thus Chap ter One concerned itself with Stuart Redman, a bluecollar factory worker from Texas; Chapter Two first concerned itself with Fran Goldsmith, a pregnant college girl from Maine, and then returned to Stu; Chapter Three began with Larry Under 201Stephen King wood, a rockandroll singer in New York, before going back first to Fran, then to Stu Redman again. My plan was to link all these characters, the good, the bad, and the ugly, in two places: Boulder and Las Vegas. I thought they’d probably end up going to war against one another. The first half of the book also told the story of a manmade virus which sweeps America and the world, wip ing out ninetynine per cent of the human race and utterly destroying our technologybased culture. I was writing this story near the end of the socalled Energy Crisis in the 1970s, and I had an absolutely marvellous time envisioning a world that went smash during the course of one horrified, infected summer (really not much more than a month). The view was panoramic, detailed, nationwide, and (to me, at least) breathtaking. Rarely have I seen so clearly with the eye of my imagination, from the traffic jam plugging the dead tube of New York’s Lincoln Tunnel to the sinister, Naziish rebirth of Las Vegas under the watchful (and often amused) red eye of Randall Flagg. All this sounds terrible, is terrible, but to me the vision was also strangely optimistic. No more energy crisis, for one thing, no more famine, no more massacres in Uganda, no more acid rain or hole in the ozone layer. Finito as well to saberrattling nuclear superpowers, and certainly no more overpopulation. Instead, there was a chance for humanity’s remaining shred to start over again in a God centered world to which miracles, magic, and prophecy had returned. I liked my story. I liked my characters. And still there came a point when I couldn’t write any longer because I didn’t know what to write. Like Pilgrim in John Bunyan’s epic, I had come to a place where the straight way was lost. I wasn’t the first writer to discover this awful place, and I’m a long way from being the last; this is the land of writer’s block. 202On Writing If I’d had two or even three hundred pages of singlespaced manuscript instead of more than five hundred, I think I would have abandoned The Stand and gone on to something else—God knows I had done it before. But five hundred pages was too great an investment, both in time and in cre ative energy; I found it impossible to let go. Also, there was this little voice whispering to me that the book was really good, and if I didn’t finish I would regret it forever. So instead of moving on to another project, I started taking long walks (a habit which would, two decades later, get me in a lot of trouble). I took a book or magazine on these walks but rarely opened it, no matter how bored I felt looking at the same old trees and the same old chattering, illnatured jays and squir rels. Boredom can be a very good thing for someone in a cre ative jam. I spent those walks being bored and thinking about my gigantic boondoggle of a manuscript. For weeks I got exactly nowhere in my thinking—it all just seemed too hard, too fucking complex. I had run out too many plotlines, and they were in danger of becoming snarled. I circled the problem again and again, beat my fists on it, knocked my head against it . . . and then one day when I was thinking of nothing much at all, the answer came to me. It arrived whole and complete—giftwrapped, you could say— in a single bright flash. I ran home and jotted it down on paper, the only time I’ve done such a thing, because I was ter rified of forgetting. What I saw was that the America in which The Stand took place might have been depopulated by the plague, but the world of my story had become dangerously overcrowded—a veritable Calcutta. The solution to where I was stuck, I saw, could be pretty much the same as the situation that got me going—an explosion instead of a plague, but still one quick, 203Stephen King hard slash of the Gordian knot. I would send the survivors west from Boulder to Las Vegas on a redemptive quest— they would go at once, with no supplies and no plan, like Biblical characters seeking a vision or to know the will of God. In Vegas they would meet Randall Flagg, and good guys and bad guys alike would be forced to make their stand. At one moment I had none of this; at the next I had all of it. If there is any one thing I love about writing more than the rest, it’s that sudden flash of insight when you see how every thing connects. I have heard it called “thinking above the curve,” and it’s that; I’ve heard it called “the overlogic,” and it’s that, too. Whatever you call it, I wrote my page or two of notes in a frenzy of excitement and spent the next two or three days turning my solution over in my mind, looking for flaws and holes (also working out the actual narrative flow, which involved two supporting characters placing a bomb in a major character’s closet), but that was mostly out of a sense of thisistoogoodtobetrue unbelief. Too good or not, I knew it was true at the moment of revelation: that bomb in Nick Andros’s closet was going to solve all my narrative problems. It did, too. The rest of the book ran itself off in nine weeks. Later, when my first draft of The Stand was done, I was able to get a better fix on what had stopped me so completely in midcourse; it was a lot easier to think without that voice in the middle of my head constantly yammering “I’m losing my book Ah shit, five hundred pages and I’m losing my book Condition red CONDITION RED” I was also able to analyze what got me going again and appreciate the irony of it: I saved my book by blowing approximately half its major characters to smithereens (there actually ended up being two explosions, the one in Boulder balanced by a similar act of sabotage in Las Vegas). 204On Writing The real source of my malaise, I decided, had been that in the wake of the plague, my Boulder characters—the good guys—were starting up the same old technological deathtrip. The first hesitant CB broadcasts, beckoning people to Boul der, would soon lead to TV; infomercials and 900 numbers would be back in no time. Same deal with the power plants. It certainly didn’t take my Boulder folks long to decide that seeking the will of the God who spared them was a lot less important than getting the refrigerators and air condi tioners up and running again. In Vegas, Randall Flagg and his friends were learning how to fly jets and bombers as well as getting the lights back on, but that was okay—to be expected—because they were the bad guys. What had stopped me was realizing, on some level of my mind, that the good guys and bad guys were starting to look perilously alike, and what got me going again was realizing the good guys were worshipping an electronic golden calf and needed a wakeup call. A bomb in the closet would do just fine. All this suggested to me that violence as a solution is woven through human nature like a damning red thread. That became the theme of The Stand, and I wrote the second draft with it fixed firmly in my mind. Again and again char acters (the bad ones like Lloyd Henreid as well as the good ones like Stu Redman and Larry Underwood) mention the fact that “all that stuff i.e., weapons of mass destruction is just lying around, waiting to be picked up.” When the Boulderites pro pose—innocently, meaning only the best—to rebuild the same old neon Tower of Babel, they are wiped out by more vio lence. The folks who plant the bomb are doing what Randall Flagg told them to, but Mother Abagail, Flagg’s opposite number, says again and again that “all things serve God.” If this is true—and within the context of The Stand it certainly 205Stephen King is—then the bomb is actually a stern message from the guy upstairs, a way of saying “I didn’t bring you all this way just so you could start up the same old shit.” Near the end of the novel (it was the end of the first, shorter version of the story), Fran asks Stuart Redman if there’s any hope at all, if people ever learn from their mistakes. Stu replies, “I don’t know,” and then pauses. In storytime, that pause lasts only as long as it takes the reader to flick his or her eye to the last line. In the writer’s study, it went on a lot longer. I searched my mind and heart for something else Stu could say, some clarifying statement. I wanted to find it because at that moment if at no other, Stu was speaking for me. In the end, however, Stu simply repeats what he has already said: I don’t know. It was the best I could do. Sometimes the book gives you answers, but not always, and I didn’t want to leave the read ers who had followed me through hundreds of pages with nothing but some empty platitude I didn’t believe myself. There is no moral to The Stand, no “We’d better learn or we’ll probably destroy the whole damned planet next time”—but if the theme stands out clearly enough, those discussing it may offer their own morals and conclusions. Nothing wrong with that; such discussions are one of the great pleasures of the read ing life. Although I’d used symbolism, imagery, and literary homage before getting to my novel about the big plague (without Dracula, for instance, I think there is no ’Salem’s Lot), I’m quite sure that I never thought much about theme before getting roadblocked on The Stand. I suppose I thought such things were for Better Minds and Bigger Thinkers. I’m not sure I would have gotten to it as soon as I did, had I not been des perate to save my story. I was astounded at how really useful “thematic thinking” 206On Writing turned out to be. It wasn’t just a vaporous idea that English professors made you write about on midterm essay exams (“Discuss the thematic concerns of Wise Blood in three well reasoned paragraphs—30 pts”), but another handy gadget to keep in the toolbox, this one something like a magnifying glass. Since my revelation on the road concerning the bomb in the closet, I have never hesitated to ask myself, either before starting the second draft of a book or while stuck for an idea in the first draft, just what it is I’m writing about, why I’m spending the time when I could be playing my guitar or rid ing my motorcycle, what got my nose down to the grind stone in the first place and then kept it there. The answer doesn’t always come right away, but there usually is one, and it’s usually not too hard to find, either. I don’t believe any novelist, even one who’s written forty plus books, has too many thematic concerns; I have many interests, but only a few that are deep enough to power nov els. These deep interests (I won’t quite call them obsessions) include how difficult it is—perhaps impossible—to close Pandora’s technobox once it’s open (The Stand, The Tommy knockers, Firestarter); the question of why, if there is a God, such terrible things happen (The Stand, Desperation, The Green Mile); the thin line between reality and fantasy (The Dark Half, Bag of Bones, The Drawing of the Three); and most of all, the ter rible attraction violence sometimes has for fundamentally good people (The Shining, The Dark Half). I’ve also written again and again about the fundamental differences between children and adults, and about the healing power of the human imagination. And I repeat: no big deal. These are just interests which have grown out of my life and thought, out of my experi 207Stephen King ences as a boy and a man, out of my roles as a husband, a father, a writer, and a lover. They are questions that occupy my mind when I turn out the lights for the night and I’m alone with myself, looking up into the darkness with one hand tucked beneath the pillow. You undoubtedly have your own thoughts, interests, and concerns, and they have arisen, as mine have, from your experiences and adventures as a human being. Some are likely similar to those I’ve mentioned above and some are likely very different, but you have them, and you should use them in your work. That’s not all those ideas are there for, perhaps, but surely it’s one of the things they are good for. I should close this little sermonette with a word of warn ing—starting with the questions and thematic concerns is a recipe for bad fiction. Good fiction always begins with story and progresses to theme; it almost never begins with theme and progresses to story. The only possible exceptions to this rule that I can think of are allegories like George Orwell’s Animal Farm (and I have a sneaking suspicion that with Ani mal Farm the story idea may indeed have come first; if I see Orwell in the afterlife, I mean to ask him). But once your basic story is on paper, you need to think about what it means and enrich your following drafts with your conclusions. To do less is to rob your work (and eventu ally your readers) of the vision that makes each tale you write uniquely your own. – – 11 So far, so good. Now let’s talk about revising the work—how much and how many drafts For me the answer has always 208On Writing been two drafts and a polish (with the advent of word processing technology, my polishes have become closer to a third draft). You should realize that I’m only talking about my own per sonal mode of writing here; in actual practice, rewriting varies greatly from writer to writer. Kurt Vonnegut, for example, rewrote each page of his novels until he got them exactly the way he wanted them. The result was days when he might only manage a page or two of finished copy (and the waste basket would be full of crumpled, rejected page seventyones and seventytwos), but when the manuscript was finished, the book was finished, by gum. You could set it in type. Yet I think certain things hold true for most writers, and those are the ones I want to talk about now. If you’ve been writing awhile, you won’t need me to help you much with this part; you’ll have your own established routine. If you’re a beginner, though, let me urge that you take your story through at least two drafts; the one you do with the study door closed and the one you do with it open. With the door shut, downloading what’s in my head directly to the page, I write as fast as I can and still remain comfortable. Writing fiction, especially a long work of fiction, can be a difficult, lonely job; it’s like crossing the Atlantic Ocean in a bathtub. There’s plenty of opportunity for self doubt. If I write rapidly, putting down my story exactly as it comes into my mind, only looking back to check the names of my characters and the relevant parts of their back stories, I find that I can keep up with my original enthusiasm and at the same time outrun the selfdoubt that’s always waiting to settle in. This first draft—the AllStory Draft—should be written with no help (or interference) from anyone else. There may 209Stephen King come a point when you want to show what you’re doing to a close friend (very often the close friend you think of first is the one who shares your bed), either because you’re proud of what you’re doing or because you’re doubtful about it. My best advice is to resist this impulse. Keep the pressure on; don’t lower it by exposing what you’ve written to the doubt, the praise, or even the wellmeaning questions of someone from the Outside World. Let your hope of success (and your fear of failure) carry you on, difficult as that can be. There’ll be time to show off what you’ve done when you finish . . . but even after finishing I think you must be cautious and give yourself a chance to think while the story is still like a field of freshly fallen snow, absent of any tracks save your own. The great thing about writing with the door shut is that you find yourself forced to concentrate on story to the exclu sion of practically everything else. No one can ask you “What were you trying to express with Garfield’s dying words” or “What’s the significance of the green dress” You may not have been trying to express anything with Garfield’s dying words, and Maura could be wearing green only because that’s what you saw when she came into sight in your mind’s eye. On the other hand, perhaps those things do mean something (or will, when you get a chance to look at the forest instead of the trees). Either way, the first draft is the wrong place to think about it. Here’s something else—if no one says to you, “Oh Sam (or Amy) This is wonderful,” you are a lot less apt to slack off or to start concentrating on the wrong thing . . . being wonderful, for instance, instead of telling the goddam story. Now let’s say you’ve finished your first draft. Congratula tions Good job Have a glass of champagne, send out for pizza, do whatever it is you do when you’ve got something to 210On Writing celebrate. If you have someone who has been impatiently waiting to read your novel—a spouse, let’s say, someone who has perhaps been working nine to five and helping to pay the bills while you chase your dream—then this is the time to give up the goods . . . if, that is, your first reader or readers will promise not to talk to you about the book until you are ready to talk to them about it. This may sound a little highhanded, but it’s really not. You’ve done a lot of work and you need a period of time (how much or how little depends on the individual writer) to rest. Your mind and imagination—two things which are related, but not really the same—have to recycle themselves, at least in regard to this one particular work. My advice is that you take a couple of days off—go fishing, go kayaking, do a jig saw puzzle—and then go to work on something else. Some thing shorter, preferably, and something that’s a complete change of direction and pace from your newly finished book. (I wrote some pretty good novellas, “The Body” and “Apt Pupil” among them, between drafts of longer works like The Dead Zone and The Dark Half.) How long you let your book rest—sort of like bread dough between kneadings—is entirely up to you, but I think it should be a minimum of six weeks. During this time your manuscript will be safely shut away in a desk drawer, aging and (one hopes) mellowing. Your thoughts will turn to it fre quently, and you’ll likely be tempted a dozen times or more to take it out, if only to reread some passage that seems par ticularly fine in your memory, something you’d like to go back to so you can reexperience what a really excellent writer you are. Resist temptation. If you don’t, you’ll very likely decide you didn’t do as well on that passage as you thought and 211Stephen King you’d better retool it on the spot. This is bad. The only thing worse would be for you to decide the passage is even better than you remembered—why not drop everything and read the whole book over right then Get back to work on it Hell, you’re ready You’re fuckin Shakespeare You’re not, though, and you’re not ready to go back to the old project until you’ve gotten so involved in a new one (or reinvolved in your daytoday life) that you’ve almost for gotten the unreal estate that took up three hours of your every morning or afternoon for a period of three or five or seven months. When you come to the correct evening (which you well may have marked on your office calendar), take your manu script out of the drawer. If it looks like an alien relic bought at a junkshop or yard sale where you can hardly remember stopping, you’re ready. Sit down with your door shut (you’ll be opening it to the world soon enough), a pencil in your hand, and a legal pad by your side. Then read your manu script over. Do it all in one sitting, if that’s possible (it won’t be, of course, if your book is a four or fivehundredpager). Make all the notes you want, but concentrate on the mundane housekeeping jobs, like fixing misspellings and picking up inconsistencies. There’ll be plenty; only God gets it right the first time and only a slob says, “Oh well, let it go, that’s what copyeditors are for.” If you’ve never done it before, you’ll find reading your book over after a sixweek layoff to be a strange, often exhil arating experience. It’s yours, you’ll recognize it as yours, even be able to remember what tune was on the stereo when you wrote certain lines, and yet it will also be like reading the work of someone else, a soultwin, perhaps. This is the way it 212On Writing should be, the reason you waited. It’s always easier to kill someone else’s darlings than it is to kill your own. With six weeks’ worth of recuperation time, you’ll also be able to see any glaring holes in the plot or character develop ment. I’m talking about holes big enough to drive a truck through. It’s amazing how some of these things can elude the writer while he or she is occupied with the daily work of composition. And listen—if you spot a few of these big holes, you are forbidden to feel depressed about them or to beat up on yourself. Screwups happen to the best of us. There’s a story that the architect of the Flatiron Building committed suicide when he realized, just before the ribboncutting cere mony, that he had neglected to put any men’s rooms in his prototypical skyscraper. Probably not true, but remember this: someone really did design the Titanic and then label it unsinkable. For me, the most glaring errors I find on the reread have to do with character motivation (related to character devel opment but not quite the same). I’ll smack myself upside the head with the heel of my palm, then grab my legal pad and write something like p. 91: Sandy Hunter filches a buck from Shirley’s stash in the dispatch office. Why God’s sake, Sandy would NEVER do anything like this I also mark the page in the manuscript with a big symbol, meaning that cuts and/or changes are needed on this page, and reminding myself to check my notes for the exact details if I don’t remember them. I love this part of the process (well, I love all the parts of the process, but this one is especially nice) because I’m redis covering my own book, and usually liking it. That changes. By the time a book is actually in print, I’ve been over it a dozen times or more, can quote whole passages, and only 213Stephen King wish the damned old smelly thing would go away. That’s later, though; the first readthrough is usually pretty fine. During that reading, the top part of my mind is concen trating on story and toolbox concerns: knocking out pro nouns with unclear antecedents (I hate and mistrust pronouns, every one of them as slippery as a flybynight per sonalinjury lawyer), adding clarifying phrases where they seem necessary, and of course, deleting all the adverbs I can bear to part with (never all of them; never enough). Underneath, however, I’m asking myself the Big Ques tions. The biggest: Is this story coherent And if it is, what will turn coherence into a song What are the recurring ele ments Do they entwine and make a theme I’m asking myself What’s it all about, Stevie, in other words, and what I can do to make those underlying concerns even clearer. What I want most of all is resonance, something that will linger for a little while in Constant Reader’s mind (and heart) after he or she has closed the book and put it up on the shelf. I’m looking for ways to do that without spoonfeeding the reader or selling my birthright for a plot of message. Take all those messages and those morals and stick em where the sun don’t shine, all right I want resonance. Most of all, I’m look ing for what I meant, because in the second draft I’ll want to add scenes and incidents that reinforce that meaning. I’ll also want to delete stuff that goes in other directions. There’s apt to be a lot of that stuff, especially near the beginning of a story, when I have a tendency to flail. All that thrashing around has to go if I am to achieve anything like a unified effect. When I’ve finished reading and making all my little analretentive revisions, it’s time to open the door and show what I’ve written to four or five close friends who have indi cated a willingness to look. 214On Writing Someone—I can’t remember who, for the life of me— once wrote that all novels are really letters aimed at one per son. As it happens, I believe this. I think that every novelist has a single ideal reader; that at various points during the composition of a story, the writer is thinking, “I wonder what he/she will think when he/she reads this part” For me that first reader is my wife, Tabitha. She has always been an extremely sympathetic and sup portive first reader. Her positive reaction to difficult books like Bag of Bones (my first novel with a new publisher after twenty good years with Viking that came to an end in a stu pid squabble about money) and relatively controversial ones like Gerald’s Game meant the world to me. But she’s also unflinching when she sees something she thinks is wrong. When she does, she lets me know loud and clear. In her role as critic and first reader, Tabby often makes me think of a story I read about Alfred Hitchcock’s wife, Alma Reville. Ms. Reville was the equivalent of Hitch’s first reader, a sharpeyed critic who was totally unimpressed with the suspensemaster’s growing reputation as an auteur. Lucky for him. Hitch say he want to fly, Alma say, “First eat your eggs.” Not long after finishing Psycho, Hitchcock screened it for a few friends. They raved about it, declaring it to be a suspense masterpiece. Alma was quiet until they’d all had their say, then spoke very firmly: “You can’t send it out like that.” There was a thunderstruck silence, except for Hitchcock himself, who only asked why not. “Because,” his wife responded, “Janet Leigh swallows when she’s supposed to be dead.” It was true. Hitchcock didn’t argue any more than I do when Tabby points out one of my lapses. She and I may argue about many aspects of a book, and there have been times when I’ve gone against her judgment on subjective matters, 215Stephen King but when she catches me in a goof, I know it, and thank God I’ve got someone around who’ll tell me my fly’s unzipped before I go out in public that way. In addition to Tabby’s first read, I usually send manu scripts to between four and eight other people who have cri tiqued my stories over the years. Many writing texts caution against asking friends to read your stuff, suggesting you’re not apt to get a very unbiased opinion from folks who’ve eaten din ner at your house and sent their kids over to play with your kids in your backyard. It’s unfair, according to this view, to put a pal in such a position. What happens if he/she feels he/she has to say, “I’m sorry, good buddy, you’ve written some great yarns in the past but this one sucks like a vacuum cleaner” The idea has some validity, but I don’t think an unbiased opinion is exactly what I’m looking for. And I believe that most people smart enough to read a novel are also tactful enough to find a gentler mode of expression than “This sucks.” (Although most of us know that “I think this has a few problems” actu ally means “This sucks,” don’t we) Besides, if you really did write a stinker—it happens; as the author of Maximum Over drive I’m qualified to say so—wouldn’t you rather hear the news from a friend while the entire edition consists of a half dozen Xerox copies When you give out six or eight copies of a book, you get back six or eight highly subjective opinions about what’s good and what’s bad in it. If all your readers think you did a pretty good job, you probably did. This sort of unanimity does happen, but it’s rare, even with friends. More likely, they’ll think that some parts are good and some parts are . . . well, not so good. Some will feel Character A works but Character B is farfetched. If others feel that Character B is believable but Character A is overdrawn, it’s a wash. You can safely 216On Writing relax and leave things the way they are (in baseball, tie goes to the runner; for novelists, it goes to the writer). If some people love your ending and others hate it, same deal—it’s a wash, and tie goes to the writer. Some first readers specialize in pointing out factual errors, which are the easiest to deal with. One of my firstreader smart guys, the late Mac McCutcheon, a wonderful high school English teacher, knew a lot about guns. If I had a character tot ing a Winchester .330, Mac might jot in the margin that Win chester didn’t make that caliber but Remington did. In such cases you’ve got two for the price of one—the error and the fix. It’s a good deal, because you come off looking like you’re an expert and your first reader will feel flattered to have been of help. And the best catch Mac ever made for me had nothing to do with guns. One day while reading a piece of a manuscript in the teachers’ room, he burst out laughing—laughed so hard, in fact, that tears went rolling down his bearded cheeks. Because the story in question, ’Salem’s Lot, had not been intended as a laff riot, I asked him what he had found. I had written a line that went something like this: Although deer season doesn’t start until November in Maine, the fields of October are often alive with gunshots; the locals are shooting as many peasants as they think their families will eat. A copyeditor would no doubt have picked up the mistake, but Mac spared me that embarrassment. Subjective evaluations are, as I say, a little harder to deal with, but listen: if everyone who reads your book says you have a problem (Connie comes back to her husband too easily, Hal’s cheating on the big exam seems unrealistic given what we know about him, the novel’s conclusion seems abrupt and arbitrary), you’ve got a problem and you better do some thing about it. 217Stephen King Plenty of writers resist this idea. They feel that revising a story according to the likes and dislikes of an audience is somehow akin to prostitution. If you really feel that way, I won’t try to change your mind. You’ll save on charges at Copy Cop, too, because you won’t have to show anyone your story in the first place. In fact (he said snottily), if you really feel that way, why bother to publish at all Just finish your books and then pop them in a safedeposit box, as J. D. Salinger is reputed to have been doing in his later years. And yes, I can relate, at least a bit, to that sort of resent ment. In the film business, where I have had a quasiprofes sional life, firstdraft showings are called “test screenings.” These have become standard practice in the industry, and they drive most filmmakers absolutely bugshit. Maybe they should. The studio shells out somewhere between fifteen and a hundred million dollars to make a film, then asks the direc tor to recut it based on the opinions of a Santa Barbara mul tiplex audience composed of hairdressers, meter maids, shoestore clerks, and outofwork pizzadelivery guys. And the worst, most maddening thing about it If you get the demographic right, test screenings seem to work. I’d hate to see novels revised on the basis of test audi ences—a lot of good books would never see the light of day if it was done that way—but come on, we’re talking about half a dozen people you know and respect. If you ask the right ones (and if they agree to read your book), they can tell you a lot. Do all opinions weigh the same Not for me. In the end I listen most closely to Tabby, because she’s the one I write for, the one I want to wow. If you’re writing primarily for one person besides yourself, I’d advise you to pay very close attention to that person’s opinion (I know one fellow who says he writes mostly for someone who’s been dead fifteen 218On Writing years, but the majority of us aren’t in that position). And if what you hear makes sense, then make the changes. You can’t let the whole world into your story, but you can let in the ones that matter the most. And you should. Call that one person you write for Ideal Reader. He or she is going to be in your writing room all the time: in the flesh once you open the door and let the world back in to shine on the bubble of your dream, in spirit during the sometimes troubling and often exhilarating days of the first draft, when the door is closed. And you know what You’ll find yourself bending the story even before Ideal Reader glimpses so much as the first sentence. I.R. will help you get outside yourself a little, to actually read your work in progress as an audience would while you’re still working. This is perhaps the best way of all to make sure you stick to story, a way of playing to the audience even while there’s no audience there and you’re totally in charge. When I write a scene that strikes me as funny (like the pie eating contest in “The Body” or the execution rehearsal in The Green Mile), I am also imagining my I.R. finding it funny. I love it when Tabby laughs out of control—she puts her hands up as if to say I surrender and these big tears go rolling down her cheeks. I love it, that’s all, fucking adore it, and when I get hold of something with that potential, I twist it as hard as I can. During the actual writing of such a scene (door closed), the thought of making her laugh—or cry—is in the back of my mind. During the rewrite (door open), the question—is it funny enough yet scary enough—is right up front. I try to watch her when she gets to a particular scene, hoping for at least a smile or—jackpot, baby—that big bellylaugh with the hands up, waving in the air. This isn’t always easy on her. I gave her the manuscript of 219Stephen King my novella Hearts in Atlantis while we were in North Carolina, where we’d gone to see a Cleveland Rockers–Charlotte Sting WNBA game. We drove north to Virginia the following day, and it was during this drive that Tabby read my story. There are some funny parts in it—at least I thought so—and I kept peeking over at her to see if she was chuckling (or at least smiling). I didn’t think she’d notice, but of course she did. On my eighth or ninth peek (I guess it could have been my fif teenth), she looked up and snapped: “Pay attention to your driving before you crack us up, will you Stop being so god dam needy” I paid attention to my driving and stopped sneaking peeks (well . . . almost). About five minutes later, I heard a snort of laughter from my right. Just a little one, but it was enough for me. The truth is that most writers are needy. Especially between the first draft and the second, when the study door swings open and the light of the world shines in. – – 12 Ideal Reader is also the best way for you to gauge whether or not your story is paced correctly and if you’ve handled the back story in satisfactory fashion. Pace is the speed at which your narrative unfolds. There is a kind of unspoken (hence undefended and unexamined) belief in publishing circles that the most commercially successful sto ries and novels are fastpaced. I guess the underlying thought is that people have so many things to do today, and are so eas ily distracted from the printed word, that you’ll lose them unless you become a kind of shortorder cook, serving up siz zling burgers, fries, and eggs over easy just as fast as you can. 220On Writing Like so many unexamined beliefs in the publishing busi ness, this idea is largely bullshit . . . which is why, when books like Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose or Charles Fra zier’s Cold Mountain suddenly break out of the pack and climb the bestseller lists, publishers and editors are aston ished. I suspect that most of them ascribe these books’ unex pected success to unpredictable and deplorable lapses into good taste on the part of the reading public. Not that there’s anything wrong with rapidly paced novels. Some pretty good writers—Nelson DeMille, Wilbur Smith, and Sue Grafton, to name just three—have made millions writing them. But you can overdo the speed thing. Move too fast and you risk leaving the reader behind, either by confus ing or by wearing him/her out. And for myself, I like a slower pace and a bigger, higher build. The leisurely luxuryliner experience of a long, absorbing novel like The Far Pavilions or A Suitable Boy has been one of the form’s chief attractions since the first examples—endless, multipart epistolary tales like Clarissa. I believe each story should be allowed to unfold at its own pace, and that pace is not always double time. Never theless, you need to beware—if you slow the pace down too much, even the most patient reader is apt to grow restive. The best way to find the happy medium Ideal Reader, of course. Try to imagine whether he or she will be bored by a certain scene—if you know the tastes of your I.R. even half as well as I know the tastes of mine, that shouldn’t be too hard. Is I.R. going to feel there’s too much pointless talk in this place or that That you’ve underexplained a certain situ ation . . . or overexplained it, which is one of my chronic fail ings That you forgot to resolve some important plot point Forgot an entire character, as Raymond Chandler once did (When asked about the murdered chauffeur in The Big Sleep, 221Stephen King Chandler—who liked his tipple—replied, “Oh, him. You know, I forgot all about him.”) These questions should be in your mind even with the door closed. And once it’s open— once your Ideal Reader has actually read your manuscript— you should ask your questions out loud. Also, needy or not, you might want to watch and see when your I.R. puts your manuscript down to do something else. What scene was he or she reading What was so easy to put down Mostly when I think of pacing, I go back to Elmore Leonard, who explained it so perfectly by saying he just left out the boring parts. This suggests cutting to speed the pace, and that’s what most of us end up having to do (kill your dar lings, kill your darlings, even when it breaks your egocentric little scribbler’s heart, kill your darlings). As a teenager, sending out stories to magazines like Fan tasy and Science Fiction and Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine, I got used to the sort of rejection note that starts Dear Contrib utor (might as well start off Dear Chump), and so came to rel ish any little personal dash on these printed pinkslips. They were few and far between, but when they came they never failed to lighten my day and put a smile on my face. In the spring of my senior year at Lisbon High—1966, this would’ve been—I got a scribbled comment that changed the way I rewrote my fiction once and forever. Jotted below the machinegenerated signature of the editor was this mot: “Not bad, but PUFFY. You need to revise for length. Formula: 2nd Draft = 1st Draft – 10. Good luck.” I wish I could remember who wrote that note—Algis Budrys, perhaps. Whoever it was did me a hell of a favor. I copied the formula out on a piece of shirtcardboard and taped it to the wall beside my typewriter. Good things started to happen for me shortly after. There was no sudden 222On Writing golden flood of magazine sales, but the number of personal notes on the rejection slips went up fast. I even got one from Durant Imboden, the fiction editor at Playboy. That commu niqué almost stopped my heart. Playboy paid two thousand dollars and up for short stories, and two grand was a quarter of what my mother made each year in her housekeeping job at Pineland Training Center. The Rewrite Formula probably wasn’t the only reason I started to get some results; I suspect another was that it was just my time, coming around at last (sort of like Yeats’s rough beast). Still, the Formula was surely part of it. Before the For mula, if I produced a story that was four thousand words or so in first draft, it was apt to be five thousand in second (some writers are takerouters; I’m afraid I’ve always been a natural putterinner). After the Formula, that changed. Even today I will aim for a seconddraft length of thirtysix hundred words if the first draft of a story ran four thousand . . . and if the first draft of a novel runs three hundred and fifty thousand words, I’ll try my damndest to produce a second draft of no more than three hundred and fifteen thousand . . . three hundred, if possible. Usually it is possible. What the Formula taught me is that every story and novel is collapsible to some degree. If you can’t get out ten per cent of it while retaining the basic story and flavor, you’re not trying very hard. The effect of judicious cutting is immediate and often amazing—literary Viagra. You’ll feel it and your I.R. will, too. Back story is all the stuff that happened before your tale began but which has an impact on the front story. Back story helps define character and establish motivation. I think it’s important to get the back story in as quickly as possible, but it’s also important to do it with some grace. As an example of what’s not graceful, consider this line of dialogue: 223Stephen King “Hello, exwife,” Tom said to Doris as she entered the room. Now, it may be important to the story that Tom and Doris are divorced, but there has to be a better way to do it than the above, which is about as graceful as an axemurder. Here is one suggestion: “Hi, Doris,” Tom said. His voice sounded natural enough—to his own ears, at least—but the fingers of his right hand crept to the place where his wedding ring had been until six months ago. Still no Pulitzer winner, and quite a bit longer than Hello, exwife, but it’s not all about speed, as I’ve already tried to point out. And if you think it’s all about information, you ought to give up fiction and get a job writing instruction manuals—Dilbert’s cubicle awaits. You’ve probably heard the phrase in medias res, which means “into the midst of things.” This technique is an ancient and honorable one, but I don’t like it. In medias res necessitates flashbacks, which strike me as boring and sort of corny. They always make me think of those movies from the forties and fifties where the picture gets all swimmy, the voices get all echoey, and suddenly it’s sixteen months ago and the mudsplashed convict we just saw trying to outrun the bloodhounds is an upandcoming young lawyer who hasn’t yet been framed for the murder of the crooked police chief. As a reader, I’m a lot more interested in what’s going to happen than what already did. Yes, there are brilliant novels that run counter to this preference (or maybe it’s a preju 224On Writing dice)—Rebecca, by Daphne du Maurier, for one; A Dark Adapted Eye, by Barbara Vine, for another—but I like to start at square one, dead even with the writer. I’m an AtoZ man; serve me the appetizer first and give me dessert if I eat my veggies. Even when you tell your story in this straightforward man ner, you’ll discover you can’t escape at least some back story. In a very real sense, every life is in medias res. If you introduce a fortyyearold man as your main character on page one of your novel, and if the action begins as the result of some brandnew person or situation’s exploding onto the stage of this fellow’s life—a road accident, let’s say, or doing a favor for a beautiful woman who keeps looking sexily back over her shoulder (did you note the awful adverb in this sentence which I could not bring myself to kill)—you’ll still have to deal with the first forty years of the guy’s life at some point. How much and how well you deal with those years will have a lot to do with the level of success your story achieves, with whether readers think of it as “a good read” or “a big fat bore.” Probably J. K. Rowling, author of the Harry Potter stories, is the current champ when it comes to back story. You could do worse than read these, noting how effortlessly each new book recaps what has gone before. (Also, the Harry Potter novels are just fun, pure story from beginning to end.) Your Ideal Reader can be of tremendous help when it comes to figuring out how well you did with the back story and how much you should add or subtract on your next draft. You need to listen very carefully to the things I.R. didn’t understand, and then ask yourself if you understand them. If you do and just didn’t put those parts across, your job on the second draft is to clarify. If you don’t—if the parts of the back story your Ideal Reader queried are hazy to you, 225Stephen King as well—then you need to think a lot more carefully about the past events that cast a light on your characters’ present behavior. You also need to pay close attention to those things in the back story that bored your Ideal Reader. In Bag of Bones, for instance, main character Mike Noonan is a fortyish writer who, as the book opens, has just lost his wife to a brain aneurysm. We start on the day of her death, but there’s still a hell of a lot of back story here, much more than I usually have in my fiction. This includes Mike’s first job (as a newspaper reporter), the sale of his first novel, his relations with his late wife’s sprawling family, his publishing history, and especially the matter of their summer home in western Maine—how they came to buy it and some of its pre–MikeandJohanna history. Tabitha, my I.R., read all this with apparent enjoy ment, but there was also a two or threepage section about Mike’s communityservice work in the year after his wife dies, a year in which his grief is magnified by a severe case of writer’s block. Tabby didn’t like the communityservice stuff. “Who cares” she asked me. “I want to know more about his bad dreams, not how he ran for city council in order to help get the homeless alcoholics off the street.” “Yeah, but he’s got writer’s block,” I said. (When a novelist is challenged on something he likes—one of his darlings— the first two words out of his mouth are almost always Yeah but.) “This block goes on for a year, maybe more. He has to do something in all that time, doesn’t he” “I guess so,” Tabby said, “but you don’t have to bore me with it, do you” Ouch. Game, set, and match. Like most good I.R.s, Tabby can be ruthless when she’s right. I cut down Mike’s charitable contributions and community 226On Writing functions from two pages to two paragraphs. It turned out that Tabby was right—as soon as I saw it in print, I knew. Three million people or so have read Bag of Bones, I’ve gotten at least four thousand letters concerning it, and so far not a single one has said, “Hey, turkey What was Mike doing for communityservice work during the year he couldn’t write” The most important things to remember about back story are that (a) everyone has a history and (b) most of it isn’t very interesting. Stick to the parts that are, and don’t get carried away with the rest. Long life stories are best received in bars, and only then an hour or so before closing time, and if you are buying. – – 13 We need to talk a bit about research, which is a specialized kind of back story. And please, if you do need to do research because parts of your story deal with things about which you know little or nothing, remember that word back. That’s where research belongs: as far in the background and the back story as you can get it. You may be entranced with what you’re learning about flesheating bacteria, the sewer system of New York, or the I.Q. potential of collie pups, but your readers are probably going to care a lot more about your characters and your story. Exceptions to the rule Sure, aren’t there always There have been very successful writers—Arthur Hailey and James Michener are the first ones that come to my mind—whose novels rely heavily on fact and research. Hailey’s are barely disguised manuals about how things work (banks, airports, hotels), and Michener’s are combination travelogues, geogra 227Stephen King phy lessons, and history texts. Other popular writers, like Tom Clancy and Patricia Cornwell, are more storyoriented but still deliver large (and sometimes hard to digest) dollops of factual information along with the melodrama. I sometimes think that these writers appeal to a large segment of the reading population who feel that fiction is somehow immoral, a low taste which can only be justified by saying, “Well, ahem, yes, I do read Fill in author’s name here, but only on airplanes and in hotel rooms that don’t have CNN; also, I learned a great deal about Fill in appropriate subject here.” For every successful writer of the factoid type, however, there are a hundred (perhaps even a thousand) wannabes, some published, most not. On the whole, I think story belongs in front, but some research is inevitable; you shirk it at your peril. In the spring of 1999 I drove from Florida, where my wife and I had wintered, back to Maine. My second day on the road, I stopped for gas at a little station just off the Pennsyl vania Turnpike, one of those amusingly antique places where a fellow still comes out, pumps your gas, and asks how you’re doing and who you like in the NCAA tournament. I told this one I was doing fine and liked Duke in the tour nament. Then I went around back to use the men’s room. There was a brawling stream full of snowmelt beyond the sta tion, and when I came out of the men’s, I walked a little way down the slope, which was littered with castoff tirerims and engine parts, for a closer look at the water. There were still patches of snow on the ground. I slipped on one and started to slide down the embankment. I grabbed a piece of someone’s old engine block and stopped myself before I got fairly started, but I realized as I got up that if I’d fallen just right, I could have slid all the way down into that stream and been swept away. I found myself wondering, had that happened, 228On Writing how long it would have taken the gas station attendant to call the State Police if my car, a brandnew Lincoln Navigator, just continued to stand there in front of the pumps. By the time I got back on the turnpike again, I had two things: a wet ass from my fall behind the Mobil station, and a great idea for a story. In it, a mysterious man in a black coat—likely not a human being at all but some creature inexpertly disguised to look like one—abandons his vehicle in front of a small gas station in rural Pennsylvania. The vehicle looks like an old Buick Special from the late fifties, but it’s no more a Buick than the guy in the black coat was a human being. The vehi cle falls into the hands of some State Police officers working out of a fictional barracks in western Pennsylvania. Twenty years or so later, these cops tell the story of the Buick to the griefstricken son of a State Policeman who has been killed in the line of duty. It was a grand idea and has developed into a strong novel about how we hand down our knowledge and our secrets; it’s also a grim and frightening story about an alien piece of machinery that sometimes reaches out and swallows people whole. Of course there were a few minor problems—the fact that I knew absolutely zilch about the Pennsylvania State Police, for one thing—but I didn’t let any of that bother me. I simply made up all the stuff I didn’t know. I could do that because I was writing with the door shut— writing only for myself and the Ideal Reader in my mind (my mental version of Tabby is rarely as prickly as my reallife wife can be; in my daydreams she usually applauds and urges me ever onward with shining eyes). One of my most memo rable sessions took place in a fourthfloor room of Boston’s Eliot Hotel—me sitting at the desk by the window, writing 229Stephen King about an autopsy on an alien batcreature while the Boston Marathon flowed exuberantly by just below me and rooftop boomboxes blasted out “Dirty Water,” by The Standells. There were a thousand people down there below me in the streets, but not a single one in my room to be a partypooper and tell me I got this detail wrong or the cops don’t do things that way in western Pennsylvania, so nyahnyahnyah. The novel—it’s called From a Buick Eight—has been set aside in a desk drawer since late May of 1999, when the first draft was finished. Work on it has been delayed by circum stances beyond my control, but eventually I hope and expect to spend a couple of weeks in western Pennsylvania, where I’ve been given conditional permission to do some ride alongs with the State Police (the condition—which seems eminently reasonable to me—was that I not make them look like meanies, maniacs, or idiots). Once I’ve done that, I should be able to correct the worst of my howlers and add some really nice detailwork. Not much, though; research is back story, and the key word in back story is back. The tale I have to tell in Buick Eight has to do with monsters and secrets. It is not a story about police procedure in western Pennsylvania. What I’m looking for is nothing but a touch of verisimilitude, like the handful of spices you chuck into a good spaghetti sauce to really finish her off. That sense of reality is important in any work of fic tion, but I think it is particularly important in a story dealing with the abnormal or paranormal. Also, enough details— always assuming they are the correct ones—can stem the tide of letters from pickyass readers who apparently live to tell writers that they messed up (the tone of these letters is unvaryingly gleeful). When you step away from the “write what you know” rule, research becomes inevitable, and it 230On Writing can add a lot to your story. Just don’t end up with the tail wagging the dog; remember that you are writing a novel, not a research paper. The story always comes first. I think that even James Michener and Arthur Hailey would have agreed with that. – – 14 I’m often asked if I think the beginning writer of fiction can benefit from writing classes or seminars. The people who ask are, all too often, looking for a magic bullet or a secret ingre dient or possibly Dumbo’s magic feather, none of which can be found in classrooms or at writing retreats, no matter how enticing the brochures may be. As for myself, I’m doubtful about writing classes, but not entirely against them. In T. Coraghessan Boyle’s wonderful tragicomic novel East Is East, there is a description of a writer’s colony in the woods that struck me as fairytale perfect. Each attendee has his or her own little cabin where he or she supposedly spends the day writing. At noon, a waiter from the main lodge brings these fledgling Hemingways and Cathers a box lunch and puts it on the front stoop of the cottage. Very quietly puts it on the stoop, so as not to disturb the creative trance of the cabin’s occupant. One room of each cabin is the writing room. In the other is a cot for that allimportant afternoon nap . . . or, perhaps, for a revivifying bounce with one of the other attendees. In the evening, all members of the colony gather in the lodge for dinner and intoxicating conversation with the writ ers in residence. Later, before a roaring fire in the parlor, marshmallows are toasted, popcorn is popped, wine is drunk, 231Stephen King and the stories of the colony attendees are read aloud and then critiqued. To me, this sounded like an absolutely enchanted writing environment. I especially liked the part about having your lunch left at the front door, deposited there as quietly as the tooth fairy deposits a quarter under a kid’s pillow. I imagine it appealed because it’s so far from my own experience, where the creative flow is apt to be stopped at any moment by a message from my wife that the toilet is plugged up and would I try to fix it, or a call from the office telling me that I’m in imminent danger of blowing yet another dental appoint ment. At times like that I’m sure all writers feel pretty much the same, no matter what their skill and success level: God, if only I were in the right writing environment, with the right under standing people, I just KNOW I could be penning my masterpiece. In truth, I’ve found that any day’s routine interruptions and distractions don’t much hurt a work in progress and may actually help it in some ways. It is, after all, the dab of grit that seeps into an oyster’s shell that makes the pearl, not pearlmaking seminars with other oysters. And the larger the work looms in my day—the more it seems like an I hafta instead of just an I wanna—the more problematic it can become. One serious problem with writers’ workshops is that I hafta becomes the rule. You didn’t come, after all, to wander lonely as a cloud, experiencing the beauty of the woods or the grandeur of the mountains. You’re supposed to be writing, dammit, if only so that your colleagues will have something to critique as they toast their goddam marshmallows there in the main lodge. When, on the other hand, making sure the kid gets to his basketball camp on time is every bit as important as your work in progress, there’s a lot less pressure to produce. And what about those critiques, by the way How valuable 232On Writing are they Not very, in my experience, sorry. A lot of them are maddeningly vague. I love the feeling of Peter’s story, someone may say. It had something . . . a sense of I don’t know . . . there’s a loving kind of you know . . . I can’t exactly describe it . . . Other writingseminar gemmies include I felt like the tone thing was just kind of you know; The character of Polly seemed pretty much stereotypical; I loved the imagery because I could see what he was talking about more or less perfectly. And, instead of pelting these babbling idiots with their own freshly toasted marshmallows, everyone else sitting around the fire is often nodding and smiling and looking solemnly thoughtful. In too many cases the teachers and writers in residence are nodding, smiling, and looking solemnly thoughtful right along with them. It seems to occur to few of the attendees that if you have a feeling you just can’t describe, you might just be, I don’t know, kind of like, my sense of it is, maybe in the wrong fucking class. Nonspecific critiques won’t help when you sit down to your second draft, and may hurt. Certainly none of the com ments above touch on the language of your piece, or its nar rative sense; these comments are just wind, offering no factual input at all. Also, daily critiques force you to write with the door con stantly open, and in my mind that sort of defeats the pur pose. What good does it do you to have the waiter tiptoe soundlessly up to the stoop of your cabin with your lunch and then tiptoe away with equal solicitous soundlessness, if you are reading your current work aloud every night (or handing it out on Xeroxed sheets) to a group of wouldbe writers who are telling you they like the way you handle tone and mood but want to know if Dolly’s cap, the one with the bells on it, is symbolic The pressure to explain is always on, 233Stephen King and a lot of your creative energy, it seems to me, is therefore going in the wrong direction. You find yourself constantly questioning your prose and your purpose when what you should probably be doing is writing as fast as the Ginger bread Man runs, getting that first draft down on paper while the shape of the fossil is still bright and clear in your mind. Too many writing classes make Wait a minute, explain what you meant by that a kind of bylaw. In all fairness, I must admit to a certain prejudice here: one of the few times I suffered a fullfledged case of writer’s block was during my senior year at the University of Maine, when I was taking not one but two creativewriting courses (one was the seminar in which I met my future wife, so it can hardly be counted as a dead loss). Most of my fellow students that semester were writing poems about sexual yearning or stories in which moody young men whose parents did not understand them were preparing to go off to Vietnam. One young woman wrote a good deal about the moon and her menstrual cycle; in these poems the moon always appeared as th m’n. She could not explain just why this had to be, but we all kind of felt it: th m’n, yeah, dig it, sister. I brought poems of my own to class, but back in my dorm room was my dirty little secret: the halfcompleted manu script of a novel about a teenage gang’s plan to start a race riot. They would use this for cover while ripping off two dozen loansharking operations and illegal drugrings in the city of Harding, my fictional version of Detroit (I had never been within six hundred miles of Detroit, but I didn’t let that stop or even slow me down). This novel, Sword in the Darkness, seemed very tawdry to me when compared to what my fellow students were trying to achieve; which is why, I suppose, I never brought any of it to class for a critique. The fact that it 234On Writing was also better and somehow truer than all my poems about sexual yearning and postadolescent angst only made things worse. The result was a fourmonth period in which I could write almost nothing at all. What I did instead was drink beer, smoke Pall Malls, read John D. MacDonald paperbacks, and watch afternoon soap operas. Writing courses and seminars do offer at least one undeni able benefit: in them, the desire to write fiction or poetry is taken seriously. For aspiring writers who have been looked upon with pitying condescension by their friends and rela tives (“You better not quit your day job just yet” is a popular line, usually delivered with a hideous Bob’syeruncle grin), this is a wonderful thing. In writing classes, if nowhere else, it is entirely permissible to spend large chunks of your time off in your own little dreamworld. Still—do you really need permission and a hallpass to go there Do you need someone to make you a paper badge with the word WRITER on it before you can believe you are one God, I hope not. Another argument in favor of writing courses has to do with the men and women who teach them. There are thou sands of talented writers at work in America, and only a few of them (I think the number might be as low as five per cent) can support their families and themselves with their work. There’s always some grant money available, but it’s never enough to go around. As for government subsidies for creative writers, perish the thought. Tobacco subsidies, sure. Research grants to study the motility of unpreserved bull sperm, of course. Creativewriting subsidies, never. Most vot ers would agree, I think. With the exception of Norman Rockwell and Robert Frost, America has never much revered her creative people; as a whole, we’re more interested in com memorative plates from the Franklin Mint and Internet greet 235Stephen King ingcards. And if you don’t like it, it’s a case of tough titty said the kitty, ’cause that’s just the way things are. Americans are a lot more interested in TV quiz shows than in the short fic tion of Raymond Carver. The solution for a good many underpaid creative writers is to teach what they know to others. This can be a nice thing, and it’s nice when beginning writers have a chance to meet with and listen to veteran writers they may have long admired. It’s also great when writing classes lead to business contacts. I got my first agent, Maurice Crain, courtesy of my sophomore comp teacher, the noted regional short story writer Edwin M. Holmes. After reading a couple of my stories in Eh77 (a comp class emphasizing fiction), Professor Holmes asked Crain if he would look at a selection of my work. Crain agreed, but we never had much of an association—he was in his eighties, unwell, and died shortly after our first corre spondence. I can only hope it wasn’t my initial batch of stories that killed him. You don’t need writing classes or seminars any more than you need this or any other book on writing. Faulkner learned his trade while working in the Oxford, Mississippi, post office. Other writers have learned the basics while serving in the Navy, working in steel mills, or doing time in America’s finer crossbar hotels. I learned the most valuable (and com mercial) part of my life’s work while washing motel sheets and restaurant tablecloths at the New Franklin Laundry in Bangor. You learn best by reading a lot and writing a lot, and the most valuable lessons of all are the ones you teach your self. These lessons almost always occur with the study door closed. Writingclass discussions can often be intellectually stimulating and great fun, but they also often stray far afield from the actual nutsandbolts business of writing. 236On Writing Still, I suppose you might end up in a version of that syl van writer’s colony in East Is East: your own little cottage in the pines, complete with word processor, fresh disks (what is so delicately exciting to the imagination as a box of fresh computer disks or a ream of blank paper), the cot in the other room for that afternoon nap, and the lady who tiptoes to your stoop, leaves your lunch, and then tiptoes away again. That would be okay, I guess. If you got a chance to participate in a deal like that, I’d say go right ahead. You might not learn The Magic Secrets of Writing (there aren’t any—bummer, huh), but it would certainly be a grand time, and grand times are something I’m always in favor of. – – 15 Other than Where do you get your ideas, the questions any publishing writer hears most frequently from those who want to publish are How do you get an agent and How do you make contact with people in the world of publishing The tone in which these questions are asked is often bewil dered, sometimes chagrined, and frequently angry. There is a commonly held suspicion that most newcomers who actually succeed in getting their books published broke through because they had an in, a contact, a rabbi in the business. The underlying assumption is that publishing is just one big, happy, incestuously closed family. It’s not true. Neither is it true that agents are a snooty, superior bunch that would die before allowing their ungloved fingers to touch an unsolicited manuscript. (Well okay, yeah, there are a few like that.) The fact is that agents, publishers, and editors are all looking for the next hot writer 237Stephen King who can sell a lot of books and make lots of money . . . and not just the next hot young writer, either; Helen Santmyer was in a retirement home when she published . . . And Ladies of the Club. Frank McCourt was quite a bit younger when he published Angela’s Ashes, but he’s still no spring chicken. As a young man just beginning to publish some short fic tion in the ta magazines, I was fairly optimistic about my chances of getting published; I knew that I had some game, as the basketball players say these days, and I also felt that time was on my side; sooner or later the bestselling writers of the sixties and seventies would either die or go senile, making room for newcomers like me. Still, I was aware that I had worlds to conquer beyond the pages of Cavalier, Gent, and Juggs. I wanted my stories to find the right markets, and that meant finding a way around the troubling fact that a good many of the bestpaying ones (Cos mopolitan, for instance, which at that time published lots of short stories) wouldn’t look at unsolicited fiction. The answer, it seemed to me, was to have an agent. If my fiction was good, I thought in my unsophisticated but not entirely illogical way, an agent would solve all my problems. I didn’t discover until much later that not all agents are good agents, and that a good agent is useful in many other ways than getting the fiction editor at Cosmo to look at your short stories. But as a young man I did not yet realize that there are people in the publishing world—more than a few, actually—who would steal the pennies off a dead man’s eyes. For me, that didn’t really matter, because before my first couple of novels actually succeeded in finding an audience, I had little to steal. You should have an agent, and if your work is salable, you will have only a moderate amount of trouble finding one. 238On Writing You’ll probably be able to find one even if your work isn’t sal able, as long as it shows promise. Sports agents represent minor leaguers who are basically playing for mealmoney, in hopes that their young clients will make it to the bigs; for the same reason, literary agents are often willing to handle writ ers with only a few publishing credits. You’ll very likely find someone to handle your work even if your publishing credits are limited strictly to the “little magazines,” which pay only in copies—these magazines are often regarded by agents and book publishers as provinggrounds for new talent. You must begin as your own advocate, which means read ing the magazines publishing the kind of stuff you write. You should also pick up the writers’ journals and buy a copy of Writer’s Market, the most valuable of tools for the writer new to the marketplace. If you’re really poor, ask someone to give it to you for Christmas. Both the mags and WM (it’s a whop per of a volume, but reasonably priced) list book and maga zine publishers, and include thumbnail descriptions of the sort of stories each market uses. You’ll also find the most sal able lengths and the names of editorial staffs. As a beginning writer, you’ll be most interested in the “lit tle magazines,” if you’re writing short stories. If you’re writ ing or have written a novel, you’ll want to note the lists of literary agents in the writing magazines and in Writer’s Mar ket. You may also want to add a copy of the LMP (Literary Market Place) to your reference shelf. You need to be canny, careful, and assiduous in your search for an agent or a pub lisher, but—this bears repeating—the most important thing you can do for yourself is read the market. Looking at the thumbnail rundowns in Writer’s Digest may help (“. . . pub lishes mostly mainstream fiction, 2,000–4,000 words, steer clear of stereotyped characters and hackneyed romance situ 239Stephen King ations”), but a thumbnail is, leave us face it, just a thumb nail. Submitting stories without first reading the market is like playing darts in a dark room—you might hit the target every now and then, but you don’t deserve to. Here is the story of an aspiring writer I’ll call Frank. Frank is actually a composite of three young writers I know, two men and one woman. All have enjoyed some succ