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Wildlife Conservation

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats.
Wildlife ConservationBio Diversity of India • Wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins. • India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species. • Home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species. • Tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India, coniferous forest of the Himalaya. dry deciduous forest of central and southern India.W h a t i s w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n ? ? • Wildlife protection act started in 1972 • Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans. WHY SHOULD WE CONSERVE WILDLIFE? ▪ Wildlife is an essential component of various food chains, food webs, biogeochemical cycles and energy flow through various tropic levels. “ ▪ Preserves vitality and health of environment and provides stability to various ecosystems ▪ It also helps in the preservation of the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of species and breeding. ▪ The destruction of forests and wildlife is not just a biological issue. The biological loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity.Threats To Wildlife 1. Habitat loss : • Population growth, fast industrialisation , urbanisation and modernisation have all contributed to a large-scale destruction of natural habitat of plants and animals. 2. Pollution: • Air, water, soil and noise pollution of the magnitude and toxicity never seen before is the major factor. • Natural habitats have been destroyed or damaged by activities such as the indiscriminate use of synthetic materials, release of radiations and oil spills in the sea, generation of effluents and wastes of various kinds and toxicity, and their unscientific disposal. 3. Indiscriminate hunting: Indiscriminate killing and poaching of wild animals for food, horn, fur, tusk etc. has resulted in reduction and even extinction of many wild species. 4. Introduction of exotic species: Many native species have known to disappear and their existence is under threat because of the introduction of exotic and alien species. Habitat Destruction • Second most critical factor in species extinction • There now 20% less forest cover than existed 300 years ago Poaching and hunting • Another major cause of animal species extinction. • Poaching and illegal trade in animals are US$2 billion to $3 billionNational And International Wildlife Trade • Pet Trade • Fur Trade • Meat Trade • Body Parts Trade • Trade for Biomedical ResearchSome Other Causes “ • Climate change / Global warming • Pollution • Introduced (Invasive) Species • Farmer / Rancher ShootingsEffects of Wild Life Depletion 1) Unbalance Food chain and Ecosystem 2) Depletion in rare Wild Animals3) Danger to Human Life 4) Impact on Biodiversity5) Loss of economic value 6) Loss genetic information Wildlife of India (past) There were “ More than 500 species of mammals  1,220 species of birds  1, 600 species of reptiles and amphibians  57,000 species of insectsWildlife of India (today)  The flora and fauna of wild species today is declining rapidly in India “  Possible extinction is a possibility for over 77 mammals, 72 bird species, 17 reptile species, 3 amphibian species  Large amount of butterflies and beetles which are considered to be endangered.  Rapid growth in industrialization has hampered the ecosystem and had badly affected the wild animals  Wildlife of India is on the mercy of human beings as the mortality rate of animals is increasing due to hunting and poaching.ENDANGERED SPECIES OF animals MAJESTIC ELEPHANTS THE INDIAN BISON HISPID HARE SNOW LEOPARD SWAMP DEER BLUE WHALE DESERT CAT LEAF MONKEYENDANGERED SPECIES OF plants BAOBAB BERBERIS DECALEPIS HAMILTONII PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS CYCAS BEDDOMEI RED SANDALWOODWildlife destructions in India  Over exploitation of forest  Illicit felling of trees  International wildlife trade (1960- 1970)  Nature against nature  Encroachment of villagers on forest land  Global warming(30% of all species might vanish in coming decade)  Un healthy relations of Govt and local population  Local hunting and poaching by villagers  Unloyality of forest officialsOvercrowding is one of the major reasons for the depleting population of wild animals in India. Eco-tourism and adventure tourism.  Growth in vehicle pollution  Wildlife road fatalities  Damage of the natural habitat of birds and animals. Increase in wildfires Releasing of chemicals and other toxic effluents into the water bodies has led to poisoning of the water. Conservation measures The conservation strategies should include the following programmes and policies: “ Protection of threatened/useful plants and animals species living in natural habitats, zoological and botanical gardens, seed gene, tissue culture and DNA banks. Preservation of critical habitats of animal and plant species plus the management of life supporting systems in the surrounding habitats. Hunting and international trade in wild animals and plants products should be regulated and a strict vigil should be maintained upon these actions. Role of government and NGOs in spreading awareness programmes among common people about values of wildlife and it’s conservation.CONCLUSION Increased understanding about the world’s current wildlife situation and an increased emphasis on education will give future generations an opportunity to experience nature to its fullest extentTHANKS YOU CAN WRITE US AT :
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