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English Grammar

English Grammar 2
This page intentionally left blankEnglish Grammar Understanding the Basics Looking for an easy-to-use guide to English grammar? This handy introduction covers all the basics of the subject, using a simple and straightforward style. Studentswill ¢ndthebook’s step-by-step approacheasy to followand be encour- agedbyitsnon-technicallanguage.RequiringnopriorknowledgeofEnglishgram- mar,theinformationispresentedinsmallsteps,withobjectivetechniquestohelp readers apply new concepts.With clear explanations and well-chosen examples, thebookgivesstudentsthetoolstounderstandthemysteriesofEnglishgrammar aswellastheperfectfoundationfromwhichtomoveontomoreadvancedtopics. EVELYNP.ALTENBERGisProfessorintheDepartmentofSpeech-Language-Hearing SciencesatHofstraUniversity,NewYork. ROBERT M. VAGO is Professor and Chair in the Department of Linguistics and CommunicationDisordersatQueensCollege,CityUniversityofNewYork.English Grammar Understanding the Basics EVELYNP.ALTENBERG HofstraUniversity and ROBERTM.VAGO QueensCollegeandtheGraduateCenter CityUniversityofNewYorkCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521518321 © Evelyn P.Altenberg & Robert M.Vago This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print format 2010 ISBN-13 978-0-511-72945-4 eBook (NetLibrary) ISBN-13 978-0-521-51832-1 Hardback ISBN-13 978-0-521-73216-1 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.Tomyhusband,Jim,mydaughters,JenandAlli, mymother,Lilo,andinmemoryofmyfather,Hans and Tomyson,Joel,sothathemightreadthisbookand understandwhathisfatherwastryingtoteachhimContents Introduction pagexi Howtousethisbook xii Part I Kinds of words 1 Unit I Nouns 3 Lesson1 Identifyingnouns 3 Lesson2 Concreteandabstractnouns 5 Lesson3 Singularandpluralnouns 9 Lesson4 Animateandinanimatenouns 12 Lesson5 Countandnoncountnouns 14 Lesson6 Properandcommonnouns 18 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit1 20 Unit 2 Verbs 23 Lesson7 Identifyingverbs 23 Lesson8 Theverbbase 25 Lesson9 Actionverbsandlinkingverbs 27 Lesson10 Transitiveandintransitiveverbs 35 Lesson11 Phrasalverbs 38 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit2 41 Unit 3 Determiners 45 Lesson12 Articles 46 Lesson13 Demonstratives 48 Lesson14 Possessives 50 Lesson15 Quanti¢ers 53 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit3 55 Unit 4 Adjectives 58 Lesson16 Identifyingadjectives 58 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit4 63 Unit 5 Prepositions 65 Lesson17 Identifyingprepositions 65 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit5 68 Unit 6 Conjunctions 69 Lesson18 Coordinatingconjunctions 70 Lesson19 Subordinatingconjunctions 73 viiContents Lesson20 Correlativeconjunctions 77 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit6 79 Unit 7 Pronouns 81 Lesson21 Subjectandobjectpronouns 82 Lesson22 Re£exivepronouns 85 Lesson23 Demonstrativepronouns 87 Lesson24 Possessivepronouns 89 Lesson25 Interrogativepronouns 93 Lesson26 Relativepronouns 96 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit7 99 Unit 8 Adverbs 103 Lesson27 Identifyingadverbs 103 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit8 107 Reviewmatchingexerciseandanswerkey^PartI 109 Part II Kinds of phrases 111 Unit 9 Noun phrases 113 Lesson28 Thebasicstructureofnounphrases 113 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit9 119 Unit 10 Prepositional phrases 121 Lesson29 Thebasicstructureofprepositionalphrases 121 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit10 125 Unit 11 Verb phrases 126 Lesson30 Thebasicstructureofverbphrases 126 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit11 135 Unit 12 Auxiliary phrases 138 Lesson31 Thebasicstructureofauxiliaryphrases 139 Lesson32 Modals 141 Lesson33 Perfecthave 143 Lesson34 Progressivebe 146 Lesson35 Combiningauxiliaryverbs 148 Lesson36 Thesu⁄xesofauxiliaryverbs 151 Lesson37 Tense 156 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit12 164 Unit 13 Subjects and objects 169 Lesson38 Subjects 170 Lesson39 Directobjects 173 Lesson40 Indirectobjects 177 Lesson41 Thefunctionsofpronouns 183 viiiContents Lesson42 Impliedsubjects:commands 186 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit13 189 Unit 14 Compound phrases 193 Lesson43 Compoundnounphrases 194 Lesson44 Compoundverbphrases 195 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit14 197 Reviewmatchingexerciseandanswerkey^PartII 198 Part III Getting started with sentences 201 Unit 15 The functions of sentences 203 Lesson45 Identifyingsentencesbyfunction 203 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit15 206 Unit 16 Combining sentences 207 Lesson46 Simplesentences 207 Lesson47 Compoundsentences 210 Lesson48 Complexsentences 214 Lesson49 Sentenceswithrelativeclauses 221 Lesson50 Compound-complexsentences 229 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit16 231 Unit 17 Related sentences 235 Lesson51 Lookingatrelatedsentences 235 Lesson52 Activeandpassivesentences 238 Lesson53 Positiveandnegativesentences 246 Answerkeys:Testyourselfquestions^Unit17 250 Reviewmatchingexerciseandanswerkey^PartIII 252 ListofQuicktips 253 Glossary 261 Index 270 ixIntroduction OurgoalinthisbookistohelpyoulearnaboutEnglishgrammarinassimpleandstraight- forward away as possible.The book was inspired byour students, most of whom panic when we say words like adjective, subject,and passive.We believe that panic will be replaced by knowledge and con¢dence as readers work their way through this user- friendlybook. Whoisthisbook for?It’sforanyonewhoneedsorwantstounderstandEnglishgram- mar.Thatincludesreaderswho:(1)wanttoimprovetheirwriting;(2)arestudyingafor- eign language; (3) are or want to be teachers; (4) are learning English as a second language;(5)areorwanttobeprofessionals suchasspeech^languagepathologists and attorneys; (6) are interested in how English works. The book is self-guided and self- paced;itcanbeusedaloneoraspartofacourse. The workbookapproachused here willmoveyoubeyondsimplylabeling wordsto an understandingofhowthedi¡erentpiecesofasentence¢ttogether.Tohelpyouachieve this understanding, wepresent information in small steps, with manyopportunitiesto applyeachnewpieceofinformationinexercisesbeforeyoumoveontothenextstep. Likealllanguages,Englishisacollectionofdialects.Whilesocietyviewssomeofthese dialectsashavingmoresocialprestigethanothers,whenwelookatthemobjectivelywe ¢ndthatalldialectsareequallinguistically.Thatmeansthatalldialectshavegrammati- calrules, andthegrammaticalrules ofonedialectarenomoreprecise, pure, orlogical thanthegrammaticalrulesofanotherdialect.Nonetheless,inthisbookwefocusonthe grammarofStandardAmericanEnglishbecauseitiswidelyknownandbecausewriting requiresaknowledgeofformal,standardEnglish. Wedeliberatelylimitthisintroductorybookinbothcontentandcomplexity.Wherever possible,we provide youwitha simpleruleof thumbtouse.However, wedon’tclaimto cover all of English sentence structure. A clear understanding of what usually works willgiveyouafoundationforrecognizingandunderstandingtheexceptions.Ouraimis toprovideyouwiththebasics. ThisbookwillclarifyEnglishsentencestructureandprovideyouwithausefulrefer- encebookthatyoucanturntolongafteryou’vecompletedtheexercises.Itwillalsopro- videyouwithasolidfoundationformoreadvancedstudy. Sotakeadeepbreathandturnthepage.Wepredictthatitwon’thurtabit.Infact,you maybesurprisedto¢ndouthoweasyEnglishGrammarcanbe. xiHow to use this book What are the features of this book that will help you use it effectively? * We assume no prior knowledge of English grammar. Depending onyour background and interest, you can either work the book through from cover to cover or just read aboutselectedtopics. * We utilize user-friendly, easy-to-understand language, avoiding excessive technical terminology. * Informationispresentedinlessonformat;mostlessonsareshort,helpingtomakethe materialmanageable. * Numerousexercisesallowyoutotestyourselfafternewinformationispresented;the exercisesgraduallyincorporatemoreknowledgewhilebuildingonpriorinformation. * Eachexercisehasasampleitemdoneforyou,tohelpyouwiththeexercise. * Eachexerciseisseparatedintotwoparts:GettingstartedandMorepractice.Witheach Gettingstartedpart,weprovideapagereferencetotheanswers,soyou’llimmediately knowwhetherornotyou’reontherighttrack.ForMorepracticeitems,answersarepro- videdontheaccompanyingwebsite. * Inadditiontoexercises,eachlessoncontainseasyto¢ndQuicktips.Theseprovidecon- venient‘‘tricks’’tohelpyoumasterthematerialorhighlightthemainconceptsineach lesson. * We’ve also included short sections calledTo enhance your understanding.These sec- tionsareintendedforthoseofyouwhoareinterestedinmorethanbasicinformation. These sections can easily be skipped by beginners; they’re not necessary for under- standinganymateriallateroninthebook. * Throughoutthetext,ungrammaticalsentencesareidenti¢edwithanasterisk(*)atthe beginning. How is this book organized? * Thebookhasthreeparts:PartIdealswithtypesofwords,PartIIwithtypesofphrases, andPartIIIwithtypesofsentences. * Eachpartisdividedintounitsandeachunitissubdividedintorelatedlessons. * Each lesson contains ampleTest yourself exercises. Each exercise has ten questions, withanswerkeysprovidedattheendofeachunitandontheaccompanyingwebsite. * Areviewmatchingexercisewithananswerkeyisincludedattheendofeachpart. * Additionalreviewexercisesforeachunitareprovidedonthecompanionwebsite. * Foreasyreference,theendofthebookcontainsalistofallQuicktips,adetailedglos- sary,andanindex. Website:www.cambridge.org/altenberg-vago xiiPART I: KINDS OF WORDS Doyoushudderwhenyouhearthewordsnounorverb?Don’tworry^youalreadyknowall aboutwordcategories,alsoknownaspartsofspeech,thoughyoumaynotthinkyoudo. Youknow,forexample,thatyoucansaytheideaandtheboybutnot*theaboutor*happy the. (As stated in the Howtouse thisbook section, an asterisk [*] is usedto indicate that something isungrammatical.)That is,youknowthatsomewordscangoinsomeplaces inasentenceandotherscan’t.Awordcategory,orpartofspeech,isjustanamegiventoa groupofwordsthathavesomethingincommon,suchaswheretheycangoinasentence. PartIgivesyouaquickandeasyguidetobasicwordcategories.UNIT 1: NOUNS Lesson 1: Identifying nouns Nounsarecommonlyde¢nedaswordsthatrefertoaperson,place,thing,oridea. Howcanyouidentifyanoun? Quicktip1.1 If you can put the word the in front of a word and it sounds like a unit, the word is a noun. Forexample,theboysoundslikeaunit,soboyisanoun.Thechairsoundslikeaunit,so chairisanoun.Comparethesenounsto*thevery,*thewalked,*thebecause.Very,walked, andbecausearenotnouns.Whileyoucaneasily put theandvery together(forexample, theverytallboy),thevery,byitself,doesnotworkasaunitwhilethechairdoes.So,chairis anoun;veryisnot.(Thereisonekindofnounthatcannotalwayshavetheinfrontofit; seeLesson6laterinthisunit.) Test yourself 1.1 Which of the following words are nouns? See if they sound like a unit whenyou put them here: the .Checktheappropriatecolumn. Noun Notanoun Sample:always ............. Gettingstarted(answersonp.20) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. tree 6. slowly ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. when 7. factory ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. beds 8. ticket ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. glass 9. boxes ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. said 10. almost ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 1.2 Underlinethenounsinthesephrases.Testeachwordtoseeifitsoundslikeaunitwhenyouputit here:the . Sample:allmyfriends Gettingstarted(answersonp.20) 4. manydigitalphotos 1. yourredsweater 5. hisveryinterestingarticle 2. thoseboxes 3. afewmen 3UNIT 1: NOUNS Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 9. ourpsychologyprofessor 6. theircarpets 7. ahand-paintedplate 10. twointerestingmuseums 8. thecourtstenographer 4Lesson 2: Concrete and abstract nouns Here’sanunusualsentence:Hesmelledthemarriage.Whatmakesthissentenceunusualis thatwedon’tgenerallythinkofthenounmarriageassomethingthatcanbesmelled.Some nounsareconcrete:theycanbeperceivedbyoursenses ^ theyarethingsthatwecansee, hear,smell,taste,ortouch.Thosenounsthatarenotconcreteareabstract.Marriageissome- thingabstract,soit’soddtosayit’sbeingperceivedbyoneofoursenses,oursenseofsmell. The nouns in Lesson 1 were all concrete nouns. Other nouns, such as marriage,are abstract;thismeansthattheyrefertothingsthatyoucannotperceivewithyoursenses, thingsyoucannotsee,smell,feel,taste,ortouch.Herearesomemoreconcreteand abstractnouns: Concrete Abstract newspaper love heel honesty glass culture jewelry mind Quicktip2.1 Concrete nouns refer to things we can perceive with one of our senses. Abstract nouns cannot be perceived by our senses. Test yourself 2.1 Decideifeachnounisconcreteorabstract. Sample:discussion abstract Gettingstarted(answersonp.20) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. mu⁄n 6. friend .................................................... ...................................................... 2. violin 7. friendliness .................................................... ...................................................... 3. freedom 8. economics .................................................... ...................................................... 4. elegance 9. dormitory .................................................... ...................................................... 5. train 10. capitalism .................................................... ...................................................... Test yourself 2.2 Which of the following words are nouns? See if they sound like a unit whenyou put them here: the .Thenounswillallbeabstractnouns.Checktheappropriatecolumn. Noun Notanoun Sample:confusion ................... 5UNIT 1: NOUNS Gettingstarted(answersonp.20) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. concept 6. ran ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. shockingly 7. secret ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. wrote 8. her ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. conversation 9. death ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. interview 10. job ................... ................... ................... ................... Anabstractnounissometimeseasiertoidentifyifyoucreateasentencewithit.Forexample, thehappinessisaunit,ascanbeseeninThehappinessonherfacedelightedhim.Thus,happi- nessisanoun.Herearesomeotherabstractnounsinsentences;thenounsareunderlined. 1. Itwasnotthecomplaintwhichbotheredhim. 2. Theywereattemptingtostoptheabuse. 3. Thejoywhichtheyfeltwasobvious. Anothereasywaytoidentifyanoun,especiallyanabstractnoun,istoputthewordhis (orotherwordslikeit^seeLesson21)infrontofitandseeifitsoundslikeaunit.Forexam- ple,hiscomplaint,hishappiness,hisconcernallareunits;therefore,complaint,happiness, andconcernarenouns. Quicktip2.2 If you can put his in front of a word and it sounds like a unit, the word is a noun. Test yourself 2.3 Which of the following words are nouns? See if they sound like a unit whenyou put them here: his .Thenounswillallbeabstractnouns.Checktheappropriatecolumn. Noun Notanoun Sample:obligation ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.20) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. jumped 6. closed ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. appropriate 7. celebration ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. popularity 8. their ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. emotions 9. news ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. real 10. spoken ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 2.4 Whichofthefollowingwordsarenouns?Theseareamixofconcreteandabstractnouns.Checkthe appropriatecolumn. Noun Notanoun Sample:while ................... 6Lesson 2: Concrete and abstract nouns Gettingstarted(answersonp.21) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. repair 6. obstruction ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. intelligence 7. pounds ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. a 8. disgraceful ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. skis 9. complicated ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. us 10. since ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 2.5 Underlinethenounsinthesentencesbelow.Inthisexercise,thenounswillallhavetheorhisinfront ofthem.Somewillbeconcreteandsomewillbeabstract.Somesentenceshavemorethanonenoun. Sample:Hisanswerwasn’thelpful. Gettingstarted(answersonp.21) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Shereadtheplayoveragain. 6. Theglitteratialwaysliketofollowthe fashionoftheday. 2. Theactionsbecamemonotonous. 7. Theywillrepairhisstove. 3. Hefeltthathismarriage,hisrelationship withher,wasstrong. 8. Thearrangementwasgoodforallofthem. 4. Thetimehad¢nallycometoconfessthe 9. Theaudiencestaredatthescreen, truth. fascinatedbytheactiontheywereseeing. 5. He’stheboywhodeliversthepaper. 10. Thede¢nitionwasinhisdictionary. Thenounsareunderlinedinthefollowingsentences: 4. Thisauthorliveswithherhusband. 5. Domostpeopleproceedcontentedlythroughlife? 6. Yourphotographofthatchildsleepingwonyouaprize. Asyoucanseefromthesesentences,whilethe orhis arewaystotestawordto seeifit’sanoun,anoundoesn’tnecessarilyhavetheorhisinfrontofitineverysentence. Sincewecansaytheauthor,thehusband,thepeople,hislife,thephotograph,hischild,and hisprize,theunderlinedwordsinsentences4^6areeachnouns. Test yourself 2.6 Underlinethenounsinthesentencesbelow.Inthisexercise,thenounswillnotallhavetheorhis infrontofthem.Justtesteachwordtoseeifitcanbeanoun. Sample:Therepairofmycamerawentsmoothly. Gettingstarted(answersonp.21) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Iwroteeverywordoftheletter. 6. Agroupofthreegeneralssentthetroopsaway. 2. Thehousewasnearthecity. 7. The£agwasnearyourdesk. 3. Whydidhegetonanelevator? 8. Mymotheractedinaplay. 4. Shehasmyphone. 9. Hecalledthehouseeveryday. 5. Youryoungerbrotherwasbusy. 10. Youhavetogivehersalaryandbene¢ts. 7UNIT 1: NOUNS It’s important torealize that the same word can often be used as more than one part of speech.Forexample,repaircanbeusedasanoun(example:Therepairwasrelativelyinex- pensive),asan adjective (example:The repair manualwasnot veryhelpful), or as averb (example:Heneedstorepairthewashingmachine).We’lltalkaboutverbsandadjectivesin Units2and4,respectively. 8Lesson 3: Singular and plural nouns What’sthedi¡erencebetweencatandcats?Thenouncatisusedwhenitreferstoonlyone cat;itsformissingular.Thenouncatsisusedwhenitrepresentsmorethanonecat;its formisplural.Thus,thesingularandpluralformstellusaboutnumber.Belowaresome nounsintheirsingularandpluralforms. Singular Plural box boxes bed beds kite kites day days country countries man men child children Test yourself 3.1 Underlineeachnouninthesentencesbelowandindicatewhetheritissingular(SG)orplural(PL). Theremaybemorethanonenouninasentence. Sample:Theyusedhercomputer(SG)todownloadthe¢les(PL). Gettingstarted(answersonp.21) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Hehadafewgoodideas. 6. Sharksliveinwater. 2. Theboysspokeinaquietwhisper. 7. Yesterday,Icaughtabigtrout. 3. Thetouristsgreetedthequeenwithattitudes 8. Therearemanybeautifulhomesonthisblock. ofrespect. 9. Visitorstothiscountrymustobtainvisas. 4. Myneighborisaneurologist. 10. Hiscousinfoughtinabrutalbattletofree 5. Theexterminatorfoundbugsintheo⁄ce. ninetyhostages. Regular and irregular plurals Usually,wepluralizeanounbyaddingan‘‘s’’toit,asinbooks;thesenounsarecalledregu- lar.Thereareahandfulofnounsthatarepluralizedinotherways;thesenounsarecalled irregular. Irregularnounsformtheirpluralindi¡erentways.Herearesomecommonpatterns: 1. changingavowel:man/men,forexample 2. adding‘‘ren’’or‘‘en’’:child/children,forexample 3. addingnothing:¢sh/¢sh,forexample 4. changing‘‘f’’to‘‘v’’andthenadding‘‘s’’:knife/knives,forexample Test yourself 3.2 Underlineeachpluralnouninthesentencesbelowandindicateifitisregular(REG)orirregular (IRREG)intermsofhowitispluralized. Sample:Thewomen(IRREG)receivedtheireducationatsomeexclusiveschools(REG). 9UNIT 1: NOUNS Gettingstarted(answersonp.21) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thedoctortreatedmostofthepatientswho 6. Thosehusbandsandwivesleadinteresting werewaiting. lives. 2. Thegeesecrossedtheroadnearmycar. 7. Herfeethavegrownsincelastyear. 3. Shesetatraptocatchthemicethathad 8. Thebackwindowofmyapartment invadedherkitchen. overlooksaboutadozenroofs. 4. Youwillhavetofeedtheoxenmost 9. Thesalesmensurroundedmeinthe afternoons. showroom. 5. WheneverItraveltothecountryside, 10. Kennethhadtobuytwobottlesof Iseemanysheep,ducks,deer,and disinfectanttogetridoftheliceinhis cows. bathroom. To enhance your understanding What is the plural of the ‘‘word’’ blun? Even though you’ve probably never seen this nonsense word, you’re likely to say its plural is bluns. That’s because we don’t have to memorize the ending of regular plurals; we simply use our plural formation rule: ‘‘add s.’’ Buttheformsforirregularpluralwords,likechildrenandmen,needtobememorizedsince they don’t follow a consistent pattern. To further enhance your understanding Earlier we said that we usually pluralize a noun in English by adding an ‘‘s’’ to it. There’s actuallymore toitthanthat,whenone examinesthepronunciation ofregular nounsmore closely. Here are some regular English nouns: AB cat dog lip bee myth car laugh deal Say each word in column A out loud, adding its plural ending. (Don’t whisper, or this won’t work.) You’ll notice that, as you expect, you’re adding an [s] sound to each word. (Symbols in square brackets [ ] indicate sounds rather than letters.) Now say each word in column B out loud, adding its plural ending. If you listen carefully, you’ll notice that you’re not adding an [s] sound to each word to make it plural. You’re actually adding a [z] sound! (If English is not your native language, you may not be doing this.) Itturnsoutthatwelearned,whenwewereacquiringEnglishaschildren,thatitisthelast sound, and not letter, of a regular noun that determines whether we add [s] or [z]. Some sounds(voicedsounds)aremadewithourvocalcordsvibrating,likethestringsofaguitar. Try this: hold your hand touching your throat, about where a man’s Adam’s apple is, while you say and hold a [v] sound ([v v v v v...]). You’ll feel the vibration of your vocal cords. 10Lesson 3: Singular and plural nouns Other sounds (voiceless sounds) are made with our vocal cords not vibrating. Now touch yourhandtoyourthroatagainandthistimesayandholdan[f]sound([fffff...]);youwill notice the lack of vibration. Sohowdoweknowwhethertosaythepluralwithan[s]or[z]sound?Ifthelastsoundof awordisavoicelesssound,weaddan[s]soundtomakeitplural.Ifthelastsoundofaword is a voiced sound, we add a [z] sound to make it plural. This is not a rule that someone has ever taught us, but part of our unconscious knowledge of English. Noticethathavingan[s]soundaftervoicelesssoundsmakessense:[s]itselfisvoiceless. By the same reasoning, having a [z] after voiced sounds also makes sense: [z] itself is voiced.Sowhatyoucanseeisthatthelastsoundofthenounandthesoundoftheregular plural share the same voicing characteristic: either the vocal cords vibrate for both sounds, or they don’t. Youmayhavenoticedthatthere’sactuallyathirdtypeofregularnoun.Saythefollowing words out loud, adding the plural ending to each: glass garage maze church wish judge Thesewordsallalreadyendinsounds(again,notletters)thatareeither[s]or[z]orsounds very similar to them. They are all ‘‘noisy’’ sounds. For the plural forms of these words, we addavowelsound(writtenwiththelettere)followedbya[z]sound(butwrittenwiththe letters):glasses,mazes,wishes,garages,churches,judges.Ifyouthinkaboutit,pronounc- ingavowelbetweenthenoisysoundattheendofthenounandthenoisysound[z]ofthe plural makes sense: without that vowel, we would have two noisy sounds in a row, something that would be harder for the listener to hear clearly. Wow!Youmaywanttojustpauseforamomenthereandcontemplatethecomplexityof what you know about your language. And you knew how to do this before you even went to kindergarten! You just haven’t known that you know it. 11Lesson 4: Animate and inanimate nouns Takealookatthefollowingsentence: 1. Thepostcardsawthemailman. What’s strange about this sentence? What’s strange is that we don’t expect a postcard, whichisnotalive,tobeabletoseesomething;onlythingsthatarealivehavetheability tosee.Nounsthatrefertothingsthatarealivearecalledanimate,whilenounsthatrefer to things that are not alive are called inanimate. Postcard is an inanimate noun and usingitasananimateonemakesforaveryunusualsentence. Quicktip4.1 Animate nouns refer to things that are alive; inanimate nouns refer to things that are not alive. Test yourself 4.1 Decideifeachnounisanimateorinanimate. Sample:apple inanimate Gettingstarted(answersonp.21) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. word 6. criminal .................................................. ...................................................... 2. lizard 7. furniture .................................................. ...................................................... 3. glasses 8. doctor .................................................. ...................................................... 4. calendar 9. mouse .................................................. ...................................................... 5. baby 10. truck .................................................. ...................................................... Nowtakealookatthefollowingsentence: 2. Thedogwroteabest-sellingnovel. Again,there’ssomethingstrangehere.Weknowthatdogisanimate.However,onlyaspecial typeofanimatenounhastheabilitytowriteabest-sellingnovel:ahumannoun.Thefollow- ingsentenceis¢ne,sinceteacherisahumananimatenoun:Myteacherwroteabest-selling novel.Ontheotherhand,sincedogisanonhumananimatenoun,sentence2doesnotsound right. To summarize: nouns maybehuman animate(teacher),nonhuman animate (dog), or inanimate(postcard). Test yourself 4.2 Decideifeachnounisanimateorinanimate.Ifanounisanimate,decideifitishumanornonhuman. Sample:chair inanimate 12Lesson 4: Animate and inanimate nouns Gettingstarted(answersonp.21) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. dinner 6. tablecloth .......................................................... .............................................................. 2. pet 7. recipes .......................................................... .............................................................. 3. friend 8. assassin .......................................................... .............................................................. 4. child 9. shark .......................................................... .............................................................. 5. spider 10. freedom .......................................................... .............................................................. 13Lesson 5: Count and noncount nouns Let’stakeacloserlookatthenounhand.Noticethatyoucansaythefollowing: thehand ahand hands Herearesomeothernounswhichdemonstratethesamepattern: thestore astore stores theidea anidea ideas thetissue atissue tissues Let’scomparehandtothenounfurniture.Aswithhand,wecansaythefurniture.Butwe can’t say *afurnitureor *furnitures.Herearesomeothernounswhichdemonstratethe samepatternasfurniture: thedust *adust *dusts theenergy *anenergy *energies thebiology *abiology *biologies Thus,therearesomenounsthatcanbecounted,andsowecanuseaoranwiththemand canalsomakethemplural.Thesenounsarecalled,appropriately,countnouns.Handisa countnoun.Soarestore,idea,andtissue. Thereareothernounsthattypicallyarenotcounted,andsowedonotuseaoranwith themanddonottypicallymakethemplural.Thesenounsarecalled,alsoappropriately, noncountnouns.(Anothernameforanoncountnounisamassnoun.)Furnitureisanon- countnoun.Soaredust,energy,andbiology. Youmaywellbesayingtoyourself,‘‘Waitaminute.Icancountfurniture.Icansaysome- thinglike: three couches andthree chairsmake six piecesof furniture.’’Andof course, you’dberight.Butnoticethatinthissentence,thewordscouchandchaircanbemadeplu- ral,butnotthewordfurniture.Andthewordpiececanbemadeplural,but,again,notthe wordfurniture. Quicktip5.1 If you can pluralize a noun in a sentence, it is functioning as a count noun. Note that a noun is considered to be a count noun if itcanbemadeplural,evenif it’s not plural in a particular sentence.Thus, in the sentenceIateacookie, cookie is a count noun because one could pluralize it to cookies without changing its basic meaning. Test yourself 5.1 Foreachunderlinednouninthesentencesbelow,indicateifitiscount(C)ornoncount(NC).Use thepluraltesttohelpyou. 14Lesson 5: Count and noncount nouns Sample:Herhairstyle(C)clearlyrevealedherface. Gettingstarted(answersonp.22) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thelights( )ofthecity( ) 6. Thepolice( )willbehereinamoment. twinkled. 7. Heleanedonthehandle( )andcursed. 2. Iloveeatingrice( ). 8. Iwassothirsty,Ineededthreeglasses 3. Hisanger( )wasbarelyunder ()ofwater( ). control. 9. Howmuchmoney( )doyoumakein 4. Herjob( )wasratherdemanding. anhour( )? 5. Manytypesofinformation( )are 10. By11P.M.,thetrain-station( )was availableatthelibrary( ). nearlyempty. Thereisalsoanothergoodwaytodecideifanouniscountornoncount.Takealookatthe useofthewordsmuchandmanyinthefollowingsentences. 1. Hehasmanychildren. 2. Thatmanhasmanyinterests. 3. Thatwilltaketoomuchtime. 4. Theyhavemanylightsoninthehouse. 5. Wehavemuchfurnitureinourstore. 6. IwonderhowmuchwealthisinSiliconValley. As you may have noticed, many is used with count nouns, much is used with noncount nouns. Quicktip5.2 If you can use many with a noun (when it is pluralized), it’s a count noun. If you can use much with a noun, it’s a noncount noun. Andwehavestillanotherwaytodistinguishcountfromnoncountnouns: 7. HehasfewerchildrenthanIdo. 8. Thatmanhasfewerintereststhanheusedto. 9. ThatwilltakelesstimethanIthought. 10. Theyhavefewerlightsoninthehouse. 11. Wehavelessfurnitureinourstore. 12. Idon’thavelessmoneyinmypursethanyouhave. Asyou’veprobably¢guredoutfromtheseexamples,weusefewerwithcountnounsand lesswithnoncountnouns. Quicktip5.3 Ifyoucanusefewerwithanoun(whenitispluralized),it’sacountnoun.Ifyoucanuseless with a noun, it’s a noncount noun. 15UNIT 1: NOUNS Test yourself 5.2 For each underlined noun in the sentences below, indicate if it is being used as a count (C) or noncount(NC)nouninthatsentence.Usetheplural,much/many,orfewer/lessteststohelpyou. Sample:Theirnewalbum(C)wasahugehit. Gettingstarted(answersonp.22) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Algebra( )wasoneofmyworst 6. People( )arefunnysometimes. subjects( )inhighschool( ). 7. Thegovernment( )oftheUnited 2. Ihadnoideathattherewerevarious Stateshasthreebranches( ). theories( ),suchasEuclidean 8. Senators( )canspendmoney andfractal. ( )unnecessarily. 3. Thesmoke( )rosethroughthe 9. Ittakese¡ort( )togetagood chimney( ). grade( )inMr.Goodman’s 4. Bread( )isastapleinmany class( ). societies( ). 10. Thereporters( )wrotethestory 5. Shedecidedtopushtheissue( ) (). further. To enhance your understanding Many nouns can be used as either count nouns or as noncount nouns, depending on how they are being used in a specific sentence. Let’s look at the following sentence containing the word sugar: 13. The sugar is spilling onto the floor. In this sentence, is sugar being used as a count or noncount noun? Would you say: The sugarsarespillingontothefloor?orManysugarsarespilling ontothefloor? Probably not. So sugar, in sentence 13, is a noncount noun. Now take a look at another sentence with sugar: 14. This gourmet shop has sugars I’ve never even heard of. In this sentence, is sugar being used as a count or noncount noun? First, notice that sugar hereispluralized.Second,noticethatyoucansayThisgourmetshophasmanysugarsI’ve neverevenheardof.Sosugar,insentence14,isacountnoun.Intermsofmeaning,whatis important here is that the sentence is talking about different types of sugars, say, brown sugar, white sugar, confectioners’ sugar, etc. And one more sentence type with sugar: 15. The sugar that works best in this recipe is brown sugar. Here, sugar, while not pluralized, could be pluralized and refers, in fact, to a kind of sugar. For example, you could say: The sugars that work best in this recipe are brown sugar and white sugar. For these reasons, sugar is being used here as a count noun. Here are some more examples of sentences with nouns which, like sugar, are typically used as noncount nouns but can also be used as count nouns. 16a. I like to drink milk. (milk used as noncount noun) 16b. Thatstorehasmilkswithdifferentkindsofflavoring:chocolate,vanilla,mocha, and strawberry. (milks used as count noun) 16Lesson 5: Count and noncount nouns 16c. The milk that is the healthiest is nonfat milk. (milk used as count noun) 17a. Aplentifulsupplyofwaterisimportantforacommunity’ssurvival.(waterused as noncount noun) 17b. Therearedifferentkindsofgourmetwatersonthemarketthesedays.(waters used as count noun) 17c. ThewaterIusuallyorderinrestaurantsisimported.(waterusedascountnoun) 17Lesson 6: Proper and common nouns Dothefollowingsentenceslookalittlestrange? 1. Mrs.smithtookthe10thgradeclassoflincolnhighschooltofranceforatrip. 2. Theclassvisitedparisandwasthrilledtoseetheei¡eltower. Normally,wecapitalizethe¢rstletterofnounsthatareactualnames,nomatterwhere theyareinasentence.Let’slookatthesamesentenceswiththenamescapitalized: 3. Mrs.Smithtookthe10thgradeclassofLincolnHighSchooltoFranceforatrip. 4. TheclassvisitedParisandwasthrilledtoseetheEi¡elTower. Nouns that are actual names are called proper nouns; nouns that are not names are calledcommonnouns.Noticethatnotonlypeoplehavenames:places(Rome),companies (IBM),andbooks(GoneWiththeWind),amongothers,canhavenames,too. Quicktip6.1 Nouns that are actual names, for example Mary, are called proper nouns. Nouns that are not names are called common nouns, e.g. girl. Quicktip6.2 One way to identify a proper noun is to ask yourself: is this a noun I would capitalize, no matter where it is in a sentence? If so, it’s a proper noun. Test yourself 6.1 Foreachnounbelow,determineifitisapropernounorcommonnoun.Forthisexercise,theproper nounsarenotcapitalized. Sample:england proper Gettingstarted(answersonp.22) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. seattle 6. mediterraneansea ............................... ............................... 2. craterlakenationalpark 7. disneyland ............................... ............................... 3. tissues 8. company ............................... ............................... 4. sofa 9. britishbroadcastingcompany ............................... ............................... 5. pepsicola 10. television ............................... ............................... 18Lesson 6: Proper and common nouns To enhance your understanding InLesson1wesaidthatwordsthatcanhavetheinfrontofthemandsoundlikeacomplete unit are nouns. That still works. The reverse, however, is not true: not all proper nouns can have the in front of them. Compare the following proper nouns. Those on the left use the; those on the right do not. 5. a. The United States Great Britain The Netherlands France b. The Holy See HolyCrossUniversity c. The Jolly Green Giant Big Foot d. The Bronx Manhattan Most proper nouns don’t use the – just think of the names of people you know. Those few cases where a proper noun does use the are exceptions; we memorize those. 19Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 1 Test yourself 1.1 Noun Notanoun 1. tree ................... 2. when ................... 3. beds ................... 4. glass ................... 5. said ................... Test yourself 1.2 1. yourredsweater 2. thoseboxes 3. afewmen 4. manydigitalphotos 5. hisveryinterestingarticle Test yourself 2.1 1. mu⁄n concrete 2. violin concrete 3. freedom abstract 4. elegance abstract 5. train concrete Test yourself 2.2 Noun Notanoun 1. concept ................... 2. shockingly ................... 3. wrote ................... 4. conversation ................... 5. interview ................... Test yourself 2.3 Noun Notanoun 1. jumped ................... 2. appropriate ................... 3. popularity ................... 4. emotions ................... 5. real ................... 20Answer keys: Unit 1 Test yourself 2.4 Noun Notanoun 1. repair ................... 2. intelligence ................... 3. a ................... 4. skis ................... 5. us ................... Test yourself 2.5 1. Shereadtheplayoveragain. 2. Theactionsbecamemonotonous. 3. Hefeltthathismarriage,hisrelationshipwithher,wasstrong. 4. Thetimehad¢nallycometoconfessthetruth. 5. He’stheboywhodeliversthepaper. Test yourself 2.6 1. Iwroteeverywordoftheletter. 2. Thehousewasnearthecity. 3. Whydidhegetonanelevator? 4. Shehasmyphone. 5. Youryoungerbrotherwasbusy. Test yourself 3.1 1. Hehadafewgoodideas(PL). 2. Theboys(PL)spokeinaquietwhisper(SG). 3. Thetourists(PL)greetedthequeen(SG)withattitudes(PL)ofrespect(SG). 4. Myneighbor(SG)isaneurologist(SG). 5. Theexterminator(SG)foundbugs(PL)intheo⁄ce(SG). Test yourself 3.2 1. Thedoctortreatedmostofthepatients(REG)whowerewaiting. 2. Thegeese(IRREG)crossedtheroadnearmycar. 3. Shesetatraptocatchthemice(IRREG)thathadinvadedherkitchen. 4. Youwillhavetofeedtheoxen(IRREG)mostafternoons(REG). 5. WheneverItraveltothecountryside,Iseemanysheep(IRREG),ducks(REG),deer(IRREG),and cows(REG). Test yourself 4.1 1. word inanimate 2. lizard animate 3. glasses inanimate 4. calendar inanimate 5. baby animate Test yourself 4.2 1. dinner inanimate 2. pet nonhumananimate 21UNIT 1: NOUNS 3. friend humananimate 4. child humananimate 5. spider nonhumananimate Test yourself 5.1 1. Thelights(C)ofthecity(C)twinkled. 2. Iloveeatingrice(NC). 3. Hisanger(NC)wasbarelyundercontrol. 4. Herjob(C)wasratherdemanding. 5. Manytypesofinformation(NC)areavailableatthelibrary(C). Test yourself 5.2 1. Algebra(NC)wasoneofmyworstsubjects(C)inhighschool(C). 2. Ihadnoideathattherewerevarioustheories(C),suchasEuclideanandfractal. 3. Thesmoke(NC)rosethroughthechimney(C). 4. Bread(NC)isastapleinmanysocieties(C). 5. Shedecidedtopushtheissue(C)further. Test yourself 6.1 1. seattle proper 2. craterlakenationalpark proper 3. tissues common 4. sofa common 5. pepsicola proper ☞FORA REVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEE THEWEBSITE. 22UNIT 2: VERBS Lesson 7: Identifying verbs What’saverb?Verbsarewordsthatusuallyexpressanaction.Herearetwoeasywaysto identifyaverb;youcanuseeitherone. Quicktip7.1 If a word can have should in front of it and the phrase sounds complete, the word is a verb. Examples: should leave, should sail, should discover, should complain. Leave, sail, discover, and complain are all verbs. Quicktip7.2 Ifawordcanhavetoinfrontofitandthephrasesoundscomplete,it’saverb.Examples:to leave, to sail, to discover, to complain. Leave, sail, discover, and complain are all verbs. (Note that we’re not talking here about two, too, or the to that indicates direction, as in Let’s go to the park.) Herearesomeexamplesofverbs.Youcanseethattheyallmeetthetestwithshouldand thetestwithto. go: shouldgo togo tell: shouldtell totell disagree: shoulddisagree todisagree spell: shouldspell tospell Incontrast,thefollowingwordsdonotpasstheshouldortotest: co¡ee: *shouldco¡ee *toco¡ee beautiful: *shouldbeautiful *tobeautiful hardly: *shouldhardly *tohardly under: *shouldunder *tounder Thus,co¡ee,beautiful,hardly,andunderarenotverbs. Test yourself 7.1 Whichofthefollowingwordsareverbs?Seeiftheysoundlikeacompleteunitwhenyouputthe wordhere:should orto .Checktheappropriatecolumn. Verb Notaverb Sample:characteristic ................... 23UNIT 2: VERBS Gettingstarted(answersonp.41) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. defend 6. sightsee ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. include 7. unbelievably ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. largest 8. look ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. how 9. grow ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. learn 10. ambitious ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 7.2 Underlinetheverbsinthesephrases.Testeachwordtoseeifitsoundslikeacompleteunitwhen youputthewordhere:should orto . Sample:shouldreallythink Gettingstarted(answersonp.41) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. mustnotworry 6. canusuallysleeplate 2. mightkeep 7. won’tgohome 3. wishforpeace 8. wouldlikeguidance 4. maysometimescook 9. couldneverbuild 5. willtravel 10. shalldo 24Lesson 8: The verb base Sometimes a verb changes its form. Let’s look at the following sentences.The verb is underlinedineachone. 1. Johnshouldstudy. 2. Johnstudied. 3. Johnisstudying. 4. Johnstudies. Youcertainlycan’tsay,*Johnshouldstudied,orJohntostudied,sohowdoweknowthat studiedisaverb?Totesttheword,youhavetoseeifitcanfollowshouldortoinadi¡erent form, not necessarily in the formthat you see in a particular sentence. For example, if you see John studied,askyourselfifthere’sadi¡erentformof studied that can follow shouldorto.Inthiscasethereis:JohnshouldstudyorJohndecidedtostudy.Sostudyand all its forms are verbs.The form of the verb that follows should or to is called thebase formorin¢nitiveform.Thetermin¢nitiveisusedtorefereithertothebaseformalone (forexample,study),ortotheto+baseform(forexample,tostudy). Let’sputeachoftheseverbsintoitsbaseform.Thebaseformisunderlined. 5. working:(should,to)work 6. believed:(should,to)believe 7. written:(should,to)write 8. wore:(should,to)wear 9. throws:(should,to)throw Test yourself 8.1 Puteachoftheverbsbelowintoitsbaseform.Simply¢ndtheformthatfollowsshouldorto. Sample:grew:grow Gettingstarted(answersonp.41) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. wrote: 6. investigates: ..................................................... ...................................................... 2. talking: 7. spoken: ..................................................... ...................................................... 3. thought: 8. married: ..................................................... ...................................................... 4. considered: 9. decides: ..................................................... ...................................................... 5. seen: 10. found: ..................................................... ...................................................... Test yourself 8.2 Whichofthefollowingwordsareverbs?Youmayhavetoputsomeintotheirbaseforminordertobe sure.Rememberalsothataverbusuallyindicatesanaction. Verb Notaverb Sample:£ew ................... 25UNIT 2: VERBS Gettingstarted(answersonp.41) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. danced 6. pushed ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. sofa 7. goodness ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. large 8. at ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. gave 9. carries ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. stares 10. them ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 8.3 Underlinetheverbsineachofthesentencesbelow,usingtheshouldortoteststohelpyou.Youmay havetoputsomeverbsintotheirbaseformsinordertobesure.Rememberalsothataverbusually indicatesanaction. Sample:Shegrabbedhisarm. Gettingstarted(answersonp.41) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thehostgreeteduscordially. 6. Myneighbor£ewtoChicago. 2. Sheshouldsaythatagain. 7. Thechildrenwantedsomecandy. 3. Jonathan walked over to the 8. Tomorrowwemightgotothemuseum. car. 9. Thecensorusuallyobjectstothesameseven 4. Hewashesdisheseveryevening. words. 5. Youcan’tspeakVietnamese. 10. IntheafternoonIboughtapresentformyson. 26Lesson 9: Action verbs and linking verbs Theverbswehavelookedatsofar,suchasgo,sing,andrevise,allindicateactions.Infact, they’recalledactionverbs.However,thereareotherverbswhichdon’tindicateactions. Thesearemostcommonlycalledlinkingverbs.Oneexampleofsuchaverbistheword seem,asinthesentences,Youseemtired,They’veseemedbusylately.Don’tworry,though: seem still follows ourshouldortorules: Harryshould seem surprised at times;You don’t wanttoseemarrogant,doyou?Soeventhoughseemisn’tindicatinganaction,it’seasyto identify itasaverb. Other examplesoflinking verbsare resembleandbecome.Linking verbsexpressarelationshipbetweenthenounorpronounthatcomesbeforethelinking verbandwhateverfollowsit.(Forpronouns,seeUnit7.) Test yourself 9.1 Whichofthefollowingwordsareverbs?Seeifeachsoundslikeacompleteunitwhenyouputthe wordhere:should orto .Checktheappropriatecolumn.Alltheverbswillbelinking verbs.Youmayhavetoputsomeintheirbaseformtobesure. Verb Notaverb Sample:appear ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.42) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. tasted 6. look ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. friendly 7. huge ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. shady 8. seven ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. be 9. ocean ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. got 10. sound ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 9.2 Underlinetheverbsinthesesentences.Testeachwordtoseeifitsoundslikeacompleteunitwhen youputthewordhere:should orto .Alltheverbswillbelinkingverbs.Youmayhaveto putsomeintheirbaseformtobesure. Sample:Shelookedhappy. Gettingstarted(answersonp.42) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Barrywillfeelawfulaboutit. 6. The¢nalexamproveddi⁄cult. 2. Melissaresembleshermother. 7. Thatdinnersmellssogood! 3. Zacksoundedextremely 8. The¢re¢ghtersremainatthestationall angry. nightlong. 4. The¢shtastedundercooked. 9. Theystayedindoorsthroughouttheirordeal. 5. Youwerenothomeearly. 10. Bynoontheweatherturnednice. 27UNIT 2: VERBS Themostcommonlinkingverbistheverbbe,oftencalledthecopula.Youcanseedi¡erent formsoftheverbbeinthefollowingsentences. 1. Iamhappy. 2. Youarehappy. 3. Heishappy. 4. Iwashappy. 5. Youwerehappy. 6. Ihavebeenhappy. 7. Heisbeinghappy. Notice how di¡erent these forms are from the base form ofbe.Infact, be is the most irregularverbintheEnglishlanguage:ithasmoreformsthananyotherverb.Butyou canstillusetheshouldortotesttoidentifybeasaverb:Youshouldbehappy,Theydecided tobehappy.Forconvenience,theformsofbeareindicatedinQuicktip9.1. Quicktip9.1 The forms of the irregular verb be are: am, are, is, was, were, be, been, being. Note that be andbecome are two di¡erent verbs. Here are the forms ofbecome: become, becomes,became,becoming. Test yourself 9.3 Underlinetheformsofbeineachofthesentencesbelow.Somesentencesmaycontainmorethan oneformofbe. Sample:Itisaprivilegetomeetyou. Gettingstarted(answersonp.42) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Paulwasinpoweratthatmoment. 6. Thesituationisgettingoutofhand. 2. Theyareabsolutelycorrectintheirthinking. 7. Myniecewantstobeapsychiatristwhen shegrowsup. 3. Yoursuitcaseswereintheoverhead compartmentduringthe£ight. 8. The problem isbeing corrected as we speak. 4. ChristinahasbeenwantingtogotoEurope foralongtime. 9. Historymightbebeingmaderightnow. 5. Whatiswrongwithbeingagoodstudent? 10. Iamhappytoshowyouaroundtown. Often,formsoftheverbbearesaidandwrittenascontractions,asinthesesentences: 8. I’mhappy.(verb=am) 9. He’shappy.(verb=is) 10. We’rehappy.(verb=are) 11. He’sbeinghappy.(verb=is) Theseareallstillsentenceswithbe. Formoreontheverbbe,seeLessons34and35. Test yourself 9.4 Underlinetheformsofbeineachofthesentencesbelow.Somewillbewrittenascontractions. Sample:It’sunusualtoseerainatthistimeoftheyear. 28Lesson 9: Action verbs and linking verbs Gettingstarted(answersonp.42) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. They’reusuallyhomebynow. 6. Ithinkshe’smyhusband’snewboss. 2. Are you worried about 7. Thetyrantwillcertainlybeaccusedof anything? crimesagainsthumanity. 3. Iheardthatthe£ightwaslate. 8. You’rearealgoodfriend. 4. We’rehonoredbyyourpresence. 9. I’mafraidtotellyouthetruth. 5. It’s too bad that theYankees lost last 10. Ithasbeenfartoolongsincewelastsaw night. eachother. Test yourself 9.5 Whichofthesewordsisaverb?Seeifitsoundslikeacompleteunitwhenyouputthewordhere: should orto .Checktheappropriatecolumn.Someoftheverbsarelinkingverbsand someareactionverbs.Alltheverbswillbeintheirbaseforms. Verb Notaverb Sample:run ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.42) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. resemble 6. although ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. become 7. search ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. this 8. grow ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. be 9. without ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. new 10. really ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 9.6 Whichofthesewordsisaverb?Youmayhavetoputsomeintheirbaseformsinordertobesure. Somearelinkingverbs. Verb Notaverb Sample:orange ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.42) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. appeared 6. did ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. attends 7. you ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. whenever 8. living ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. was 9. completes ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. heard 10. eraser ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 9.7 Underlinetheverbineachofthefollowingsentences.Youmayhavetoputsomeintheirbaseforms andtesteachwordwithshouldortoinordertobesureofyouranswer.Eachsentencehasonlyone verb.Theverbsinthisexerciseareallactionverbs. Sample:Hebakescookiesforhisson’sbirthday. 29UNIT 2: VERBS Gettingstarted(answersonp.43) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thecarspunoutofcontrol. 6. Mollyreceivedareplytoherletter. 2. Don’ttalkduringthemovie. 7. Heateonthestoopofthefrontporch. 3. Thedoctortiedastripofgauzearoundher 8. Grandmaheldthekitteninherlap. hand. 9. Sheneversaysanything. 4. Maxinespenttoomuchmoney. 10. Theywashthewindowsregularly. 5. TheysawtheplaylastSunday. Test yourself 9.8 Identifytheverbineachofthefollowingsentences.Youmayhavetoputsomeintheirbaseforms andtesteachwordwithshouldortoinordertobesureofyouranswer.Eachsentencehasonlyone verb.Theverbsinthisexercisewillbeeitheractionorlinkingverbs. Sample:Bridgetspenthoursinthedustyoldbookstore. Gettingstarted(answersonp.43) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thatwasthebestmealintheworld. 6. Itseemedlate. 2. Iunderstandyourpoint. 7. Johnnypackedallourthings. 3. Maybetheyknoweachotherwell. 8. Motherisalwaysrightaboutthat. 4. SheisfromWisconsin. 9. Shewentdowntothebasement. 5. Those£owerssmellheavenly. 10. Ifeltwonderfulaboutmydecision. Howcanyoudetermineifaverbisbeingusedasanactionverboralinkingverb?There are a number of di¡erences between them. One way is to thinkof a linking verb as an equalsign(=).Forexample: 12. Harryresembleshisbrother. Harry=hisbrother. 13. Youarebored. You=bored. 14. Thatstrangelookingvegetabletastesawful. Thatstrangelookingvegetable=awful. Resembles,are,andtastesareeachbeingusedhereaslinkingverbs. Anotherwaytoidentifyalinkingverbistoseeifyoucansubstituteaformofbeforit, and leave the meaning basically the same. For example, take the sentence John seems interested in the conversation.Wecansubstituteaformofbe,speci¢cally, is,for seems: Johnisinterestedintheconversation.Thus,seemsisalinkingverbinthesentenceJohn seemsinterestedintheconversation.Takealookatsomemoreexamples. 15. Afterawhile,thehotelbecamedingy. Afterawhile,thehotelwasdingy. 16. AnnieandJaninelooksurprised. AnnieandJaninearesurprised. 30Lesson 9: Action verbs and linking verbs 17. Althoughinhiseighties,heremainsyouthful-looking. Althoughinhiseighties,heisyouthful-looking. Thus, became, look,and remains are being used as linking verbs in these sentences. Remember that be and its forms can also be used as linking verbs.While Quick tip 9.2 belowisn’tfoolproof,itwillusuallyhelpyouidentifywhetheraverbisanactionorlink- ingverb. Quicktip9.2 If you can substitute a form of be for a verb and the meaning of the sentence is basically the same, the verb is probably being used as a linking verb. The verb be and its forms are also linking verbs. Anotherwaytoidentifyalinkingverbistoseeifyoucansubstituteaformoftheword seemforit,andleavethemeaningbasicallythesame.Forexample,inthesentence,The hotshowerfeltsoothing,wecansubstituteaformofseemforfelt,andleavethesentence largelyunchanged:Thehotshowerseemedsoothing.Notethefollowingexamples: 18a. Afterawhile,thehotelbecamedingy. 18b. Afterawhile,thehotelseemeddingy. 19a. AnnieandJaninelooksurprised. 19b. AnnieandJanineseemsurprised. 20a. Althoughinhiseighties,heremainsyouthful-looking. 20b. Althoughinhiseighties,heseemsyouthful-looking. Thus,became,look,andremainsarebeingusedaslinkingverbsinthesesentences.Again, whileQuicktip9.3belowalsoisn’tfoolproof,itwillhelpyouidentifywhetheraverbisan actionorlinkingverb. Quicktip9.3 Ifyoucansubstituteaformofseemforaverbandthemeaningofthesentenceisbasically the same, the verb is probably being used as a linking verb. Test yourself 9.9 Decideiftheunderlinedverbsinthesentencesbelowareactionorlinkingverbs.Inthisexercise,if it’saformofbe,it’sbeingusedasalinkingverb.Ifit’snotaformofbe,usethebeorseemsubstitution teststoseeiftheverbisbeingusedasalinkingverb. Action Linking Sample:Shelaughedatallhisjokes. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.43) 1. TheCzarwasapersonofhighrank. ................... ................... 2. Thatdogbarksalot. ................... ................... 3. Mr.Kellywatchedthetra⁄cbelowhiswindow. ................... ................... 4. Youhavebeenaterri¢cfriendtomeovertheyears. ................... ................... 5. Ilovethewaythepillowsfeelsocozyinthishotel. ................... ................... 31UNIT 2: VERBS Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Jimmyisalwayseagertoansweranyquestions. ................... ................... 7. Findingahealthymealonthemenuprovedeasy. ................... ................... 8. He’snotassmartasheledmetobelieve. ................... ................... 9. Wecouldheartheneighborsarguingforhours. ................... ................... 10. Thatsoundsgoodtome. ................... ................... Test yourself 9.10 Underlinetheverbineachsentencebelowanddecideifit’sbeingusedasanactionorlinkingverb. Inthisexercise,iftheverbisaformofbe,it’sbeingusedasalinkingverb.Ifit’snotaformofbe,use thebeorseemsubstitutionteststoseeiftheverbisbeingusedasalinkingverb. Action Linking Sample:Thepolicemangavehimaticket. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.43) 1. They became best friends. ................... ................... 2. Itisnotnearlythesameasmine. ................... ................... 3. Unfortunately,Iforgotyourbirthdaythisyear. ................... ................... 4. Iwenttothecornerbakery. ................... ................... 5. Markremainsalegendtothisday. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Trigonometry bores me. ................... ................... 7. Babiesoftengethungry. ................... ................... 8. NoonegotaConthemidtermexam. ................... ................... 9. It’smuchadoaboutnothing. ................... ................... 10. Hemadesuchafussoveraminormistake. ................... ................... Hopefully you now have a good sense of the di¡erence between action and linking verbs.However,therearesomeverbsthatcanbeusedaseitheranactionverboralinking verb,dependingonthesentencethatit’sin.Compare,forexample,thefollowingtwosen- tenceswithfeel: 21. Maryfelttired. 22. Maryfeltthesoftnessofthematerial. Insentence21,feltisbeingusedasalinkingverb.NotethatMary=tired;Maryistired, Maryseemstiredallmakesensehere.Insentence22,Maryisdoinganaction.Also,one can’tthinkofitas:*Mary=thesoftnessofthematerial,*Marywasthesoftnessofthemate- rial,or*Maryseemedthesoftnessofthematerial.Thatis,thinkingoffeltasanequalsign orsubstitutingaformofbeorseemforfeltclearlydoesn’tworkhere.Thus,insentence22, feltisbeingusedasanactionverb. 32Lesson 9: Action verbs and linking verbs Hereareafewmoreexamples: 23. Thedinneratthatrestauranttasteddelicious.(linkingverb) (Thedinneratthatrestaurantwasdelicious.) 24. Itastedthesoup.(actionverb) (*Iwasthesoup.) 25. The£owerssmelledheavenly.(linkingverb) (The£owersareheavenly.) 26. Shesmelledthe¢rebeforeshesawit.(actionverb) (*Shewasthe¢rebeforeshesawit.) Test yourself 9.11 Underlinetheverbineachsentencebelowanddecideifit’sbeingusedasanactionorlinkingverb. Action Linking Sample:Thecrowdgrewangry. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.43) 1. Hegrewpotatoesonhisfarm. ................... ................... 2. Ilookedatthemessallaroundme. ................... ................... 3. Stephenlookshappytoday. ................... ................... 4. Inreality,exceptionsrarelyprovetherule. ................... ................... 5. Learningtheruleproveddi⁄cult. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Igotnervousbeforemybloodtest. ................... ................... 7. Igotaspasminmyarm. ................... ................... 8. Theideaofhavingapizzasoundsrealgood. ................... ................... 9. Lastnightaburglarsoundedthealarm. ................... ................... 10. Yourarelybecomeastarovernight. ................... ................... To enhance your understanding Anotherimportantdifferencebetweenactionandlinkingverbsisthatalinkingverbcanbe followed by just an adjective, while an action verb cannot: 27. She is tired. (TIred is an adjective.) 28. The mayor looked victorious. (Victorious is an adjective.) 29. *She washed tired. 30. *The mayor voted victorious. As you can see, is and looked are linking verbs in these sentences; washed and voted are action verbs. However, since we haven’t yet talked about adjectives (see Lesson 16), just keep this in mind as another difference between the two types of verbs. 33UNIT 2: VERBS To further enhance your understanding Compare the following two sentences: 31a. She looked careful. (careful is an adjective) 31b. She looked carefully. (carefully is an adverb) Canyousensethedifference?Insentence31atheverblookedisalinkingverb,followed by the adjective careful; the basic meaning of the sentence is She looked like she was a carefulperson.Incontrast,insentence31blookedisanactionverb,followedbytheadverb carefully (adverbs will be discussed in Lesson 27); the basic meaning of this sentence is She looked around in a careful manner. Quick tip 9.4 identifies yet another difference between linking verbs and action verbs. Quicktip9.4 Linking verbs are followed or modified by adjectives, while action verbs are followed or modified by adverbs. Test yourself 9.12 – Grand finale Ifyoucandothisexercise,you’veachievedabasicunderstandingofnounsandverbs. In each sentence below, underline the nouns and put a squiggly line under each verb. Each sentencehasonlyoneverbbutmayhavemorethanonenoun. Sample:Thejudgeswereunanimousintheirdecision. Gettingstarted(answersonp.43) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theirdaughterannouncedherengagement 6. Themayorexplainedhisposition. later. 7. Thetraincameearly. 2. Thesurgeonwashedhishands. 8. Threeothercustomersplacedordersthat 3. Thepianistwasdiligent. day. 4. Theyoungboygrittedhisteeth. 9. Herfriendwashelpful. 5. Herassistantisalwayslate. 10. Thathotmealtastesgreat. 34Lesson 10: Transitive and intransitive verbs Takealookatthefollowingquestions,eachwithanactionverb. 1. Whatdidyouwrite? 2. Whodidyouannoy? 3. Whatdidyouthrow? Theseareallperfectly¢nequestionsandeasytoanswer,e.g.Iwrotealetter,Iannoyedmy neighbor,Ithrewaball. Nowcomparethe¢rstgroupofquestionstothenextgroup,eachofwhichalsohasan actionverb. 4. *Whatdidyousleep? 5. *Whatdidyoudie? 6. *Whodidyouarrive? Thesequestionsareallstrangeandcan’treallybeanswered.That’sbecausetheverbsin thissecondgroupareverbsthatdonotactonanything. Thus,youcanseethattherearetwokindsofverbs.Onekind,suchaswrite,annoy,and throw, acts uponsomething.The noun(or nounphrase; seeLesson 28) that theverb acts uponiscalledthedirectobjectofthesentence.(You’lllearnmoreaboutdirectobjectsin Lesson 39.) Those verbs that act on something are called transitive verbs.Typically, in statements,atransitiveverbisfollowedbythenoun(ornounphrase)thatitisactingupon. Otherverbs,suchassleep,die,andarrive,donotactuponsomething.Infact,theseverbs can’thaveadirectobject.Noticethatyoucan’tsay,forexample:*Iusuallysleepthedog, *They’llarrivethebook.Thoseverbsthatdonotactonsomethingandappearinsentences thatdonothaveadirectobjectarecalledintransitiveverbs. Quicktip10.1 Action verbs that act upon something are called transitive verbs. Action verbs that do not act upon something are called intransitive verbs. Quicktip10.2 Ifaverb(inanyofitsforms)canbeputinoneofthefollowingslots,itistransitive:(a)What did you ? (b) Who did you ? If a verb cannot be put in one of these slots, it is intransitive. So,whichofthefollowingverbsaretransitiveandwhichintransitive? 7. Whatdidyoudiscover? 8. *Whatdidyoustruggle? 9. Whodidyoumeet? 10. *Whatdidyoulaugh? Sincesentences7and9are¢nequestions,discoverandmeetaretransitiveverbs.Sincesen- tences8and10arenotacceptablequestions,struggleandlaughareintransitiveverbs.Note 35UNIT 2: VERBS thatalthoughyoucansaysomethinglike,Whatdidyoustrugglewith?or,Whatdidyoulaugh at?,youcan’taskthequestionsastheyarestatedabove,andsotheverbsareintransitive. There’salsoanotherwaytodecideifaverbistransitiveorintransitive: Quicktip10.3 If a verb (in one of its forms) can be put in one of the following slots, it is transitive: (a) He something. (b) He someone. Quicktip10.4 If a verb (in one of its forms) can be put in the following slot, it is intransitive: He . Let’s use these Quick tips to decide which of the following verbs are transitive and whichareintransitive: 11. Hediscoveredsomething. 12. Hemetsomeone. 13. Hestruggled. 14. Helaughed. Quicktip10.3helpsidentifytheverbdiscoveredinsentence11andtheverbmetinsentence 12astransitive.Quicktip10.4helpsidentifytheverbstruggledinsentence13andtheverb laughedinsentence14asintranstive. Test yourself 10.1 Decideifeachoftheverbsbelowistransitiveorintransitive.UseQuicktips9.2,9.3and9.4tohelp youdecide. Transitive Intransitive Sample:mention ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.44) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. tell 6. proclaim ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. rise 7. vanish ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. raise 8. omit ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. fall 9. cry ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. publish 10. remove ................... ................... ................... ................... Nowtakealookatafewmoresentences: 15a. Iate. 15b. Iatedinner. 16a. Shedanceswell. 16b. Shedancesthetangowell. 17a. Theaudienceleft. 17b. Theaudienceleftthetheater. 36Lesson 10: Transitive and intransitive verbs You can see that there are verbs, such aseat,dance,andleave,thatcanbeusedaseither transitiveorintransitiveverbs. Quicktip10.5 Some verbs can be either transitive or transitive. These can occur in both of the following slots: (a) He something / someone. (b) He . Test yourself 10.2 Decideifeachoftheverbsbelowistransitive,intransitive,oreither.UseQuicktips10.2,10.3,10.4, and10.5tohelpyoudecide. Transitive Intransitive Either Sample:play ................... ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.44) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. beat 6. seek ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. cough 7. ¢ght ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. relax 8. pro¢t ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. drive 9. mention ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. entertain 10. paint ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... Test yourself 10.3 Inthesentencesbelow,decideiftheunderlinedverbisbeingusedasatransitiveorintransitive verb.UseQuicktips9.2and9.3tohelpyoudecide. Transitive Intransitive Sample:Theyplayedinthepark. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.44) 1. Gregopenedthenewspaper. ................... ................... 2. Icanreaditlater. ................... ................... 3. Don’tworry! ................... ................... 4. OnSundays,Iusuallystayathome. ................... ................... 5. It’sadvisabletowashyourhandsbeforeeating. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Samanthacanbakeatanytimeoftheday. ................... ................... 7. WhenI’mtired,Icomplain. ................... ................... 8. Sheendedtheconversation. ................... ................... 9. Theathletehittheball. ................... ................... 10. Mydoglickedmyfaceplayfully. ................... ................... 37Lesson 11: Phrasal verbs Whilemostverbsaresinglewords,somearephrasal:theycontaintwowords.Inphrasal verbs, the ¢rst word is a verb and the second word is called a particle.Herearesome examples,withthephrasalverbsunderlined: 1. Shelookeduptheanswer. 2. Wewilljustdropo¡the¢les. 3. Theprofessorpointedoutthecorrectanswer. Noticethatthemeaningofaphrasalverbisoftensimilartothemeaningofasingleverb: 4. Shelookeduptheanswer. Sheresearchedtheanswer. 5. Wewilljustdropo¡the¢les. Wewilljustdeliverthe¢les. 6. Theprofessorpointedoutthecorrectanswer. Theprofessoridenti¢edthecorrectanswer. Quicktip11.1 Ifyoucansubstituteasingleverbforaverbandthewordfollowingit,youprobablyhavea phrasal verb. For example, you can say, She pointed out the truth to us or She showed the truth to us. Point out is a phrasal verb. We can also still identify phrasal verbs using our to or should Quick tips: tolookup shouldlookup towarmup shouldwarmup topointout shouldpointout Test yourself 11.1 Eachof the sentencesbelowcontainsaphrasalverb.Underline thephrasalverb, using theverb substitutiontipandtheto andshould tipstohelpyou. Sample:Thelecturersummeduphismainpoints. Gettingstarted(answersonp.44) 1. He¢xedupthelightinginthehall. 4. RontakesoutthegarbageeveryMondaynight. 2. Theyreadoverthedocumentmanytimes. 5. Iwillpayo¡mymortgagein¢fteenyears. 3. Youdreamupthemostamazingthings. 38Lesson 11: Phrasal verbs Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Yesterday,thecompany’spresidenthanded 9. Itisobviousthatshecookedupthewhole inherresignation. story. 7. Shetookovertheentireoperation. 10. Youbringupaninterestingpoint. 8. Unfortunately,thebuyerofmyproperty blewo¡thedeal. In many cases, the two parts of a phrasal verb, the verb and its particle, can be separated: 7. Shelookedtheanswerup. 8. Wewilljustdropthe¢leso¡. 9. Theprofessorpointedthecorrectanswerout. Evenwhenthetwopartsareseparated,it’sstillaphrasal,ormulti-word,verb.Whenyou canseparatethetwopartsinthisway,youknowthatyou’vegotaphrasalverb. Quicktip11.2 If you can move a particle away from its verb, you have aphrasal verb. For example, since you can say both She looked up the answer and She looked the answer up, look up is a phrasal verb. Test yourself 11.2 Underlinethephrasalverbsineachofthesentencesbelow.Theparticlewillnotnecessarilybenext toitsverb. Sample:Thestudentswillhandtheirassignmentintomorrow. Gettingstarted(answersonp.44) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Mr.Parkerhelpedouthisneighbors. 6. The¢rstmemberoftherelayteampassed o¡thebatonsuccessfully. 2. Youshouldcalltheagencyup. 7. Theherdsmangatheredallhissheepin. 3. Thosechildrenputonashow. 8. Debbiekeptuphergradesingraduate 4. Whatbroughtthisreactionabout? school. 5. Thehurricanetoretheroofsofmany 9. Itookmyglasseso¡quickly. houseso¡. 10. Last monththe bank signed the deed over to me. Insomecases,aparticlecannotbeseparatedfromitsverb: 10. Sheaskedforthereceptionist. 11. Thelawyerobjectedtothedefendant’sstatement. 12. Hewilllookintothejudge’sdecision. 39UNIT 2: VERBS Inthesecases,youcannotsay: 13. *Sheaskedthereceptionistfor. 14. *Thelawyerobjectedthedefendant’sstatementto. 15. *Hewilllookthejudge’sdecisioninto. SoQuicktip11.2isnotusefulinthesecases;youhavetorelyontheverbsubstitutiontest andthetoandshouldtests. Test yourself 11.3 Someofthesentencesbelowcontainaonewordverbandsomecontainaphrasalverb.Underline theonewordverborphrasalverbineachsentence. Sample:Theyowedheralotofmoney. Gettingstarted(answersonp.44) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Eatupyourdinner! 6. Weateoutlastnight. 2. Thegirlswillputthepuzzlesaway. 7. Theshowranfartoolong. 3. Iunderstandthatconcept. 8. Theycheckedoutthesceneryaroundtheir hotel. 4. Birds£ysouthforthewinter. 9. Thepitcherthrewthebatteroutinthe 5. Theelderlywomangoto¡thebuswithgreat eighthinning. di⁄culty. 10. Thebutcheropenedhisstoreupat7A.M. To enhance your understanding Take a look at these groups of sentences: 16. She looked up the answer. She looked the answer up. *She looked up it. She looked it up. 17. We will just drop off the children. We will just drop the children off. *We will just drop off them. We will just drop them off. 18. He pointed out the other girl. He pointed the other girl out. *He pointed out her. He pointed her out. As you can see, in some cases (those with an asterisk), a particle cannot be next to its verb; the two parts must be separated. As a matter of fact, this is true in all of those cases where the direct object of the verb (what the verb is acting upon) is one of the following words:me,you,him,her,it,us,them.Youmightrecognizethesewordsaspronouns.You’ll learnaboutthesepronounsinLesson21,aboutdirectobjectsinLesson39,andmoreabout verbs and their particles in Lesson 30. 40Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 2 Test yourself 7.1 Verb Notaverb 1. defend ................... 2. include ................... 3. largest ................... 4. how ................... 5. learn ................... Test yourself 7.2 1. mustnotworry 2. mightkeep 3. wishforpeace 4. maysometimescook 5. willtravel Test yourself 8.1 1. wrote:write 2. talking:talk 3. thought:think 4. considered:consider 5. seen:see Test yourself 8.2 Verb Notaverb 1. danced ................... 2. sofa ................... 3. large ................... 4. gave ................... 5. stares ................... Test yourself 8.3 1. Thehostgreeteduscordially. 2. Sheshouldsaythatagain. 3. Jonathanwalkedovertothecar. 4. Hewashesdisheseveryevening. 5. Youcan’tspeakVietnamese. 41UNIT 2: VERBS Test yourself 9.1 Verb Notaverb 1. tasted ................... 2. friendly ................... 3. shady ................... 4. be ................... 5. got ................... Test yourself 9.2 1. Barrywillfeelawfulaboutit. 2. Melissaresembleshermother. 3. Zacksoundedextremelyangry. 4. The¢shtastedundercooked. 5. Youwerenothomeearly. Test yourself 9.3 1. Paulwasinpoweratthatmoment. 2. Theyareabsolutelycorrectintheirthinking. 3. Yoursuitcaseswereintheoverheadcompartmentduringthe£ight. 4. ChristinahasbeenwantingtogotoEuropeforalongtime. 5. Whatiswrongwithbeingagoodstudent? Test yourself 9.4 1. They’reusuallyhomebynow. 2. Areyouworriedaboutanything? 3. Iheardthatthe£ightwaslate. 4. We’rehonoredbyyourpresence. 5. It’stoobadthattheYankeeslostlastnight. Test yourself 9.5 Verb Notaverb 1. resemble ................... 2. become ................... 3. this ................... 4. be ................... 5. new ................... Test yourself 9.6 Verb Notaverb 1. appeared ................... 2. attends ................... 3. whenever ................... 4. was ................... 5. heard ................... 42Anwser keys: Unit 2 Test yourself 9.7 1. Thecarspunoutofcontrol. 2. Don’ttalkduringthemovie. 3. Thedoctortiedastripofgauzearoundherhand. 4. Maxinespenttoomuchmoney. 5. TheysawtheplaylastSunday. Test yourself 9.8 1. Thatwasthebestmealintheworld. 2. Iunderstandyourpoint. 3. Maybetheyknoweachotherwell. 4. SheisfromWisconsin. 5. Those£owerssmellheavenly. Test yourself 9.9 Action Linking 1. TheCzarwasapersonofhighrank. ................... 2. Thatdogbarksalot. ................... 3. Mr.Kellywatchedthetra⁄cbelowhiswindow. ................... 4. Youhavebeenaterri¢cfriendtomeovertheyears. ................... 5. Ilovethewaythepillowsfeelsocozyinthishotel. ................... Test yourself 9.10 Action Linking 1. Theybecamebestfriends. ................... 2. Itisnotnearlythesameasmine. ................... 3. Unfortunately,Iforgotyourbirthdaythisyear. ................... 4. Iwenttothecornerbakery. ................... 5. Markremainsalegendtothisday. ................... Test yourself 9.11 Action Linking 1. Hegrewpotatoesonhisfarm. ................... 2. Ilookedatthemessallaroundme. ................... 3. Stephenlookshappytoday. ................... 4. Inreality,exceptionsrarelyprovetherule. ................... 5. Learningtheruleproveddi⁄cult. ................... Test yourself 9.12 1. Theirdaughterannouncedherengagementlater. 2. Thesurgeonwashedhishands. 3. Thepianistwasdiligent. 4. Theyoungboy grittedhisteeth. 5. Herassistant isalwayslate. 43UNIT 2: VERBS Test yourself 10.1 Transitive Intransitive 1. tell ................... 2. rise ................... 3. raise ................... 4. fall ................... 5. publish ................... Test yourself 10.2 Transitive Intransitive Either 1. beat ................... ................... 2. cough ................... ................... 3. relax ................... ................... 4. drive ................... ................... 5. entertain ................... ................... Test yourself 10.3 Transitive Intransitive 1. Gregopenedthenewspaper. ................... 2. Icanreaditlater. ................... 3. Don’tworry! ................... 4. OnSundays,Iusuallystayathome. ................... 5. It’sadvisabletowashyourhandsbeforeeating. ................... Test yourself 11.1 1. He¢xedupthelightinginthehall. 2. Theyreadoverthedocumentmanytimes. 3. Youdreamupthemostamazingthings. 4. RontakesoutthegarbageeveryMondaynight. 5. Iwillpayo¡mymortgagein¢fteenyears. Test yourself 11.2 1. Mr.Parkerhelpedouthisneighbors. 2. Youshouldcalltheagencyup. 3. Thosechildrenputonashow. 4. Whatbroughtthisreactionabout? 5. Thehurricanetoretheroofsofmanyhouseso¡. Test yourself 11.3 1. Eatupyourdinner! 2. Thegirlswillputthepuzzlesaway. 3. Iunderstandthatconcept. 4. Birds£ysouthforthewinter. 5. Theelderlywomangoto¡thebuswithgreatdi⁄culty. ☞ FORAREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEETHEWEBSITE. 44UNIT 3: DETERMINERS Determinersarewordsthatcanoccurdirectlybeforeanoun,tellusabitmoreaboutthat noun,andintroduceit.Thedeterminersareunderlinedinthesentencesbelow,withthe followingnouninbold: 1. Imilkedthecow. 2. ItisHarry’sturn. 3. Theyboughtthathouse. 4. Johnhasmoremoney. Thesesentenceshaveexamplesofthefourmajortypesofdeterminers:articles,posses- sives, demonstratives, and quantifiers. Generally, a noun will have only one of these determiner types in frontof it.We’llbe discussing eachof these four types inthis unit, startingwitharticles,theeasiestandmostcommon. 45Lesson 12: Articles Howcanyouidentifyanarticle? Itdoesn’tgetanyeasierthanthis! Quicktip12.1 There are only three articles in English: the, a and an. Articlesgiveusinformationaboutanoun;theyindicatewhetherornotthenounisa specificoneknowntoboththespeakerandlistener.Takealookattheseexamplestosee whatwemean: 1. Iboughtaredcar.(Thelistenerdoesn’tknowanythingabouttheredcar.) 2. The red car was on sale. (The listener knows which car the speaker is talking about.) Theiscommonlycalledthedefinite article; aand anarecalledindefinitearticles. Thedefinitearticlemaybeusedwithbothsingularandpluralnouns,buttheindefinite articlesonlywithsingularnouns,aswecanseeinthefollowingexamples: theidea theideas anapple *anapples arevolution *arevolutions Test yourself 12.1 Underlinethearticlesineachofthesentencesbelow.Asentencemayhavemorethanonearticle. Sample:Wewatchedavideolastnight. Gettingstarted(answersonp.55) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thelastweekofthemonthwasabusyonein 6. Inthemiddleofthenight,Iheardastrange thestore. noise. 2. Summerwasaspecialtimefor 7. Jackieturnedofftheroadtoosoon. Melissa. 8. Yourmother’sfavoriteactorappearedinthe 3. There’sanunusualideafloating showwesawlastnight. around. 9. Apearisjustastastyasanapple,asfaras 4. Iturnedacornerinthelonghall. Iamconcerned. 5. Adirtyspoonhadfallentothe 10. Theguysboughttwocansofpaint:an floor. orangeoneandabeigeone. 46Lesson 12: Articles What’s the difference between a and an? See if you notice a pattern when you look attheseexamples: aredtablecloth anancientright asituation aninterestingmessage aboringlecture anintruder Thearticlesaandanhavethesamemeaninganduse.Theonlydifferencebetweenthemis thataisusedwhenthenextwordbeginswithaconsonantsound,whileanisusedwhen thenextwordbeginswithavowelsound. To enhance your understanding Whataboutauniformandanhour?Dothesecontradictwhatwe’vesaidaboutwhentouse aandan?Itcertainlylookslikeaisbeingusedbeforeavowel,andanisbeingusedbeforea consonant. But in fact, that’s not the case. These phrases follow the rule perfectly. Remember that a is used when the next word begins with a consonant sound. The first letter of the next word doesn’t matter; only its first sound matters. Sowhat’sthefirstsoundoftheworduniform?Sayitoutloudandlistencarefully.Youwill hear that the first sound of the word is the sound [y], as in yes. We really say ‘‘y-uniform’’ (and also‘‘y-unicorn,’’ ‘‘y-usual,’’ etc.). Since ‘‘y,’’a consonant, isthe first sound, we usea before uniform. What’sthefirstsoundofthewordhour?Saythewordoutloud,andyouwillnoticethatin fact we don’t pronounce the letter ‘‘h.’’ Rather, hour begins with a vowel sound, as in the word our, and so we say an hour. Thus, apparent exceptions, like a uniform and an hour, are not exceptions at all. Test yourself 12.2 Foreachsentence,underlineeacharticlewithasolidline,eachnounwithadoubleunderline,and squiggly line eachverbwitha .Somesentenceshavemorethanonearticleandnoun;somehaveno article. If you can answer these questions, you have achieved a solid understanding of how to identifyarticles,nouns,andverbs,threeofthemostcommonpartsofspeech! spoke Sample:Apilot tothecrew. Gettingstarted(answersonp.55) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Awaiterwalkedtothetable. 6. Thetrainappearedsuddenly. 2. Thetrainercalmedthedogdown. 7. Dianeputthechickeninthesalad. 3. Hearguedaboutthebillforhours. 8. Therepairmandidnotfinishhisjob. 4. Iusuallyeatasandwichandacookie 9. Childrenlikecake. forlunch. 10. NowadaysElenatakesskiinglessonsat 5. ShewatchesTVeverynight. leastonceaweek. 47Lesson 13: Demonstratives Here’s another easy category. There are only four demonstratives: this, that, these, andthose. Quicktip13.1 There are only four demonstratives in English: this, that, these, and those. Noticeagainthat,justlike articles,eachof thesecanoccurdirectlybeforeanoun:this table,thesetables,thatidea,thoseideas.Demonstrativesarewordsthat‘‘point’’tosome- thingorsomeone. Test yourself 13.1 Underlinethedemonstrativeineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Thoseperformerswereallalsocomposers. Gettingstarted(answersonp.55) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Youcanusethisbook. 6. Shelikestolistentothatsong. 2. Thosespeecheshegavewereimpressive. 7. ThosemistakeswillcatchupwithAndrew oneday. 3. Theydon’tspeakthatlanguage. 8. Idon’tlikethesepictures. 4. Kirstensoldalltheseitems. 9. Thatmanisatechnician. 5. ThissideoftheAtlanticOceanismore familiartome. 10. Lotsofpeopleliketopatronizethisrestaurant. Test yourself 13.2 Underlinethedeterminersinthesentencesbelow.Theywillbeeitherarticlesordemonstratives. Sample:Therewereshopssellingavarietyofthosehandmadeitems. Gettingstarted(answersonp.55) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Ontopofthepileoffabricswasasleepingcat. 6. Theaudienceistiredofallthoselamejokes. 2. Thatleadermetwiththeresidentsofthe 7. OnceinawhileIthinkofmychildhood village. friends. 3. Thistaxiisheadingtowardalargeshopping 8. Thosepedestriansbetterkeeptotheright mall. ofthemainroad. 4. Theinstructorchoseaveryinformative 9. Thisworkisthebrainchildofamadman. textbook. 10.Wefoundthispieceofpaperonthetopshelf 5. Thesepantswon’tfitinthosedrawers. ofadustybookcase. 48Lesson 13: Demonstratives Test yourself 13.3 Identify each determiner in the sentences below by underlining it with a solid line if it is a demonstrativeandwithasquigglylineifitisanarticle. Sample:Larryisholdingthismeetingat thehotel. Gettingstarted(answersonp.55) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Areyoulookingforabetterjob? 6. Irecognizethissoccerplayerasabigstar fromItaly. 2. Thatmoviefollowsayoungfamilyafterthey immigratetothiscountry. 7. Playingagameofchessinthisparkalways interestsme. 3. JanemetanEnglishmantherewhomshe latermarried. 8. Thosestudentswhodidtheexercisesinthe textwilllikelypassthefinal. 4. Theweatherwassowonderfulatthebeach. 9. Thegarbageispilinguponthesidewalk. 5. Allthosecupsofcoffeewon’thelpyouget agoodnight’srest. 10. Thislessonisapieceofcake,isn’tit? 49Lesson 14: Possessives Possessivesarewordsthatindicateownershiporbelonging.Thepossessivesareunder- linedinthesentencesbelow. 1. Isoldmycar. 2. Betty’sneighborisanarchitect. Thepossessiveinsentence1iscalledapossessivepronoun;thepossessiveinsentence2 is called apossessive proper noun. Notice that, just like articles and demonstratives, possessive pronouns and possessive proper nouns can appear directly before a noun. We’lldiscusseachoftheseseparately. Possessive pronouns There are just a few possessive pronounsthat function as determiners.These are com- monly referred to as possessive pronouns with determiner function or possessive adjectives.We will call them simply determiner possessive pronouns.(Foranother functionofpossessivepronouns,seeLesson24.) Quicktip14.1 The determiner possessive pronouns are: my, your, his, her, its, our, their. Test yourself 14.1 Underlinethedeterminerpossessivepronounineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Myschoolwonthestatechampionshiplastyear. Gettingstarted(answersonp.55) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Hisfacealwaysshowswhathe’sthinking. 6. ThepriceofthestockIamconsidering buyingdoesnotreflectitstrueworth. 2. Theygototheirhouseinthemountains everysummer. 7. Wouldyouliketotakearideinyournewcar? 3. Ittookthreedaysforyourlettertogethere. 8. Friends,Iwillbecountingonyourvotes. 4. Welikedhermother. 9. Thechildrenwenttothemoviestogether withtheirfather. 5. Ourproductissuperiortowhatyouhave tooffer. 10. Mattdoesnotsharehisfeelingseasily. Possessive proper nouns Thepossessivepropernounsareunderlinedinthisnextsentence: 3. IsawMary’scatchaseMrs.Smith’sdog,whichranacrossJim’syard. 50Lesson 14: Possessives Remember,namesdonothavetobenamesofjustpeople.Forexample,London’s,America’s, andIBM’sareeachpossessivepropernouns:London’sbridges,America’shighways,IBM’s products.(SeeLesson6toremindyourselfaboutpropernouns.) To enhance your understanding While possessive proper nouns can function as determiners, possessive common nouns (see Lesson 6), for example the girl’s hat, are considered to be adjectives. (See Lesson 16 for more about adjectives.) This is because possessive common nouns, but not possessive proper nouns, can have a determiner in front of them – keeping in mind that a noun will generally have just one determiner introducing it. See the following examples: 4. The girl’s hat is new. (girl’s = possessive common noun) 5. *The Mary’s hat is new. (Mary’s = possessive proper noun) Test yourself 14.2 Underlinethepossessivepropernounineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:GoneWiththeWind’scastwasamazing. Gettingstarted(answersonp.56) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Leah’seyesmetthoseofthemanatthe 6. France’ssoccerteamlosttoanotherteam. counter. 7. Macy’swomen’sdepartmentisonthethird 2. ItwasHarry’sturntosaysomething. floor. 3. TheywereimpressedbyRome’srestaurants. 8. Mrs.Johnson’sofficeislocateddirectly abovemine. 4. MickeyMouse’spictureishangingon mywall. 9. Afterdinner,wewentuptoBeth’sapartment. 5. JohnalwayswantedtovisitHarvard’scampus. 10. InevergettiredofTheBeatles’songs. Test yourself 14.3 Underline the possessive determiner in each of the sentences below.The determiner will either beapossessivepronounorapossessivepropernoun. Sample:Yourcommitteeismeetingtomorrow. Gettingstarted(answersonp.56) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. ShesuggestedthatitwasallMartin’sfault. 6. ThepublicwaseagerlyawaitingCongress’s newenergypolicy. 2. Whydon’tyougiveittoyourdaughter? 7. Myapartmentiseithertoohotortoocold. 3. ThatwasabreathtakingviewofNewYork’s skyline. 8. AbrahamLincoln’slifewasinteresting. 4. Heboughtasouvenirforhisson. 9. Ourcrewpreparedtodock. 5. TheAdamsesdidnotcarefortheirnew 10. OnThursdayafternoon,theactorwas neighbors. practicinghislines. 51UNIT 3: DETERMINERS Test yourself 14.4 Foreachdeterminerbelow,indicateifitisanarticle(e.g.the,an),demonstrative(e.g.this,those), possessivepronoun(e.g.your,our),orpossessivepropernoun(e.g.Mary’s,London’s). Sample:LawandOrder’s possessivepropernoun Gettingstarted(answersonp.56) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. their 6. the .................................................... .............................................. 2. an 7. SanFrancisco’s .................................................... .............................................. 3. George’s 8. this .................................................... .............................................. 4. those 9. my .................................................... .............................................. 5. its 10. a .................................................... .............................................. Test yourself 14.5 Underlinethedeterminerineachofthesentencesbelow.Itwilleitherbeanarticle,demonstrative, possessive pronoun, or possessive proper noun. Some sentences may contain more than one determiner. Sample:Theroomcontainedasofa,achair,and,onthewall,Melinda’sportrait. Gettingstarted(answersonp.56) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Sheknewwhathermotherhaddonefor 6. ThisactressshouldgetanOscarforher thefamily. performanceinthatmovie. 2. Therewasn’tmuchinformationinhis 7. Thedoctor’ssecretaryusuallywalksamile letters. onherlunchbreak. 3. Thesebooksareclearlythebest. 8. Thosechildrenlovetotakeadipintheir newpoolinthebackyard. 4. Rosa’shusbandputasurpriseinherlunch box. 9. Onherwaytowork,Maggie’scarbrokedown. 5. Jerry’sunclelikestodrinkaglassofwine 10. JetBlue’screwserveddinnerwhileIwas withhisdinner. sleeping. 52Lesson 15: Quantifiers Therearewords,suchaseveryandseveral,thatindicateamount,orquantity,andthese arecalledquantifiers.Quantifierscanactasdeterminers;thatis,theycancomebefore andintroduceanoun.Thedeterminersareunderlinedinthefollowingsentences: 1. Allbusinessesneedtohaveabudget. 2. Somepeoplelikeeatingeel. 3. Sheenjoyedfewthingsasmuchasfood. Somecommonquantifiersarelistedbelow: all enough much any every neither both few no each little several either most some Quicktip15.1 Wordsofquantity,quantifiers,canactasdeterminersandprecedeanoun.Someexamples are: all, some, several, and much. Test yourself 15.1 Underlinethequantifierineachofthesentencesbelow.Thequantifierswillallbefromthelistabove. Sample:Imetseveralchefsatthatschool. Gettingstarted(answersonp.56) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thereisnowriterwhoisasfamousas 6. Mostprofessorshaveearneda Shakespeare. doctorate. 2. Enoughmoneywasraisedtobuildanew 7. Everynounthatishumanisalso wingonthehospital. animate. 3. Idon’ttakemuchsugarinmycoffee. 8. Neitheroptionisparticularlygood. 4. Withlittleeffort,Isolvedthecrossword 9. Anymanwhodrinksanddrivesputshislife puzzle. indanger. 5. Allexperimentstesthypotheses. 10. Youleavemewithfewalternatives. Test yourself 15.2 Foreachdeterminerbelow,indicateifitisanarticle(e.g.the,an),demonstrative(e.g.this,those), possessive pronoun (e.g. your, our), possessive proper noun (e.g. Mary’s,London’s), or quantifier (e.g.every,some). demonstrative Sample:that 53UNIT 3: DETERMINERS Gettingstarted(answersonp.56) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. MainStreet’s 6. its ...................................... ...................................... 2. your 7. both ...................................... ...................................... 3. few 8. Madrid’s ...................................... ...................................... 4. those 9. several ...................................... ...................................... 5. the 10. an ...................................... ...................................... Test yourself 15.3 Underlinethedeterminerineachofthesentencesbelow.Itwilleitherbeanarticle(e.g.the,an), demonstrative (e.g. this, those), possessive pronoun (e.g. your, our), possessive proper noun (e.g. Mary’s,London’s), or quantifier (e.g. few, most). Some sentences maycontain more than one determiner. Sample:Joan’smothervaluedherefforts. Gettingstarted(answersonp.57) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Chicago’sarchitectureisdiverse. 6. Let’snotforgetthosemessages. 2. Iknowthatmanandhiswife. 7. Everytimeweeatout,youorderseveral appetizers. 3. Shepackedseveraldressesintoher suitcase. 8. Anymanwhoismyfriend’senemyisno friendofmine. 4. Hehadtraveledtofewplacesover theyears. 9. Iboughtthesestrawberriesatheruncle’s grocerystore. 5. Eachchildatthepartybrought agift. 10. Thiseventwasn’tmuchfun. 54Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 3 Test yourself 12.1 1. Thelastweekofthemonthwasabusyoneinthestore. 2. SummerwasaspecialtimeforMelissa. 3. There’sanunusualideafloatingaround. 4. Iturnedacornerinthelonghall. 5. Adirtyspoonhadfallentothefloor. Test yourself 12.2 1. Awaiter tothetable. walked 2. Thetrainer calmedthedogdown. 3. He arguedaboutthebillforhours. 4. Iusually eat asandwichandacookieforlunch. 5. She watchesTVeverynight. Test yourself 13.1 1. Youcanusethisbook. 2. Thosespeecheshegavewereimpressive. 3. Theydon’tspeakthatlanguage. 4. Kirstensoldalltheseitems. 5. ThissideoftheAtlanticOceanismorefamiliartome. Test yourself 13.2 1. Ontopofthepileoffabricswasasleepingcat. 2. Thatleadermetwiththeresidentsofthevillage. 3. Thistaxiisheadingtowardalargeshoppingmall. 4. Theinstructorchoseaveryinformativetextbook. 5. Thesepantswon’tfitinthosedrawers. Test yourself 13.3 1. Areyoulookingfor betterjob? a 2. Thatmoviefollows youngfamilyaftertheyimmigratetothiscountry. a 3. Janemet Englishmantherewhomshelatermarried. an 4. Theweatherwassowonderfulat beach. the 5. Allthosecupsofcoffeewon’thelpyouget goodnight’srest. a Test yourself 14.1 1. Hisfacealwaysshowswhathe’sthinking. 2. Theygototheirhouseinthemountainseverysummer. 55UNIT 3: DETERMINERS 3. Ittookthreedaysforyourlettertogethere. 4. Welikedhermother. 5. Ourproductissuperiortowhatyouhavetooffer. Test yourself 14.2 1. Leah’seyesmetthoseofthemanatthecounter. 2. ItwasHarry’sturntosaysomething. 3. TheywereimpressedbyRome’srestaurants. 4. MickeyMouse’spictureishangingonmywall. 5. JohnalwayswantedtovisitHarvard’scampus. Test yourself 14.3 1. ShesuggestedthatitwasallMartin’sfault. 2. Whydon’tyougiveittoyourdaughter? 3. ThatwasabreathtakingviewofNewYork’sskyline. 4. Heboughtasouvenirforhisson. 5. TheAdamsesdidnotcarefortheirnewneighbors. Test yourself 14.4 1. their possessivepronoun 2. an article 3. George’s possessivepropernoun 4. those demonstrative 5. its possessivepronoun Test yourself 14.5 1. Sheknewwhathermotherhaddoneforthefamily. 2. Therewasn’tmuchinformationinhisletters. 3. Thesebooksareclearlythebest. 4. Rosa’shusbandputasurpriseinherlunchbox. 5. Jerry’sunclelikestodrinkaglassofwinewithhisdinner. Test yourself 15.1 1. ThereisnowriterwhoisasfamousasShakespeare. 2. Enoughmoneywasraisedtobuildanewwingonthehospital. 3. Idon’ttakemuchsugarinmycoffee. 4. Withlittleeffort,Isolvedthecrosswordpuzzle. 5. Allexperimentstesthypotheses. Test yourself 15.2 1. MainStreet’s possessivepropernoun 2. your possessivepronoun 3. few quantifier 4. those demonstrative 5. the article 56Answer keys: Unit 3 Test yourself 15.3 1. Chicago’sarchitectureisdiverse. 2. Iknowthatmanandhiswife. 3. Shepackedseveraldressesintohersuitcase. 4. Hehadtraveledtofewplacesovertheyears. 5. Eachchildatthepartybroughtagift. ☞ FORA REVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT, SEETHEWEBSITE. 57UNIT 4: ADJECTIVES Lesson 16: Identifying adjectives Anadjectiveisawordthatreferstoacharacteristicofanoun.Howcanyouidentifyan adjective? If you can put aword between the and a noun (likeboy,or idea), then that word is an adjective. Quicktip16.1 If you can put a word between the and a noun (for example, the boy), then that word is an adjective. Forexample,sincewecansaythetallboy,tallisanadjective.Similarly,wecansaythe sillyboy,theinterestingboy,andtheyoungboy.Therefore,silly,interesting,andyoungare alladjectives. A number of adjectives, all used in the phrase the boy are listed below. The adjectivesareunderlined: 1. thebrilliantboy 2. theembarrassedboy 3. theblondeboy 4. thehungryboy 5. thedelightfulboy Comparethesephrasesto*theveryboy,*theaboy,and*thetalkboy.Very,a,andtalkare notadjectives. What do adjectives actually do? Adjectives always tell us something about a noun. Anotherwayofsayingthisisthattheymodifyanoun.Inthephraseswe’vejustlookedat, theunderlinedadjectivestellussomethingabout,ormodify,thenounboy. Test yourself 16.1 Which of the following words are adjectives? See if they sound right when you put them here: the thing.Checktheappropriatecolumn. Adjective Notanadjective Sample:have ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.63) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. yellow 6. is ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. wonderful 7. pure ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. these 8. on ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. quickly 9. creative ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. unreliable 10. almost ................... ................... ................... ................... 58Lesson 16: Identifying adjectives Test yourself 16.2 Underlinetheadjectivesinthesentencesbelow.Ineachcase,theadjectivewillbebetweentheanda noun.Asentencemayhavemorethanoneadjective. Sample:Shehasbeenthestrongleaderofthiscompanyforyears. Gettingstarted(answersonp.63) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thestrangerobotsmarchedtowards 6. Shereceivedtheexcitingnewsinthenoisy thecity. restaurant. 2. Itwasthelastdayofschool. 7. Theblindbeggarwassittingatthebusy corner. 3. Wetuggedattheenormousgate. 8. Jeremydidnotgetthesubtlehumorof 4. Thebillowingsmokealertedusto theplay. thefire. 9. Thepoorpeopleoftheworldoutnumberthe 5. Thesuddensandstormforced richones. thesurprisedbatherstofleethe beach. 10. Keepyourhandsoffthehotstove! Aswe’vesaid,agoodwaytodecideifawordisanadjectiveistoseeifitcanbeplaced betweentheandanoun.Butthatdoesn’tmeanthatthat’stheonlyplacewhereanadjec- tivecanoccur;it’sjustawaytotestawordtoseeifit’sanadjective. Herearesomesentenceswheretheadjectiveisinadifferentplace.Ineachcase,the adjectiveisunderlined. 6. Heisatallboy. 7. Mybestfriendloveschocolatecake. 8. Thehousehadalowroof. 9. Largecarsarehardertodrivethansmallcars. Let’smakesurethateachoftheunderlinedwordsabovepassestheadjectivetest,thatis, thatitcanappearbetweentheandanoun. 10. tall:thetallboy 11. best:thebestmovie 12. chocolate:thechocolatebar 13. low:thelowceiling 14. large:thelargewindow 15. small:thesmallwindow. Asyoucansee,eachofthesewordspassestheadjectivetest.Noticealsothateachofthese wordsdescribesacharacteristicofanoun. Test yourself 16.3 Use the adjective test to find the adjectives ineachof the sentencesbelow. A sentence may have morethanoneadjective. Sample:Ittookalongtimetoarriveatournextdestination. 59UNIT 4: ADJECTIVES Gettingstarted(answersonp.63) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Eveningswereaspecialtimefor 6. Iwroteaboringletter. thefamily. 7. Mary’syoungerbrotherwasalreadythere. 2. Thenextweekwasabusyonein 8. TheAmericanflagwasbehindEdward’s thestore. desk. 3. There’sanunusualideafloating 9. Icouldseehisfaceintheredlightfromthe around. exitsign. 4. Iturnedacornerinthelonghall. 10. Wegatheredtheimportantfactsfromthose 5. Adirtyforkhadfallentothefloor. dustybooks. Whatdoyounoticeabouttheunderlinedadjectivesinthephrasesbelow? 16. thedeliciousrichcake 17. mytall,red-haired,entertainingfriend 18. abright,colorful,blue,stripedpattern Asyoucansee,anouncanhavemorethanoneadjectivemodifyingit.Infact,thereisno limittothenumberofadjectivesthatcanmodifyanoun(exceptthepatienceandtoler- anceofthelistener!). Test yourself 16.4 Underlinetheadjectivesineachofthesentencesbelow.Someofthenounswillbemodifiedbymore thanoneadjective. Sample:Sheateallthecrisp,crunchychips. Gettingstarted(answersonp.63) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theywentofftoseeanold,gloomy,historic 6. Youshouldheedtheadviceofwisemenand mansioninsouthernEngland. women. 2. Shehadanticipatedhissuddenarrival. 7. Wildanimalscanbedangerous. 3. Angelaignoredhisannoying,persistent 8. Thelovelyyoungladyreadoneofher questions. favoritenovelsonhercomfortablesofa. 4. Imustgetridofmydecrepit,banged-uplittle 9. Whydidyoubuythisoutdatedcomputerin oldcar. thefirstplace? 5. Wewouldn’twanttocrossthiswide,busy 10. TheDodgers’frustratedmanagerbenched street,wouldwe? hisbrashyoungpitcher. Rememberthatsometimesawordcanfunctionasonewordcategory,orpartofspeech,in one sentence, and as another word category in another sentence (see Lesson 2). For example,let’slookatthewordcream.InthesentenceIbroughtthecream,creamisanoun. But in the sentenceThat’s a cream cake, cream is an adjective, telling us more about the nouncake. Test yourself 16.5 Ineachofthesentencesbelow,decideiftheunderlinedwordsarefunctioningasnounsoradjectives. Sample:Thatcopyisn’tlegible. adjective 60Lesson 16: Identifying adjectives Gettingstarted(answersonp.63) 1. Thewindowledgeistoonarrowforaplant. ...................................... 2. Thatwindowisstuckshut. ...................................... 3. Thishasbeenachillyspring. ...................................... 4. I’menjoyingthisspringweather. ...................................... 5. Themorninghoursarenotmybest. ...................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Idrinktwocupsofcoffeeeachmorning. ...................................... 7. Inmostpublicrestaurants,itisforbiddentosmokeacigarette. ...................................... 8. CigarettesmokersmustgoforX-raytestsregularly. ...................................... 9. Mynephewwaslookingfortravelcompanions. ...................................... 10. Foreigntravelcanbebothexhaustingandexhilarating. ...................................... Test yourself 16.6 Ineachofthesentencesbelow,decideiftheunderlinedwordsarefunctioningasnouns,verbs,or adjectives. Sample:That’sajailcell. adjective Gettingstarted(answersonp.63) 1. Hegoestoadayschool. ...................................... 2. Iworkduringtheday. ....................................... 3. Thedefendantwillshockthemwhentheyhearhisresponse. ....................................... 4. Itwasaterribleshock. ....................................... 5. IwillvoicemyopinionifIwantto. ....................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Thesingerhadawonderfulvoice. ....................................... 7. Somepeoplecallthelarynxavoicebox. ....................................... 8. Somelanguageshavebothformalandinformaltermsofaddress. ....................................... 9. Idon’twishtoaddressthisquestionatthistime. ....................................... 10. Didyouputmyinformationinyouraddressbook? ....................................... Test yourself 16.7 Ineachofthesentencesbelow,identifythewordcategoryofeachwordineachsentence. Sample:Theinstructoransweredherunspokenquestion. determiner^noun^verb^determiner^adjective^noun 61UNIT 4: ADJECTIVES Gettingstarted(answersonp.64) 1. Alightrainfell. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. Ernie’sfriendlikesagoodargument. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. Hisemployeereceivedthatsmallbonus. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4. Somebigcarstakepremiumgasoline. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5. Thisquestiondeservesaseriousanswer. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Thepoliceman’swarningscaredmypassengers. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7. Mostguestsenjoyedthelavishparty. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8. Yourbestfriendhadasoda. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9. Goodmarriageshavemanyjoyousmoments. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10. HisdaughterboughtastunningItaliandress. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 4 Test yourself 16.1 Adjective Notanadjective 1. yellow ................... 2. wonderful ................... 3. these ................... 4. quickly ................... 5. unreliable ................... Test yourself 16.2 1. Thestrangerobotsmarchedtowardsthecity. 2. Itwasthelastdayofschool. 3. Wetuggedattheenormousgate. 4. Thebillowingsmokealertedustothefire. 5. Thesuddensandstormforcedthesurprisedbatherstofleethebeach. Test yourself 16.3 1. Eveningswereaspecialtimeforthefamily. 2. Thenextweekwasabusyoneinthestore. 3. There’sanunusualideafloatingaround. 4. Iturnedacornerinthelonghall. 5. Adirtyforkhadfallentothefloor. Test yourself 16.4 1. Theywentofftoseeanold,gloomy,historicmansioninsouthernEngland. 2. Shehadanticipatedhissuddenarrival. 3. Angelaignoredhisannoying,persistentquestions. 4. Imustgetridofmydecrepit,banged-uplittleoldcar. 5. Wewouldn’twanttocrossthiswide,busystreet,wouldwe? Test yourself 16.5 1. Thewindowledgeistoonarrowforaplant.adjective 2. Thatwindowisstuckshut. noun 3. Thishasbeenachillyspring. noun 4. I’menjoyingthisspringweather. adjective 5. Themorninghoursarenotmybest. adjective Test yourself 16.6 1. Hegoestoadayschool. adjective 2. Iworkduringtheday. noun 63UNIT 4: ADJECTIVES 3. Thedefendantwillshockthemwhentheyhearhisresponse.verb 4. Itwasaterribleshock. noun 5. IwillvoicemyopinionifIwantto. verb Test yourself 16.7 1. Alightrainfell. determiner^adjective^noun^verb 2. Ernie’sfriendlikesagoodargument. determiner^noun^verb^determiner^adjective^noun 3. Hisemployeereceivedthatsmallbonus. determiner^noun^verb^determiner^adjective^noun 4. Somebigcarstakepremiumgasoline. determiner^adjective^noun^verb^adjective^noun 5. Thisquestiondeservesaseriousanswer. determiner^noun^verb^determiner^adjective^noun ☞FOR A REVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEE THEWEBSITE. 64UNIT 5: PREPOSITIONS Lesson 17: Identifying prepositions Whatisapreposition?Theprepositionsareunderlinedinthefollowingsentences. 1. Shemadenotesonthepaper. 2. Myofficeisbetweenthepostofficeandthelaundromat. 3. I’llmeetyouafterwork. Quicktip17.1 Prepositions are words, usually small, that typically indicate information about direction, location, or time. There is only a small number of prepositions in English. Some commonly used examples are at, from, in, on, and to. Thefollowingarecommonprepositions: about beneath into throughout above beside like till across between near to after beyond of toward(s) against by off under along despite on until among down onto up around during out upon at for over with before from since within behind in through without below Quicktip17.2 Ifyoucanputawordinoneoftheemptyslotsinoneofthefollowingsentences,thewordis a preposition: I walked the table. It happened that time. Thistipwillhelpyouidentifymany,thoughnotall,prepositions. Test yourself 17.1 Underlinetheprepositionsinthesentencesbelow.Theremaybemorethanone.UsetheQuick tipsandthelistofprepositionstohelpyou. Sample:Myfriendsaregoingwithme. 65UNIT 5: PREPOSITIONS Gettingstarted(answersonp.68) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Let’sgointothediningroom. 6. WewereflyingoverEurope. 2. Itwasthedumbestthinghedidinhis 7. Lenorelookedbeneaththerock. entirelife. 8. Shefoundthepotofgold. 3. Felicewashavingdinneronthepatio. 9. Isitovertherainbow? 4. Sherantothecandystore. 10. Heappearedattherightplaceattheright 5. Ilookedforyouduringtheintermission. time. Test yourself 17.2 Underlinetheprepositionswithasolidlineandthenounswithasquigglylineineachofthesenten- cesbelow. Sample:There’sasmall house nearthe . field Gettingstarted(answersonp.68) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Auniformedguardstoodnearthemassive 6. AreyougoingtothepromwithStan? entryway. 7. Mikealwaysgivesanicepresenttohiswife 2. Sheleanedoutthewindowandwavedtothe onherbirthday. largecrowd. 8. Pleasedon’taskhowmydayattheoffice 3. TheolderwomanfromChicagohadalready was! left. 9. Icouldn’topenthedoorofmycarwithout 4. Shestaggeredintothestore. mykey. 5. Carissasatatthecomputerinalargeroom. 10. Let’smeetatornearmidnight. To enhance your understanding Don’t confuse the two types of to: 4. I want to go home. (infinitive: to + verb) 5. I went to Chicago. (preposition: to + noun) Test yourself 17.3 Underlinetheprepositionswithasolidline,theverbswithadoubleunderline,andtheadjectives withasquigglylineinthesentencesbelow. Sample:I’llbuyusalargebucketofchicken. Gettingstarted(answersonp.68) 1. Jeanwalkedaroundthegroundsofthe 3. Thepuppygazedathimexpectantly. magnificentestate. 4. TheloudmusicinthatstorebotheredJamie. 2. Hisfriendpoundedhimonthe 5. Hehashotcoffeebeforeclass. back. 66Lesson 17: Identifying prepositions Morepractice(answersonthewebsite)  6. Josebuysfreshbreadforhisfamilyevery 9. Thetirelessteenagerranacrossthepark week. withhisnewrunningshoes. 7. Doyouwantticketstothenewplay? 10. Iplacedsomesmallapplesnearthesink. 8. Theyoungbride’smotherseemedhappy amongherfriends. To further enhance your understanding Take a look at the following sentences. 6. I’m standing in front of my house. 7. That man was ahead of her. 8. Please get out of his way. Each of these sentences contains a multiword preposition, that is, a preposition consisting ofmorethanoneword.Belowisalistofcommonmultiwordprepositions,commonlycalled compound or phrasal prepositions. across from inside of ahead of in spite of along with instead of because of on account of by means of on top of due to out of for the sake of over to in addition to together with in front of up to Formoreaboutprepositions,seeLesson29. 67Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 5 Test yourself 17.1 1. Let’sgointothediningroom. 2. Itwasthedumbestthinghedidinhisentirelife. 3. Felicewashavingdinneronthepatio. 4. Sherantothecandystore. 5. Ilookedforyouduringtheintermission. Test yourself 17.2 1. Auniformedguardstoodnearthemassiveentryway. 2. Sheleanedoutthewindowandwavedtothelargecrowd. 3. Theolderwomanfrom Chicagohadalreadyleft. 4. Shestaggeredintothestore. 5. Carissasatatthecomputerinalargeroom. Test yourself 17.3 1. Jeanwalkedaroundthegroundsofthemagnificientstate. 2. Hisfriendpoundedhimontheback. 3. Thepuppygazedathimexpectantly. 4. TheloudmusicinthatstorebotheredJamie. 5. Hehashotcoffeebeforeclass. ☞FORAREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEE THEWEBSITE. 68UNIT 6: CONJUNCTIONS 1. IsawMaryatthestore. 2. IsawMaryandJohnatthestore. 3. IsawMaryandJohnandHarryatthestore. 4. IsawMaryandJohnandHarryandMelissaatthestore. 5. IsawMaryandJohnandHarryandMelissaandtenotherpeopleatthestore. 6. Isaw ... Well,yougettheidea. Whatareconjunctions?Conjunctionsareconnectors.Theyarewords,suchasand,that joinwords,phrasesandsentencestogether.Someotherconjunctionsareunderlinedin thesentencesbelow. 7. Hedidn’trespondmuch,justoccasionallysaid‘‘yes’’or‘‘no.’’ 8. Theytakelifeseriouslybutarestillfuntobearound. 9. Ithoughtthathewascrazy. 10. AdamlefttheroombeforeTabithacouldsayanotherthing. 11. Justturnrightwhenyougettothecorner. Therearedi¡erentkindsofconjunctions.We’lllookatcoordinatingconjunctions¢rst. 69Lesson 18: Coordinating conjunctions Coordinatingconjunctionsconnectanytwounitsthatarethesametype.Forexample, they can connect two sentences, two nouns, two verbs, two determiners, two preposi- tions,ortwoadjectives. Quicktip18.1 There are three common coordinating conjunctions in English. They are: and, or, and but. Four less common ones are for, so, yet, and nor. Quicktip18.2 A commonly used way to remember the coordinating conjunctions is to think of FANBOYS: F(for), A (and), N (nor), B (but), O (or), Y (yet), S (so). Butgiventhat and, or,andbut arethemostcommon,you’llbeingoodshapeifyoujust rememberthose. Thecoordinatingconjunctionsinthesentencesbelowareunderlined. 1. Youaskedmyfriend,andthentheothertwocameaswell. 2. Igoorhegoes. 3. Itwasn’tdarkbutthemoonwasout. Inthesesentences,youcanseethatthecoordinatingconjunctionhasacompletesentence oneither side of it. (The sentences oneither side are inbold.) Thus, the conjunction in theseexamplesisconnectingtwosentences. In the next group of sentences, you can see that the coordinating conjunction has a noun on either side of it.Thus, the conjunction is joining two nouns.The nouns are inbold. 4. Thechildrenhadmilkandcookies. 5. Peoplestudymedicineordentistrywhentheyenrollatthatinstitution. Inthenextsentences,thecoordinatingconjunctionisjoiningtwoadjectives.Theadjec- tivesareinbold. 6. Thatrestaurantisknownforhealthyandnutritiousfood. 7. I’mbuyingeitherthestripedorpaisleywallpaper. Test yourself 18.1 Underlinethecoordinatingconjunctionineachsentencebelow.Rememberthatthecoordinating conjunctionsare:and,or,but,for,so,yet,nor. Sample:Theoldcarpetwaswornoutbutthefurniturelookedrelativelynew. 70Lesson 18: Coordinating conjunctions Gettingstarted(answersonp.79) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Youcanhidebetweentripsandmakebelieve 6. HewantstoworkthroughthenightbutI you’reinnocent. don’t. 2. Wasitnearhereoroverthere? 7. Thegeneralsentthedispatchtothearmy andthenavy. 3. Rogerlookedaroundbuthedidn’tsee anything. 8. Hewenttothecloisterortothesmallchapel nearby. 4. They’lleatchickenorturkeyfor dinner. 9. Maudisnothungry,norishersister thirsty. 5. Mr.Josephpulledoutthreelettersand handedonetoeachofthemen. 10. He’llcomeoverorhe’llcall. Test yourself 18.2 Underlinethecoordinatingconjunctionineachsentencebelow.Thendecideiftheconjunctionis joiningtwosentencesortwonouns.Inthisexercise,ifthereisnotacompletesentenceoneither sideoftheconjunction,itisjoiningtwonouns. Sample:Marydecidedtohaveeithersouporsalad. nouns Gettingstarted(answersonp.79) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Mr.Eaglewascalledawayonbusiness,so 6. ThecolorTVwastooexpensive,soNancy Mrs.Broxtontookhisplaceatthe didn’tbuyit. ............................................ meeting. .................................................. 7. Doyousweartotellthetruth,nothingbut 2. He’dheardofit,buthedidn’tliketheidea. thetruth? ................................................ ................................................................. 8. AtonetimemyfavoritebandwasKatrina 3. Erinfeltrealexcitementand andtheWaves. .......................................... enthusiasm. ............................................ 9. Sammywantedtogoskydiving,buthis 4. Itwasraininghard,yetwewenttotheball parentsdidn’tlethim. .............................. game. ....................................................... 10. Forme,goingtoParisisalwaysatreat,for 5. Theairlineattendantasked,‘‘Wouldyoulike Iloveitsarchitecture. .............................. co¡eeortea?’’ ........................................... Test yourself 18.3 Underlinethecoordinatingconjunctionineachsentencebelow.Thendecideiftheconjunctionis joiningtwoverbs,twoadjectives,ortwoprepositions. Sample:Thatisadi⁄cultbutworthwhilelesson. adjectives Gettingstarted(answersonp.79) 1. I’llbenearorbetweenthestacks. ................................................................................................ 2. Hecameupwithaquickande¡ectiveremedy. ................................................................................................ 3. Ihopeyouwon’tworryorbroodtoomuchaboutit. ................................................................................................ 4. Thistripwillbeexpensivebutworthwhile. ................................................................................................ 5. Iamatornearabreakthrough. ................................................................................................ 71UNIT 6: CONJUNCTIONS Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Don’tyouhatetoeatandrun? ................................................................................................ 7. Whatsizeshirtareyoulookingfor:smallorlarge? ................................................................................................ 8. Theycameandwentinahurry. ................................................................................................ 9. AtseveninthemorningTamaraissluggishyete⁄cient................................................................................................. 10. Itisnotadvisabletodrinkanddriveatthesametime. ................................................................................................ Test yourself 18.4 Writedownthesevencoordinatingconjunctions.(RememberFANBOYS.)Answersonp.79. 1. ...................................... 5. ...................................... 2. ...................................... 6. ...................................... 3. ...................................... 7. ...................................... 4. ...................................... 72Lesson 19: Subordinating conjunctions Another kind of conjunction is called a subordinating conjunction.Herearesome examples of sentences with subordinating conjunctions. The subordinating conjunc- tionsareunderlined. 1. Shecontinuedarguinguntileveryone¢nallyagreedwithher. 2. Theylivedownsouthwhentheweathergetscold. 3. Jackwillbuyahouseoncehegetsajob. 4. Shelistenedtohiscommentspolitely,eventhoughtheysoundedsilly. 5. TheystoppedtalkingwhenitwasEleanor’sturn. Subordinating conjunctions connect sentences; however, the two parts that are con- nected are notof equalvalue interms of the meaning of the whole sentence.There is a main sentence with a subpart; the subordinating conjunction connects the subpart to themainsentence.Herearesentences1through5again,butthistimewiththemainsen- tencesinbold. 6. Shecontinuedarguinguntileveryone¢nallyagreedwithher. 7. Theylivedownsouthwhentheweathergetscold. 8. Jackwillbuyahouseoncehegetsajob. 9. Shelistenedtohiscommentspolitely,eventhoughtheysoundedsilly. 10. TheystoppedtalkingwhenitwasEleanor’sturn. Quicktip19.1 Subordinating conjunctions connect a sentence with another sentence, which is a subpart of it. The subpart sentence is called a dependent clause (or subordinate clause). In the following sentence, the subordinating conjunction is underlined and the dependent clause is in italics: Nick decided to try to escape, although he knew his chances were slim. Thecommonsubordinatingconjunctionsarelistedbelow. after eventhough than whenever although how that where as if though wherever asif inorderthat till whether asthough once unless which because ratherthan until while before since what who evenif so(that) when why Youcanseethatsometimesasubordinatingconjunctionconsistsofmorethanoneword. Test yourself 19.1 Underlinethesubordinatingconjunctionsinthesentencesbelow.Usethelistabovetohelpyou. 73UNIT 6: CONJUNCTIONS Sample:Shewassotiredthatshedidn’tbotherbrushingherteeth. Gettingstarted(answersonp.79) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. I’llleavethenoteherebecauseI’minahurry. 6. Jakewouldbefreeoncehereachedthe fence. 2. Nickhadcoachedhimthoroughly,even thoughtheyhadn’thadmuchtime. 7. Youwerebehavingasifyouweretheboss. 3. Hecouldseethefaintglowofapipethat 8. Theyweredeterminedtogoforawalk, Dr.Waltershadlit. unlessitwasgoingtorain. 4. Youshouldstayheresincetheyobviously 9. Kevin should think twice before he needyou. speaks. 5. Shehasn’tcalledherealthoughshe’dsaid 10. Iamgoingto¢nishthisjobevenifittakes shewould. hours. Herearethesamesentenceswesawearlier,butthistimewiththedependentclausesin italics;thesubordinatingconjunctionsarestillunderlined. 11. Shecontinuedarguinguntileveryone¢nallyagreedwithher. 12. Theylivedownsouthwhentheweathergetscold. 13. Jackwillbuyahouseoncehegetsajob. 14. Shelistenedtohiscommentspolitely,eventhoughtheysoundedsilly. 15. TheystoppedtalkingwhenitwasEleanor’sturn. Notice that the subordinating conjunction is always the ¢rst word of the dependent clause. Quicktip19.2 The subordinating conjunction is always the first word of the dependent clause. In allof the exampleswe’velooked at so far, the dependentclausehas come after the mainsentence.Butsometimesthedependentclausecomesbeforethemainsentence.In the following examples, the subordinating conjunctions are underlined, and the main sentencesareinbold: 16. Ifheknewthetruth,herfatherwouldthrowthedollaway. 17. WhenIbroughtmy¢rstpaycheckhome,Iwantedtoframeit. 18. Oncehegetsajob,Jackwillbuyahouse. 19. WhenitwasEleanor’sturn,theystoppedtalking. Noticethatsentences18and19arethesameassentences13and15,exceptthatinsenten- ces18 and19 the subordinating conjunction and the rest of the dependent clause come beforethemainsentenceratherthanafterit. Test yourself 19.2 Underlinethesubordinatingconjunctionineachofthesentencesbelow.Ineachofthesesentences, thedependentclausecomesbeforethemainsentence. Sample:Althoughhewasnothappilymarried,heremainedfaithfultohiswife. 74Lesson 19: Subordinating conjunctions Gettingstarted(answersonp.80) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Eventhoughhecalmeddown,hedidnotgo 6. Whereverwetravel,wealwayshavefun backtothetableimmediately. together. 2. WhileIenjoybeingintheyard,Ihatemowing 7. AsIwaslookingformykeys,Inoticeda thelawn. packageinfrontofthedoor. 3. Unlessthere’saheavydownpour,I’mgoing 8. Justaftertheycrossedtheriver,the onthattrip. drawbridgeopenedup. 4. Whyanyonewouldswiminicecoldwater, 9. Beforeanyonecouldshoutawarning,the Ijustdon’tunderstand. treefell. 5. Whetheryouarerightorwrong,Iwill 10. Sinceyouthinkyouaresosmart,tellmethe supportyou. capitalofGhana! Test yourself 19.3 Underline the subordinating conjunction in each of the sentences below. In some of them, the dependentclausewillbeafterthemainsentence;inothers,itwillcomebeforethemainsentence. Again,usethelistofsubordinatingconjunctionstohelpyou. Sample:Evenifyougetangry,Iwillstillbethereforyou. Gettingstarted(answersonp.80) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Sallyspentalotoftimewiththebabysitter, 6. IalwaysgetanxiouswhenIaminthe becausehermotherhadtowork. doctor’so⁄ce. 2. Sinceyou’realwaysbusy,Idecidedtogoto 7. ThoughTatianapassedthebarexam,she themovieswithoutyou. won’tbepracticinglawuntilnextyear. 3. Afterhereadthearticle,hedecidednotto 8. Didyoueverwonderhowchildrenlearn argueanyfurther. language? 4. WewillmovetoSeattle,unlessyoucan 9. Oncehe¢nishescollege,hewilllook convincemenotto. forajob. 5. AsifspeakingIgbowasn’tenough,this 10. ItooktheexpresstrainsothatIcouldarrive professorspeaksYorubaaswell. ontime. Test yourself 19.4 – Grand finale In each of the sentences below, underline the coordinating or subordinating conjunction. Also, writeCifit’sacoordinatingconjunctionandSifit’sasubordinatingconjunction. Sample:IworkatthemallwhenI’mhomefortheholidays.(S) Gettingstarted(answersonp.80) 1. I’mtheownerandeditorofthelocal 4. Theypaintedherhousewhileshewasat newspaper. work. 2. BeforeMeganhelpedhim,Georgewould 5. IarrivedearlybutIstillwasn’tthe¢rstin havetoprovehisloyalty. line. 3. There’smorethanonecareerthathe’s interestedin. 75UNIT 6: CONJUNCTIONS Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Ifyoucanunderstandthis,youareagenius! 9. Heradministrativeassistantwillworkon thatprojectuntilitiscompleted. 7. Becauseyouareadearfriend,Iwillshare thiswithyou. 10. IrelyonJoeto¢xmycomputer,forheisan electronicsexpert. 8. Somepeopleareaggressiveyetpolite. To enhance your understanding Don’t confuse conjunctions with prepositions. Some words may function as either: 20a. I’ve been working hard, for I hope to be promoted. (Coordinating conjunction: connects two sentences.) 20b. I’ve been working hard for IBM. (Preposition: introduces a noun.) 21a. John left before they served dinner. (Subordinating conjunction: connects two sentences.) 21b. John left before dinner. (Preposition: introduces a noun.) 76Lesson 20: Correlative conjunctions 1. Boththewindowsandthedoorsneedtobereplaced. 2. EitherIcookorweordertake-out. 3. NeithertheFrenchnortheBritishwerewillingtosurrender. 4. Ifthat’saproblem,thenletmeknow. You can see that the underlined conjunctions in these sentences come in pairs, for example both/and. The two parts ‘‘go together’’ in these sentences, even though they’re not next to each other. These conjunction pairs are called correlative conjunctions. Quicktip20.1 Correlative conjunctions are two-part conjunctions. Common correlative conjunctions are: both/and, either/or, if/then, neither/nor. Test yourself 20.1 Underlinethecorrelativeconjunctionsinthesentencesbelow.Don’tforgettounderlinebothparts. Sample:EithertheDemocraticortheRepublicancandidatewillwin. Gettingstarted(answersonp.80) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Neitheryounoryourfriendsarelikelytowin 6. IfthetrainrunsonSunday,then thatra¥e. Iwon’tdrive. 2. BothLauretteandDenisehavebeenworking 7. Boththedirectorandtheplaywright towardsthatgoal. attendedtherehearsal. 3. Ifmyneighbordecidestoplantbushesthere, 8. NeitherIowanorTennesseeliesonthe then I’ll do some landscaping on my side of shoreoftheAtlanticOcean. thefenceaswell. 9. Ifthey’reasniceastheyseem,thenwe’llall 4. NeitherDon’scommentsnorhisactions getalongwell. surprisedme. 10. Youmustcalleitherheadsortails. 5. Thisathleteislikelytowineitheragoldora silvermedal. Test yourself 20.2 – Grand finale In each of the sentences below, underline the coordinating, subordinating, or correlative conjunction.Also,writeCifit’sacoordinatingconjunction,Sifit’sasubordinatingconjunction, andCORRifit’sacorrelativeconjunction. Sample:1.Neitherthebrownnortheblackshoeslookgoodwiththatout¢t. (CORR) 77UNIT 6: CONJUNCTIONS Gettingstarted(answersonp.80) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theywerepleasedwiththeplanandhappy 6. Iwillbeonthiscasetillitisresolved. aboutthedecision. 7. Onceshesettlesdowninherapartment, 2. I’llseeyouwhenyou Janedoesnotplantomoveforawhile. gethere. 8. YouandImakeagoodteam. 3. They’reworriedbecauseshehasn’tbeen 9. EitheryouorIwillgettothebottomof feelingwelllately. this. 4. Ourencounterwasshortbutsweet. 10. Theydressedasthoughtheyweremembers 5. Ifyoutellthetruth,thenIwon’tgetupset. ofthearistocracy. 78Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 6 Test yourself 18.1 1. Youcanhidebetweentripsandmakebelieveyou’reinnocent. 2. Wasitnearhereoroverthere? 3. Rogerlookedaroundbuthedidn’tseeanything. 4. They’lleatchickenorturkeyfordinner. 5. Mr.Josephpulledoutthreelettersandhandedonetoeachofthemen. Test yourself 18.2 1. Mr.Eaglewascalledawayonbusiness,soMrs.Broxtontookhisplaceatthemeeting. sentences 2. He’dheardofit,buthedidn’tliketheidea. sentences 3. Erinfeltrealexcitementandenthusiasm. nouns 4. Itwasraininghard,yetwewenttotheballgame. sentences 5. Theairlineattendantasked,‘‘Wouldyoulikeco¡eeortea?’’ nouns Test yourself 18.3 1. I’llbenearorbetweenthestacks. prepositions 2. Hecameupwithaquickande¡ectiveremedy. adjectives 3. Ihopeyouwon’tworryorbroodtoomuchaboutit. verbs 4. Thistripwillbeexpensivebutworthwhile. adjectives 5. Iamatornearabreakthrough. prepositions Test yourself 18.4 1. For 2. And 3. Nor 4. But 5. Or 6. Yet 7. So Test yourself 19.1 1. I’llleavethenoteherebecauseI’minahurry. 2. Nickhadcoachedhimthoroughly,eventhoughtheyhadn’thadmuchtime. 3. HecouldseethefaintglowofapipethatDr.Waltershadlit. 4. Youshouldstayheresincetheyobviouslyneedyou. 5. Shehasn’tcalledherealthoughshe’dsaidshewould. 79UNIT 6: CONJUNCTIONS Test yourself 19.2 1. Eventhoughhecalmeddown,hedidnotgobacktothetableimmediately. 2. WhileIenjoybeingintheyard,Ihatemowingthelawn. 3. Unlessthere’saheavydownpour,I’mgoingonthattrip. 4. Whyanyonewouldswiminicecoldwater,Ijustdon’tunderstand. 5. Whetheryouarerightorwrong,Iwillsupportyou. Test yourself 19.3 1. Sallyspentalotoftimewiththebabysitter,becausehermotherhadtowork. 2. Sinceyou’realwaysbusy,Idecidedtogotothemovieswithoutyou. 3. Afterhereadthearticle,hedecidednottoargueanyfurther. 4. WewillmovetoSeattle,unlessyoucanconvincemenotto. 5. AsifspeakingIgbowasn’tenough,thisprofessorspeaksYorubaaswell. Test yourself 19.4 1. I’mtheownerandeditorofthelocalnewspaper.(C) 2. BeforeMeganhelpedhim,Georgewouldhavetoprovehisloyalty.(S) 3. There’smorethanonecareerthathe’sinterestedin.(S) 4. Theypaintedherhousewhileshewasatwork.(S) 5. IarrivedearlybutIstillwasn’tthe¢rstinline.(C) Test yourself 20.1 1. Neitheryounoryourfriendsarelikelytowinthatra¥e. 2. BothLauretteandDenisehavebeenworkingtowardsthatgoal. 3. Ifmyneighbordecidestoplantbushesthere,thenI’lldosomelandscapingonmysideofthe fenceaswell. 4. NeitherDon’scommentsnorhisactionssurprisedme. 5. Thisathleteislikelytowineitheragoldorasilvermedal. Test yourself 20.2 1. Theywerepleasedwiththeplanandhappyaboutthedecision.(C) 2. I’llseeyouwhenyougethere.(S) 3. They’reworriedbecauseshehasn’tbeenfeelingwelllately.(S) 4. Ourencounterwasshortbutsweet.(C) 5. Ifyoutellthetruth,thenIwon’tgetupset.(CORR) ☞ FORA REVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT, SEETHEWEBSITE. 80UNIT 7: PRONOUNS AsMelissaenteredthedoorofthedimlylitCathedral,MelissaheldtightlytoMelissa’sbackpack. Suddenly, Melissa thought that Melissa saw a shadow moving. ‘‘This is scary,’’ whispered MelissatoMelissa. What’s strange about the sentences inthe above text? What is strange is that they’re missing pronouns, words that replace nouns in a sentence.You’ll probably agree that thesenextsentencesareavastimprovementonthefirstversion: AsMelissaenteredthedoorofthedimlylitCathedral,sheheldtightlytoherbackpack.Suddenly, shethoughtthatshesawashadowmoving.‘‘Thisisscary,’’whisperedMelissatoherself. WemayneverfindoutwhathappenstoMelissa,butreplacing Melissawithpronouns likesheandhermakesherfarmorepalatable. Asfaraspronounsgo,there’sbadnewsandthere’sgoodnews.Thebadnewsisthatthere areanumberofdifferentkindsofpronouns.Thegoodnewsisthatthereareonlyafewpro- nounsofeachtype.Lookatthepronounsthemselvesandgetafeelforthekindsofwords theyare.Someofthetypesmayhavelonglabels,butthepronounsthemselvesareusually shortwords. 81Lesson 21: Subject and object pronouns Subject pronouns Let’slookatthefollowingsentences: 1a. Diplomatstravelextensively. 1b. Theytravelextensively. 2a. ProfessorSusanFieldschairedthemeeting. 2b. Shechairedthemeeting. 3a. Benplayscardseveryweek. 3b. Heplayscardseveryweek. Notice that in each sentence pair, the underlined pronoun replaces the underlined noun.Theunderlinednounisdoingtheactioninthesentenceandcomesbeforetheverb. Thiskindofnouniscalledthesubjectofthesentenceandthepronounthatreplacesitis calledasubjectpronoun. Nowlet’sexaminethesesentences: 4a. Biologyisherfavoritesubject. 4b. Itisherfavoritesubject. 5a. Bobseemshappy. 5b. Heseemshappy. 6a. Mrs.Petersbecomesagitatedeasily. 6b. Shebecomesagitatedeasily. Noticeagainthatineachsentencepair,theunderlinedpronounreplacestheunderlined noun. Here, the underlined nouns come before linking verbs (see Lesson 9); although theyarenotperforminganaction,theyarestillconsideredtobesubjects.Again,thepro- nounthatreplacesthesubjectisasubjectpronoun. Thereareonlysevensubjectpronouns;theyarelistedinQuicktip21.1. Quicktip21.1 The subject pronouns are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. Test yourself 21.1 Underlinethesubjectpronounsinthesentencesbelow. Sample:Wewanderedaroundtown,lookingforaplacetohavelunch. Gettingstarted(answersonp.99) 1. Icrossedthepiazzaandheadedtowardsthe 4. Yesterday,shewentshopping. church. 5. Weshouldgettogethersometime. 2. Unfortunately,itwasclosed. 3. Theysimplystoodthere,waitingforme. 82Lesson 21: Subject and object pronouns Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Heisthegrandsonofanimmigrantfrom 9. Theyoftenhaveinterestingdiscussions. Italy. 10. LastnighttheydrovetoSanFrancisco. 7. Weoftendreamaboutimportantthings. 8. Youhavebeentotheirhousefordinner. Object pronouns 7a. Karenboughttheredcar. 7b. Karenboughtit. 8a. TheprizewasgiventoSteveandBill. 8b. Theprizewasgiventothem. 9a. I’mwatchingthebaby. 9b. I’mwatchingher. Theunderlinednounsinthesentencesabovearenotsubjects.Rather,theyareobjects: theyeither follow the mainverb or they follow a preposition. (For more onobjects, see Unit13.)Pronounsthatreplaceobjects,likethoseunderlinedinsentences7b,8b,and9b above,arecalledobjectpronouns. Thereareonlysevenobjectpronouns;theyarelistedinQuicktip21.2. Quicktip21.2 The object pronouns are: me, you, her, him, it, us, them. You can see that two pronouns, you and it, are particularly hardworking: they can functionaseithersubjectorobjectpronouns. Test yourself 21.2 Underlinetheobjectpronounsineachofthesentencesbelow.Theremaybemorethanonepronoun inasentence. Sample:Churchillcalledthemtoameeting. Gettingstarted(answersonp.99) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Maryheardhim. 6. Myfriendshaveneverheardofthem. 2. Thedetectivewatchedus 7. Barrygaveherapresent. suspiciously. 8. Harry’scousinlivesnearthem. 3. Stopbotheringme! 9. Mostcompetitorswereenviousofhim. 4. Stevensatdownbetweenhimandher. 10. Astrangemanisstandingnexttoyou 5. Dothestudentsunderstandit? andme. Test yourself 21.3 Decideifeachpronounbelowisasubjectorobjectpronoun. Sample:wesubject 83UNIT 7: PRONOUNS Gettingstarted(answersonp.99) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. them 6. they ................... ................... 2. he 7. she ................... ................... 3. I 8. me ................... ................... 4. us 9. him ................... ................... 5. her 10. we ................... ................... Test yourself 21.4 Underlinethepronounsineachofthesentencesbelow.Identifyeacheitherasasubjectpronounor anobjectpronoun.Keepinmindthatthepronounsyouanditcanbeeithersubjectorobjectpro- nouns,dependingonhowtheyarebeingused.Theremaybemorethanonepronouninasentence. Sample:Youreallydiditright.(subject;object) Gettingstarted(answersonp.99) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theclerkhadbeensenttoworkwithhim. 6. Theywerehidinginthebushes. 2. Theresearchrequiredthemtoworkclosely 7. Iamgivingittoyou. together. 8. Hewenttoofarthistime. 3. Itisbrighterthanthatotherlamp. 9. Theresa’sparentsworried 4. Ifyouknowtheanswer,pleasetellme. abouther. 5. Wewillbemovingnearyou. 10. Shehearsfromhimoften. You know that whenyou’re talking about yourself, you use the pronouns Ior me,and whenyou’retalkingaboutagroupofpeople,youusethepronounstheyorthem.Thatis, we choose different pronouns depending on the person or thing the pronouns refer to. Pronouns that vary in this way are calledpersonal pronouns.Subjectandobjectpro- nounsaretypesofpersonalpronouns;seeLessons22and24fortwootherkinds. Personalpronounsthatrefertothespeakerinaconversation,likeIandwe,arecalled firstpersonpronouns.Thosethatrefertothelistener,likeyou,arecalledsecondperson pronouns. And those that refer to anyone or anything else, like he or they,arecalled thirdpersonpronouns. Inaddition,pronounsthatrefertoonlyonepersonorthing,likeIandhe,arecalledsin- gularpronouns;thosethatrefertomorethanonepersonorthing,likeweandthey,are calledpluralpronouns. Here’sacompletebreakdownofthesubjectandobjectpronouns: Subject Object Firstpersonsingular I me Secondpersonsingular you you Thirdpersonsingular he,she,it him,her,it Firstpersonplural we us Secondpersonplural you you Thirdpersonplural they them 84Lesson 22: Reflexive pronouns Dothefollowingsentencesseemstrangetoyou? 1. JohnSmithsawJohnSmithinthemirror. 2. Myfriendsweretalkingamongmyfriends. 3. Sam’sonlycatwasgroomingSam’sonlycat. Thesesentencesarestrangebecausethey’remissing reflexivepronouns,thosepro- nounsthatendin-selfor-selves.Asyoucanseefromthesentencesbelow,weusereflexive pronouns whenever we refer to the same person or thing more than once in the same basicsentence.Sentences1^3shouldbestatedlikethis: 4. JohnSmithsawhimselfinthemirror. 5. Mybestfriendsweretalkingamongthemselves. 6. Sam’sonlycatwasgroomingherself. Herearesomemoreexamples,firstwithoutandthenwithareflexivepronoun. 7a. Theboywashedtheboy. 7b. Theboywashedhimself. 8a. TomandHarrywatchedTomandHarryonthevideo. 8b. TomandHarrywatchedthemselvesonthevideo. 9a. Youcanseeyoudoingthat. 9b. Youcanseeyourselfdoingthat. Notice that if we hear, for example,Theboywashedtheboy,withoutareflexive pronoun, then we assume that someone’s talking about two different boys. Similarly, the sentence He shaved him suggests that the person (a male) who did the shaving and the person (a male) who received the shaving are not the same. The reflexive pronoun lets the listener know that the speaker is referring to the same person or thing. Quicktip22.1liststhereflexivepronouns.They’reeasytoidentifybecausetheyallend in-selfor-selves(Quicktip22.2). Quicktip22.1 Thereflexive pronouns are:myself, yourself,himself,herself, itself, ourselves,yourselves, themselves. Quicktip22.2 All the reflexive pronouns end in -self (singular)or -selves (plural). Test yourself 22.1 Underlinethereflexivepronounsineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Thatcomputerissosmartitcanrepairitself. 85UNIT 7: PRONOUNS Gettingstarted(answersonp.99) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Johnwasapersonwhoalwayspushed 6. Allofyoushouldbeashamedofyourselves! himselftothelimit. 7. Rosannatreatedherselftoalavishvacation. 2. Watchyourself! 8. Iwishmycarstarteditselfinthedeadof 3. Wepridedourselvesonbeingsilly. winter. 4. Thedirectorsofthatcompanycanblameno 9. Wouldeveryoneintheroompleaseidentify onebutthemselves. himself? 5. Iseemyselfasasuccessfulwritersomeday. 10. Youshouldtakebettercareofyourself! Test yourself 22.2 Underlinethereflexive,subject,andobjectpronounsineachofthesentencesbelow.Labeleachas reflexive,subject,orobject.Somesentenceswillhavemorethanonepronoun. Sample:Greta’sperseverancebenefittedbothherselfandtherestofthestaff. (reflexive) Gettingstarted(answersonp.99) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. IhavefoundthatIcandoitwhentheroomis 6. Mr.Ballantinesaidthatheappreciatedus. quiet. 7. Ifyouwanttoleave,pleaseletmeknow. 2. Henoticedthatsheoftenimmersedherselfin 8. Whoamonguswantstocommithimselfto abook. anotheryearofservice? 3. Wehaveknownherforyears. 9. Jay’swifepromisedherselfnevertodoit 4. Somegueststoldusthattheyforced again. themselvestogetupat6A.M. 10. Reflexivepronounsareeasytoidentify, 5. Youdon’tneedtoexplainyourselftome. don’tyouagree? 86Lesson 23: Demonstrative pronouns Doyouremembertheunderlinedwordsinthesentencesbelow? 1. Areyousureyouwantthis? 2. Weagreedaboutthat. 3. I’mnotsureIlikethese. 4. Thoselookdelicious. In Lesson13 we talked about the use of demonstratives before a noun, for example: this dog, that idea,these songs, those curtains.That is, we talked aboutdemonstratives used as determiners. But demonstratives can also be used without a noun following them, as you can see from sentences 1^4. In these cases, because the demonstrative replaces anoun(or nounphrase),it iscalledademonstrativepronoun.Forexample, insentence1,thedemonstrativepronounthiscanbereplacinganounsuchasspaghetti ormagazines. It’s easy to remember demonstrative pronouns,becausethereareonlyfourofthem; theyarelistedinQuicktip23.1. Quicktip23.1 There are only four demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, and those. Itmighthelpyouremembertheword‘‘demonstrative’’ifyouthinkofthesewordsas‘‘dem- onstrating’’something,inaway,pointingtosomething. Test yourself 23.1 Underlinethedemonstrativepronounineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Lennywasn’tsurehereallywantedthose. Gettingstarted(answersonp.100) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thatwasn’treallyHannah’sjob,butI 6. Thosewerethegoodolddays. appreciateherdoingitanyway. 7. Seanthoughthewouldnever 2. Natashareallylikesthese. seethat. 3. Hewasn’tgoodatriddlesbutmanagedto 8. Thisisabsolutelyunacceptable. solvethose. 9. Mrs.Wallacewouldratherbuythese. 4. Ineverthoughtitwouldcometothis. 10. ThatisthefunniestthingI’veeverseen. 5. Theseareverydifficulttimes. Test yourself 23.2 Decideifeachpronounbelowisasubject,object,reflexive,ordemonstrativepronoun. Sample:shesubject 87UNIT 7: PRONOUNS Gettingstarted(answersonp.100) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. yourselves 6. them ...................................... ...................................... 2. those 7. that ...................................... ...................................... 3. me 8. us ...................................... ...................................... 4. we 9. herself ...................................... ...................................... 5. itself 10. these ...................................... ...................................... Test yourself 23.3 Underline the pronouns in each of the sentences below. Label each as demonstrative, subject, object,orreflexive.Somesentenceswillhavemorethanonepronoun. Sample:Didyouspillthatonyourself? (subject;demonstrative;reflexive) Gettingstarted(answersonp.100) 1. Wewereangryatourselves. ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2. Heaskedustoexplainthis. ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3. Itworksjustaswellathome. .................................................................................................................................................................. 4. Theysentthesetous. ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5. Thebaseballplayerdustedhimselfoff. .......................................................................................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Youshoulddothisforyourself. .......................................................................................................................................................... 7. ThisremindsmeofwhyIshouldrespectmyself. ................................................................................................................ 8. Thatisthewaytheyshouldbehavethemselves. ................................................................................................................. 9. Weexcusedourselvesrightafterdinner. ................................................................................................................................... 10. Itcouldbotherthem. .................................................................................................................................................................................. 88Lesson 24: Possessive pronouns Youwon’tbesurprisedtolearnthatpossessivepronounsarepronounsthatindicatepos- session,orownership.Somepossessivepronounsareunderlinedhere: 1. Mr.Smithexplainedhisideastotheaudience. 2. IwishIcouldaccepttheirinvitation. 3. Thatsuitcaseisn’tmine. 4. Yourswasthebestessayintheclass. Ifyoulookclosely,you’llnoticethatthepossessivepronounsinsentences1^4fallinto twogroups.Theonesinsentences1and2arefollowedbyanoun:hisideas,theirinvitation. Theonesinsentences3and4arenotfollowedbyanoun;rather,theystandontheirown inthesentence.We’lltalkabouteachkindseparately. Thepossessivepronounsinsentences1and2maylookfamiliartoyou.That’sbecause theyweredescribedinLesson14,aspartofourdiscussionofdeterminers.Likearticles (a, an, the), possessive pronouns which function as determiners can occur in the slot house(forexample,hishouse,ourhouse,yourhouse).Sincetheyfunctionasdeter- miners,youcanunderstandwhytheyarefollowedbyanoun.InQuicktip14.1wecalled these determiner possessive pronouns and provided the full list.We repeat them here: my,your,his,her,its,our,their. Test yourself 24.1 Underline the determiner possessive pronoun ineachof the sentencesbelow. Remember: deter- minerpossessivepronounsarefollowedbynouns. Sample:Manyofourideasbackthenwereequallyabsurd. Gettingstarted(answersonp.100) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thewomanhidherfeelingswell. 6. Thesalesman’scardoesnotshowitsage. 2. Hewasyoungerthanhiswife. 7. Weshouldjustpackupourthingsandgetout ofhere. 3. Mr.andMrs.Bradfordadored theirson. 8. ItookalookatyourfaceandIknew immediatelythatyouwerehonest. 4. ThomasandNataliewerethebeststudents inmyclass. 9. Mydaughterisverygoodaboutbrushing herteethregularly. 5. Youreyeslookverytired. 10. Gamblersaresecretiveabouttheirlosses. Nowontothepossessivepronounsinsentences3and4,thekindthatcanstandaloneina sentence.Herearesomemoreexamples: 5. TheGreens’tentcamelooseinthestormbutoursremainedsecure. 6. YourswasthefirstcardInoticed. 7. Thescientisthurriedfromthatlaboratorytomine. 89UNIT 7: PRONOUNS Thesepossessivepronounsreplaceawholenoun(actually,awholenounphrase,butwe haven’tgottentothatyet;seeLesson28).Andsincethewordnominalmeans‘‘noun-like,’’ thesepronounsaresometimescalledpossessivepronounswithnominalfunction.We willsimplycallthemnominalpossessivepronouns. Quicktip24.1 Nominalpossessivepronounsreplaceawholenoun(ornounphrase).Forexample,instead of saying That book is Sally’s book we can simply say, That book is hers. The nominal possessive pronouns are: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs. Notice that the pronouns his and its can function either as determiner possessive pro- nouns(seeQuicktip14.1)orasnominalpossessivepronouns(seeQuicktip24.1). To enhance your understanding Don’t confuse possessive pronouns with contracted pronouns: 8a. It’s (= it is) a wonderful day. (contracted pronoun) 8b. Its positives outweigh its negatives. (determiner possessive pronoun) 9a. You’re (= you are) absolutely right. (contracted pronoun) 9b. Your shoelaces are untied. (determiner possessive pronoun) 10a. They’re (= they are) leaving. (contracted pronoun) 10b. Their leaving early was unexpected. (determiner possessive pronoun) As you can see, the contracted pronoun is always written with an apostrophe. Test yourself 24.2 Underlinethenominalpossessivepronounineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:PeteandCathyareconvincedtheideawastheirs. Gettingstarted(answersonp.100) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Therattlesnakeishis. 6. Theirswillprobablybethebestdoginthe show. 2. Themotherneedshernourishmentandthe babyneedshersalso. 7. HiringthebandisnotDave’sresponsibility^ itisyours. 3. Yoursistheroomontheleft. 8. Whatevertheneighborswanttohaulawayis 4. Thecomputeronthetable theirsforthetaking. ismine. 9. Mostpeople’sexperienceisprobably 5. Oursisthenexthouseontheblock. similartohers. 10. Hisisnottheonlyopinionthatmatters. Test yourself 24.3 Decideifeachpossessivepronounbelowisadetermineroranominalpossessivepronoun. Sample:yoursnominal 90Lesson 24: Possessive pronouns Gettingstarted(answersonp.100) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. my 6. our ...................................... ...................................... 2. theirs 7. their ...................................... ...................................... 3. mine 8. ours ...................................... ...................................... 4. your 9. hers ...................................... ...................................... 5. her 10. his ...................................... ...................................... Test yourself 24.4 Underlinethepossessivepronounineachofthesentencesbelow.Thenindicateifitfunctionsasa determineroranominalpossessivepronoun. Sample:Jack’stripwasgood,butnotnearlyasexcitingastheirs. (determiner) Gettingstarted(answersonp.101) 1. Listeningtomusicmightinterferewithyourabilitytoconcentrate. ...................................... 2. SomeoftheCDsareours. ...................................... 3. Theprisonerwasorderedtohandoverhisthings. ...................................... 4. Inmyopinion,youshouldapologize. ...................................... 5. Hersistheonlydissentingvoiceintheroom. ...................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Thebigsuitcaseoverthereismine. ...................................... 7. Someonewantstobuyourcompany. ...................................... 8. Somedaythiswillallbeyours. ...................................... 9. Thesuspectshadtheirdayincourt. ...................................... 10. Thebankisgoingtoneedhersignature. ...................................... Test yourself 24.5 Decideifeachpronounbelowisadeterminerpossessivepronoun(my,our,etc.),nominalpossessive pronoun(mine,ours,etc.),subjectpronoun(I,we,etc.),objectpronoun(me,us,etc.),reflexivepro- noun(myself,ourselves,etc.),ordemonstrativepronoun(this,these,etc.). Sample:thatdemonstrative Gettingstarted(answersonp.101) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. their 6. us ...................................... ...................................... 2. them 7. itself ...................................... ...................................... 3. yourselves 8. those ...................................... ...................................... 4. we 9. me ...................................... ...................................... 5. hers 10. yours ...................................... ...................................... 91UNIT 7: PRONOUNS Test yourself 24.6 – Grand finale Underlinethepronounsineachofthesentencesbelow.Labeleachasdeterminerpossessive,nomi- nalpossessive, subject, object, demonstrative, or reflexive. Somesentenceswillhavemorethan onepronoun. Sample:Theywereconvincedthatshewoulddoagreatjobforthem. (subject;subject;object) Gettingstarted(answersonp.101) 1. Theiremployeeswereworkingduringlunch. .................................................................................................................... 2. Heaskedusfortheanswer. .................................................................................................................................................................. 3. Itmadeahugedifferencetoherandtoherfriends. ........................................................................................................ 4. Shelookedatherselfintherearviewmirrorofmycar. .............................................................................................. 5. Someguyintroducedhimselfandgavemehisbusinesscard. .............................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Youshouldn’tcompareyouraccomplishmentstotheirs. ........................................................................................... 7. Thecandidatespresentedthemselvesandtheirpositionstous. ......................................................................... 8. Areallthesehersormine? .................................................................................................................................................................. 9. Youshouldthankhimforbringingthattoyourattention. ........................................................................................ 10. Wesavedthisforlastbecauseofitscomplexityandbecausetheopportunity presenteditselftoincludeallpronountypesinit^butthefinaljudgmentisyours! ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92Lesson 25: Interrogative pronouns Whatdoyounoticeabouttheunderlinedwordsinthefollowingsentences? 1. Whowentfirst? 2. Whatwasthemancarrying? 3. Whichdidyoubuy? Youundoubtedlyrecognizethemasquestionwords.Theyarecalledinterrogativepro- nouns;welisttheminQuicktip25.1. Quicktip25.1 Interrogative pronouns are question words. The interrogative pronouns are: how, what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why. Look for the question mark to help find them. Youmaybewonderingwhytheseareconsideredtobepronouns.Likeotherpronouns, interrogativepronounsrepresentsomethingelse,oftenanoun.Theyrepresentmissing information,informationthat’sintheanswertoaquestion: Whowentfirst? 4a. 4b. Harrywentfirst. 5a. Whatwasthemancarrying? 5b. Themanwascarryingacamera. 6a.Whichdidyoubuy? 6b. Iboughttheredcar. Since, whenwe ask a question, we don’t yet know what the answer will be, we have no choicebuttouseaquestionword,orinterrogativepronoun,torepresenttheinformation weareaskingabout. To enhance your understanding Don’t confuse the following – they sound the same: 7a. Who’s (= who is) there? 7b. Whose party are we going to? Test yourself 25.1 Underlinetheinterrogativepronounineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Whyishisapproachsoexciting? Gettingstarted(answersonp.101) 1. Towhomdidyousendthepackage? 4. HowcanIbelieveyouaretelling thetruth? 2. Whoseisit? 5. Wherehaveyoubeen? 3. Whatcantheproducerdoaboutit? 93UNIT 7: PRONOUNS Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Whendidyoucomehomelastnight? 9. Whogaveyoupermissiontoopenthatbox? 7.Whyisitsodarkinthisroom? 10. Fromwhomdidyougetthiscall? 8. Whichdoyouprefer? Test yourself 25.2 Decide if each pronoun below is an interrogative pronoun (who, what), demonstrative pronoun (this,these,etc.),objectpronoun(me,us,etc.),orreflexivepronoun(myself,ourselves,etc.). Sample:myself reflexive Gettingstarted(answersonp.101) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. herself 6. itself ...................................... ...................................... 2. which 7. how ...................................... ...................................... 3. who 8. what ...................................... ...................................... 4. those 9. us ...................................... ...................................... 5. him 10. whom ...................................... ...................................... Test yourself 25.3 Underlinetheinterrogative,possessive,andsubjectpronounsineachofthesentencesbelow.Label each as interrogative (what, who, etc.), determiner possessive (my, our, etc.),nominalpossessive (mine, ours,etc.),orsubject(I, we, etc.). Some sentences will have more than one pronoun. (Remember that interrogativepronounsareused inquestions,solookfor thatquestionmarkto helpyou.) Sample:Whatareyoulookingfor? (interrogative;subject) Gettingstarted(answersonp.101) 1. Wheredidyourfriendhidetheball? ............................................................................................................................................ 2. WhichdoesJacklike:coffeeortea? .............................................................................................................................................. 3. Ourswastheonlyentryinthecontest. ..................................................................................................................................... 4. Wekeptourpromise. ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5. Yourbusinessisyoursalone. ............................................................................................................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Whydidn’tyouwashyourcar? ......................................................................................................................................................... 7. Hethoughtthatthebrowncoatwashis. ................................................................................................................................... 8. Thebicycleismine,nothers. ............................................................................................................................................................. 9. ImailedmypackagetoKorea. .......................................................................................................................................................... 10. Whenwillhearrive? ................................................................................................................................................................................. 94Lesson 25: Interrogative pronouns Test yourself 25.4 Underlinethepronounsineachofthesentencesbelow.Don’tworryaboutwhat kindofpronoun eachis.Somesentenceswillhavemorethanonepronoun. Sample:Whatwilltheybuyathisstore? Gettingstarted(answersonp.102) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Youkeephurtingyourselfwhenyougo 6. Ourhopeisthatonedaywewillfindour- skiing. selveslivingitupinstyle. 2.Weshouldgetittothemassoonas 7. Thatwillneverhappenunderhiswatch. possible. 8. Herdeterminationgavehertheimpetusto 3. WhowasBillthinkingofsendingthemto? improveherself. 4. Shehasagreatopportunitytoadvance 9. Wherearethosenewshirtsyoubought herselfinhercompany. yourselfyesterday? 5. Whenwillyourgreatnovelbe 10. Ourballclubpridesitselfonitsabilityto finished? winmostofourgames. To further enhance your understanding AswediscussedatthebeginningofthisLesson,interrogativesfunctionaspronouns–they replacenouns.Note,however,thatsomeinterrogativescanalsofunctionasdeterminers – they can precede a noun. You can see this in the examples below: 8. Which book did you read last? 9. Whose purse is on the table? 10. What name did they choose for their baby? 95Lesson 26: Relative pronouns Herearesomesentenceswithinterrogativepronouns,liketheonesyou’vealreadyseenin Lesson25.Theinterrogativepronounsareunderlined. 1. Whowaslaughing? 2. Whoseisthis? Nowlookatthefollowingsentences,whichcontainthesameunderlinedwords.Howare thesesentencesdifferentfromsentences1and2? 3. Ilikethewomanwholivesnextdoor. 4. He’stheengineerwhoselifewasdisruptedbyamessydivorce. You’veprobablynoticedthat,unlikesentences1and2above,sentences3and4arenot questions.Thesamepronounsarebeingused,butnottoaskaquestion.Instead,thesepro- nounsareusedinsentences3and4toreplaceanounthat’salreadymentionedearlierin thesentence.Whenusedthisway,thesepronounsarecalledrelativepronouns.Theyare listedinQuicktip26.1 Quicktip26.1 The common relative pronouns are: that, which, who, whom, whose. They refer back to a noun in the sentence. Test yourself 26.1 Underlinetherelativepronounineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Theprominentoilmanwhoboughtthathouseisnotagenerousman. Gettingstarted(answersonp.102) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. John’sistheessaythatwasthemost 6. Ingeneral,Sharonisnicetopeoplewhom well-written. shemeets. 2. Hiswifewasthewomanwhomhelovedthe 7. Iwillstandonthelinewhichisshorter. most. 8. Thepersonwholeaveslastshouldturnthe 3. Thereisnoonewhocanmakemelaughmore lightsoff. thanyou. 9. Shesawthejourneywhichshehad 4. Dannyboughtagiftwhichappealedtohim. undertakenstretchoutbeforeher. 5. LastweekImetthemanwhosecousin 10. Annaleavesagoodimpressionon marriedmyfriend. employerswhointerviewher. Let’slookatsentences3and4moreclosely. 3. Ilikethewomanwholivesnextdoor. 96Lesson 26: Relative pronouns Inthissentence,wholivesnextdoor?Answer: thewoman. Soinsteadofsayingsome- thinglikeIlikethewoman.Thewomanlivesnextdoor,wereplacethesecondoccurrence ofthewomanwiththepronounwho,givingusthesentenceIlikethewomanwholivesnext door.Infact,thewordwhoisdoingtwothings:it’srepresentingthewomanandit’sjoining livesnextdoortothemainpartofthesentence. 4. He’stheengineerwhoselifewasdisruptedbyamessydivorce. Inthissentence,whoselifewasdisruptedbyamessydivorce?Answer:theengineer’s.So instead of saying something like He’s the engineer.The engineer’s life was disrupted by a messy divorce,wereplacethesecondoccurrenceof the engineer(actually,inthiscase, the engineer’s)withthepronounwhose,givingusthesentenceHe’stheengineerwhoselifewas disruptedbyamessydivorce.Again,thewordwhoseisdoingtwothings:it’srepresentingthe engineerandit’sjoininglifewasdisruptedbyamessydivorcetothemainpartofthesentence. Inthefollowingsentence,whatbroke? 5. Samfixedthecomputerthatbroke. Answer:thecomputer.SoinsteadofsayingsomethinglikeSamfixedthecomputer.The computerbroke,wereplacethesecondoccurrenceofthecomputerwiththepronounthat, giving us the sentence Samfixedthe computer that broke.Again,theword that is doing two things: it’s representing the computer and it’s joining broke to the main part of the sentence. You may remember that in Lesson 19 we talked about subordinating conjunctions, which are words that connect a sentence (the main sentence) with another sentence whichisasubpartofit.Therelativepronounsherearedoingthesamethingandinfact, relative pronouns are one kind of subordinating conjunction (and appear on the list inLesson19). Quicktip26.2 Relative pronouns are a type of subordinating conjunction. A relative pronoun typically occurs soon after the noun it refers to. Example: He liked the teacher who gave easy tests. Test yourself 26.2 Therelativepronounisunderlinedineachofthesentencesbelow.Yourjobistofindthenounthat therelativepronounisreferringto. Sample:Iwatchedafewmoviesthatwerereallybad. (movies) Gettingstarted(answersonp.102) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theyaremenwhoareambitious. 6. Thepatientswhoselivesareindangerneed thosedrugs. 2. Thesalesmannoticedthepotatoesthathe planted. 7. Thebuswhichhasjustarrivedisscheduled toleaveforPhoenix. 3. Itisworthbuyingstockswhichincreasein value. 8. Rebeccanoticedthetouristswhowere gatheredaroundthestatue. 4. Theguestswhomweinvitedaweekagojust arrived. 9. ThemilkthatJaneboughtseemstobefresh. 5. Theflightthatwassupposedtoleaveat5is 10. Thecontractorwhomwehireddidnotshow stilldelayed. uptoday. 97UNIT 7: PRONOUNS Test yourself 26.3 Underline and identify the interrogative or relative pronoun in each of the sentences below. (Rememberthattheinterrogativepronounswillalwaysbeinaquestion.)Inthisexercise,thesen- tenceswillonlyhaveeitheraninterrogativeorarelativepronoun,butnotboth. Sample:Whyareyougoing? (interrogative) Gettingstarted(answersonp.102) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. WhatcanIdoaboutit? 6. Whichdoyouwantustochoose? 2. Adamisthepersonwhomyouneedto 7. Therestaurantinwhichweatewasawful. talkto. 8. Idon’tcarefortheearringswhichthis 3. Ifixedtheclockthatwasbroken. actressiswearing. 4. Thepolicewillfindthepersonwho 9. Severaloftheboyswhoattendedtheparty committedthiscrime. becamerowdy. 5. Whenwilltheshowstart? 10. He’shappywiththesolutionthatI’m proposing. To enhance your understanding Notice that the word that has lots of uses. These are demonstrated here: 6. I think that man is intriguing. (demonstrative determiner) 7. I think that is the way to go. (demonstrative pronoun) 8. I think thatthe sun will shine tomorrow. (subordinating conjunction: introduc- ing a clause) 9. Ithinkthecarthatyouwantwassoldyesterday. (relativepronoun:introducing a clause and referring back to a noun) You can have more than one that within the same sentence: 10. I think that that is the cat that belongs to you. And that’s that! To further enhance your understanding There are also some less commonly used relative pronouns with the suffix -ever. Some examples: 11. I’ll be happy with whatever you decide to do. 12. My mother always told me to marry whoever I wanted to. 13. They can travel with whomever they choose. Thereisanimportantdifferencebetweentherelativepronounsendingin-everandthose welookedatearlierandlistedinQuicktip26.1.Asyoucanseeinsentences11–13,the-ever relative pronouns do not refer back to a noun that comes before. Rather, they represent a noun all by themselves. 98Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 7 Test yourself 21.1 1. Icrossedthepiazzaandheadedtowardsthechurch. 2. Unfortunately,itwasclosed. 3. Theysimplystoodthere,waitingforme. 4. Yesterday,shewentshopping. 5. Weshouldgettogethersometime. Test yourself 21.2 1. Maryheardhim. 2. Thedetectiveswatchedussuspiciously. 3. Stopbotheringme! 4. Stevensatdownbetweenhimandher. 5. Dothestudentsunderstandit? Test yourself 21.3 1. them object 2. he subject 3. I subject 4. us object 5. her object Test yourself 21.4 1. Theclerkhadbeensenttoworkwithhim. (object) 2. Theresearchrequiredthemtoworkcloselytogether. (object) 3. Itisbrighterthanthatotherlamp. (subject) 4. Ifyouknowtheanswer,pleasetellme. (subject;object) 5. Wewillbemovingnearyou. (subject;object) Test yourself 22.1 1. Johnwasapersonwhoalwayspushedhimselftothelimit. 2. Watchyourself! 3. Wepridedourselvesonbeingsillly. 4. Thedirectorsofthatcompanycanblamenoonebutthemselves. 5. Iseemyselfasasuccessfulwritersomeday. Test yourself 22.2 1. IhavefoundthatIcandoitwhentheroomisquiet. (subject;subject;object) 99UNIT 7: PRONOUNS 2. Henoticedthatsheoftenimmersedherselfinabook. (subject;subject;reflexive) 3. Wehaveknownherforyears. (subject;object) 4. Somegueststoldusthattheyforcedthemselvestogetupat6A.M. (object;subject;reflexive) 5. Youdon’tneedtoexplainyourselftome. (subject;reflexive;object) Test yourself 23.1 1. Thatwasn’treallyHannah’sjob,butIappreciateherdoingitanyway. 2. Natashareallylikesthese. 3. Hewasn’tgoodatriddlesbutmanagedtosolvethose. 4. Ineverthoughtitwouldcometothis. 5. Theseareverydifficulttimes. Test yourself 23.2 1. yourselves reflexive 2. those demonstrative 3. me object 4. we subject 5. itself reflexive Test yourself 23.3 1. Wewereangryatourselves. (subject;reflexive) 2. Heaskedustoexplainthis. (subject;object;demonstrative) 3. Itworksjustaswellathome. (subject) 4. Theysentthesetous. (subject;demonstrative;object) 5. Thebaseballplayerdustedhimselfoff. (reflexive) Test yourself 24.1 1. Thewomanhidherfeelingswell. 2. Hewasyoungerthanhiswife. 3. Mr.andMrs.Bradfordadoredtheirson. 4. ThomasandNataliewerethebeststudentsinmyclass. 5. Youreyeslookverytired. Test yourself 24.2 1. Therattlesnakeishis. 2. Themotherneedshernourishmentandthebabyneedshersalso. 3. Yoursistheroomontheleft. 4. Thecomputeronthetableismine. 5. Oursisthenexthouseontheblock. Test yourself 24.3 1. my determiner 2. theirs nominal 3. mine nominal 4. your determiner 5. her determiner 100Answer keys: Unit 7 Test yourself 24.4 1. Listeningtomusicmightinterferewithyourabilitytoconcentrate. (determiner) 2. SomeofthoseCDsareours. (nominal) 3. Theprisonerwasorderedtohandoverhisthings. (determiner) 4. Inmyopinion,youshouldapologize. (determiner) 5. Hersistheonlydissentingvoiceintheroom. (nominal) Test yourself 24.5 1. their determinerpossessive 2. them object 3. yourselves reflexive 4. we subject 5. hersnominal possessive Test yourself 24.6 1. Theiremployeeswereworkingduringlunch. (determinerpossessive) 2. Heaskedusfortheanswer. (subject;object) 3. Itmadeahugedifferencetoherandtoherfriends. (subject;object;determinerpossessive) 4. Shelookedatherselfintherearviewmirrorofmycar. (subject;reflexive;determinerpossessive) 5. Someguyintroducedhimselfandgavemehisbusinesscard. (reflexive;object;determinerpossessive) Test yourself 25.1 1. Towhomdidyousendthepackage? 2. Whoseisit? 3. Whatcantheproducerdoaboutit? 4. HowcanIbelieveyouaretellingthetruth? 5. Wherehaveyoubeen? Test yourself 25.2 1. herself reflexive 2. which interrogative 3. who interrogative 4. those demonstrative 5. him object Test yourself 25.3 1. Wheredidyourfriendhidetheball? (interrogative;determinerpossessive) 2. WhichdoesJacklike:coffeeortea? (interrogative) 3. Ourswastheonlyentryinthecontest. (nominalpossessive) 4. Wekeptourpromise. (subject;determinerpossessive) 5. Yourbusinessisyoursalone. (determinerpossessive;nominalpossessive) 101UNIT 7: PRONOUNS Test yourself 25.4 1. Youkeephurtingyourselfwhenyougoskiing. 2. Weshouldgetittothemassoonaspossible. 3. WhowasBillthinkingofsendingthemto? 4. Shehasagreatopportunitytoadvanceherselfinhercompany. 5. Whenwillyourgreatnovelbefinished? Test yourself 26.1 1. John’sistheessaythatwasthemostwellwritten. 2. Hiswifewasthewomanwhomhelovedthemost. 3. Thereisnoonewhocanmakemelaughmorethanyou. 4. Dannyboughtagiftwhichappealedtohim. 5. LastweekImetthemanwhosecousinmarriedmyfriend. Test yourself 26.2 1. Theyaremenwhoareambitious. (men) 2. Thesalesmannoticedthepotatoesthatheplanted. (potatoes) 3. Itisworthbuyingstockswhichincreaseinvalue. (stocks) 4. Theguestswhomweinvitedaweekagojustarrived. (guests) 5. Theflightthatwassupposedtoleaveat5isstilldelayed. (flight) Test yourself 26.3 1. WhatcanIdoaboutit? (interrogative) 2. Adamisthepersonwhomyouneedtotalkto. (relative) 3. Ifixedtheclockthatwasbroken. (relative) 4. Thepolicewillfindthepersonwhocommittedthiscrime. (relative) 5. Whenwilltheshowstart? (interrogative) ☞FORA REVIEWEXERCISEOF THISUNIT, SEETHEWEBSITE. 102UNIT 8: ADVERBS Lesson 27: Identifying adverbs We’vesavedadverbsforlastbecausetheycanbeabittricky.Adverbsdolotsofdi¡erent thingsandcanbeinlotsofdi¡erentplacesinasentence.Infact,thechancesare,ifyou don’tknowwhatelseawordis,it’sprobablyanadverb. Theadverbsareunderlinedinthesentencesbelow: 1. Ilivehere. (informationaboutlocation) 2. Mybrotherisarrivingtoday. (informationabouttime) 3. Shedancesgracefully. (informationaboutmanner) 4. Thatchild isverysweet. (degreeinformationaboutanadjective,inthiscase, aboutsweet) 5. Sheworksextremelye⁄ciently. (degreeinformationaboutanotheradverb,in thiscase,aboute⁄ciently) Quicktip27.1 Adverbs generally indicate information about location, time, degree, and manner. They provideextrainformationabouttheactioninasentence,aboutadjectivesandaboutother adverbs. Quicktip27.2 Ifyoudon’tknowwhatelseawordis(andyou’veeliminatedtheotherpartsofspeech),it’s probably an adverb. Whileunfortunately,wecan’tgiveyouasimplerulethatwillhelpyouidentifyadverbs 100 percentof thetime, thetipsbelow willhelpyoucorrectly identifyadverbsinmany cases. Quicktip27.3 Can the word go in the following slot?Maryslept . Ifso, it’s probably an adverb. For example, Mary slept peacefully. Peacefully is an adverb. Quicktip27.4 Can the word go in the following slot? , I gave / will give my speech.Ifso,it’s probably an adverb. For example, Yesterday, I gave my speech. Yesterday is an adverb.Or: Tomorrow, I will give my speech. Tomorrow is an adverb. 103UNIT 8: ADVERBS Quicktip27.5 Canthewordgointhefollowingslot?Heis happy.Ifso,it’sprobablyanadverb.For example, He is very happy. Very is an adverb. Quicktip27.6 Does the word end in the suffix -ly? Is it an adjective? If it ends in -ly and it’s not an adjective, it’s probably an adverb (e.g. hopefully, happily, unusually). Test yourself 27.1 Underlinetheadverbsineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Theyhaddeliberatelybeensilentwhentheyenteredtheroom. Gettingstarted(answersonp.107) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Shereturnedthebookandquietly 6. Whydon’tyoucallhersometimes? left. 7. Weweretoldtohandlethemerchandise 2. I’mleavingforEuropetomorrow. carefully. 3. Thathorseisanunusuallycalm 8. Thedoctorinformedhispatientthathis animal. prognosiswasverygood. 4. Thetraincametoastopsuddenly. 9. TheMorgansarenotleavingtoday. 5. Thatremarkwastooshocking. 10. Unexpectedly,theprincipalordered everyoneintotheauditorium. Many,thoughnotall,adverbsendin-ly(rapidly,innocently,sweetly,etc.).However,some adjectives also end in -ly, for example lovely, friendly.It’seasytodistinguishthem. Just remember that the adjectives can go in the slot the boy: the lovely boy, the friendlyboy. While adverbs can go before the adjective, for example the extremely friendly boy (extremelyisanadverb),adverbscannotoccupytheslotdirectlybeforethenoun.Thatis, onecannotsay,*theextremelyboyor*theinnocentlyboy,so extremelyandinnocentlyare notadjectives;theymustbeadverbs. Notethatsomenouns,forexamplethe£owerlily,endin-lyaswell.Andjusttoaddalittle more spice to the recipe, there are some words that can be used either as adverbs or as adjectives: 6a. Thatisaprettyeasybook. (Pretty issimilartothewordveryhere, and isan adverbofdegree.) 6b. Thatisaprettychild. (Prettyisanadjective.) 7a. Youdrivetoofast. (Fasttellsusmoreabouttheverbdrive,soitisanadverb.) 7b. Thisactor’sdeliverywastoofast. (Fasttellsusmoreaboutthenoundelivery, soitisanadjective.) 104Lesson 27: Identifying adverbs Test yourself 27.2 Foreachwordbelow,decideifitisanadverboranadjective.Usethetestforadjectivestohelpyou decide:the boy. Sample:rarely adverb Gettingstarted(answersonp.107) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. happily 6. predictably ................... ................... ...................................... 2. ugly 7. nearly .................... .................. ...................................... 3. clearly 8. proudly .................. ..... . .............. ...................................... 4. gently 9. barely .................. ..... . .............. ...................................... 5. manly 10. silly .................. ..... . .............. ...................................... Test yourself 27.3 Decidewhethertheunderlinedwordineachsentenceisbeingusedasanadjectiveoranadverb. Adjective Adverb Sample:Herecentlyincreasedhisyearlysalary. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.107) 1. Hewasbusilywritingaletterwhenthedoorbellrang. ................... ................... 2. Thatisaveryhillyroad. ................... ................... 3. Theyfellhopelesslyinloveat¢rstsight. ................... ................... 4. Ineverrealizedthatyouhavesuchcurlyhair. ................... ................... 5. Thesopranogaveamasterlyperformance. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Mr.Sawyerispaidweekly. ................... ................... 7. Sheundoubtedlydeservestophonors. ................... ................... 8. Thisladyeerilyresemblesmygrandmother. ................... ................... 9. Janetfullyconcurswithherhusband’sdecision. ................... ................... 10. Yournewhouseisverylovely. ................... ................... Test yourself 27.4 Underline the adverbs with a solid line and the adjectives with a squiggly line in the sentences below. Sample:Hewasclearlyworkingonadifficultreport. Gettingstarted(answersonp.107) 1. Excitedly,themendraggedtheheavysackto 3. Adamwaitedinside. theclearing. 4. Theoldfellowlefttownyesterday. 2. I’vecheckedonthesituationverythoroughly. 5. Afterwards,heregrettedhisactions. 105UNIT 8: ADVERBS Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Yourgenerousgiftwascompletely 9. Ioftenthinkofyoufondly. unnecessary. 10. Themailmanleftanunopenedpackageat 7. Let’sagreeonthisbeforehand. thedoor. 8. Thiso¡eristoogoodtopassup. Test yourself 27.5 – Grand Finale For each sentence below, writeADVabove each adverb, ADJabove each adjective, Nabove each noun,andVaboveeachverb. NV ADV Sample:Theteacherlookedathimcoldly. Gettingstarted(answersonp.107) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Myroommateusuallysleepsverylate. 6. Theoncepopularguitaristappearedon 2. Yesterday,thegirlaccompaniedherolder TVregularly. sistertothemall. 7. Successfulbrokerswillsurelyreceive 3. Hewalkedslowlytowardthefoggy sizeablecommissions. station. 8. WerecentlyhadawonderfultimeinSpain. 4. Theexperiencedsenatorquicklyevaded 9. Iwilltakeaquickdipintheinvitingblue theirprobingquestions. watersoftheocean. 5. Later,wetookaleisurelywalkdownbythe 10. Obviously, you are not the same person beach. now that you were when I ¢rst met you. 106Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 8 Test yourself 27.1 1. Shereturnedthebookandquietlyleft. 2. I’mleavingforEuropetomorrow. 3. Thathorseisanunusuallycalmanimal. 4. Thetraincametoastopsuddenly. 5. Thatremarkwastooshocking. Test yourself 27.2 1. happily adverb 2. ugly adjective 3. clearly adverb 4. gently adverb 5. manly adjective Test yourself 27.3 Adjective Adverb 1. Hewasbusilywritingaletterwhenthedoorbellrang. ................... 2. Thatisaveryhillyroad. ................... 3. Theyfellhopelesslyinloveat¢rstsight. ................... 4. Ineverrealizedthatyouhavesuchcurlyhair. ................... 5. Thesopranogaveamasterlyperformance. ................... Test yourself 27.4 heavy 1. Excitedly,themendraggedthe sacktotheclearing. 2. I’vecheckedonthesituationverythoroughly. 3. Adamwaitedinside. 4. The fellowlefttownyesterday. old 5. Afterwards,heregrettedhisactions. Test yourself 27.5 1. N ADV V ADVADJ Myroommateusuallysleepsverylate. 2. ADV N V ADJ N N Yesterday,thegirlaccompaniedheroldersistertothemall. 3. V ADV ADJ N Hewalkedslowlytowardthefoggystation. 107UNIT 8: ADVERBS 4. ADJ N ADV V ADJ N Theexperiencedsenatorquicklyevadedtheirprobingquestions. 5. ADV V ADJ N ADV N Later,wetookaleisurelywalkdownbythebeach. ☞FORAREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEETHEWEBSITE. 108Review matching exercise and answer key – Part I Review matchingexercise Matchtheunderlinedwordorwordstotheappropriatetermineachset.Useeachterm onlyonce. Sample:Merlin’sassistantwasanapprenticemagician. possessivepropernoun Set A article particle singularnoun coordinatingconjunction phrasalverb transitiveverb determinerpossessivepronoun preposition 1. Michaeldippedhisfootinthepool. ..................................................... 2. Hehadmadehisfortuneovernight. ..................................................... 3. Don’tpickupathing! ..................................................... 4. Hergardenerwateredthelawn. ..................................................... 5. Theauthoritieswereinvestigatingthepossibilityofanillegal smugglingring. ..................................................... 6. Shealways¢guresouttheanswereventually. ..................................................... 7. We’veinstalledageneratorbutnotaback-upsystem. ..................................................... 8. Theyneedthesetoolsfortheirproject. ..................................................... Set B baseformofverb irregularpluralnoun subordinating correlativeconjunction linkingverb conjunction demonstrativedeterminer quanti¢er 1. Youcanvisitmoreoften. ............................................................... 2. Thedentisttookx-raysofherteeth. ............................................................... 3. IbecamebetterandbetteratMonopoly. ............................................................... 4. IfBobmakesbreakfast,itwillsaveusalotoftime. ............................................................... 5. Hebelievesthatbothpeoplewanttocometoanagreement. ............................................................... 6. Neitherhisaccountantnorhisstockbrokerwasabletohelp. ............................................................... 7. Shenevergottiredofwatchingthosemovies. ............................................................... 109UNIT 8: ADVERBS Answerkey:Reviewmatchingexercise –PartI Set A 1. Michaeldippedhisfootinthepool. singularnoun 2. Hehadmadehisfortuneovernight. determinerpossessivepronoun 3. Don’tpickupathing! phrasalverb 4. Hergardenerwateredthelawn. transitiveverb 5. Theauthoritieswereinvestigatingthepossibility ofanillegalsmugglingring. article 6. Shealways¢guresouttheanswereventually. particle 7. We’veinstalledageneratorbutnotaback-upsystem. coordinatingconjunction 8. Theyneedthesetoolsfortheirproject. preposition Set B 1. Youcanvisitmoreoften. baseformofverb 2. Thedentisttookx-raysofherteeth. irregularpluralnoun 3. IbecamebetterandbetteratMonopoly. linkingverb 4. IfBobmakesbreakfast,itwillsaveusalotoftime. subordinatingconjunction 5. Hebelievesthatbothpeoplewanttocometo anagreement. quanti¢er 6. Neitherhisaccountantnorhisstockbrokerwas abletohelp. correlativeconjunction 7. Shenevergottiredofwatchingthosemovies. demonstrativedeterminer 110PART II: KINDS OF PHRASES Justasyouknowalotaboutwordcategorieswithout necessarilyrealizing thatyoudo, you know a lot about combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences. As we talkaboutphrasesandsentences,we’llbereferringtomanyofthewordcategoriesyou learnedaboutinPartI,socheckbackthereifyouneedto. Let’sstartbytakingalookatthefollowingsentence: 1. Thelittleboylaughed. Ifyouwereaskedtodividethesentenceintotwoparts,whatwouldthepartsbe?Speakers ofEnglishtypicallyseparatethesentenceafterthewordboy: 2. Thelittleboy+laughed. Other groupings, likethe onesbelow, generallyseemunnaturaltonative speakersof English: 3. The+littleboylaughed. 4. Thelittle+boylaughed. Thatis,weallsensethat thelittleboyformsaunitandthatlaughedformsanotherunit. Unitslikethesearecalledphrases. Sowecanstarto¡ourdiscussionbysuggestingthattherearetwopartstosentence1.We couldcallthemPartAandPartB,orHarryandGeorge,butwe’llusetheterminologyof modernlinguisticsandrefertothemasthenounphraseandtheverbphrase.Thenoun phrase in our sentence is the little boy; the verb phrase is laughed.Ofcourse,thereare otherphrasesaswell.We’lllookatthemostcommononesintheunitsofPartII.UNIT 9: NOUN PHRASES Lesson 28: The basic structure of noun phrases Thereareallkindsofnounphrasesandwecandiscoverthembyseeingsomeofthethings wecansubstituteforthenounphrase,thelittleboy.Theunderlinedportionsofthesenten- cesbelowareallnounphrasesandanyoneofthemcanreplacethelittleboyinthesentence Thelittleboylaughed. 1. Audienceslaughed. 2. Youngeraudienceslaughed. 3. Thegirllaughed. 4. Thelittlegirllaughed. 5. Thecutelittlegirllaughed. 6. Johnlaughed. 7. Theylaughed. Ofcourse,therearelotsofthingsthatcannotreplacethelittleboy,forexample: 8. *Myveryquicklylaughed. 9. *Nearhislaughed. 10. *Wentawaylaughed. You’reprobablynotsurprisedtolearnthatMyveryquickly,Nearhis,andWentawayarenot nounphrases. Sowhatcanbeanounphrase? Insentences1^6,thenounphrasesallhavesomething incommon:eachconsistsofat leastanoun.(SeeUnit1torefreshyourmemoryaboutnouns.) Herearethenounphrasesagain,withthenounsunderlined: audiences youngeraudiences thegirl thelittlegirl thecutelittlegirl John Insentence1,Audienceslaughed,andinsentence6,Johnlaughed,thenounphrasecon- sistsofjustanoun:audiencesinsentence1andJohninsentence6. Quicktip28.1 A noun phrase can consist of a noun alone, for example, audiences, John. Test yourself 28.1 Underlinethenounphraseineachof thesentencesbelow.Inthisexercise,thenounphrasewill alwaysconsistofanounalone.Somesentencesmayhavemorethanonenounphrase. Sample:Sugarisnotveryhealthy. 113UNIT 9: NOUN PHRASES Gettingstarted(answersonp.119) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Pirateswerelookingfortreasure. 6. Sometimesjuriesmakemistakes. 2. Furniturecanbeexpensive. 7. Jennyvisitedfriendsyesterday. 3. Boysoftenwanttobepolicemen. 8. Oilisthickerthanwater. 4. Peoplethinkmoneyisuseful. 9. Joelhatesbananas. 5. Jeremywaseatingrice. 10. Writersoftenliketoworkalone. Youcanalsosee,insentences2^5,thatanounphrasecanhaveotherwordsinadditionto justanoun.Let’sseewhatthoseotherwordscanbe: youngeraudiences: adjective+noun thegirl: determiner+noun thelittlegirl: determiner+adjective+noun thecutelittlegirl: determiner+adjectives+noun (SeeUnits3and4toremindyourselfaboutdeterminersandadjectives.) Quicktip28.2 A noun phrase can consist of a determiner, one or more adjectives, and a noun. The determiner and adjective(s) are optional. Test yourself 28.2 Underlinethenounphrasesineachofthesentencesbelow.Inthisexercise,thenounphrasewill alwaysconsistofadeterminer+noun;thedeterminerwillalwaysbeanarticle,thatis,the,a,or an.Somesentencesmayhavemorethanonenounphrase. Sample:Amanstolethecar. Gettingstarted(answersonp.119) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thewinnerwasoverjoyed. 6. AMercedescostsmorethanaChevy. 2. Thecrowddispersedpeacefully. 7. TheAndersonsboughtahouse. 3. Aminutecanseemlikeaneternity. 8. Thechildrenaresleeping. 4. Thedentistgavethepatientatoothbrush. 9. Thelakeisnearthevillage. 5. Thecoupleforgottotipthewaiter. 10. Theprofessorpaidthestudentacompliment. Here are some more examples with di¡erent determiners and nouns. (You may recall fromUnit3thatthedetermineralwayscomesbeforethenoun.)Thewholenounphraseis underlined. 114Lesson 28: The basic structure of noun phrases 11. Amanlaughed. 12. Herfriendlaughed. 13. Thatladylaughed. 14. Manypeoplelaughed. Noticethatthesenounphrasesdon’thavetoappearonlyatthebeginningofthesentence: 15. Thecriminalisaman. 16. Ilookedatherfriend. 17. Doyouknowthatlady? 18. Theclownmademanypeoplelaugh. Test yourself 28.3 Underlinethenounphrasesineachofthesentencesbelow.Inthisexercise,thenounphrasewill alwaysconsistofadeterminer(anykind)+noun.Somesentencesmayhavemorethanonenoun phrase. Sample:Myhatblewo¡inthewind. Gettingstarted(answersonp.119) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Hisdoormanhailedataxi. 6. Whiledrivinginasnowstorm,Alex’scar veeredo¡theroad. 2. Asthedoctortouredtheward,agroupofher internswentalong. 7. Severalspectatorswantedthatballplayer thrownoutofthegame. 3. Yourdaughterlooksgreatinthis picture. 8. Thetrainpulledintothestation. 4. Somepeoplekeeptheirjewelryinasafe 9. Mostpeopleareproudoftheircountry. depositbox. 10. Andrea’sgrandmotherusedtobakeapiein 5. Jack’sfriendisanartist. herkitchenforhergrandchildren. Hereareexamplesofnounphrasesconsistingofadeterminerplusanadjectiveplusa noun(thewholenounphraseisunderlined): 19. Thebestfruitisgrownonthewestcoast. 20. Ournewshoesgotcompletelysoaked. 21. Thatolddogismyfavoriteone. 22. Everynewtaskischallenging. Test yourself 28.4 Underlinethenounphrasesineachofthesentencesbelow.Inthisexercise,thenounphrasewillalways consistofdeterminer+adjective+noun.Somesentencesmayhavemorethanonenounphrase. Sample:Myyoungcousingotonthatscaryroller-coaster. Gettingstarted(answersonp.119) 1. Thatadorablebabywasborninarundown 4. SomeEnchantedEveningisabeautifulsong houseinasmalltown. fromaclassicshow. 5. Jackie’sfamousfatherisatalented 2. Theelderlywomanwroteashortnovel. immigrantfromaSouthAmericancountry. 3. Hiscrazyadventurebeganwiththose strangeletters. 115UNIT 9: NOUN PHRASES Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Theseoldcookiesarestale. 9. Ournewhousesitsontheoutermostedgeof thissecludedisland. 7. Alittleattentionoftenhelpsa bruisedego. 10. Manysubmittedmanuscriptsare pileduponthecluttereddeskofthe¢nicky 8. Eachpassingmomentisaterriblewaste. editor. Test yourself 28.5 Foreachoftheunderlinednounphrasesbelow,decideifitis:determiner+nounordeterminer+ adjective+noun. Sample:Hewasnotinareasonablemood. determiner+adjective+noun Gettingstarted(answersonp.119) 1. Thepleasureinhisvoicewasreal. ......................................................................................................... 2. Thatannoyingcustomerstillgotagooddeal. ......................................................................................................... 3. Countyourblessings! ......................................................................................................... 4. Jonathan’sjacketisbrandnew. .......................................................................................................... 5. Heplayswithhisnewgadgeteveryday. .......................................................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Hisdivorcereceivedmuchpublicity. .......................................................................................................... 7. Iwantthelatestmodelformyo⁄ce. .......................................................................................................... 8. Let’shopethisterribleweatherchangessoon. .......................................................................................................... 9. Idon’tcareforhernewattitude. .......................................................................................................... 10. Themotorcadepassedbyquickly. .......................................................................................................... Herearesomeexampleswherethenounphraseconsistsofadeterminer,morethanone adjective,andanoun(thewholenounphraseisunderlined): 23. Thedullbrownliquidspilledontohispricelessantiquecarpet. 24. Elderly,in¢rmindividualsreallyneedthatimportanthealthbene¢t. 25. Aworncheckeredapronhungbythesagging,unpaintedkitchendoor. Test yourself 28.6 Underlinethenounphrasesineachofthesentencesbelow.Inthisexercise,thenounphrasewill alwaysconsistofdeterminer+adjective(s)+noun.Somesentencesmayhavemorethanonenoun phrase. Sample:Thepushy,aggressivesalesmanattheautomobiledealershipwasnothelpful. Gettingstarted(answersonp.119) 1. Thesmallwhitedogranaway. 4. Mylovelyniecearrivedinabrandnew convertible. 2. Theclosefriendslovedwatchingtheold, classicmovies. 5. Thosepesky£iesruinedmyAustralian vacation. 3. SomeJapanesecarsareratedveryhighly. 116Lesson 28: The basic structure of noun phrases Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Yourbeautifulshinyhairisenviable. 9. Myreliableoldfriendmadeaterrible mistake. 7. Thecrazyideaofyournuttysisterturned outtobenotsocrazyafterall. 10. Thispoor,hungrymaniscravingahearty hotmeatsandwich. 8. TheSiamesecatwasextremelysociable. Don’tforgetthatanounphrasedoesn’thavetohaveadeterminer.Herearesomeexam- plesinwhichthenounphrases(underlined)consistonlyofadjective(s)andanoun: 26. Colddrinksaredelicious. 27. Talented,creativeactorsdon’talwaysbecomebigstars. 28. Individualrightsareimportanttopreserve. Proper nouns generallydon’t haveadjectives ordeterminers in frontof them.*creative Nicole,forexample,isungrammatical. Sentence 7,Theylaughed, is yet another kind of noun phrase. In this case, the noun phraseconsistsofjustapronoun,they.(SeeUnit7toremindyourselfaboutpronouns.) Quicktip28.3 A noun phrase can consist of just a pronoun, for example he or them. Noticethatyoucanhaveadeterminerbeforeanoun,forexample,themonkey,butyou’d never put one before apronoun: *thehe, for example, is ungrammatical.We also do not usuallyputanadjectivebeforeapronoun:*prettyshe,forexample,isungrammatical. Test yourself 28.7 Underlinethenounphraseineachof thesentencesbelow.Inthisexercise,thenounphrasewill alwaysconsistofapronoun.Somesentencesmayhavemorethanonenounphrase. Sample:Youarealwaysgoodtoher. Gettingstarted(answersonp.120) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Heranaway. 6. Itmademecurious. 2. Ilovewatchingthem. 7. Sheleftusconfused. 3. Theywereextremelysociable. 8. Iambetterforit. 4. Wewanttoinviteyouover. 9. Youwillhelpme,won’tyou? 5. Hediditanddidn’teventellusaboutit. 10. Theyleftyesterday. Tosumup,thekindsofnounphraseswe’vediscussedarelistedbelow.Whilethereare morekindsofnounphrases,whatwe’vedonehereistoshowyousomebasicones. 117UNIT 9: NOUN PHRASES noun (example:water) adjective+noun (example:coldwater) determiner+noun (example:ateacher) determiner+adjective(s)+noun (example:asmartteacher) pronoun (example:she) Test yourself 28.8 Identify the partof speechof eachword in each of the underlined nounphrasesbelow. It will be either:noun(alone),determiner+noun,adjective(s)+noun,determiner+adjective(s)+noun,or pronoun(alone). Sample:Hespokeinafriendly,cooperativemanner. determiner+adjectives+noun Gettingstarted(answersonp.120) 1. Thepleasureinyourvoicewasreal. .................................................................................................. 2. Istillhavethatinfamousnecklace. .................................................................................................. 3. Iforgottomentionittoyou. .................................................................................................. 4. Mr.Bentleyisasuccessfulbusinessman. .................................................................................................. 5. Cobrasaredangeroussnakes. .................................................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Don’tforgettobuyalow-fatturkeysandwich! .................................................................................................. 7. Theco¡eeistoohottodrink. .................................................................................................. 8. Shebuysapairofnewshoeseveryyear. .................................................................................................. 9. Hetookacruisewithhisrich,generousuncle. .................................................................................................. 10. Youmaynotknowthatwhalesaremammals. .................................................................................................. Test yourself 28.9 – Grand finale Underlinethenounphrasesinthesentencesbelow.Theremaybemorethanoneinasentence. Sample:Iamsharingtherelevantinformationwithyou. Gettingstarted(answersonp.120) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Joetraveledoften. 6. ThebeachesofTahitiarehighonmylistof placestovisit. 2. Theblazingsuncancausedamage toyourskin. 7. Cigarettesarenotgoodforyourhealth, don’tyouagree? 3. Theunluckyscientistwalked back. 8. Ithinkyoushouldrecommendthisbookto them. 4. Weturnedandleft. 9. Disneylandisapopulardestinationfor 5. Thosecalculating Europeantourists. politiciansresponded evasively. 10. Arnoldhurriedin. 118Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 9 Test yourself 28.1 1. Pirateswerelookingfortreasure. 2. Furniturecanbeexpensive. 3. Boysoftenwanttobepolicemen. 4. Peoplethinkmoneyisuseful. 5. Jeremywaseatingrice. Test yourself 28.2 1. Thewinnerwasoverjoyed. 2. Thecrowddispersedpeacefully. 3. Aminutecanseemlikeaneternity. 4. Thedentistgavethepatientatoothbrush. 5. Thecoupleforgottotipthewaiter. Test yourself 28.3 1. Hisdoormanhailedataxi. 2. Asthedoctortouredtheward,agroupofherinternswentalong. 3. Yourdaughterlooksgreatinthispicture. 4. Somepeoplekeeptheirjewelryinasafedepositbox. 5. Jack’sfriendisanartist. Test yourself 28.4 1. Thatadorablebabywasborninarundownhouseinasmalltown. 2. Theelderlywomanwroteashortnovel. 3. Hiscrazyadventurebeganwiththosestrangeletters. 4. SomeEnchantedEveningisabeautifulsongfromaclassicshow. 5. Jackie’sfamousfatherisatalentedimmigrantfromaSouthAmericancountry. Test yourself 28.5 1. Thepleasureinhisvoicewasreal. determiner+noun 2. Thatannoyingcustomerstillgotagooddeal. determiner+adjective+noun 3. Countyourblessings! determiner+noun 4. Jonathan’sjacketisbrandnew. determiner+noun 5. Heplayswithhisnewgadgeteveryday. determiner+adjective+noun Test yourself 28.6 1. Thesmallwhitedogranaway. 2. Theclosefriendslovedwatchingtheold,classicmovies. 119UNIT 9: NOUN PHRASES 3. SomeJapanesecarsareratedveryhighly. 4. Mylovelyniecearrivedinabrandnewconvertible. 5. Thosepesky£iesruinedmyAustralianvacation. Test yourself 28.7 1. Heranaway. 2. Ilovewatchingthem. 3. Theywereextremelysociable. 4. Wewanttoinviteyouover. 5. Hediditanddidn’teventellusaboutit. Test yourself 28.8 1. Thepleasureinyourvoicewasreal. determiner+noun 2. Istillhavethatinfamousnecklace. determiner+adjective+noun 3. Iforgottomentionittoyou. pronoun 4. Mr.Bentleyisasuccessfulbusinessman. noun 5. Cobrasaredangeroussnakes. adjective+noun Test yourself 28.9 1. Joetraveledoften. 2. Theblazingsuncancausedamagetoyourskin. 3. Theunluckyscientistwalkedback. 4. Weturnedandleft. 5. Thosecalculatingpoliticiansrespondedevasively. ☞ FORAREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEETHEWEBSITE. 120UNIT 10: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES Lesson 29: The basic structure of prepositional phrases Whatdoyounoticeaboutthefollowingsentences? 1. Thetoyisontheredtable. 2. Welivenearhim. 3. ThecuteguywalkedMarytothecorner. 4. TheJonesfamilytraveledaroundArizona. Eachofthesesentencescontainsapreposition,whichisunderlined.Hereagainarethe commonprepositionswhichwelistedinLesson17: about beneath into throughout above beside like till across between near to after beyond of toward(s) against by o¡ under along despite on until among down onto up around during out upon at for over with before from since within behind in through without below Whatfollowsapreposition?Insentences1^4,theprepositionsarefollowedby: 5. theredtable(determiner+adjective+noun) 6. him (pronoun) 7. thecorner (determiner+noun) 8. Arizona (propernoun) As you may remember from Lesson 28, each of these is a kind of noun phrase. In fact, a preposition is always followed by a noun phrase, called the object of the preposition, andtheprepositionanditsnounphraseformaunitwhichiscalledaprepositionalphrase. Quicktip29.1 A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition plus a noun phrase, for example in the closet. Wedon’thavetolistthedi¡erentkindsofnounphrasesinQuicktip29.1,becausewe’ve alreadyidenti¢edtheminLesson28;wecanjustrefertonounphrasesingeneral.Soit’s reallyusefultohavethisconceptofanounphrase,andit’saconceptthatyou’llseecome upagaininotherlessons. 121UNIT 10: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES Herearesomemoreexamplesofsentenceswithprepositionalphrases(underlined): 9. Let’scarrythesofaintothehouse. 10. Thatmakessensetous. 11. Therewasasmalllamponherdresser. 12. JeaniewaslivinginNewYork. 13. Thebosshadnoloveforhisemployees. Youcanseethateachprepositionalphraseconsistsofaprepositionandanounphrase. Test yourself 29.1 Underlinetheprepositionalphrasesinthesentencesbelow.Lookfortheprepositionthatbegins theprepositionalphrase. Sample:Heknewalotaboutthatsubject. Gettingstarted(answersonp.125) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thefabricwasbetweentheboxes. 6. MysonhadlunchatMcDonald’s. 2. Shealwayseatsherlunchwithamethodical 7. Shewassittingbytheopenwindow. thoroughness. 8. Ineverheardfromhimagain. 3. Therewasatemplenearthehotel. 9. Thelittleboywashidingundertheround 4. Thegiftwasforaclosefriend. table. 5. Thecongressmanisspeakingtothepress. 10. Shetraveledwithoutherhusband. Test yourself 29.2 Here are the same sentences as in Test yourself 29.1.This time, underline the preposition with a solid line and the noun phrase with a squiggly line within each of the prepositional phrases inthesentencesbelow. Sample:Heknewalotabout that subject: Gettingstarted(answersonp.125) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thefabricwasbetweentheboxes. 6. MysonhadlunchatMcDonald’s. 2. Shealwayseatsherlunchwithamethodical 7. Shewassittingbytheopenwindow. thoroughness. 8. Ineverheardfromhimagain. 3. Therewasatemplenearthehotel. 9. Thelittleboywashidingundertheround 4. Thegiftwasforaclosefriend. table. 5. Thecongressmanisspeakingtothepress. 10. Shetraveledwithoutherhusband. To enhance your understanding Let’s compare two sentences with the word up: 14. I looked up your phone number. 15. I walked up the steep hill. These sentences certainly look very similar. Each has the word up followed by a noun phrase. But in fact, the sentences are different. For one thing, in sentence 14, up can be moved to the other side of the noun phrase without changing its meaning: 122Lesson 29: The basic structure of prepositional phrases 16. I looked your phone number up. In sentence 15, up cannot be moved: 17. *I walked the steep hill up. Also,in sentence 14, look upis aunit; upfeels closely connected to look.Infact, look up canbereplacedbyasingleverbandstillhavemoreorlessthesamemeaning,forexample, I researched your phone number.Insentence14, upispartoftheverband iscalledaverb particle. You may recall that we talked about these verb plus particle combinations in Lesson 11, where we said they were called phrasal verbs. In sentence 15, up is not connected to the verb, so it is not a particle; rather, it is a preposition. Here are some more examples of sentences with verb particles. Notice that in each of these cases, the verb plus particle can be replaced by a single verb and the particle can be moved. 18a. Her husband carried out the garbage. (Her husband removed the garbage.) 18b. Her husband carried the garbage out. 19a. The criminal covered up the crime. (The criminal hid the crime.) 19b. The criminal covered the crime up. 20a. Don’t just brush off her objections. (Don’t just dismiss her objections.) 20b. Don’t just brush her objections off. Incontrast,herearesomemoreexamplesofsentenceswithprepositions.Noticethatin each case, the preposition cannot be moved to the other side of its noun phrase. 21a. He looked out the door. 21b. *He looked the door out. 22a. The hiker slowly walked up the hill. 22a. *The hiker slowly walked the hill up. 23a. Take the pot off the stove. 23b. *Take the pot the stove off. As we discussed above, the preposition is tied to the noun phrase following it, forming a prepositional phrase. Canasentencecontainmorethanoneprepositionalphrase?Westartedourdiscussion ofprepositionalphraseswiththefollowingsentences,eachofwhichhadonlyoneprepo- sitionalphrase(underlined): 24. Thetoyisontheredtable. 25. Welivenearhim. 26. ThecuteguywalkedMarytothecorner. 27. TheJonesfamilytraveledaroundArizona. Wecanexpandthesesentences,addinganotherpropositionalphrase(underlined)toeach: 28. Thetoyisontheredtableinthelivingroom. 29. WelivenearhiminManhattan. 30. ThecuteguyfromArgentinawalkedMarytothecorner. 31. TheJonesfamilytraveledaroundArizonainarentedminivan. Intheory, there’s nolimit tothe numberof prepositionalphrasesthat asentence can have.Takealookatonewithquiteafewprepositionalphrases: 32. They landed the plane in a grassy ¢eld near the park by the river in San Francisco. Inreality,however,eachsentencewesayhasa¢nitelength ^ wehavetostoptalkingat somepoint! 123UNIT 10: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES Test yourself 29.3 Underlinetheprepositionalphrasesinthesentencesbelow.Asentencemaycontainmorethanone prepositionalphrase.Lookfortheprepositionthatbeginseachprepositionalphrase. Sample:Shecouldseethelightofthe¢reinthedarknessbeyondhertent. Gettingstarted(answersonp.125) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Andyranintothe¢eldacrossthe 6. SallyarrivedinNewOrleansaround road. midnight. 2. That¢rstwinterhadbeenspentinNew 7. Myunclewalkedintotheo⁄ceand Hampshire. breathedasighofrelief. 3. Shetoldthestoryofthenightshe¢rst 8. Wewenttoseetheleveealongthe arrivedatthehouse. MississippiRiver. 4. Theladyinthereddressboughtabottleof 9. IsawthisbigshipontheMediterraneanSea perfumewithhercreditcard. disappearbeyondthehorizon. 5. Imetmylonglostfriendatthe 10. Tosomepeople,thatisoneofthegreatest airport. moviesevermade. 124Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 10 Test yourself 29.1 1. Thefabricwasbetweentheboxes. 2. Shealwayseatsherlunchwithamethodicalthoroughness. 3. Therewasatemplenearthehotel. 4. Thegiftwasforaclosefriend. 5. Thecongressmanisspeakingtothepress. Test yourself 29.2 1. Thefabricwasbetween : the boxes 2. Shealwayseatsherlunchwith a methodical thoroughness: 3. Therewasatemplenear : the hotel 4. Thegiftwasfor : a close friend 5. Thecongressmanisspeakingto the press: Test yourself 29.3 1. Andyranintothe¢eldacrosstheroad. 2. That¢rstwinterhadbeenspentinNewHampshire. 3. Shetoldthestoryofthenightshe¢rstarrivedatthehouse. 4. Theladyinthereddressboughtabottleofperfumewithhercreditcard. 5. Imetmylonglostfriendattheairport. ☞ FORA REVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT, SEETHEWEBSITE. 125UNIT 11: VERB PHRASES Lesson 30: The basic structure of verb phrases Rememberthesentence,Thelittleboylaughed?Aswetalkedaboutearlier,Thelittleboy isanounphrase(seeLesson28)andlaughedisaverbphrase.Therearedi¡erentkinds ofverbphrases,andwecanbegintodiscoverthembyseeingwhatwecansubstitutefor the verb phrase, laughed, in this sentence. The underlined portions of the sentences below are all verb phrases, and any one of them can replace laughed in the sentence, Thelittleboylaughed. 1. Thelittleboyleft. 2. Thelittleboychasedtheball. 3. Thelittleboychasedtheredball. 4. Thelittleboychasedit. 5. ThelittleboychasedHenry. Of course, there are lots of things that cannot replace laughed in this sentence, for example: 6. *Thelittleboyhisextremely. 7. *Thelittleboynearfrom. 8. *Thelittleboythey. You’reprobablynotsurprisedtolearnthathisextremely,nearfrom,andtheyarenotverb phrases. Haveyounoticedanythingthatalltheunderlinedverbphrasesinsentences1^5have incommon?Eachverbphrasehasaverb.Infact,insentence1,theverbphrasehasnoth- ingin it but a verb, left. Averb phrase may also have other words, as you can see in sentences 2^5, but the least that every verb phrase has to have is a verb. (See Unit 2 to remind yourself about verbs.) Quicktip30.1 Every verb phrase contains a verb, for example laughs, left. In sentences 1^5, the verb is the ¢rst word in the verb phrase and is its most importantpart. Test yourself 30.1 Underline the verb phrase in each of the sentences below. In this exercise, the verb phrase will consistofonlyaverb. Sample:Thefamilyarrived. Gettingstarted(answersonp.135) 1. Freddydisappeared. 4. Islept. 2. Ayoungwomancried. 5. Thelittlegirlsmiled. 3. Thesoldierswait. 126Lesson 30: The basic structure of verb phrases Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Themusicstopped. 9. Time£ies. 7. Weagree. 10. Aproblemarose. 8. Lastnighttheguestsleft. Ifwelookatsentences2^5,weseethataverbphrasecanhavemoreinitthanjustaverb. Let’sstartwithsentence2,Thelittleboychasedtheball.Theverbphraseis: 9. chasedtheball (verb+determiner+noun) You may remember from Lesson 28 that determiner + noun is a kind of noun phrase. Thus, in this sentence, the verb phrase consists of averb followed byone kind of noun phrase. Let’slookattheverbphrasesinsentences3^5: 10. chasedtheredball (verb+determiner+adjective+noun) 11. chasedit (verb+pronoun) 12. chasedHenry (verb+noun) Youcanseethatineachcase,theverbphraseconsistsofaverbfollowedbyanounphrase. Quicktip30.2 A verb phrase can consist of a verb plus a noun phrase, for example chased the ball. Again, we don’t have to list the di¡erent kinds of noun phrases here, because we’ve alreadylistedtheminLesson28;wecanjustrefertonounphrasesingeneral. Test yourself 30.2 Underlinetheverbphraseineachofthesentencesbelow.Itmayhelpto¢rst¢ndtheverb,whichis the ¢rst word of these verb phrases. In each sentence here, the verb phrase consists of averb + nounphrase. Sample:Wewelcomedthem. Gettingstarted(answersonp.135) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Hecreatedamonster. 6. Ireadaninterestingbook. 2. Frankbroketheplate. 7. Theiryoungersistercrossedthehall. 3. SherryandIleftthehouse. 8. TheAustralianswimmingteamdefeated theFrench. 4. Thedetectiveexaminedtheoldbroken doorknob. 9. Therichwifeboughtsomeinsurance. 5. Weresentthosecomments. 10. Courtneyorderedsoup. Test yourself 30.3 HerearethesamesentencesasinTestyourself30.2.Thistime,ineachsentenceunderlinetheverb withasolidlineandthenounphrasewithineachverbphrasewithasquigglyline. Sample:Wewelcomed : them 127UNIT 11: VERB PHRASES Gettingstarted(answersonp.135) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Hecreatedamonster. 6. Ireadaninterestingbook. 2. Frankbroketheplate. 7. Theiryoungersistercrossedthehall. 3. SherryandIleftthehouse. 8. TheAustralianswimmingteamdefeated theFrench. 4. Thedetectiveexaminedtheoldbroken doorknob. 9. Therichwifeboughtsomeinsurance. 5. Weresentthosecomments. 10. Courtneyorderedsoup. InLesson9,wetalkedaboutthefactthatsomeverbsareactionverbs,like run,write, and discover, while others are linking verbs, likebe, feel,andbecome.The verb phrases we’velookedatsofarhaveallcontainedactionverbs.Verbphraseswithlinkingverbsare di¡erentfromverbphraseswithactionverbs.Let’scomparetwosentences: 11. Johnsawtheteacher. 12. Johnistheteacher. In each sentence, the verb phrase is underlined, and each verb phrase consists of a verb+nounphrase.(Sawandisaretheverbsandtheteacheristhenounphrase.)Butcan youseehowtheverbphrasesinsentences11and12di¡er?You’veprobablynoticedthat in sentence11, the teacher is receiving the action, but in sentence12, there is no action (afterall,isisalinkingverb,notanactionverb).Sowhilethestructuresofsentences11 and12appeartobesimilaronthesurface,thesentencesarequitedi¡erentinmeaning. Thefollowingverbphraseswithlinkingverbsaredi¡erentinstructureaswellasin meaningfromverbphraseswithactionverbs: 13. Johnistall. 14. Mysisterbecameanxious. Asyou(hopefully!)rememberfromLesson16,tallandanxiousareadjectives.Sowhenthe verbisalinkingverb,itcanbefollowedbyanadjectivealone.Anactionverbcannotbe followedbyjustanadjective,asyoucansee: 15. *Johnsawtall. 16. *Johnsawupset. Quicktip30.3 A verb phrase can consist of a linking verb plus an adjective, for example is tall. Anadjectivewhichfollowsalinkingverbandisnotpartofanounphraseistradition- allycalledapredicateadjective,asintheexampleJohnistall(sentence13).Incontrast, anadjectivewhichispartofanounphraseistraditionallycalledan attributive adjec- tive,asintheexampleJohnhasatallsister. Test yourself 30.4 Underlinetheverbphraseineachofthesentencesbelow.Itmayhelpto¢rst¢ndtheverb,which isthe¢rstwordof theseverbphrases.Ineachsentencehere,theverbphraseconsistsoflinking verb+adjective. Sample:Wearehungry. 128Lesson 30: The basic structure of verb phrases Gettingstarted(answersonp.135) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theargumentwassilly. 6. Youlookhappy. 2. Thedressfeltcomfortable. 7. Hervoicesoundsraspy. 3. Stevenbecamesick. 8. Shefeltembarrassed. 4. Thepointofthisexerciseseemsobvious. 9. Thenewdirectorproveddi⁄cult. 5. Thechildrengotexcited. 10. Yourpietastesdelicious. Test yourself 30.5 HerearethesamesentencesasinTestyourself30.4.Thistime,withineachverbphrase,underline theverbwithasolidlineandtheadjectivewithasquigglyline. Sample:Weare hungry: Gettingstarted(answersonp.135) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theargumentwassilly. 6. Youlookhappy. 2. Thedressfeltcomfortable. 7. Hervoicesoundsraspy. 3. Stevenbecamesick. 8. Shefeltembarrassed. 4. Thepointofthisexerciseseemsobvious. 9. Thenewdirectorproveddi⁄cult. 5. Thechildrengotexcited. 10. Yourpietastesdelicious. Test yourself 30.6 Underlinetheverbphraseineachof thesentencesbelow.Insomesentences,theverbwillbe an action verb alone or it will be followed by a noun phrase (for example, saw the cat). In other sentencestheverbwillbealinkingverbandmaybefollowedbyanounphraseorbyanadjective alone(forexample,lookedhungry). Sample:Hepreparedhisspeech. Gettingstarted(answersonp.135) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Bradywasaradioengineer. 6. Weadoreyourlovelylittlegirl. 2. Thekingsentaclearmessage. 7. Shegrewimpatient. 3. Those£owerslookgorgeous. 8. Yoursongrew. 4. Mostable-bodiedadultswork. 9. Chuckbecameanelectricalengineer. 5. Irecognizedthem. 10. Thedinerswantedmorebread. Test yourself 30.7 HerearethesamesentencesasinTest yourself 30.6.Thistime,indicateif theverbphraseyou’ve identi¢edis:verb(alone),verb+nounphrase,orverb+adjective. Sample:Hepreparedhisspeech. verb+nounphrase Gettingstarted(answersonp.136) 1. Bradywasaradioengineer. ...................................... 2. Thekingsentaclearmessage. ...................................... 129UNIT 11: VERB PHRASES 3. Those£owerslookgorgeous. ...................................... 4. Mostable-bodiedadultswork. ...................................... 5. Irecognizedthem. ...................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Weadoreyourlovelylittlegirl. ...................................... 7. Shegrewimpatient. ...................................... 8. Yoursongrew. ...................................... 9. Chuckbecameanelectricalengineer. ...................................... 10. Thedinerswantedmorebread. ...................................... To enhance your understanding You may remember, from Lesson 8, that some verbs, for example smell, can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. For example: 17. That dog smells badly. (Meaning, he does a bad job of smelling things.) 18. That dog smells bad. (Meaning, for example, he needs a bath.) In sentence 17, smell is an action verb; it refers to the dog doing the action of smelling. In sentence18,smellisalinkingverb;ithelpstotellussomethingaboutthedogbuthe’snot actually doing anything – he’s being something, namely, smelly. Whenaverbisusedasalinkingverb,itcanhaveanadjective,likebad,afterit.Whenit’s usedasanactionverb,itcanbefollowedbyanadverb,likebadly,butnotbyanadjective. In Standard American English, good is used only as an adjective. So in Standard American English, it’s not considered acceptable to say: 19. You did good. That’s because did is an action verb, and an action verb cannot be completed with just an adjective. So why do we often hear people saying sentences like You did good? What’s happening is that people are starting to use good as an adverb, not just as an adjective. Maybe in the future this usage will become more widely accepted, but right now using goodasanadverb is notconsidered StandardAmerican English. (In other words, don’tsay this at a job interview, although it’s fine to say with friends.) Similarly,peoplesometimessay,Ifeelbadly,insteadofIfeelbad,eventhoughtheyare using feel here as a linking verb, not as an action verb. They know that usually an adverb, like badly, follows a verb, but adverbs only directly follow action verbs, not linking verbs. (When people incorrectly overapply a rule, it’s called hypercorrection.) We can thus explain the difference between I feel good (‘‘I’m OK’’) and I feel well (‘‘I have the ability to touch effectively’’): in the former sentence feel is a linking verb, in the latter it is an action verb. InLesson30,wetalkedaboutprepositionalphrases.Herearesomesentenceswiththeir verbsinboldandtheirprepositionalphrasesunderlined: 20. TheBedefamilylivesaroundthecorner. 21. Pleaseridetothestable. 22. Heheadedtowardthepoliceman. Together,theverbplusprepositionalphraseformaverbphrase. 130Lesson 30: The basic structure of verb phrases Quicktip30.4 Averbphrasecanconsistofaverbplusaprepositionalphrase,forexampledrovetothemall. Test yourself 30.8 Underlinetheverbphraseineachofthesentencesbelow.Itmayhelpto¢rst¢ndtheverb,whichis the ¢rst word of these verb phrases. In each sentence here, the verb phrase consists of averb + prepositionalphrase. Sample:Hefrequentlycametomyo⁄ce. Gettingstarted(answersonp.136) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theboat£oatedinthewater. 6. Theyliveneareachother. 2. JaniceisfromKansasCity. 7. Ireadbetweenthelines. 3. Mrs.Millerisatthebeach. 8. Helearnedfromhisgrandfather. 4. Helookedforme. 9. Sheplayedwithherchildren. 5. Thesunappearedabovethehorizon. 10. Ourplane£ewovertheAtlanticOcean. Test yourself 30.9 Underlinetheverbphraseineachofthesentencesbelow.Theverbphrasewilleitherbe:verb(alone), verb+nounphrase,orverb+prepositionalphrase.Lookfortheverbtohelpyougetstarted. Sample:Thisisforthewholefamily. Gettingstarted(answersonp.136) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Elinorrentedacar. 6. Brandy’sthree-month-oldbabysmiled. 2. Theclownsneverlaughwiththeaudience. 7. Ourneighborsjustreturnedfromtheir countryhome. 3. Theroadtripended. 8. Ifoundthemissingpiece. 4. Thebandplayedmyfavoritesong. 9. Weranthroughthewoods. 5. Theyleftatnoon. 10. Onholidays,theWatsonsentertain. Test yourself 30.10 HerearethesamesentencesasinTest yourself 30.9.Thistime,indicateif theverbphraseyou’ve identi¢edis:verb(alone),verb+nounphrase,orverb+prepositionalphrase. Sample:Thisisforthewholefamily. verb+prepositionalphrase Gettingstarted(answersonp.136) 1. Elinorrentedacar. ............................................................................................................................... 2. Theclownsneverlaughwiththeaudience. ............................................................................................................................... 3. Theroadtripended. ............................................................................................................................... 4. Thebandplayedmyfavoritesong. ............................................................................................................................... 5. Theyleftatnoon. ............................................................................................................................... 131UNIT 11: VERB PHRASES Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Brandy’sthree-month-oldbabysmiled. ............................................................................................ 7. Ourneighborsjustreturnedfromtheircountryhome. ............................................................................................ 8. Ifoundthemissingpiece. ............................................................................................ 9. Weranthroughthewoods. ............................................................................................ 10. Onholidays,TheWatsonsentertain. ............................................................................................. Test yourself 30.11 Underlinetheverb phrase ineachof thesentencesbelow.Theverb phrase willeitherbe:verb+ adjectiveorverb+prepositionalphrase.Lookfortheverbtohelpyougetstarted. Sample:Youlookpretty. Gettingstarted(answersonp.136) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Hermotherlookedunderthebed. 6. A¢ghtaroseamongtheplayers. 2. Janleapedfortheshore. 7. TheTVhostappearedannoyed. 3. Themorningseemedpeaceful. 8. Thebullrandownthenarrowstreet. 4. Thestockmarketfellhard. 9. Itrolledunderthebed. 5. Shearrivedwithanemptysuitcase. 10. Theshowwasdisastrous. Canaverbphrasehaveaverbfollowedbybothanounphraseandaprepositionalphrase? 23. HewalkedMarytothecorner. 24. Thedogchasedthemanwiththeumbrella. Inthesesentences,theverbphraseconsistsofaverbfollowedbyanounphraseandalsoa prepositionalphrase. Quicktip30.5 A verb phrase can consist of a verb plus a noun phrase plus a prepositional phrase, for example drove her friend to the mall. Canwesaythefollowing? 25. *HewalkedtothecornerMary. 26. *Thedogchasedwiththeumbrellatheman. These sentences show us that when averb is followed by a noun phrase and a preposi- tionalphrase,thenounphrasealwayshastobebeforetheprepositionalphrase. Test yourself 30.12 Underlinetheverbphraseineachofthesentencesbelow.Ineachsentencehere,theverbphrase consistsofaverb+nounphrase+prepositionalphrase.Itmayhelpto¢rst¢ndtheverb,whichis the¢rstwordoftheseverbphrases. Sample:Icalledmywifeduringintermission. 132Lesson 30: The basic structure of verb phrases Gettingstarted(answersonp.136) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Vivianaddedcalciumtoherdiet. 6. Heputthesteakonthegrill. 2. Sheknitthatblanketfromanunusualwool. 7. Anervousdriverpulledhersmoking Audiintotherepairshop. 3. Herhousekeeperrinsedthoseclothesin warmwater. 8. Theyoungmanboughthis¢rst computerwithhisfather’screditcard. 4. Ilikemyco¡eewithoutsugar. 9. Herescuedherfromtheboringparty. 5. JackandMarthaboughtaweddinggiftat Macy’s. 10. Alexmethiswifenearhero⁄ce. Test yourself 30.13 Underline the verb phrase in each of the sentences below.The verb phrases will be either: verb (alone),verb+nounphrase,verb+adjective,verb+prepositionalphrase,orverb+nounphrase+ prepositionalphrase. Sample:Hepreparedhisspeech. Gettingstarted(answersonp.137) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Yoursisterisatalentedpianist. 6. Yesterdaywemetafewofourfriends. 2. Theirdoctoroperatesatthathospital. 7. LastnightIstudied. 3. Robertthrewhimselfintothebattle. 8. Theprofessorsoundedeloquent. 4. Theo¡ersoundedunrealistic. 9. Wemadeadealoverdinner. 5. Hismotherwenttothedrugstore. 10. OnTuesdaysSarahpaintsinherstudio. Test yourself 30.14 HerearethesamesentencesasinTestyourself30.13.Thistime,indicateiftheverbphraseyou’ve identi¢ed is: verb (alone), verb + noun phrase, verb + adjective, verb + prepositional phrase, or verb+nounphrase+prepositionalphrase. Sample:Hepreparedhisspeech. verb+nounphrase Gettingstarted(answersonp.137) 1. Yoursisterisatalentedpianist. .................................................................................................................................... 2. Theirdoctoroperatesatthathospital. .................................................................................................................................... 3. Robertthrewhimselfintothebattle. .................................................................................................................................... 4. Theo¡ersoundedunrealistic. .................................................................................................................................... 5. Hismotherwenttothedrugstore. .................................................................................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Yesterdaywemetafewofourfriends. ................................................................................................................................... 7. LastnightIstudied. ................................................................................................................................... 8. Theprofessorsoundedeloquent. ................................................................................................................................... 9. Wemadeadealoverdinner. ................................................................................................................................... 10. OnTuesdaysSarahpaintsinherstudio. ................................................................................................................................... 133UNIT 11: VERB PHRASES Tosumup,welistbelowthekindsofverbphraseswe’vediscussedinthislesson: verb (example:laughed) verb+adjective (example:washappy) verb+nounphrase (example:lefttheroom) verb+prepositionphrase (example:walkedtothecorner) verb+nounphrase+prepositionphrase (example:walkedRacheltothecorner) Whiletherearemorekindsofverbphrases,whatwe’vedonehereistoshowyousome basicones. 134Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 11 Test yourself 30.1 1. Freddydisappeared. 2. Ayoungwomancried. 3. Thesoldierswait. 4. Islept. 5. Thelittlegirlsmiled. Test yourself 30.2 1. Hecreatedamonster. 2. Frankbroketheplate. 3. SherryandIleftthehouse. 4. Thedetectiveexaminedtheoldbrokendoorknob. 5. Weresentthosecomments. Test yourself 30.3 1. Hecreated : a monster 2. Frankbroke the plate: 3. SherryandIleft : the house 4. Thedetectiveexamined : the old broken doorknob 5. Weresent those comments: Test yourself 30.4 1. Theargumentwassilly. 2. Thedressfeltcomfortable. 3. Stevenbecamesick. 4. Thepointofthisexerciseseemsobvious. 5. Thechildrengotexcited. Test yourself 30.5 1. Theargumentwas : silly 2. Thedressfelt : comfortable 3. Stevenbecame : sick 4. Thepointofthisexerciseseems : obvious 5. Thechildrengot : excited Test yourself 30.6 1. Bradywasaradioengineer. 2. Thekingsentaclearmessage. 135UNIT 11: VERB PHRASES 3. Those£owerslookgorgeous. 4. Mostable-bodiedadultswork. 5. Irecognizedthem. Test yourself 30.7 1. Bradywasaradioengineer. verb+nounphrase 2. Thekingsentaclearmessage. verb+nounphrase 3. Those£owerslookgorgeous. verb+adjective 4. Mostable-bodiedadultswork. verb 5. Irecognizedthem. verb+nounphrase Test yourself 30.8 1. Theboat£oatedinthewater. 2. JaniceisfromKansasCity. 3. Mrs.Millerisatthebeach. 4. Helookedforme. 5. Thesunappearedabovethehorizon. Test yourself 30.9 1. Elinorrentedacar. 2. Theclownsneverlaughwiththeaudience. 3. Theroadtripended. 4. Thebandplayedmyfavoritesong. 5. Theyleftatnoon. Test yourself 30.10 1. Elinorrentedacar. verb+nounphrase 2. Theclownsneverlaughwiththeaudience. verb+prepositionalphrase 3. Theroadtripended. verb 4. Thebandplayedmyfavoritesong. verb+nounphrase 5. Theyleftatnoon. verb+prepositionalphrase Test yourself 30.11 1. Hermotherlookedunderthebed. 2. Janleapedfortheshore. 3. Themorningseemedpeaceful. 4. Thestockmarketfellhard. 5. Shearrivedwithanemptysuitcase. Test yourself 30.12 1. Vivianaddedcalciumtoherdiet. 2. Sheknitthatblanketfromanunusualwool. 3. Herhousekeeperrinsedthoseclothesinwarmwater. 4. Ilikemyco¡eewithoutsugar. 5. JackandMarthaboughtaweddinggiftatMacy’s. 136Answer keys: Unit 11 Test yourself 30.13 1. Yoursisterisatalentedpianist. 2. Theirdoctoroperatesatthathospital. 3. Robertthrewhimselfintothebattle. 4. Theo¡ersoundedunrealistic. 5. Hismotherwenttothedrugstore. Test yourself 30.14 1. Yoursisterisatalentedpianist. verb+nounphrase 2. Theirdoctoroperatesatthathospital. verb+prepositionalphrase 3. Robertthrewhimselfintothebattle. verb+nounphrase+prepositionalphrase 4. Theo¡ersoundedunrealistic. verb+adjective 5. Hismotherwenttothedrugstore. verb+prepositionalphrase ☞ FORAREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEETHEWEBSITE. 137UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES So far, eachverbwe’ve talked about occurs in averb phrase.This type of verbis called a mainverb. Other verbs, called helping verbs orauxiliary verbs,arefoundin aux- iliary phrases. Auxiliary phrases are among the most satisfying to describe. That’s because the English auxiliary phrase has a regular pattern, which helps to make it easy to understand. So here’s some help with helping verbs. 138Lesson 31: The basic structure of auxiliary phrases Whataresomesentenceswithhelping(auxiliary)verbs?Hereareafewexamples,with thehelpingverbunderlined: 1. Sheshouldstudy. 2. Shehasstudied. 3. Sheisstudying. Inthesesentences,themainverbisaformofstudy,andthehelpingverbishelpingtogive usadditionalinformationthatwecan’tgetfromjustthemainverb.(SeeUnit2toremind yourselfaboutmainverbs.) Therearen’tthatmanyhelpingverbs;thebasiconesarelistedinQuicktip31.1. Quicktip31.1 The basic helping verbs of English are: a. can may shall will must could might should would b. have has had c. am are is was were be been being Now take another look at sentences 1^3, which have both a helping verb and a main verb.Which comes ¢rst? You can see that the main verb always comes after the help- ing verb. Quicktip31.2 If a sentence has both a main verb and a helping verb, the main verb is always last. Does every sentence of English have a helping verb? Here are examples of sentences that do not have a helping verb. Each only has a mainverb, which is underlined. 4. Shestudieseveryday. 5. Shestudiedeveryday. 6. Heleavesat9inthemorning. 7. Heleftat9inthemorning. Test yourself 31.1 Decide whether or not each sentence has a helping verb. Look for the main verb, which is underlined,andseeifthere’sahelpingverbbeforeit. Helpingverb:NO Helpingverb:YES Sample:Hetalkedabouthimself. ................... 139UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES Gettingstarted(answersonp.164) 1. Theywerearguingloudly. ................... ................... 2. Thefroghadjumped¢vefeet. ................... ................... 3. Youinvitedeveryone. ................... ................... 4. Imustbuysomemilk. ................... ................... 5. HarrylivesinEurope. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Joggingshouldincreaseyourstamina. ................... ................... 7. Ihaveworkedallday. ................... ................... 8. Samwillgo¢shingtomorrow. ................... ................... 9. JudyleftforDallasatnoon. ................... ................... 10. Joeywaschasingarascalalldaylong. ................... ................... Test yourself 31.2 Decide whether or not each sentence has a helping verb. This time the main verbs are not underlined. Helpingverb:NO Helpingverb:YES Sample:Maggiewaswalkingnearby. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.164) 1. Youmightwriteheraletter. ................... ................... 2. Congressvotedonthebill. ................... ................... 3. Bethhassurvivedthatordeal. ................... ................... 4. Icouldbeanactor. ................... ................... 5. TheGiantswontheSuperBowl. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Youshoulddothat. ................... ................... 7. Shecouldmovenearby. ................... ................... 8. Myfriendwantsatwo-cargarage. ................... ................... 9. Janmustgetthatreportdone. ................... ................... 10. Thesunroseat5A.M.today. ................... ................... Thehelpingverbsbelongtodi¡erentsubgroups,asindicatedinQuicktip31.1.We’lltake acloserlookateachofthethreetypesofhelpingverbsinthenextfewlessons. 140Lesson 32: Modals Onekindofhelpingverbiscalledamodal.Amodaladdsinformation,suchaspossibility, necessity,orrequests,totheverbthatfollows.Themodalsareunderlinedinthesenten- cesbelow: 1. Ellencandothejob. 2. Iwillworryaboutthatlater. 3. Youshouldrestbeforetheparty. 4. Dennismightchangethatcarpeting. Thereareninebasicmodals,listedbelow.(Theyweregroup(a)ofQuicktip31.1.) Quicktip32.1 One kind of helping verb is called a modal. The basic modals of English are: can could may might shall should will would must Test yourself 32.1 Underlinethemodalineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Williamshouldtellyouthestory. Gettingstarted(answersonp.164) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theymustdelaytheinvasion. 6. Icoulddanceupastorm. 2. Youwill¢ndcourageinyourheart. 7. Laurencannamethattunein10seconds. 3. Mr.Knightmightgowithyou. 8. Ashleywouldwinthatrace. 4. Youshouldbeproudofyourself. 9. Heshalltraveltothecountrysidethisweekend. 5. Tomorrowwemaygotothemovies. 10. Jerrymustrenewhispassportthismonth. Test yourself 32.2 Underlinethemodalandputasquigglylineunderthemainverbineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Shewill happy. be Gettingstarted(answersonp.164) 1. Thecurtainsmighthidetheview. 4. Youmustgototheemergencyroom immediately. 2. Paulcouldworkontheproblem. 5. Thechildrenwillenjoythesegifts. 3. Shecanleavethisafternoon. 141UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 9. Mrs.Randallwillgiveyouananswer 6. Weshouldproceedwithcaution. tomorrow. 7. Youmayberight. 10. Hisfathercanpostponehisretirementuntil 8. Onewouldthinkso. nextyear. To enhance your understanding Here are the modals again: can could may might shall should will would must Historically, those modals on the left have been considered present tense forms while those on the right have been considered past tense forms. (For more on tenses, see Lesson 37.) Note that three of the past tense forms end in the consonant d; think of it as a reminder of the past tense suffix -ed, as in the verb stayed. To further enhance your understanding Someexpressionsaresimilartomodalsbutconsistofmorethanoneword.Theyarecalled phrasal modals or periphrastic modals. Here are some examples, underlined in the following sentences: 5. I am able to go. 6. I ought to go. 7. I am going to go. 8. I would like to go. 9. I have to go. 10. I need to go. Notice that many of the phrasal modals have the same meaning as one of the one-word modals; for example:, am able to = can, ought to = should, am going to = will. 11. I am able to go = I can go. 12. I ought to go = I should go. 13. I am going to go = I will go. Note also that phrasal verbs end in to, which is followed by the base form of the verb. 142Lesson 33: Perfect have Ineachofthesentencesbelow,thehelpingverbisaformofhave^eitherhave,has,orhad^ andisunderlined.(Thesewerelistedingroup(b)ofQuicktip31.1.) 1. Shehadgreetedmehappily. 2. Theyhaveeatendinnerearlytoday. 3. Hehaswrittenmanyarticlesaboutthewealthy. Sentences with the helping verbhave are said to be expressed in the perfect aspect, whichaddsinformationtothemainverbaboutreal-worldtime.Forexample,insentence 2,usinghaveindicatesthattheactionbeganinthepastandiscomplete. Quicktip33.1 One kind of helping verb is the verb have. It has three forms: have, has, and had. Test yourself 33.1 Underlinethehavehelpingverbineachofthesentencesbelow.Itmaybeinanyofthethreeformsof have.Inthesesentences,itwillalwaysbedirectlybeforethemainverb. Sample:Ihaveimaginedthisforyears. Gettingstarted(answersonp.164) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thebridgehadcollapsed. 6. MyfriendSalhasboughttwosuitsrecently. 2. Thatcheerfulwomanhassavedtheday. 7. Yourremarkshaveentertainedme enormously. 3. Myuncleshavevisiteduseverysummer. 8. Ourteacherhadsentusane-mailyesterday. 4. Herneighborhasbeenanattorneyfor twentyyears. 9. Thatthoughtneverhascrossedmymind. 5. SuziehadtraveledtoBelgiumtwice 10. YouandIhaveplayedchessnumerous before. times. Test yourself 33.2 Underline the have helping verb and put a squiggly line under the main verb in each of the sentencesbelow. Sample:Hehadannoyedhisboss. Gettingstarted(answersonp.165) 1. JoanandSamhaveworkedforhours. 4. Yourdaughterhasgrownalottaller. 5. Shehasseenherfriendstwicesincelast 2. Theirmotherhasspokenofyouoften. Sunday. 3. Theprimeministerhadwrittentohim. 143UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 9. Wehavethoughtaboutyoursuggestion 6. Ourdogshavemadeamessofthelivingroom. seriously. 7. Youhadwarnedmenottoheedhisadvice. 10. Theactorshadrehearsedforaboutanhour. 8. Thechefhaspreparedthisdishperfectly. TheverbhaveisnotusedonlyasahelpingverbinEnglish.Itcanalsobethemainverbin asentence.Herearesomeexampleswithhaveusedasthemainverb. Noticethatwhen haveisbeingusedasthemainverb,itreferstothenotionofpossessionorownership. 4. Ihaveacomfortablebed. 5. Shehasabeautifulhome. 6. Thatfamilyhadalotofproblems. Quicktip33.2 Havecanbeusedasahelpingverborasamainverb.Whenhaveisusedasthemainverb, it refers to the idea of possession. When have is used as the helping verb, it is always followed by another verb. Test yourself 33.3 Decideiftheformsofhaveinthefollowingsentencesarebeingusedashelpingverbsorasmain verbs. Helpingverb Mainverb Sample:Jackhadagoodtime. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.165) 1. Jackhasexperiencedagoodtime. ................... ................... 2. Hehasseenheroften. ................... ................... 3. YouhavealotofDVDs. ................... ................... 4. Shehadtacosfordinner. ................... ................... 5. Yourprofessorhastheanswertoyourquestion. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Grandpahassleptonthecouchoften. ................... ................... 7. Aishahadtroublewithhercarthismorning. ................... ................... 8. Myaunthasatreadmillinherbasement. ................... ................... 9. Mrs.Steinhadcalledtheparamedics. ................... ................... 10. Theyhavedonatedthatcoattocharity. ................... ................... 144Lesson 33: Perfect have Youmayhavenoticedthatsometimestherearesentenceswithtwooccurrencesofhave. Herearesomeexamples. 7. Jackhashadabadtime. 8. Themayorhadhadacloseelection. 9. Wehavehadadeliciousdinner. Howcanweaccountforthis?The¢rstoccurrenceofhaveisahelpingverb;thesecond occurrenceofhaveisthemainverb(andreferstopossession).That is,justasanyother mainverbcanusehaveasahelpingverb,themainverbhavecanalsousehaveasahelping verb.Thatresultsintwoformsofhaveinthesamesentence. 145Lesson 34: Progressive be Ineachofthesentencesbelow,thehelpingverbisaformoftheverbbeandisunderlined. 1. Sheisleavingonthetrain. 2. Iwasthinkingabouthisbehavior. 3. Theyweremanagingtherestaurant. (Thesewerelistedingroup(c)ofQuicktip31.1.)Inadditiontotheformsis,was,andwere, additionalformsofbeaream,are,be,been,andbeing. Sentenceswiththehelpingverbbearesaidtobeexpressedintheprogressiveorcon- tinuousaspect,whichusuallyindicatesthattheactiontakesplaceoveraperiodoftime. Quicktip34.1 Onekindofhelpingverbisbe.Ithasthefollowingforms:am,is,are,was,were,be,been, and being. Test yourself 34.1 Underlinetheformofthebehelpingverbineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Hewasexercisingregularly. Gettingstarted(answersonp.165) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thereporterwaswritingherstory. 6. Thepoliticiansarecampaigninginfullforce. 2. Heiscontrollinghistemper. 7. Thefootballteamswere¢nishingtheseason. 3. Youarelearningaboutsyntax. 8. CatherineislearningtospeakFrench. 4. TheywerewatchingamovielastSunday. 9. Thoseactorswererehearsing. 5. Iamdoingalotofthingsrightnow. 10. Iwascleaningmyclosetyesterday. Test yourself 34.2 Underlinethebehelpingverbandputasquigglylineunderthemainverbineachofthesentences below. Sample:Heisgreetinghisboss. Gettingstarted(answersonp.165) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. IwastalkingtoHarry. 6. Thetrainisarriving. 2. IrvingandAnniearestudyingLatin. 7. Thewrestlersaregettingreadytocompete. 3. Heistestingherloyalty. 8. Themanagerwasclosingthestore. 4. Iamtakingawalk. 9. Iamorganizingaluncheonforhim. 5. Youwerereadingforhours. 10. Thechildrenwereplayingpeacefully. 146Lesson 34: Progressive be TheverbbeisnotusedonlyasahelpingverbinEnglish.Itcanalsobethemainverbina sentence,inwhichcaseit’salinkingverb.(ThiswasdiscussedinLesson9.)Asareminder, herearesomesentenceswithbeusedasthemainverb: 4. Iamhappy 5. Shewasanactress. 6. ThoseBroadwayshowsaregreat. Quicktip34.2 Be and its forms can be used as a helping verb or as a main verb. When be is used as the helping verb, it is always followed by another verb. Test yourself 34.3 Decide if the forms ofbe in the following sentences are being used as helping verbs or as main verbs. Helpingverb Mainverb Sample:Joanisagenius. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.165) 1. Samislookingatthemail. ................... ................... 2. Thatconceptwasdi⁄cult. ................... ................... 3. Youarehelpingheralot. ................... ................... 4. Iamadoctor. ................... ................... 5. TheywerewatchingTV. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Shewaswritinghertermpaper. ................... ................... 7. Davidisafamousoperasinger. ................... ................... 8. Youarejoking,right? ................... ................... 9. Hisemployeesarehappyaboutit. ................... ................... 10. JackieandRichardwerefriends. ................... ................... Youmayhavenoticedthatsometimestherearesentenceswithtwooccurrencesofbe. Herearesomeexamples: 7. Andrewisbeinganuisance. 8. Myfriendswerebeingcourageous. 9. Theyarebeingclowns. Howcanwe account for this? The ¢rst occurrence ofbe is a helping verb; the second occurrenceofbeisthemainverb.Thatis,justasanyothermainverbcanusebeasahelp- ingverb,themainverbbecanalsousebeasahelpingverb.Thatresultsintwoformsofbe inthesamesentence. 147Lesson 35: Combining auxiliary verbs Allthesentenceswithhelping(auxiliary)verbsthatwe’velookedatsofarhavehadonly one helping verb. It’s possible, however, for a sentence to have more than one helping verb.Herearesomeexamplesofsentenceswithtwohelpingverbs;thehelpingverbsare underlined. (Remember that there are three kinds of helping verbs: (a) modals (e.g. should,can,might),(b)have,and(c)be.SeeLessons32^34.) 1. Sheshouldhavestudied. (modal+have) 2. Shemaybestudying. (modal+be) 3. Shehasbeenstudying. (have+be) Whenasentencehastwohelping verbs,whichhelping verbis¢rst?Ifasentencehas amodal,thatwillalwaysbethe¢rsthelpingverb,asyoucanseeinsentences1and2.If asentencehasbothhaveandbeashelpingverbs,havewillalwaysbe¢rst,asyoucansee insentence3. Canyouthinkofasentencewiththreehelpingverbs?Sentences4and5havethreehelp- ingverbs(underlined): 4. Sheshouldhavebeenstudying. 5. Marymighthavebeenlookingathim. Iftherearethreehelpingverbs,theyarealwaysinthefollowingorder:modal+have+ be,asyoucanseefromsentences4and5.Andifthereareonlytwohelpingverbs,they’re stillinthisrelativeorder,withmodal¢rst,andhavebeforebe. Quicktip35.1 A sentence can have zero, one, or more than one helping verb. If there is more than one, they will always be in the following relative order: modal +have +be. Test yourself 35.1 Foreachsentencebelow,underlinethemainverb.Thendecideifthesentencehaszero,one,two,or threehelpingverbsbeforethemainverb. Sample: Theymayrentacarattheterminal. 1 Gettingstarted(answersonp.165) 1. Shewasfocusingonthemirror. ................... 2. Andyshouldhavebeenenjoyinghisnewcareer. ................... 3. Mrs.Packard’slifechangedatthatpoint. ................... 4. Youcanhavetwoscoopsoficecream. ................... 5. Imighthavecommittedaseriouserror. ................... 148Lesson 35: Combining auxiliary verbs Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Tamarahasbeenworkingfor22years. ................... 7. Hecouldhavebeentellingthetruth. ................... 8. Thebirdswerechirpingearlyinthemorning. ................... 9. GauguinpaintedinTahiti. ................... 10. Tomorrowwewillgotothemovies. ................... Test yourself 35.2 Underlineeachhelpingverbinthesentencesbelow.Eachsentencewillhaveatleastonehelping verb. Sample:Thechildrenhavebeenworkinghard. Gettingstarted(answersonp.165) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Youshouldreadthisbook. 6. Hecouldhavebeenahero. 2. Shehadbeengreetingmehappily. 7. Thejournalistswillbetravelingthroughout Canada. 3. Janicemighthavegottenthe£u. 8. Ihavewrittenmanyarticlesaboutthe 4. Myquestionwasbotheringhim. wealthy. 5. Theprimesuspectmighthavebeentelling 9. Thishasbeenadi⁄culttimeforme. thetruth. 10. Thetrialhasbeengoingonfartoolong. Test yourself 35.3 Underlineeachhelpingverbinthesentencesbelow.Asentencewillhaveanywherefromzeroto threehelpingverbs. Sample:HeandBillshookhands. (Nohelpingverb.) Gettingstarted(answersonp.166) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Ihadbeenwritingtohimoften. 6. Hemayhavebeenworkingontheproject. 2. Theirmotherhasspokenof youalot. 7. Wehadasuddendownpour. 3. Samwillrecognizeitimmediately. 8. Thisstormwillpasssoon. 4. Weweregoodfriends. 9. Theattorneymayhaveoverstatedhercase. 5. Youshouldbestudyingrightnow. 10. Thisrelationshipisimprovingrapidly. Test yourself 35.4 Underlineeachhelpingverbinthesentencesbelowandputasquigglylineunderthemainverb.A sentencewillhaveanywherefromzerotothreehelpingverbs. Sample:Paulwasofferingmeadrink. 149UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES Gettingstarted(answersonp.166) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theycandotheresearch. 6. Thestudentwillhavecompletedhis assignmentbytomorrow. 2. Suzannemightbeleavingsooner. 7. Youarebeingsilly. 3. Papahasbeenteasinghim. 8. Everyonehashadagreattimeattheparty. 4. Imighthavebeenbeingtoocautious. 9. Theshowwasagreatsuccess. 5. Theplanewaslate. 10. Itmusthavebeendi⁄culttodothat. 150Lesson 36: The suffixes of auxiliary verbs Eachhelpingverbisactuallyatwo-partpackage.There’sthehelpingverbitself,andthen there’sthee¡ectthatthehelpingverbhasontheverbthatfollowsit. Lookatthesentencesbelow.Ineachofthem,thehelpingverbisaformofprogressivebe (underlined).Whate¡ectdoesprogressivebehaveontheverbthatfollowsit? 1. Thechildrenwereworkinghard. 2. Iamconsideringanewjobo¡er. 3. Nothingwaslimitinghisdevelopment. 4. Manynewadvancesareemerging. 5. SamiswatchinghisfavoriteTVshow. Youcanseethattheverbaftertheformofbealwayshas -ingaddedtoitsbase.This -ing formoftheverbisreferredtoasthepresentparticipleintraditionalgrammar. Quicktip36.1 When the helping verb is progressive be, the next verb always has -ing added to its base form. Example: is sleeping. The -ing verb form is called the present participle. Test yourself 36.1 Eachofthefollowingsentenceshasaformofthehelpingverbbe.Underlinethebeverbandthe-ing endingofthefollowingverb. Sample:Maggieissleepingnow. Gettingstarted(answersonp.166) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Sheisleavingontheteno’clocktrain. 6. Wewereattendingagraduationceremony lastweek. 2. Thecurtainsweremaskingtheview. 7. Jim’sparentswerewatchingamovie. 3. Iwaswonderingabouthisbehavior. 8. Youaretryingtoohard. 4. Paulisleaningonhiswife’schair. 9. Iamdreamingofagentlesnowfall. 5. Theyaresoundingratherdefensive. 10. ThePresidentwasaddressingthenation yesterday. Ineachofthefollowingsentences,thehelpingverbisaformofhave(underlined).What e¡ectdoeshavehaveontheverbthatfollowsit?(Thisisalittletrickierthanthepattern withbe.) 6. Shehadgreetedmehappily. 7. Theyhaveeatendinnerearlytoday. 8. Thathadinterestedthereporter. 9. Sarahhadmanagedtopryaparttheshells. 151UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES 10. CarlaandRaphaelhavewrittenmanybookstogether. 11. HeandBillhadshakenhands. Theverbfollowinghavemostfrequentlyhasthesu⁄x-enor-edaddedtoit.Theformof theverbfollowingthehelpingverbhaveistraditionallycalledthepastparticiple. Quicktip36.2 Whenhaveisthehelpingverb,thenextverbtypicallyhas-edor-enaddedtoitsbaseform. Examples: has eaten, have watched. The verb form following the helping verb have is called the past participle. Test yourself 36.2 Eachofthefollowingsentenceshasaformofthehelpingverbhave.Underlinethehaveandthe-ed or-enendingofthefollowingverb. Sample:Youhadmanagedthesituationverywell. Gettingstarted(answersonp.166) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thewomenhadspokentoeachotherrecently. 6. Thelocaltheaterhasprovidedmuch entertainmentovertheyears. 2. Unfortunately,theheroinehadmarriedthe villain. 7. Ihaveseenyousomewherebefore. 3. AndyandGeorgehaveenjoyedthemselves 8. Herbrotherhasbrokenthevasetopieces. enormously. 9. Theyhaveliedtoomanytimes. 4. Mystudenthaswrittenaninterestingessay 10. Mona’sboyfriendhassurprisedherwitha ontechnology. weddingproposal. 5. Thehockeygamehasendedinatie. The-edand-ensu⁄xesarethemostcommonendingsforpastparticiples.However,for historicalreasons,thereareactuallyseveralwaystoformpastparticiples.Notethefol- lowingpatternsofsometypicalverbs: Verbbase Perfect Pastparticiple be havebeen been see haveseen seen give havegiven given arrange havearranged arranged walk havewalked walked play haveplayed played Anotherwaytoformpastparticiplesisbychangingavoweloftheverbbase,sometimes alsoaddingthesu⁄x-en.Someexamplesare: Verbbase Perfect Pastparticiple begin havebegun begun sing havesung sung speak havespoken spoken weave havewoven woven 152Lesson 36: The suffixes of auxiliary verbs Sometimesnochangeatallismadetotheverb: Verbbase Perfect Pastparticiple hit havehit hit come havecome come Thereisnomagicorhardandfastruletodeterminewhatthepastparticipleofapartic- ularverbis.WesimplyhavetomemorizeitwhenwelearnEnglish. Ineachofthefollowingsentences,thehelpingverbisamodal(underlined).Whate¡ect doesamodalhaveontheverbthatfollowsit? 12. Thepianosalesmanshouldconsiderhisactions. 13. Hewillrecognizeitimmediately. 14. Samcouldbeastarquarterback. 15. Themajormayspeaktoyoulater. Quicktip36.3 When the helping verb is a modal, the next verb is always in its base form. Example: can study. Test yourself 36.3 Eachofthefollowingsentenceshasamodalhelpingverb.Underlinethemodalandputasquiggly lineundertheverbfollowingit,whichwillbeinitsbaseform. oppose Sample:Heshould theiractions. Gettingstarted(answersonp.166) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Richardwillbelievethetruth. 6. Themailshouldarrivebynoon. 2. Thewaitermightbringit. 7. Michaelcanbuildanything. 3. Theymaybehomelate. 8. Thewaitersmustwashtheirhandsoften. 4. Weshallovercomethisobstacle. 9. Onaclearday,youcouldseeformiles. 5. Iwoulddoitinaninstant. 10. ThetrainwillmakeastopinAtlanta. Whathappenstothefollowingverbifthereismorethanonehelpingverbinasentence? Isthepatternthesamewhenahelpingverbisfollowedbyanotherhelpingverb,rather thanthemainverb?Thepatternswehavetalkedaboutarethesame,whetherthereisone helpingverbormorethanonehelpingverbinasentence.Youcanseethisinthefollowing sentences: 16. Theyhavebeenseeingthedoctorregularly. 17. Youhavebeenobservingthesituationclosely. Sincehave(inbold)isahelpingverbinthesesentences,thenextverb,be,getsthe-enend- ing(alsoinbold).Andsincebe(underlined)isalsoahelpingverb,theverbafterbegets the-ingending(alsounderlined). 153UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES Wecanalsoseeconsistentpatternsinthefollowingtwosentences: 18. Theyshouldhaveseenthedoctorregularly. 19. Youmightbeobservingthesituationclosely. Insentence18themodal(inbold)causesthenextverb,have,tobeinitsbaseform.The havehelpingverbthena¡ectstheformofthenextverb,themainverbsee,whichappears in its past participle form, seen.Similarly,insentence19themodal, might,causesthe nextverb,be,tobeinitsbaseform.Thenthebea¡ectstheformofthenextverb,themain verbobserve,whichappearsinitspresentparticipleform,observing. What happens if a sentence has all three kinds of helping verbs? The pattern still remainsthesame,asyoucanseeinthenextsetofexamples: ing 20. Theyshouldhavebeensee thedoctorregularly. ing 21. Youmighthavebeenobserv thesituationmoreclosely. Themodal,whichisthe¢rsthelpingverb(inbold),causeshavetobeinitsbaseform.The havehelping verb (underlined) causesthe next verb,be, to appear initspastparticiple form,thatis,withthe-ensu⁄x(alsounderlined),andbe(withasquigglyline)causesthe nextverb,themainverb,tobeinitspresentparticipleform,thatis,endingin-ing(also withasquigglyline). So the overall pattern is completely consistent, whether a sentence has one, two, or threehelpingverbs. Aswe’ve seen,whenprogressivebeisthehelping verb,the next verb alwayshas -ing addedtoit.Butsometimesverbsendinginthe-ingsu⁄xhaveadi¡erentuse,aswecan seeinthesenextsentences: 22. Skiingenergizesme. 23. Ilovecooking. In these sentences, the -ing word does not follow the helping verb be.Instead, the -ing ending changes the verb into a noun. In fact, notice that the -ing word can be replaced with a typical noun inthesesentences,forexample: Sugar ener- gizes me,Ilove Mary. A noun that consists of a verb and the su⁄x -ing is called a gerund. Quicktip36.4 Anounthat consistsofaverbandthesuffix-ingiscalledagerund.Example:Entertain-ing is fun. Herearesomemoreexamplesofsentenceswithgerunds: 24. Readingisoneoflife’spleasures. 25. Thinkingcanbehardwork! 26. Thecriminaladmittedlying. 27. Theystoppedworryingaboutit. Test yourself 36.4 Decideifeachunderlinedwordending in-ing inthefollowingsentencesisbeingusedasaverb, part of the progressive be ‘‘package,’’ or as a noun, that is, as a gerund. To help you decide, see whetherornotthe-ingwordfollowsthehelpingverbbe. 154Lesson 36: The suffixes of auxiliary verbs Verb(progressive) Noun(gerund) Sample:Shelikeswalkingthedog. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.166) 1. Theyareconstructingsmallhomesinthatpartoftown. ................... ................... 2. HewaslookingforJonas. ................... ................... 3. Thecandidatethoughtaboutrefusing. ................... ................... 4. GivingtocharityisanoldAmericantradition. ................... ................... 5. Ishouldhavethoughtofrespondingearlier. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Lastnightwewerehavinglotsoffun. ................... ................... 7. Theemployeewasbeinghonestwithyou. ................... ................... 8. SheenjoyslisteningtoheriPod. ................... ................... 9. Somedoctorsrecommendtakingvitaminpills. ................... ................... 10. Iamconsideringyouro¡erseriously. ................... ................... Hereisasummaryofthethreehelpingverbswe’vediscussedinthislessonandtheformof theverbthatfollowseach: Helpingverb Followingverb modal baseform perfecthave pastparticipleform(typicallyendingin-edor-en) progressivebe: presentparticipleform(alwaysendingin-ing) TwoadditionalhelpingverbswillbediscussedinLessons52and53. 155Lesson 37: Tense Theverbofasentencegivesinformationabouttense.SpeakersofEnglishgenerallyare awarethat,forexample,theverbstudiesisapresenttenseformwhiletheverbstudiedisa pasttenseform. Test yourself 37.1 Foreachverbbelow,decideifitisinitspresenttenseorpasttenseform. Presenttense Pasttense Sample:was ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.167) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. sends 6. wrote ................... ................... ................... ................... 2. felt 7. sat ................... ................... ................... ................... 3. perceived 8. walk ................... ................... ................... ................... 4. am 9. arose ................... ................... ................... ................... 5. has 10. sing ................... ................... ................... ................... It’simportanttounderstandthatgrammaticaltenseandrealworldtimearenotneces- sarilythesame.Takealookatthefollowingsentences: 1. Shestudiedyesterday. 2. Shewasstudyingyesterday. Insentences1and2,thetenseoftheunderlinedverbs,asseenintheirforms,ispast;the timethatisbeingtalkedaboutisalsopast.Sointhesecasestenseandtimearethesame. Nowconsiderthefollowingsentences: 3. IamgoingtoFrancenextsummer. 4. Shehasboughtthebooksforthecourse. Insentences3and4,thegrammaticaltenseoftheunderlinedverbsispresent.(Ifthese verbswerepasttenseforms,theywouldbewasandhad,respectively).However,thereal- lifeoractualtimethatsentence3istalkingaboutisinthefuture;theactualtimethatsen- tence4istalkingaboutisinthepast.Soinsentences3and4wecanseethatgrammatical tenseandreal-lifetimearenotalwaysthesame. Fortherestofthislesson,we’llbefocusingonthetense(grammaticalform)andnotthe real-lifetimeofEnglishverbs. Quicktip37.1 Timereferstoapointinreallifeatwhichsomethingoccurs.Tensereferstothegrammatical form of a verb. 156Lesson 37: Tense In asimplesentence,tense information is carried byonlyoneverb. If asentencehas helping verbs as well as a mainverb, whichverb shows tense? In each of the sentences below,theverbthatcarriesthetenseinformationisunderlined. 5. Johnstudies. 6. Johnstudied. 7. Johnhasstudied. 8. Johnhadstudied. 9. Johnisstudying. 10. Johnwasstudying. 11. Johnhasbeenstudying. 12. Johnhadbeenstudying. Youcanseethatineachsentenceitisthevery¢rstverbthatcarriesthetenseinforma- tion,regardlessofwhetherit’sahelpingverborthemainverb. Youwillnoticethatwehavenotincludedinourlistofsentencesin5through12exam- plesofsentenceswhose¢rstverbisamodal.(RecallfromLesson34thatmodalsalways come¢rstinsentenceswithmorethanoneverb.)Thatisbecauseingeneral,modalsdo notcarrycleartenseinformation.Lookatthefollowingexamples: 13. Imightdoitrightnow/today. 14. Imightdoittomorrow. 15. Imighthavedoneityesterday. Asyoucansee,theformofthemodalisthesame(might),regardlessofwhetheritrefersto timeinthepresent(sentence13),timeinthefuture(sentence14),ortimeinthepast(sen- tence15).Wewillconsidermodalstobetenseless. Quicktip37.2 Tense information is always indicated by the first verb in the sentence, excluding modals. Traditionally,sentenceshavebeengroupedintodi¡erenttypes,accordingtothetense oftheverb.Let’scomparethefollowingtwosentences: 16. Johnstudieseveryday. 17. Johnstudiedeveryday. You can see that the only di¡erence between sentence 16 and sentence 17 is that in 16, study isinitspresenttenseformand in17study isinitspasttenseform. Onthisbasis, sentence 16 has present tense (or simple present tense), while sentence 17 has past tense(orsimplepasttense). Herearesomemoreexamples,withtheverbsunderlined: 18. Irasighedinrelief. (past) 19. Aliceseesheroften. (present) 20. Helaughedhysterically. (past) 21. Ioftenforgettheanswer. (present) Quicktip37.3 Sentences with no helping verb are in either the present or past tense, depending on the form of the verb. Almostallverbs,liketheverbsinsentences18and20,formtheirpasttensebyaddingthe su⁄x-ed.Theseverbsarecalledregularverbs.Someverbs,however,donotfollowthis 157UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES pattern.Theseverbsarecalledirregularverbs.Someexamplesofirregularverbsare: see(pasttensesaw),write(pasttensewrote),andhit(pasttensehit). Test yourself 37.2 Decideifeachsentenceisinthepresentorpasttense.You’llneedto¢ndtheverbtomakethisdecision. Sample:Herdaughtergiggledhappily. past ........... Gettingstarted(answersonp.167) 1. TheydeliverfurnitureonTuesdays. ......................................................................................... 2. Thesenatorsupportsthatbill. ......................................................................................... 3. Ivotedforhim. ......................................................................................... 4. Iateasandwichforlunch. .......................................................................................... 5. Theshortstophitahomerun. .......................................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. MichiganStatebeatOhioState. .......................................................................................... 7. Ourniecestudiesanthropology. .......................................................................................... 8. Theweatherishumidtoday. .......................................................................................... 9. Therepairmanarrivedatnoon. .......................................................................................... 10. Mydaughtercameforavisit. .......................................................................................... The next two sentences have future tense (or simple future tense): they have the modalhelpingverbwill,followedbythebaseofthemainverb. 22. Johnwillstudytomorrow. 23. Jessicawillvisithersoon. Quicktip37.4 Sentences with will followed by the main verb are in the future tense. Thefuturetensecanalsobeexpressedwiththemodalhelpingverbshall:e.g.Johnshall studytomorrow.ShallhasrestrictedusageinAmericanEnglish:generally,it’susedonly informalspeechstyles.Consequently,we’llignoreshallinourdiscussionhere. Test yourself 37.3 Decideifeachsentencebelowisinthepresent,past,orfuturetense. Sample:ThoseHalloweendecorationswilllookscary. future ................. Gettingstarted(answersonp.167) 1. Hesleepslateonweekends. ............................................................................. 2. Zachwasproudofhisson. ............................................................................. 3. Bethanywillgetmarriedsoon. ............................................................................. 158Lesson 37: Tense 4. Theshowbeganpromptlyat8P.M. ............................................................................. 5. MysisterwillrunintheNewYorkCitymarathon. ............................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Theco¡eetastedbitter. ............................................................................. 7. IstudyinEnglandeverysummer. ............................................................................. 8. Myyoungerbrotherbeatmeatchess. ............................................................................. 9. Stugetsupat7A.M.everymorning. ................................................................................ 10. WewillholdafamilyreunioninJuly. ............................................................................. Aswesawabove(insentences4,11,and12),sentenceswiththehavehelpingverbalso changeinformtoindicatetense: 24. Ihaveboughtthebooks. 25. Ihadboughtthebooks. The di¡erence between the two sentences is that sentence 24 is in the present tense,whilesentence25isinthepasttense.Noticethatitisonlytheformof have that changes to indicate the tense information. The verb after have is always in its past participle form, which does not change to indicate tense. Although sentences with the have helping verb are in the perfect aspect, when we talk about a sentence with both tense and aspect, we just use the term ‘‘tense.’’ So therefore sentence 24 is in the present perfect tense while sentence 25 is in the past perfect tense. Quicktip37.5 If a sentence has a form of have as a helping verb, it will have the word perfect as part of the name of its tense. Quicktip37.6 The present tense forms of have are have and has. The past tense form of have is had. Test yourself 37.4 Decideifeachsentenceisinthepresentperfectorpastperfecttense.Usetheformofhavetohelp youmakeyourdecision. Sample:Ihadbelievedeverywordofthatbroadcast. pastperfect .............................. Gettingstarted(answersonp.167) 1. Shehadwantedtodoeverythingherway. .......................................................................................................... 2. Marthahasknownaboutthesurprise. .......................................................................................................... 3. Samanthahaddecidedtodothat. .......................................................................................................... 4. Ihavewrittentohimaboutthatissue. .......................................................................................................... 5. Youhavebeenagoodfriend. .......................................................................................................... 159UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Theyhavepurchasedanewhome. .................................................................................................... 7. Onourtrip,wehadconverted$200toeuros. .................................................................................................... 8. Andyhaspromisedtotellthetruth. .......................................................................................................... 9. Thedetectivehadfoundanimportantwitness. .................................................................................................... 10. TheDemocratshavewonthepresidency. .................................................................................................... Whatdoyouthinkisthetenseofthefollowingsentences? 26. Johnwillhavestudiedbythen. 27. Itwillhavebeenaneasytest. Sincethesesentenceshavebothwillandaformofhaveashelpingverbs,theyareinthe futureperfecttense. Quicktip37.7 Ifasentencehaswillasahelpingverb,itwillhavethewordfutureaspartofthenameofits tense. Test yourself 37.5 Decideifeachsentencebelowisinthepresentperfect,pastperfect,orfutureperfecttense.Lookat theformofhaveandforthepresenceorabsenceofwilltohelpyou. Sample:Ourfriendshavedroppedby. presentperfect ...................................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.167) 1. They have ¢nished the assignment. ................................................................................................. 2. Thealarmclockwillhavegoneo¡bythen. ................................................................................................. 3. Lindahadlockedthedoor. ................................................................................................. 4. MyfriendJohnhasbeenagreathelptome. ................................................................................................. 5. Bythen,Iwillhave¢nishedstudying. ................................................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Frankhadappearedinamovieonce. ................................................................................................. 7. Youhaveencouragedmemanytimes. ................................................................................................. 8. Shehaswrittenalettertohersister. ................................................................................................. 9. Therehadbeena£oodofinquiries. ..................................................................................................... 10. Youwillhaveleftagreatlegacytoyourchildren. ........................................................................................................ 160Lesson 37: Tense Last,wecometosentenceswithaformofbeasahelpingverb.Thesealsochangeinform toindicatetense: 28. Iambuyingthebook. 29. Iwasbuyingthebook. Thedi¡erencebetweenthetwosentencesisthatsentence28isinthepresenttense,while sentence29isinthepasttense.Noticethattheverbafterbeisinitspresentparticipleform (thatis,its-ingform),whichdoesnotchangetoindicatetense.Rememberthatalthough sentenceswiththebehelpingverbareintheprogressiveaspect,whenwetalkaboutasen- tencewithbothtenseandaspect,wejustusetheterm‘‘tense.’’Sothereforesentence28isin thepresentprogressivetensewhilesentence29isinthepastprogressivetense. Asyoumightexpect,thefollowingsentencesareinthefutureprogressivetense: 30. Iwillbeleavingatthreeo’clock. 31. Harrywillberunningthemarathon. Youcanseethattheyhavebothwillandbeashelpingverbs. Quicktip37.8 Ifasentencehasaformofbeasahelpingverb,itwillhavethewordprogressiveaspartof the name of its tense. Quicktip37.9 The present tense forms of be are am, is, andare.The past tense forms of be are was and were. Test yourself 37.6 Decideifeachsentencebelowisinthepresentprogressive,pastprogressive,orfutureprogressive tense.Lookattheformofbeandforthepresenceorabsenceofwilltohelpyou. Sample:Hewasracingdownthestepsofthelibrary. pastprogressive .......................................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.167) 1. Sheispackingherbags. .............................................................................................. 2. Tomwillbethinkingaboutitallday. .............................................................................................. 3. Thecomputerwasworkingonit. .............................................................................................. 4. Itwillbesnowingtomorrow. .............................................................................................. 5. Iamgettingtired. .............................................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Theywerebuyingstampsattheposto⁄ce. .............................................................................................. 7. Jackiewillbestartinganewbusiness. .............................................................................................. 8. Yousurelyarekidding. .............................................................................................. 9. Themechanicwaswashinghiscar. .................................................................................................. 10.Wewillbecelebratingforhours. .............................................................................................. 161UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES Sincesentencescanhavemorethanonehelpingverb(seeLesson35),theirtensescan have combinations of the words present, past, future, perfect,and progressive in their names.Hereareexamplesofeachofthepossibletenses: 32. Maryspeakstoeveryone. (present) 33. Maryspoketoeveryone. (past) 34. Marywillspeaktoeveryone. (future) 35. Maryhasspokentoeveryone. (presentperfect) 36. Maryhadspokentoeveryone. (pastperfect) 37. Marywillhavespokentoeveryone. (futureperfect) 38. Maryisspeakingtoeveryone. (presentprogressive) 39. Marywasspeakingtoeveryone. (pastprogressive) 40. Marywillbespeakingtoeveryone. (futureprogressive) 41. Maryhasbeenspeakingtoeveryone. (presentperfectprogressive) 42. Maryhadbeenspeakingtoeveryone. (pastperfectprogressive) 43. Marywillhavebeenspeakingtoeveryone. (futureperfectprogressive) Tosumup: (a) Asentencewithwillalwayshasthewordfutureinitstensename. (b) Asentencewithahavehelpingverbalwayshasthewordperfectinitstensename. (c) Asentence withabehelping verb followedbyaverbin its -ing form alwayshasthe wordprogressiveinitstensename. (d) Forsentenceswithoutwill,lookattheformofthe¢rsthelpingverb,ifthereisone,or ofthemainverb,ifthere’snohelpingverb,todecideifthetenseispresentorpast. Test yourself 37.7 Identifythetensenameofeachoftheverbcombinationsbelow. Sample:hadthought pastperfect Gettingstarted(answersonp.168) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. willconsider 6. wereacting ............................................................ .......................................................................... 2. experienced 7. willhavebeenstudying ............................................................. ............................................ 3. willhavewanted 8. hashad .................................................. .................................................................................... 4. hadbeenwatching 9. havebeensleeping .............................................. ........................................................ 5. willbereading 10. mention ....................................................... .................................................................................. Test yourself 37.8 Identifythetensenameofeachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Hewillbeexpectinggreatthingsofher. futureprogressive ............................................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.168) 1. Shewasmakingsomeprogress. .......................................................................................................... 2. Marieshruggedhershoulders. .......................................................................................................... 3. Shewillbetakingalongwalk. .......................................................................................................... 4. Hehashadtwoseriousoperations. .......................................................................................................... 5. Theyhadbeengettingnumerousphonecalls. .......................................................................................................... 162Lesson 37: Tense Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. NeilisgoingtoWashingtontomorrow. ......................................................................................................... 7. ClarehasbeenwatchingESPNforyears. .......................................................................................................... 8. Youwillbeachampiononeday. .......................................................................................................... 9. LuiswillhaveworkedforIBMfor40years. .......................................................................................................... 10. Iwillhavebeensleepingforninehours. .......................................................................................................... 163Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 12 Test yourself 31.1 Helpingverb:NO Helpingverb:YES 1. Theywerearguingloudly. ................... 2. Thefroghadjumped¢vefeet. ................... 3. Youinvitedeveryone. ................... 4. Imustbuysomemilk. ................... 5. HarrylivesinEurope. ................... Test yourself 31.2 Helpingverb:NO Helpingverb:YES 1. Youmightwriteheraletter. ................... 2. Congressvotedonthebill. ................... 3. Bethhassurvivedthatordeal. ................... 4. Icouldbeanactor. ................... 5. TheGiantswontheSuperBowl. ................... Test yourself 32.1 1. Theymustdelaytheinvasion. 2. Youwill¢ndcourageinyourheart. 3. Mr.Knightmightgowithyou. 4. Youshouldbeproudofyourself. 5. Tomorrowwemaygotothemovies. Test yourself 32.2 1. Thecurtainsmighthidetheview. 2. Paulcouldworkontheproblem. 3. Shecanleavethisafternoon. 4. Youmustgototheemergencyroomimmediately. 5. Thechildrenwillenjoythesegifts. Test yourself 33.1 1. Thebridgehadcollapsed. 2. Thatcheerfulwomanhassavedtheday. 3. Myuncleshavevisiteduseverysummer. 4. Herneighborhasbeenanattorneyfortwentyyears. 5. SuziehadtraveledtoBelgiumtwicebefore. 164Answer keys: Unit 12 Test yourself 33.2 1. JoanandSamhaveworkedforhours. 2. Theirmotherhasspoken ofyouoften. 3. Theprimeministerhad tohim. written 4. Yourdaughterhasgrownalottaller. 5. Shehas herfriendstwicesincelastSunday. seen Test yourself 33.3 Helpingverb Mainverb 1. Jackhasexperiencedagoodtime. ................... 2. Hehasseenheroften. ................... 3. YouhavealotofDVDs. ................... 4. Shehadtacosfordinner. ................... 5. Yourprofessorhastheanswertoyourquestion. ................... Test yourself 34.1 1. Thereporterwaswritingherstory. 2. Heiscontrollinghistemper. 3. Youarelearningaboutsyntax. 4. TheywerewatchingamovielastSunday. 5. Iamdoingalotofthingsrightnow. Test yourself 34.2 1. IwastalkingtoHarry. 2. IrvingandAnniearestudyingLatin. 3. Heistestingherloyalty. 4. Iamtakingawalk. 5. Youwerereadingforhours. Test yourself 34.3 Helpingverb Mainverb 1. Samislookingatthemail. ................... 2. Thatconceptwasdi⁄cult. ................... 3. Youarehelpingheralot. ................... 4. Iamadoctor. ................... 5. TheywerewatchingTV. ................... Test yourself 35.1 1. Shewasfocusingonthemirror. 2. Andyshouldhavebeenenjoyinghisnewcareer. 3. Mrs.Packard’slifechangedatthatpoint. 4. Youcanhavetwoscoopsoficecream. 5. Imighthavecommittedaseriouserror. Test yourself 35.2 1. Youshouldreadthisbook. 2. Shehadbeengreetingmehappily. 165UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES 3. Janicemighthavegottenthe£u. 4. Myquestionwasbotheringhim. 5. Theprimesuspectmighthavebeentellingthetruth. Test yourself 35.3 1. Ihadbeenwritingtohimoften. 2. Theirmotherhasspokenofyoualot. 3. Samwillrecognizeitimmediately. 4. Weweregoodfriends.(Nohelpingverb.) 5. Youshouldbestudyingrightnow. Test yourself 35.4 1. Theycan theresearch. do 2. Suzannemightbeleavingsooner. 3. Papahasbeenteasinghim. 4. Imighthavebeenbeingtoocautious. 5. Theplane late. was Test yourself 36.1 1. Sheisleavingontheteno’clocktrain. 2. Thecurtainsweremaskingtheview. 3. Iwaswonderingabouthisbehavior. 4. Paulisleaningonhiswife’schair. 5. Theyaresoundingratherdefensive. Test yourself 36.2 1. Thewomenhadspokentoeachotherrecently. 2. Unfortunately,theheroinehadmarriedthevillain. 3. AndyandGeorgehaveenjoyedthemselvesenormously. 4. Mystudenthaswrittenaninterestingessayontechnology. 5. Thehockeygamehasendedinatie. Test yourself 36.3 1. Richardwillbelievethetruth. bring 2. Thewaitermight it. 3. Theymaybehomelate. 4. Weshall thisobstacle. overcome 5. Iwould itinaninstant. do Test yourself 36.4 Verb(progressive) Noun(gerund) 1. Theyareconstructingsmallhomesinthatpartoftown. ................... 2. HewaslookingforJonas. ................... 3. Thecandidatethoughtaboutrefusing. ................... 4. GivingtocharityisanoldAmericantradition. ................... 5. Ishouldhavethoughtofrespondingearlier. ................... 166Answer keys: Unit 12 Test yourself 37.1 Presenttense Pasttense 1. sends ................... 2. felt ................... 3. perceived ................... 4. am ................... 5. has ................... Test yourself 37.2 1. TheydeliverfurnitureonTuesdays. present 2. Thesenatorsupportsthatbill. present 3. Ivotedforhim. past 4. Iateasandwichforlunch. past 5. Theshortstophitahomerun. past Test yourself 37.3 1. Hesleepslateonweekends. present 2. Zachwasproudofhisson. past 3. Bethanywillgetmarriedsoon. future 4. Theshowbeganpromptlyat8P.M. past 5. MysisterwillrunintheNewYorkCitymarathon. future Test yourself 37.4 1. Shehadwantedtodoeverythingherway. pastperfect 2. Marthahasknownaboutthesurprise. presentperfect 3. Samanthahaddecidedtodothat. pastperfect 4. Ihavewrittentohimaboutthatissue. presentperfect 5. Youhavebeenagoodfriend. presentperfect Test yourself 37.5 1. Theyhave¢nishedtheassignment. presentperfect 2. Thealarmclockwillhavegoneo¡bythen. futureperfect 3. Lindahadlockedthedoor. pastperfect 4. MyfriendJohnhasbeenagreathelptome. presentperfect 5. Bythen,Iwillhave¢nishedstudying. futureperfect Test yourself 37.6 1. Sheispackingherbags. presentprogressive 2. Tomwillbethinkingaboutitallday. futureprogressive 3. Thecomputerwasworkingonit. pastprogressive 4. Itwillbesnowingtomorrow. futureprogressive 5. Iamgettingtired. presentprogressive 167UNIT 12: AUXILIARY PHRASES Test yourself 37.7 1. willconsider future 2. experienced past 3. willhavewanted futureperfect 4. hadbeenwatching pastperfectprogressive 5. willbereading futureprogressive Test yourself 37.8 1. Shewasmakingsomeprogress. pastprogressive 2. Marieshruggedhershoulders. past 3. Shewillbetakingalongwalk. futureprogressive 4. Hehashadtwoseriousoperations. presentperfect 5. Theyhadbeengettingnumerousphonecalls. pastperfectprogressive ☞ FORAREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEETHEWEBSITE. 168UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS Sentencesmaycontainseveralnounphrases.Thesenounphrasescanhavedi¡erentjobs, orfunctions,withinthesentence.Takealookatthefollowingsentence: OnValentine’s Day, my brother boughtabouquetof£owersfor his wife. Theunderlinednounphrasesaredoingdi¡erentthings:mybrotherisdoingtheaction,a bouquetof£owersisreceivingtheaction,andhiswifeisreceivingthe£owers.Intheles- sons of this unit, we discuss in detail these grammatical functions (or grammatical relations). 169Lesson 38: Subjects Wecanidentifythesubjectofasentencewithanactionverb(seeLesson9)byanswering the question:‘‘Who is doing the action?’’ For example, in the sentence Confucius spoke many words of wisdom,theactionis speaking.Whois,orwas,doingthespeaking? Confucius.Confuciusisthereforethesubjectofthesentence.Thesubjectsareunderlined inthefollowingexamples: 1. Johnbakedacake. 2. Youaregoingtogrinandbearit. 3. Justthen,thechildrenwalkedin. 4. Hedeliveredasmallpackage. 5. Mr.Bucknose,thecarpenter,sleepsinthespareroom. 6. Wearily,thegrouptrudgedonward. 7. Iusuallytakeanapintheafternoon. Generally,thesubject isator nearthebeginningof thesentence.Morespeci¢cally,the subjectisthe¢rstnounphrase(seeLesson28)inthesentence. Quicktip38.1 Ifthemainverbofthesentenceisanactionverb,thesubjectofthesentenceisthedoerof theactionandgenerallycomesbeforetheverb.Itcanbefoundbyansweringthequestion: ‘‘Who or what is doing the action?’’ Test yourself 38.1 Underlinethesubjectineachofthesentencesbelow.Inthesesentences,itwillalwaysbethedoerof theactionandwillbethe¢rstnounphraseinthesentence. Sample:Jeanettedemandedananswertoherquestion. Gettingstarted(answersonp.189) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. TheservantaccompaniedHisLordship. 6. Thedinersarearguingloudly. 2. JeanparticipatedintheTourdeFrance. 7. Youruncleinvitedmetoaccompanyhimon hisbusinesstrip. 3. Suchfamilieshaveoftenpreferredtotravel instyle. 8. TheYankeeswontheWorldSeriesmanytimes. 4. Theycoulddonothingexceptrun. 9. Macy’sisholdingahugesalenextSunday. 5. Mr.Towerquietlyexplainedallthistohisson. 10. TheTVrepairmanhasjustarrived. Thesubjectisunderlinedinthefollowingsentences: 8. Johnistall. 9. Thatchurchisimpressive. 170Lesson 38: Subjects 10. Bothbrothersbecamearchitects. 11. Earlier,shehadfeltdizzy. Inthesesentences,thesubjectisnotperforminganaction ^ theverbisnotanactionverb. Rather,theverbisalinkingverb(seeLesson9).Whentheverbinthesentenceisalinking verb,thesubjectcanbefoundbyaskingthequestion:‘‘Whoorwhatisthissentenceabout?’’ Inthesecases,thesubjectisfoundatornearthebeginningofthesentence,beforetheverb. Quicktip38.2 Ifthemainverbofthesentenceisalinkingverb,thesubjectiswhoorwhatthesentenceis about; the subject is found before the verb. Test yourself 38.2 Underlinethesubjectineachofthesentencesbelow.Inthesesentences,itwillalwaysbewhoor whatthesentenceisaboutandwillbethe¢rstnounphraseinthesentence. Sample:Theprofessorwasimprisonedforhisbeliefs. Gettingstarted(answersonp.189) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. TheHotelReginaisanattractive 6. ShewasdeterminedtomeetDr.Richards place. again. 2. Itbecamethebest-knownsymbolof 7. Hisoldersisterresembledherfather, Paris. unfortunately. 3. Thelocalmerchantswereonhisside. 8. Herfolksaregoodpeople. 4. Charleslookedthoughtful. 9. Mysonisdestinedforsuccessasanattorney. 5. Christineseemedinsecure. 10. Theirapologyseemsgenuine. Test yourself 38.3 Underlinethesubjectineachofthesentencesbelow.Inthesesentences,itwilleitherbethedoerofthe actionorwhoorwhatthesentenceisabout.Thesubjectwillbethe¢rstnounphraseinthesentence. Sample:Theseproportionsareinaccurate. Gettingstarted(answersonp.189) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theeditorlookedfornewideasforthe 6. Alana’shairsmellsfresh. magazine. 7. Igotthereontime. 2. Youcanrelyontheexpertsatthatcompany. 8. Theypostponedtheballgameonaccountof 3. Maggieusuallygoesberrypickinginthe badweather. summer. 9. Bowlingisafavoritepastimeofmine. 4. Rogerishappywithhisnewcomputer. 10. Somestudentsmissedthe¢nalexam. 5. Theworkerswentonstrikeforacoupleof weeks. Thesubjectisnotalwaysrightatthebeginningofthesentence: 12. Intheafternoon,Iusuallytakeanap. 13. Intruth,DonDiegohadneverreallyhadacareer. 171UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS 14. Thatday,histimingwasperfect. 15. Wheninthecountry,Jackwasupbeforedawn. In each of these sentences, the subject is preceded by an adverb (see Lesson 27)or adverbial clause, a group of words typically giving information about time, place, or manner. Test yourself 38.4 Underlinethesubjectineachofthesentencesbelow.Thesubjectwillnotnecessarilybethe¢rst nounphraseinthesentence. Sample:Bylateafternoon,heisusuallyexhausted. Gettingstarted(answersonp.189) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Afterthat,theirneighborcamemoreoftento 6. Generallyspeaking,theydon’tknowmany helpthem. foreignlanguages. 2. Fortunately,thatuniversityprogramis 7. Dr.Wright’schau¡eurdrovehimtothe accredited. clinic. 3. Inthemorning,I’mplantingthose£owers. 8. Formanyreasons,Michaelpreferstolivein thesuburbs. 4. Eventually,Mr.Mulliganbrokethe silence. 9. Thismovielastedalongtime. 5. Whilerunningforo⁄ce,thecandidate 10. Excitingtimesaremuchmorememorable campaignedvigorously. thanboringones. 172Lesson 39: Direct objects AswesawinLesson38,anounphrasecanfunctionasthesubjectofasentence.Anoun phrasecanalsohaveotherfunctions.Forexample,anounphrasemaybeacteduponby thesubjectandfollowtheverb.Thesenounphrasesarecalleddirectobjects.Thedirect objectsinthesentencesbelowareunderlined: 1. Johnbakedacake. 2. Leahhadvisualizedasimpleroom. 3. Sheisbuyingasmallstudioapartment. 4. Myniecerentedamovielastnight. Howcanyoutellwhichnounphraseinasentencefunctionsasthedirectobject?Ingen- eral,thedirectobjectistheanswertothequestions:‘‘Whoorwhatisbeingactedupon? Whoorwhatisreceivingtheaction?’’Thus,forexample,inthesentenceMyniecerenteda movie last night, the direct object isamovie,sinceamovie is what is being acted upon (beingrented).Typically,directobjectsoccurimmediatelyaftertheverb.(Wediscussa di¡erentpatterninLesson40.) Quicktip39.1 Thedirectobjectofasentenceisreceivingtheaction.Itcanusuallybefoundbyanswering the question: ‘‘Who or what is being acted upon or receiving the action?’’ The direct object typically occurs immediately after the verb. Test yourself 39.1 Underlinethedirectobjectineachofthesentencesbelow.Besuretoaskyourselfwhoorwhatis beingacteduponorreceivingtheaction. Sample:Isawastatueinthemuseum. Gettingstarted(answersonp.189) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Youmustincludeallrelevantfacts. 6. Mostpeoplegreeteduswarmlyatthe reception. 2. Bridgetisaskingnumerousquestions. 7. IboughttwobottlesofPepsi. 3. TheSpanishshipsneededfreshsupplies. 8. Actorsmustmemorizetheirlines. 4. Shewillwatchthebaby. 9. Lastweek,Jackrenewedhispassport. 5. Thetownspeoplehavewantedtaxrelieffor years. 10.Wheredidyougetthatsweater? Notallsentenceshavedirectobjects.Hereareexamplesofsentenceswithactionverbs thatdonothavedirectobjects. 173UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS 5. Myfriendlaughedloudly. 6. Mr.Thomassleptwell. 7. You’realwaysworrying. You may remember, from Lesson 10, that there are transitive and intransitive verbs. Transitiveverbs,likebakeorrent,actonsomethingorsomeoneandsotheyhavedirect objects.Intransitiveverbs,likelaugh,sleep,andworry,aren’tactinguponsomethingor someoneandsodon’thavedirectobjects. Whataboutthesenextsentences? 8. Myfriendstoppedatthegrocerystore. 9. Mr.Thomassleptwellduringthenight. 10. You’realwaysworryingaboutsomething. As you can see, these sentences have prepositional phrases, which are underlined notadirectobject.Forexample,atthegrocerystore (Lesson29).Aprepositionalphraseis insentence8andduringthenightinsentence9arenotbeingactedupon. Tosumup,onlytransitiveactionverbshavedirectobjects,andprepositionalphrases arenotdirectobjects. Test yourself 39.2 Decidewhetherornoteachsentencebelowhasadirectobject. Directobject? Yes No Sample:Herbestfriendenteredtheroom¢rst. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.190) 1. We’lldiscusseachargument. ................... ................... 2. Carterworkedforalumbercompany. ................... ................... 3. Thosegamblersarelosingtheirmoney. ................... ................... 4. At7P.M.weleftforthetheater. ................... ................... 5. ThechildrenareenjoyingDisneyland. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Isleptwelllastnight. ................... ................... 7. TheywatchfootballonSundaynights. ................... ................... 8. JillandSamhaveleftwithafriend. ................... ................... 9. Canyoupassthebutter,please? ................... ................... 10. Shewantsabigscoopofchocolateicecream. ................... ................... Whataboutthisnextsentence? 11. Sheisadoctor. Isadoctorreceivingtheactionofis?Kindofastrangequestion,isn’tit?That’sbecauseis isnotanactionverb;it’salinkingverb(seeLesson9).Sentenceswithlinkingverbsdon’t have directobjects, since there is no action happening inthe sentence. Ineach sentence below,thelinkingverbisitalicized.Theunderlinedportionofeachsentenceisnotadirect object,sinceit’snotbeingactedupon.Instead,it’scalledtheverbcomplement. 174Lesson 39: Direct objects 12. MyteacherresemblesTomCruise. 13. Thatdinnerwasdelicious. 14. Herhusbandbecamealawyer. Test yourself 39.3 Decideiftheunderlinedphraseineachsentencebelowisadirectobjectoraverbcomplement.To makethisdecision,youcan:(1)askyourselfifsomethingorsomeoneisbeingactedupon,and/or (2)decideiftheverbisanactionorlinkingverb. Sample:BillbecameamemberofthePresident’scabinet. verbcomplement Gettingstarted(answersonp.190) 1. Geraldhastakenthatcourse. ..................................................................... 2. Robusedthistechniqueinhisrestaurant. ..................................................................... 3. Adammightwithdrawhisresignation. ..................................................................... 4. Themayorissoundingcon¢dent. ......................................................................... 5. Wequicklygotready. ..................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Hewasgettingapastramisandwichinthedeli. ..................................................................... 7. Sheloveshernewcar ..................................................................... 8. Wewerebestfriendsinhighschool. ..................................................................... 9. I’lltakeyoutothemovies. ..................................................................... 10. Hefeelsfoolish. ..................................................................... Test yourself 39.4 Underlinethedirectobjectsinthesentencesbelow.Notallsentenceswillhaveadirectobject. Sample:Iputtheletterinhismailbox. Gettingstarted(answersonp.190) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Ourdiscussionwashighlyentertaining. 6. ThecoachoftheUniversityofTexasfootball teamisreplacinghisquarterback. 2. Hehadagrowingfamily. 7. Theywalkedinthewoodstillsunset. 3. Shequicklygotindignant. 8. Iproposedsometentativesolutions. 4. Youmustbethenewbabysitter. 9. Heconfessedontheseconddayofthetrial. 5. Thesheri¡arrestedasuspectinthefraud investigation. 10. Ourplanehadleftontime. Test yourself 39.5 Underlinethesubjectsandputasquigglylineunderthedirectobjectsinthesentencesbelow. Sample:Hiscompanywaslosing millions. 175UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS Gettingstarted(answersonp.190) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thesoldiers¢redtheirweapons. 6. Sonyahasfoundthedirectionstotheparty. 2. Atalenteddesignermadethathat. 7. Headdedsalttohissoup. 3. Shehadmarriedhernext-door 8. Thecontestanthadtomakeadi⁄cult neighbor. decision. 4. Maria was watching her favorite soap 9. Rhondaisexpectingherthirdchild. opera. 10. Lastweek,Martin’sfriendsboughta 5. Thesepeoplereallyirritateme. presentforhisbirthday. 176Lesson 40: Indirect objects Sometimes a noun phrase is the answer to the question:‘‘Who or what is receiving the direct object?’’ This noun phrase is called the indirect object.The indirect objects are underlinedinthesentencesbelow. 1. MarygavetheinformationtoRobert. 2. Shetoldthetruthtohergranddaughter. 3. Theyboughtacarfortheirteenagedaughter. 4. Theaccountantisgivingapresenttoherhusband. Soinsentence4,forinstance,thenounphraseapresentisthedirectobjectandthenoun phraseherhusbandistheindirectobject,sinceherhusbandisreceivingthepresent,the directobject. Quicktip40.1 Theindirect objectofasentencecanbefoundby answeringthequestion: ‘‘Whoorwhatis receiving the direct object?’’ Youcanseethatsentencesthathaveindirectobjectsmustalsohavedirectobjects,since indirect objects receive direct objects.The opposite is not true: sentences with direct objectsdon’tnecessarilyhaveindirectobjects. Adirectobjectandanindirectobjecteachfollowstheverbandisreferredtobytheterm object.The term object can also refer to objects of a preposition, that is, noun phrases thatfollowprepositions.(SeeLesson29.) Test yourself 40.1 Underlinetheindirectobjectineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:JanebakedthecakeforGrant. Gettingstarted(answersonp.190) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. HollylefttheplateforLuke. 6. Jamie’sfriendsentatextmessagetoher. 2. Shetaughttheprinciplestotheclass. 7. Theybidfarewelltotheirhouseguests. 3. BigBirdistellingthestorytoallthe 8. Theteenageidolisthrowingapartyforhis children. fans. 4. HisfatherhadboughttheboatforJonathan. 9. Iwanttowishgoodlucktoyou. 5. Youwillshowthemoneytome. 10. Mydadbakedapieforus. Indirectobjectsareintroducedbytheprepositiontoorfor.Someverbs,suchastelland show,usetotointroduceanindirectobject,whilesomeverbs,suchasbuyandleave,usefor. 177UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS Toandfordonotfunctiononlytointroduceindirectobjects;often,toandforhaveother functions.Takealookatthesenextsentencesandnoticethedi¡erencesbetweenthem: 5. MarygavethebabytoRobert. 6. Marycarriedthebabytothecorner. Inbothsentences,Mary isthesubject,thedoeroftheaction,andthebabyisthedirect object, the receiver of the action. In sentence 5, Robert is receiving the baby,thedirect object, soRobert istheindirectobject. However,in sentence6thecornerisnot receiving thebabyandsoit’snottheindirectobject.(It’stheobjectoftheprepositionto;seeLesson29.) Here’sasimilarpairofsentences: 7. Hegotagiftforhiswife. 8. Hegotagiftforhisbirthday. In both sentences, He is the subject, the doer of the action, andagift is the direct object, the receiver of the action. In sentence 7, his wife is receivingagift,the direct object, so his wife is the indirect object. However, in sentence 8 his birthday is not receivingagift, so it’s not the indirect object. (It’s the object of the preposi- tion for.) Test yourself 40.2 For each of the sentences below, indicate whether or not to and for are being used to introduce an indirect object. Ask yourself if the noun phrase following to or for is receiving the direct object. Introducinganindirectobject? Yes No Sample:Iinspectedthecarfordents. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.190) 1. Johnworkedthatjobfor¢ftyyears. ................... ................... 2. Theprofessorisshowingtheproblemtothestudent. ................... ................... 3. Hiswifeandchildbroughtfruittohimatthehospital. ................... ................... 4. Tomhasleftthecompanyforanotherjob. ................... ................... 5. Thevisitingkingthankedthepresidentforhishospitality. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Shesentthee-mailtohersister. ................... ................... 7. Wewillrememberthisgeneralforhisheroism. ................... ................... 8. Ihaveforwardedyourmessagetoyourmother. ................... ................... 9. Hetookhisfriendtothetheater. ................... ................... 10. TheBlackfamilytookaridetothecountryside. ................... ................... Herearesentences1^4again,butthistimewitha‘‘partner’’sentence: 9a. MarygavetheinformationtoRobert. 9b. MarygaveRoberttheinformation. 178Lesson 40: Indirect objects 10a. Shetoldthetruthtohergranddaughter. 10b. Shetoldhergranddaughterthetruth. 11a. Theyboughtacarfortheirteenagedaughter. 11b. Theyboughttheirteenagedaughteracar. 12a. Theaccountantisgivingapresenttohim. 12b. Theaccountantisgivinghimapresent. You can see that in the second sentence of each pair, the indirect object has moved so that it comes before the direct object, rather than after it. English gives us two choices for the position of indirect objects: (a) the indirect object can occur after the direct object (which follows the verb), with to or for introducing it, or (b) the indirect object can occur before the direct object (and after the verb), without to or for. Quicktip40.2 An indirect object can occur: (a) after the direct object (which follows the verb), with to or for introducing it, or (b) before the direct object (and after the verb), without to or for. For example: Joan gave a present to Bill or Joan gave Bill a present.(Bill is the indirect object in both sentences.) Quicktip40.3 Tohelp youdecide ifa sentence has an indirect object, see ifthe sentence can be changed from a pattern like The boys left a note for their teacher to a sentence with a pattern like The boys left their teacher a note, or vice versa. Notethatwhenthedirectobjectisapronoun,thetwopatternsarenotbothpossible,as youcanseeinthesenextsentencepairs: 13a. Herbestfriendboughtitforherfamily. 13b. *Herbestfriendboughtherfamilyit. 14a. Lucysoldthemtoherneighbor. 14b. *Lucysoldherneighborthem. Thatis,whenthedirectobjectisapronoun,itmustcomebeforetheindirectobject. Quicktip40.4 Ifthedirectobjectisapronoun,itmustcomebeforetheindirectobject.Example:Mysister sent it to her friend,*My sister sent her friend it. Test yourself 40.3 Each sentence below contains an indirect object, which is underlined. Change each sentence to the other pattern, by moving the indirect object and either deleting or adding to or for. Sample:Sallymadeusbreakfast. Sallymadebreakfastforus. 179UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS Gettingstarted(answersonp.191) 1. Theprincipalmightshowthe¢lmtoherstudents. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2. Mrs.Hausensentthecompanyhercheck. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3. Weboughtthehouseforourparents. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4. Therefereethrewmetheball. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5. Theartistisdrawingasketchforherpatron. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Iamsavingthisseatformyfather. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7. Mycolleaguedidmeafavor. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8. Albertpassedhisfriendanote. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9. Shewillreadherchildrenapoem. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10. Thebosswishedmuchsuccesstohisnewemployee. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Test yourself 40.4 Each sentence below contains an indirect object (not underlined). Change each sentence to the otherpattern,bymovingtheindirectobjectandeitherdeletingoraddingtoorfor. Sample:StevegaveMaryapackage. StevegaveapackagetoMary. Gettingstarted(answersonp.191)  1. Hewillsendthepoemtohis¢ancee. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 180Lesson 40: Indirect objects 2. Theprofessorise-mailingthestudentshiscomments. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. Thatcompanybuiltashipforthenavy. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4. Shedrewapictureforherson. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5. Amanda’sfriendwasthrowingapartyforher. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Isangalullabytoyou. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7. Thecompany’spresidenthadshippedtheordertothem. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8. ThelibrarianfoundGeorgeagoodbook. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9. Thearrestingo⁄cermustreadhisrightstohim. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10. Myauntbakedmemyfavoritedessert. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Test yourself 40.5 Underlinetheindirectobjectineachsentencebelow.Itcanoccureitherbeforeorafterthedirect object. Sample:Jerrymademethatbench. Gettingstarted(answersonp.191) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Wefoundadressforher. 6. Thecontractorwillbuildabrandnewdeck forme. 2. Mr.Duquesnehasbroughthimtheplans. 7. Can’tshegivehimastraightanswer? 3. Theoldhuntertoldusthestory. 8. Therealtorshowedthemalovelyhouse. 4. Theinstructorisorderingthisbookforthe studentsinhisclass. 9. Theeconomisthadpaintedarosypicture forhisaudience. 5. Ineverpromisedyouarose garden. 10. Igotyouasmallpresent. 181UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS Test yourself 40.6 For each sentence below, underline the direct object and put a squiggly line under the indirect object, if there is one. Remember, the indirect object can occur either before or after the direct object. Sample:Thatmangot his friendacomputer. Gettingstarted(answersonp.191) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thechildrengavetheteacheranapple. 6. Don’tgivemethat! 2. Ibroughtthisforyou. 7. Wehavetoreturnthistothestore. 3. Thetwomenclaspedhands. 8. Atthemeeting,heshowedushistruecolors. 4. Thistreatywillbene¢tallmankind. 9. Peoplehavebeentellingthisstoryforages. 5. Sheistellingthereporterthetruth. 10. Ibidallofyougoodnight. 182Lesson 41: The functions of pronouns Nowthatwe’vetalkedaboutsubjectsandobjectsinsomedetail,it’sagoodideaforusto reexaminesubjectandobjectpronouns,whichwe¢rstdiscussedinLesson21. Takealookatthenounphrasetheteacherineachofthesentencesbelow. 1. Theteacherwenthomeearlytoday. (Theteacheristhesubject.) 2. Thestudentslikedtheteacherverymuch. (Theteacheristhedirectobject.) 3. Theparentsgavethequestionnairetotheteacher. (Theteacheristheindirectobject.) Notice that the teacher has the same form whether it’s functioning as the subject, the direct object, or the indirect object in a sentence.This is true for all nouns in English: theydon’tchangeformwhentheychangefunction. In contrast, there are subject pronouns and object pronouns (see Lesson 21). Subject pronounsareusedwhenapronounisfunctioningasthesubjectofasentence(seeLesson 38). Thesubjectpronounisunderlinedinthefollowingsentences: 4. Ireadthenewspapereveryday. 5. Sheishappy. 6. Welovepotatochips. Object pronouns are used in all other contexts. The three major uses for object pronouns are: direct object (Lesson 39), indirect object (Lesson 40), and object of a preposition(Lesson29). Theobjectpronounsareunderlinedinthefollowingsentences: 7. Mysistercongratulatedmeonmybirthday. (directobject) 8. Thedirectorsentheramessage. (indirectobject) 9. Mrs.Ra¡skyspoketousonthephone. (objectofapreposition) Quicktip41.1 A subject pronoun is used when it is functioning as the subject of the sentence. An object pronoun is used when it is functioning as: (a) the direct object of the sentence; (b) the indirect object of the sentence; (c) the object of a preposition. Test yourself 41.1 Foreachunderlinedpronounbelow,indicatewhetheritisasubjectorobjectpronoun.Foryouand it,youwillneedtolookathowthepronounisbeingusedinthesentence. Subjectpronoun Objectpronoun Sample:Ifeelgreat. ................... Gettingstarted(answersonp.191) 1. Shelaughedatthemovie. ................... ................... 2. Don’tbothermenow. ................... ................... 183UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS 3. Idon’tfeelguilty. ................... ................... 4. Hehasaskedhertodance. ................... ................... 5. Chrishadbeenlivingnearyou. ................... ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Itisnotaveryinterestingmovie. ................... ................... 7. Thisdoesnotconcernus. ................... ................... 8. Hedisappointedhisfriends. ................... ................... 9. Thecriticswereravingaboutit. ................... ................... 10. Itdoesn’tmattertothematall. ................... ................... Test yourself 41.2 Eachofthesentencesbelowcontainsanobjectpronoun,whichisunderlined.Indicatewhetherit’s beingusedasadirectobject,anindirectobject,ortheobjectofapreposition. Sample:Audralivesveryfarfromhim. objectofapreposition Gettingstarted(answersonp.192) 1. MydearfriendsentmeapostcardfromItaly. .................................................................................................... 2. Ateenagersatnexttomeinthetheater. ..................................................................................................... 3. Irmahasboughtyouthecookware. ..................................................................................................... 4. Thedogapproachedthem. ..................................................................................................... 5. Thatfamilyisalwaysblamingusfortheirproblems. ..................................................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Theygaveustheirpromise. ..................................................................................................... 7. Heisrentinganapartmentclosetome. ..................................................................................................... 8. Ineversawit. ..................................................................................................... 9. Hegaveheranultimatum. .................................................................................................... 10. Brandonwillevenbuyitfromyou. ..................................................................................................... To enhance your understanding In the past, who and whom worked the same way as subject and object pronouns. In particular, who was used when functioning as a subject and whom was used when functioning as an object: 10. Who is running away? (subject: Who is doing the action.) 11. Whom does Katie like? (direct object: Whom is receiving the action.) However,likealllanguages,Englishchangesovertime,andtoday,forallbutthestrictest traditional grammarians, who is used in all contexts, except when it directly follows a preposition (see below). So today a sentence like the following is perfectly grammatical: 12. Who does Katie like? (direct object) 184Lesson 41: The functions of pronouns While most of us prefer to use who in sentence 12, it’s still okay to use whom in these contexts. It’s just not necessary to do so, and it tends to sound very formal. Notethatwhommustbe usedwhenitfollows apreposition.Inthefollowing examples, whom and the preposition before it are underlined. 13. With whom would you like to speak? 14. To whom may I direct your question? 185Lesson 42: Implied subjects: commands 1. Openthatbookrightnow! 2. Don’teventhinkaboutcrossingthestreethere! 3. Pleasebecareful. Weallrecognizeacommandwhenwehearone.Wehaveseenthatallsentenceshave a subject, but where is the subject of these commands? Speakers of English readily agree that these sentences do, in fact, have a subject.The subject, though not stated, is understood or implied to be you. Thus, when someone says ‘‘Wash the dishes!’’ you know they’re talking to you. Commands are also called imperative sentences. Inwriting,commandsentencesoftenendwithanexclamationpoint(!). Quicktip42.1 The subject of commands is an understood or implied you. Test yourself 42.1 Indicatethesubjectofeachsentencebelow.Ifit’sacommand,specifyyouasthesubject.(Wewon’t beusingexclamationpointsinthisexercise.) Subject Sample:Eatawell-balanceddiet. you Gettingstarted(answersonp.192) 1. Theseillnessesaretreatable. ............................................................................................................. 2. Thejudgehadmadeaterriblemistake. .............................................................................................................. 3. Besupportive. ............................................................................................................. 4. Joan’sfatherisanarchitect. ............................................................................................................. 5. Standupforyourrights. ............................................................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Givemeabreak. ............................................................................................................. 7. Ican’tgiveittoyou. ............................................................................................................. 8. Don’traiseyourvoicetome. ............................................................................................................. 9. Helpmeoutwiththis. ............................................................................................................. 10. Shewillbeplantingrosesinthatgarden. ............................................................................................................... 186Lesson 42: Implied subjects To enhance your understanding There are a number of ways to prove what you, as a speaker of English, intuitively know: thatyouistheimplicitsubjectofcommandsentences.Wepresentoneofthesearguments here. Take a look at the following sentences: 4. I held my breath. 5. You held your breath. 6. He held his breath. 7. She held her breath. While these sentences are grammatical, the following sentences are not: 8a. *I held your breath. 8b. *I held his breath. 8c. *I held their breath. 9a. *You held my breath. 9b. *You held his breath. 9c. *You held their breath. Can you explain why these sentences are ungrammatical? Clearly, a person cannot hold someoneelse’sbreath.Thusthetwounderlinedpronounsmustrefertothesameperson.If they don’t, the sentence is not grammatical, as in 8 and 9 above. Now what about commands which contain this same expression? Look at the following grammatical and ungrammatical commands: 10. Hold your breath! 11. *Hold my breath! 12. *Hold his breath! 13. *Hold their breath! In fact, the only pronoun allowed in the command context Hold breath! is your. Since we know that your must refer to the same person as the subject, it follows that the subjectinthecommandmustbeyou.Thatis,eventhoughtheyouisnotactuallystated,we treat a command as though the subject were you. Test yourself 42.2 Foreachsentencebelow,indicateitssubject(statedorunderstood),directobject,ifthereisone, andindirectobject,ifthereisone. Subject DirectObject IndirectObject Sample:GivethemoneytoHarry. you themoney Harry Gettingstarted(answersonp.192) 1. Youcanseemarksinthedirt. ...................................... ............................................ ......................................... 2. That¢lmsoundsinteresting. ...................................... ............................................ ......................................... 3. Thecongregantsbuiltthetemple. ...................................... ............................................ ......................................... 4. Giveittome! ...................................... ............................................ ......................................... 5. Weneedthiscomputer. ...................................... ............................................ ......................................... 187UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Don’tworryaboutit! .................................. ......................................... ...................................... 7. Theyhavebeenrearrangingthedisplay. .................................. ......................................... ...................................... 8. TheysentBillthebill. .................................. ......................................... ...................................... 9. Watchme! .................................. ......................................... ...................................... 10. Maryfelltothe£oor. .................................. ......................................... ...................................... 188Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 13 Test yourself 38.1 1. TheservantaccompaniedHisLordship. 2. JeanparticipatedintheTourdeFrance. 3. Suchfamilieshaveoftenpreferredtotravelinstyle. 4. Theycoulddonothingexceptrun. 5. Mr.Towerquietlyexplainedallthistohisson. Test yourself 38.2 1. TheHotelReginaisanattractiveplace. 2. Itbecamethebest-knownsymbolofParis. 3. Thelocalmerchantswereonhisside. 4. Charleslookedthoughtful. 5. Christineseemedinsecure. Test yourself 38.3 1. Theeditorlookedfornewideasforthemagazine. 2. Youcanrelyontheexpertsatthatcompany. 3. Maggieusuallygoesberrypickinginthesummer. 4. Rogerishappywithhisnewcomputer. 5. Theworkerswentonstrikeforacoupleofweeks. Test yourself 38.4 1. Afterthat,theirneighborcamemoreoftentohelpthem. 2. Fortunately,thatuniversityprogramisaccredited. 3. Inthemorning,I’mplantingthose£owers. 4. Eventually,Mr.Mulliganbrokethesilence. 5. Whilerunningforo⁄ce,thecandidatecampaignedvigorously. Test yourself 39.1 1. Youmustincludeallrelevantfacts. 2. Bridgetisaskingnumerousquestions. 3. TheSpanishshipsneededfreshsupplies. 4. Shewillwatchthebaby. 5. Thetownspeoplehavewantedtaxreliefforyears. 189UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS Test yourself 39.2 Directobject? Yes No 1. We’lldiscusseachargument. ................... 2. Carterworkedforalumbercompany. ................... 3. Thosegamblersarelosingtheirmoney. ................... 4. At7P.M.weleftforthetheater. ................... 5. ThechildrenareenjoyingDisneyland. ................... Test yourself 39.3 1. Geraldhastakenthatcourse. directobject 2. Robusedthistechniqueinhisrestaurant. directobject 3. Adammightwithdrawhisresignation. directobject 4. Themayorissoundingcon¢dent. verbcomplement 5. Wequicklygotready. verbcomplement Test yourself 39.4 1. Ourdiscussionwashighlyentertaining. 2. Hehadagrowingfamily. 3. Shequicklygotindignant. 4. Youmustbethenewbabysitter. 5. Thesheri¡arrestedasuspectinthefraudinvestigation. Test yourself 39.5 1. Thesoldiers¢red their weapons. 2. Atalenteddesignermade . that hat 3. Shehadmarried her next-door neighbor. 4. Mariawaswatchingherfavoritesoapopera. 5. Thesepeoplereallyirritate . me Test yourself 40.1 1. HollylefttheplateforLuke. 2. Shetaughttheprinciplestotheclass. 3. BigBirdistellingthestorytoallthechildren. 4. HisfatherhadboughttheboatforJonathan. 5. Youwillshowthemoneytome. Test yourself 40.2 Introducinganindirectobject? Yes No 1. Johnworkedthatjobfor¢ftyyears. ................... 2. Theprofessorisshowingtheproblemtothestudent. ................... 3. Hiswifeandchildbroughtfruittohimatthehospital. ................... 4. Tom’shasleftthecompanyforanotherjob. ................... 5. Thevisitingkingthankedthepresidentforhishospitality. ................... 190Answer keys: Unit 13 Test yourself 40.3 1. Theprincipalmightshowthe¢lmtoherstudents. Theprincipalmightshowherstudentsthe¢lm. 2. Mrs.Hausensentthecompanyhercheck. Mrs.Hausensentherchecktothecompany. 3. Weboughtthehouseforourparents. Weboughtourparentsthehouse. 4. Therefereethrewmetheball. Therefereethrewtheballtome. 5. Theartistisdrawingasketchforherpatron. Theartistisdrawingherpatronasketch. Test yourself 40.4  1. Hewillsendthepoemtohis¢ancee.  Hewillsendhis¢anceethepoem. 2. Theprofessorise-mailingthestudentshiscomments. Theprofessorise-mailinghiscommentstothestudents. 3. Thatcompanybuiltashipforthenavy. Thecompanybuiltthenavyaship. 4. Shedrewapictureforherson. Shedrewhersonapicture. 5. Amanda’sfriendwasthrowingapartyforher. Amanda’sfriendwasthrowingheraparty. Test yourself 40.5 1. Wefoundadressforher. 2. Mr.Duquesnehasbroughthimtheplans. 3. Theoldhuntertoldusthestory. 4. Theinstructorisorderingthisbookforthestudentsinhisclass. 5. Ineverpromisedyouarosegarden. Test yourself 40.6 1. Thechildrengave anapple. the teacher 2. Ibroughtthisfor you. 3. Thetwomenclaspedhands. 4. Thistreatywillbene¢tallmankind. 5. Sheistelling the reporterthetruth. Test yourself 41.1 Subjectpronoun Objectpronoun 1. Shelaughedatthemovie. ................... 2. Don’tbothermenow. ................... 3. Idon’tfeelguilty. ................... 4. Hehasaskedhertodance. ................... 5. Chrishadbeenlivingnearyou. ................... 191UNIT 13: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS Test yourself 41.2 1. MydearfriendsentmeapostcardfromItaly. indirectobject 2. Ateenagersatnexttomeinthetheater. objectofapreposition 3. Irmahasboughtyouthecookware. indirectobject 4. Thedogapproachedthem. directobject 5. Thatfamilyisalwaysblamingusfortheirproblems. directobject Test yourself 42.1 Subject 1. Theseillnessesaretreatable. theseillnesses 2. Thejudgehadmadeaterriblemistake. thejudge 3. Besupportive. you 4. Joan’sfatherisanarchitect Joan’sfather 5. Standupforyourrights. you Test yourself 42.2 Subject Directobject Indirectobject 1. Youcanseemarksinthedirt. you marks 2. That¢lmsoundsinteresting. that¢lm 3. Thecongregantsbuiltthetemple. thecongregants thetemple 4. Giveittome! you it me 5. Weneedthiscomputer. we thiscomputer ☞FORAREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEETHEWEBSITE. 192UNIT 14: COMPOUND PHRASES Coordinatingconjunctions,suchasand,or,andbut,areverypowerful.Aswediscussed inLesson18,theycanjoinanytwounitsofthesametype.Herearesomeexampleswith and,themostcommoncoordinatingconjunction: 1. Hegavetennislessonstothegirlandherbrother. (twonounphrasesjoined) 2. Icookeddinnerandwashedthelaundry. (twoverbphrasesjoined) 3. Their beautifuland charming hostess soon put them at ease. (two adjectives joined) 4. Mymotherlistenedtomeseriouslyandpatiently. (twoadverbsjoined) 5. Themonkeyranupthetreeandarounditstrunk. (twoprepositionalphrases joined) 6. IrodemybikeandTeresawalked. (twosentencesjoined) Inthisunit,we’lltakeacloserlookatjoinednounphrasesandjoinedverbphrases. 193Lesson 43: Compound noun phrases Whatdoyounoticeaboutthisnextsentence? 1. Myfriendworkedatthedinerandhiscousinworkedatthediner. Whileit’saperfectlygrammaticalsentence,weoftenchoosetomakeitlessrepetitious andsayinstead: 2. Myfriendandhiscousinworkedatthediner. Since and,acoordinatingconjunction,isjoiningtwonounphraseshere, myfriend and hiscousiniscalledacompoundnounphrase. Quicktip43.1 Twonounphrasesjoinedbyacoordinatingconjunctioniscalledacompoundnounphrase. Herearesomemoreexamples,withthecompoundnounphrasesunderlined. 3. Sheslippedthephotographandbothlettersintoherpocket. 4. Thesenatororhisassistantwillattendtheevent. 5. I’llbetravelingtoKansasandMissourinextweekonbusiness. Test yourself 43.1 Underlinethecompoundnounphrasesineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Thepublicdiscoveredthatthecompanyanditssubsidiarieswerecheatingcustomers. Gettingstarted(answersonp.197) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theyhadwalkedformilesand 6. MichaelandIhavebeenbestfriendsfor miles. years. 2. Henryfeltguiltandshameforwhathehad 7. DeltaAirlinesandAirFrancehave£ightsto done. ParisfromtheU.S. 3. Vermonthaslotsofoldhousesandrustic 8. Theleadactressordirectorwilllikelywin barns. Oscars. 4. Theyoungbrideisgoingshoppingwithher 9. AudiandBMWareownedbyGerman motherormother-in-law. companies. 5. Payingforgasandelectricitycostsalotmore 10. Thepresidentandhisforeignvisitorhelda thisyearthanlast. jointpressconference. 194Lesson 44: Compound verb phrases Whatdoyounoticeaboutthisnextsentence? 1. FrankrantothestoreandFrankpurchasedafewitems. Whileit’saperfectlygrammaticalsentence,weoftenchoosetomakeitlessrepetitious andsayinstead: 2. Frankrantothestoreandpurchasedafewitems. Since and,acoordinatingconjunction,isjoiningtwoverbphraseshere, rantothe store andpurchasedafewitemsiscalledacompoundverbphrase. Quicktip44.1 Two verb phrases joined by a coordinating conjunction is called a compound verb phrase. Herearesomemoreexamples,withthecompoundverbphrasesunderlined. 3. Thegeneralranforwardandledthetroops. 4. Sheremainedcalmandfollowedherinstincts. 5. Hisadvisorpresentshimwithgoodideasbutrarelyhelpshimcarrythemout. Test yourself 44.1 Underlinethecompoundverbphrasesineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:I’llphonethemandlistentotheirideas. Gettingstarted(answersonp.197) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theyoftencalleachotherandtalkall 6. OnSaturdaynightsSamanthadressesup afternoon. andmeetswithherfriends. 2. Adamwroteletterstothecompanyandspoke 7. Onceamonthorsowestayhomeandorder totheirrepresentatives. dinnerin. 3. Heinventedtheproductbutlostmoneyinthe 8. Politiciansdonotalwayswalkthewalkand process. talkthetalk. 4. Stephen£ewtoEuropeandvisitedhis 9. Onhotsummerdays,theO’Briensdriveto childhoodfriend. thebeachandenjoythesun. 5. Ireceivedyourmessageyesterdaybut 10. Thiscouple¢ghtsbutalways couldn’trespondtoitimmediately. makesup. Test yourself 44.2 Underlinethecompoundnounphrasesandverbphrasesinthesentencesbelow.Asentencemay containmorethanonecompoundphrase. Sample:HeandshewillprobablyleaveonFridayandreturnonSunday. 195UNIT 14:COMPOUND PHRASES Gettingstarted(answersonp.197) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thehorsesteppedbackandrolledits 6. Hisyoungestsonisafraidofthunderand eyes. lightning. 2. Amandaiswearinglongsleevesbutcarrying 7. Yourhusbandshouldworkhardathisjobor aparasol. ¢ndanotherone. 3. WhenKathyandherdaughtertravelto 8. Harryandhisfriendoftentravelto Boston,theyalwaysvisitHarvardandMIT. WashingtonandvisittheSmithsonian. 4. OnSundaysMr.Adamsandhisneighbor 9. ItiscommonknowledgethattheYankees playgolfandhavelunchintheclubhouse. andtheRedSoxarebitterrivals. 5. Helovestocookandentertain. 10. Thatwouldruinherreputationandend hercareer. 196Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 14 Test yourself 43.1 1. Theyhadwalkedformilesandmiles. 2. Henryfeltguiltandshameforwhathehaddone. 3. Vermonthaslotsofoldhousesandrusticbarns. 4. Theyoungbrideisgoingshoppingwithhermotherormother-in-law. 5. Payingforgasandelectricitycostsalotmorethisyearthanlast. Test yourself 44.1 1. Theyoftencalleachotherandtalkallafternoon. 2. Adamwroteletterstothecompanyandspoketotheirrepresentatives. 3. Heinventedtheproductbutlostmoneyintheprocess. 4. Stephen£ewtoEuropeandvisitedhischildhoodfriend. 5. Ireceivedyourmessageyesterdaybutcouldn’trespondtoitimmediately. Test yourself 44.2 1. Thehorsesteppedbackandrolleditseyes. 2. Amandaiswearinglongsleevesbutcarryingaparasol. 3. WhenKathyandherdaughtertraveltoBoston,theyalwaysvisitHarvardandMIT. 4. OnSundaysMr.Adamsandhisneighborplaygolfandhavelunchintheclubhouse. 5. Helovestocookandentertain. ☞ FORAREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEETHEWEBSITE. 197Review matching exercise and answer key – Part II Review matchingexercise Matchtheunderlinedwordorwordsineachsentencetotheappropriatetermineachset. Useeachtermonlyonce. Sample:Warrengavehimselfanextraserving. verbphrase Set A compoundnounphrase objectpronoun prepositionalphrase indirectobject perfecttense futuretense modal predicateadjective 1. Hehaswrittentoyoueveryday. ......................................................... 2. Mrs.McLeanissendingtherecipetohersister-in-law. ......................................................... 3. Heunderstandsmebetterthananyone. ......................................................... 4. Hiscompanionswilltaketheircanoeacrosstheriver. ......................................................... 5. RichardwasworkingwhenMiguelandSamcameby. ......................................................... 6. Thebuildingisnearthestream. ......................................................... 7. Itmightbethelargestmuseumintheworld. ......................................................... 8. Thosedecisionscanbedi⁄cult. ......................................................... Set B compoundverbphrase pastparticiple subjectpronoun directobject presentparticiple mainverb progressivetense 1. I’llbuythefoodandthencookit. .......................................................... 2. Theyhadcomebacktobuytwocopiesofthenewspaper. .......................................................... 3. Mattishurryingtohiso⁄ce. .......................................................... 4. Theoldmanwaschantingasongshe’dneverheardbefore. .......................................................... 5. Mollyselectedherdressearlyintheday. .......................................................... 6. Herhorsewasbehavingcalmly. .......................................................... 7. Johnnyhadeatenagoodbreakfast. .......................................................... 198Review matching exercise – Part II Answer key: Reviewmatchingexercise –PartII Set A 1. Hehaswrittentoyoueveryday. perfecttense 2. Mrs.McLeanissendingtherecipetohersister-in-law. indirectobject 3. Heunderstandsmebetterthananyone. objectpronoun 4. Hiscompanionswilltaketheircanoeacrosstheriver. futuretense 5. RichardwasworkingwhenMiguelandSamcameby. compoundnounphrase 6. Thebuildingisnearthestream. prepositionalphrase 7. Itmightbethelargestmuseumintheworld. modal 8. Thosedecisionscanbedi⁄cult. predicateadjective Set B 1. I’llbuythefoodandthencookit. compoundverbphrase 2. Theyhadcomebacktobuytwocopiesofthenewspaper. subjectpronoun 3. Mattishurryingtohiso⁄ce. presentparticiple 4. Theoldmanwaschantingasongshe’dneverheardbefore. directobject 5. Mollyselectedherdressearlyintheday. mainverb 6. Herhorsewasbehavingcalmly. progressivetense 7. Johnnyhadeatenagoodbreakfast. pastparticiple 199PART III: GETTING STARTED WITH SENTENCES Asyou’veseen,inlanguagewecombinewordstoformphrases.Wealsocombinephrases toformsentences,andtherearevariouskindsofsentences.Forexample,therearestate- mentsandquestions,simplesentencesandcombinationsofsentences,andnegativesen- tences and positive sentences. In Part III, we begin to explore di¡erent kinds of sentences,lookingatthefunctionsofsentences(Unit15),howsentencescanbecombined (Unit16),andtherelationshipsbetweendi¡erentsentences(Unit17).Ourgoalistohelp yourecognizesomeofthemorecommonandimportantsentencetypes.UNIT 15: THE FUNCTIONS OF SENTENCES Lesson 45: Identifying sentences by function Onewaythatasentencecanbedescribedisaccordingtothejobthatit’sdoinginaconver- sation.Comparethesesentences: 1. Thatclownwasfunny. 2. Issheaphysician? 3. Pleasewashthedishes. 4. Whatanexcitingmovie! You know that sentence1is making a statement, sentence 2 is asking a question, sen- tence3isgivingacommand,andsentence4isexpressingastrongemotion.Thesefunc- tionsaresummarizedinQuicktip45.1. Quicktip45.1 Sentencesthatmakeastatementarecalleddeclaratives;sentencesthataskaquestionare called interrogatives; sentences that give a command are called imperatives; sentences that express strong emotion are called exclamations. Hereareafewmoreexamples: 5. Edward’sparentsliveonafarm. (declarative) 6. Haveyouacceptedthefactthatshe’llnevermove? (interrogative) 7. Don’tbelieveawordshesays! (imperative) 8. That’ssilly! (exclamation) Test yourself 45.1 Identify each of the sentences below as either declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamation. Sample:Howoldareyounow? interrogative Gettingstarted(answersonp.206) 1. I’mshocked! ................................................................................................................ 2. RoseandCharlesaregettingmarriedinthathouse. ................................................................................................................ 3. Whatasurprisingannouncement! ................................................................................................................ 4. Theweatherwasawfulyesterday. ................................................................................................................ 5. Watchoutforthatcar! ................................................................................................................ Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Didn’twehavefuntogether? ................................................................................................................ 7. Whataperformance! ................................................................................................................ 8. Wouldyouwanttorentamovietonight? ................................................................................................................ 203UNIT 15: THE FUNCTIONS OF SENTENCES 9. Thatwasridiculous! .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 10. Writethatdown,please! .......................................................................................................................................................................................... Let’stakeacloserlookatquestions: 9. Doyoulikelearningaboutsentences? 10. Whatdoyoulikebest? 11. Youwouldratherbelisteningtomusic,wouldn’tyou? Thesesentencesdemonstratethreedi¡erentkindsofquestions.Sentence9isanexam- ple of ayes/no question, because it can be answered with just a‘‘yes’’or ‘‘no.’’ Here are somemoreyes/noquestions: 12. Didyouenjoythemusic? 13. Isthetelevisionworking? 14. Areyouinterestedinapplyingforthatjob? Quicktip45.2 A yes/no question is one that can be answered by ‘‘yes’’ or ‘‘no.’’ Sentence 10 is called a wh- question because it begins with a wh- word, or question word. Quicktip45.3 A wh- question begins with one of the following wh- words (question words): when, where, what, why, which, who, whom, how.Example: Where is the meeting? Noticethathowisawh-word,eventhoughitdoesn’tbeginwithwh-. Wh-questionscannotbeansweredwitha‘‘yes’’or‘‘no.’’Imaginethefollowingbizarre dialogues: 15a. Whattimeisit? 15b. Yes. 16a. Whereareyougoing? 16b. No. 17a. WhichdressshouldIwear? 17b. Yes. Yougetthepoint. Herearesomemoreexamplesofwh-questions: 18. Whydidtheybuythathouse? 19. Whenshouldwemeet? 20. Howdoesthatwork? Thethirdkindofquestion,calledatagquestion,isdemonstratedbysentence11above. Herearesomemoretagquestions: 21. He’shavingagreattime,isn’the? 22. Itrainedlastnight,didn’tit? 23. Mrs.Williamswasworkinghard,wasn’tshe? 204Lesson 45: Identifying sentences by function Intagquestions,there’saregularstatementfollowedbyatag;thetagisunderlinedin theseexamples. Quicktip45.4 A tag question contains a statement followed by a tag, such as could you? aren’t they? hasn’t he? Example: She is leaving soon, isn’t she? Test yourself 45.2 Decideifeachquestionbelowisayes/noquestion,wh-question,ortagquestion. Sample:Whydidhecallhisattorney? wh-question Gettingstarted(answersonp.206) 1. He’snotreallycrazy,ishe? ......................................................................................................................... 2. Whichisyours? ........................................................................................................................ 3. Areyouinterested? ........................................................................................................................ 4. Istheevidenceagainsthimcompelling? ......................................................................................................................... 5. Wehaveseenthisbefore,haven’twe? ......................................................................................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Howdidyourespondtohisquestion? ......................................................................................................................... 7. Whendidtheyleavelastnight? ........................................................................................................................ 8. Areyouleavingalready? ........................................................................................................................ 9. Joanisanaccomplishedwoman,isn’tshe? ........................................................................................................................ 10. Isthereanythingleftinthecookiejar? ........................................................................................................................ 205Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 15 Test yourself 45.1 1. I’mshocked! exclamation 2. RoseandCharlesaregettingmarriedinthathouse. declarative 3. Whatasurprisingannouncement! exclamation 4. Theweatherwasawfulyesterday. declarative 5. Watchoutforthatcar! imperative Test yourself 45.2 1. He’snotreallycrazy,ishe? tagquestion 2. Whichisyours? wh-question 3. Areyouinterested? yes/noquestion 4. Istheevidenceagainsthimcompelling? yes/noquestion 5. Wehaveseenthisbefore,haven’twe? tagquestion ☞FOR AREVIEWEXERCISEOFTHISUNIT,SEE THEWEBSITE. 206UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES Lesson 46: Simple sentences Most of the sentences we’ve looked at so far in this book are simple sentences, which meansthattheyaresentencesthataremadeupofjustonesentence.Butsentencescanbe madeupofmorethanonesentence.Let’sstartbylookingatafewsentencesandcompa- ringthem. 1. Thelittleboylaughed. 2. Thelittleboylaughedandthelittlegirlsmiled. 3. The little boy laughed and the little girl smiled and their dog ran around in circles. You can see that sentence 2 consists of two sentences joined by and and that sen- tence 3 consists of three sentences joined by and. Each of the sentences that make up a larger sentence is called a clause. So sentence 1 contains one clause, sentence 2 contains two clauses, and sentence 3 containsthree clauses. Just aswords combine to form phrases, phrases combine to form clauses, and clauses can combine to form sentences. A clause must contain at least a noun phrase functioning as the subject and a mainverb. Quicktip46.1 A clause is a free-standing sentence or a sentence within a sentence; a clause or sentence contains at least a subject and a main verb. Quicktip46.2 A sentence can contain one or more clauses. Herearesomemoreexamplesofsentencescontainingonlyoneclause: 4. Thatmagazinelooksinteresting. 5. Theo⁄cerfollowedtherules. 6. Shegreetedmeatthedoor. Noticethateachcontainsonlyonesubjectandoneverbphrase. Quicktip46.3 Asentencethatcontainsonlyoneclause,thatis,onesubjectandoneverbphrase,iscalled asimplesentence. Arethefollowingsimplesentences? 7. onthe£oor 8. theextremelytallboy 9. werereadingnewspapersonthetrain 207UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES Noneofthesecontainsbothasubjectandaverbphrase,andsothesearenotsentencesat all;they’rejustphrases.Youmayrecognizesentence7asaprepositionphrase,sentence8 asanounphrase,andsentence9asaverbphrase.(SeeLessons28,29,and30.) Test yourself 46.1 In each simple sentence below, underline the subject and put a squiggly line beneath the verb phrase. Sample:David listened to her response. Gettingstarted(answersonp.231) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thecommitteepresenteditsideas 6. WeenjoycruisingontheMississippiRiver. toCongress. 7. Ourcousinlivesaboutanhourfromus. 2. Istayedinbedthatday. 8. Theyoungarchitectarrivesinhiso⁄ceat 3. Nobodymoved. 8:30A.M.eachweekday. 4. MyfavoritehotelisonParkAvenue. 9. Whalesaremammals. 5. Ioverslepttoday. 10. Rainisgoodfortheenvironment. Test yourself 46.2 Decideifeachitembelowisasimplesentenceorjustaphrase. Sample:walkingnearby phrase Gettingstarted(answersonp.231) 1. Ihavenevereatencaviar. .............................................................................. 2. Thedepartmentstoresarehavingasalethisweekend. .............................................................................. 3. Expensiveantiquejewelry. .............................................................................. 4. Ourhomeontheranch. .............................................................................. 5. Fresh-cut£owersonthetable. .............................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Sailingaroundtheworld. .............................................................................. 7. Sangmyfavoritesong. .............................................................................. 8. Sheispayingforherowntuition. .............................................................................. 9. Exercisingcanleaveyouexhausted. .............................................................................. 10. Thebusisapproaching. .............................................................................. Whataboutsentenceslikethefollowing? 10. Thatmagazineandthosebookslookinteresting. 11. Theo⁄cerandhismenfollowedtherules. 12. Sheandherhusbandgreetedmeatthedoor. 208Lesson 46: Simple sentences Theunderlinedpartofeachsentenceisacompoundnounphrase(seeLesson43)andis consideredtobeonesubject.Sothesesentencesareallsimplesentences.Thesamething istrueofcompoundverbphrases: 13. Thatmagazinelooksandseemsinteresting. 14. Theo⁄cerfollowedtherulesandsavedtheday. 15. Shemetandgreetedmeatthedoor. Theunderlinedpartsofsentences13^15arecompoundverbphrases(seeLesson44)and each is considered to be one verb phrase. So, again, these sentences are all simple sentences. 209Lesson 47: Compound sentences AswementionedinLesson46,asentencecancontainmorethanonesentencewithinit, forexample: 1. Janeputtheglassvaseonthetableandhermotherpickeditup. This is anexample of acompound sentence. It actuallycontainstwo sentences.The ¢rstis:Janeputtheglassvaseonthetable.Thesecondis:Hermotherpickeditup.Sincea sentencewithinasentenceiscalledaclause,wecanalsosaythatsentence1containstwo clauses.Justasasimplesentencemustcontainatleastasubjectandaverbphrase,each ofthesentences(clauses)withinacompoundsentencemustcontainitsownsubjectand verbphrase. RecallfromLesson18thatconjunctions,likeand,or,andbut,jointhings.Infact,thetwo sentenceswithinsentence1arejoinedbytheconjunctionand.Recallalsothatthereare twokindsofconjunctions,coordinatingandsubordinating.Thesentencesinacompound sentence are joinedtogetherbyacoordinatingconjunction.Aswe discussed in Lesson 18, there are three common coordinating conjunctions; they are and, or,and but.Four lesscommononesarefor,so,yet,andnor.(RememberFANBOYS,whichcontainsthe¢rst letterofeach.) Quicktip47.1 A sentence that is made up of two or more sentences (clauses) joined by a coordinating conjunction (most commonly and, or, and but) is called a compound sentence. Test yourself 47.1 Each of the sentences below is a compound sentence consisting of two sentences (clauses). Underlineeachofthesentenceswhichisinthecompoundsentence. Sample:IfeltrestlessafterbreakfastandIwanderedaroundthehouse. Gettingstarted(answersonp.231) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Andrepulledthecarintothestreet, 6. Hedoesnotliketochangehismind,norishe andBethbeganreadingthedirections. willingtocompromise. 2. Sheenjoyedshoppingforfood,butshe 7. Youdeserveyourgoodfortune,foryouhave especiallyenjoyedcooking. aheartofgold. 3. Icandothisnow,orIcandoitlater. 8. Theplayersarerunningontothe¢eld,and thentheyarebeginningtopractice. 4. Dandoesnotfeelwell,yethewantsto gointowork. 9. Stephanielikestogotoconcerts,butshe willnotseeanopera. 5. Wemissedour£ight,sowehaveto waitaroundtheairportforthenext 10. Youcanpaywithcash,oryoucantakeouta availableone. loan. 210Lesson 47: Compound sentences Test yourself 47.2 Decide if each sentence below is a simple sentence or a compound sentence. Remember that a simplesentencecontainsjustonesentence(clause)whileacompoundsentencecontainsatleast twosentencesjoinedbyacoordinatingconjunction. Sample:Wallacestaredathiminthegrocerystore. simple Gettingstarted(answersonp.231) 1. Hecan’tblameherfortheproblem. ............................................................... 2. Bethleftthelibrary,andsheheadedstraighthome. ................................................................. 3. Hewaswatchingher,butshewaspretendingnottonotice. ............................................................... 4. Welikehimalot. ............................................................... 5. Thecoachwantstowin,buthewillbehappywithatie. ............................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Itwillbeasunnyday. ................................................................ 7. Jeremylikeshiswife’snewdress. ................................................................ 8. Iwillhaveabowlofsoup,butIdon’twantsalad. ............................................................... 9. Samcalledmeatnoon. ............................................................... 10. HewillbegoingtoPennState,orhe’llstudyatTempleUniversity. ............................................................... Acompoundsentencecancontainmorethantwosentences: 2. NorawasZach’sstepmotherbutshetreatedhimlikeherotherchildrenandhe trustedhercompletely. Here, the three sentences that make up this sentence are: (1) Nora was Zach’s step- mother;(2) she treated him like her other children;(3) he trusted her completely.Sothe sentenceTherewasaglassvaseonthetableandJanepickeditupcontainstwosentences, or clauses.The sentence Nora was Zach’s stepmother but she treated him like her other children and he trusted her completely contains three sentences, or clauses. In fact, a compound sentence can contain any number of sentences, though we usually limit ourselvestojustafew: 3. He turned his head away and he pretended to ignore her but he continued tolistentoherandinfacthehungonhereveryword.(4sentencesorclauses) Keepinmindthatyoucan’ttellifasentenceissimpleorcompoundbyhowlongitis;you needtoseeifitcontainsoneormorethanonecompletesentencewithinit.Forexample, thefollowingsentence,althoughitislong,isjustasimplesentence: 4. The tall manwith the violin case quickly climbed the stairs to the abandoned warehouseneartherailroadtracks. Thisisasimplesentencebecauseithasjustonesubject,thetallmanwiththeviolincase, and one verb phrase ^ notice that there is just one verb, climbed.(Thesentenceisjust longbecauseitcontainsafewprepositionphrases.)Andthefollowingsentence,although itisshort,isacompoundsentence:JohnlaughedandMarycried.It’sacompoundsentence becauseitcontainstwosentencesthatcanstandalone:Johnlaughed;Marycried.Eachof thesehasitsownsubjectandverbphrase. 211UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES Test yourself 47.3 Each sentence below is either a simple or compound sentence. Identify the number of clauses in each sentence. If there is more than one clause in the sentence, underline each clause. Sample:Thebearwatchedhismovementsclosely. 1 Gettingstarted(answersonp.231) 1. Vickiwasalwayslookingatherselfinthemirror,butMaryAnn wasextremelyself-con¢dent,andshenevergaveherselfasecondglance. ................... 2. Herfatherwasdevotedtoher. ................... 3. Our¢rm’sCEOwillbe£yingtoChicagonextweek,buthe’llbereturning thesameday. ................... 4. Theladyintheelegantbluedressenteredthewell-litroomwithherperkylittle doginherarms. ................... 5. Ourboatwashitwithstrongwinds,andwehadtoreturntoourcabins. ................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Wedon’thavemuchtimeleftinthezoo,butweshouldvisitthebirdcage,and wemustseethemonkeys,orweshouldatleastfeedthegoatsinthepettingarea, butIde¢nitelywanttotakealookattheelephants. ................... 7. Wecancatchamovie,orwecanvisitamuseum,butwewon’tbeseeinga Broadwayshow. ................... 8. Manypeoplewalkinthewoodsinautumn. ................... 9. Theeconomyisgettingworse,andmanypeopleareworriedabouttheirjobs. ................... 10. Mycarisgettingold,andit’sprettybangedup,butIhopetogetanother yearoutofit. ................... Keep in mind that a compound phrase (Lessons 43 and 44) is not the same thing as a compoundsentence.For example, thefollowing sentencehasacompound nounphrase (underlined): 5. Theteachergradedthestudents’examsandtheirpapers. We’vecertainlygotacoordinatingconjunction,and,insentence5.However,thequestion is,whatistheandjoining?Ifwelookatwhat’soneachsideofthe and,we¢ndthefollo- wing:Theteachergradedthestudents’exams,whichisasentence,andtheirpapers;their papers is not a sentenceby itself. Inthis case, the conjunction and isjoining two noun phrases:thestudents’examsandtheirpapers.It’snotjoiningtwocompletesentences,and sothesentenceisnotacompoundsentencebutisasimplesentence. Test yourself 47.4 Decide if each sentence below is a simple or compound sentence. Remember that a compound sentencecontainsacompletesentenceoneithersideoftheconjunction. 212Lesson 47: Compound sentences Sample:Kyleturnedaroundandstaredatthescreen. simple Gettingstarted(answersonp.231) 1. Itwasasceneofjoybutonethingspoiledthemoment. ............................................... 2. Theboxerfelltohiskneesbuthemanagedtogetbackup. ............................................... 3. Thedesignerandhisassistantsquicklybroughtordertothechaos. ............................................... 4. MattwasdrivingtoNewYorkwithhiskidsandhisneighbor’sson. ............................................... 5. Iliketodrinkco¡eeorteaafterdinner. ............................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Theweatherisalreadygettingchilly,butIamnotreadyforwinterjustyet. ................................................. 7. Hisspeechshouldbebriefandtothepoint. ............................................... 8. YoumustgetreadyimmediatelyorI’llleavewithoutyou. ...............................................  9. The£ightattendanto¡eredmebeeforchickenfortheentree. ............................................... 10. Shelikesclassicalmusicbutrarelygoestoconcerts. ............................................... 213Lesson 48: Complex sentences In the slt ale sson , we t al ke d about c omp ou nd s e nte nc e s s uch a s : 1. Bethsaidhellotohermother’sfriendandthenshewalkedoutside. Eachofthesentences(clauses)thatispartofthecompoundsentenceplaysanequalrole inthesentence;oneclauseisnotsuperiortoormoreimportantthantheother,interms ofthestructureofthesentence. Nowlet’slookatsomeothersentences: 2. Harrywasonly¢fteenwhenhismothersenthimawaytoschool. 3. Mr. Edwards looked her straight in the eye although he wasn’t really sincere. 4. Iwon’ttellyoutheanswerunlessyouagreetohelp. Sentences 2^4 also each contain two sentences, or clauses, which are combined to make a larger sentence. However, one of these sentences is more important than the other.Themoreimportantsentenceiscalledthemainclause,orindependentclause; the less important sentence, the one that is a subpartof the mainclause, is calledthe dependent clause or subordinate clause (see Lesson 19). Each clause, whether it’s a main clause or subordinate clause, has its own subject and verb phrase. Sentences that contain a main clause and at least one dependent clause are called complex sentences. Themainclauseofeachofthefollowingsentencesisinbold;thedependentclauseis underlined: 5. Harrywasonly¢fteenwhenhismothersenthimawaytoschool. 6. Mr. Edwards looked her straight in the eye although he wasn’t really sincere. 7. Iwon’ttellyoutheanswerunlessyouagreetohelp. Quicktip48.1 A complex sentence consists of at least two sentences (clauses): a main clause and a dependent clause. The dependent clause is a subpart of the main clause and adds information to it. Example, with the dependent clause underlined: Sally visited her before she moved. Recall that, in a compound sentence, the clauses are joined by a coordinating con- junctionsuchasand,or,andbut.Inacomplexsentence,thedependentclauseisjoined totherestofthesentencebyasubordinatingconjunction.(Weintroducedsubordinat- ingconjunctionsinLesson19;youmaywanttocheckbacktheretorefreshyourmem- ory.) The common subordinating conjunctions of English are repeated here for reference. 214Lesson 48: Complex sentences after eventhough than whenever although how that where as if though wherever asif inorderthat till whether asthough once unless while because ratherthan until which before since what who evenif so(that) when why Quicktip48.2 A dependent clause is joined to another clause by a subordinating conjunction such as although, if, where. Quicktip48.3 The easiest way to identify a dependent clause is to look for a subordinating conjunction and see if it’s followed by a sentence. If it is, then the subordinating conjunction plus the sentence directly following it is a dependent clause. Test yourself 48.1 For each complex sentence below, underline the dependent clause. Remember to look for the subordinatingconjunction,whichisthe¢rstwordofthedependentclause. Sample:Helenstaredindismayatthe£ooraftersheopenedthediningroomdoor. Gettingstarted(answersonp.232) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. HisfatherisreturningtoLondonbecause 6. Sammypassedthe¢nalexameventhough thefurnitureisarriving. hehadnotstudiedhard. 2. Selmasmiledathimalthoughshehadnever 7. Youarebehavingasifyouwerethe feltlesslikesmiling. boss. 3. Hefeltagreata¡ectionforhisguardianuntil 8. Iwillnotspeaktoyouunlessyoutellmethe hediscoveredthetruth. truth. 4. Iamgoingtosolvethiscrosswordpuzzle 9. NewOrleanshasnotbeenthesamesinceit evenifittakesmeallday. wasdevastatedbyahurricane. 5. Jamesacceptedthejobbeforehechecked 10. AltriestospeakFrenchwhenheisin withhiswife. Montreal. In the complex sentences we’ve looked at so far, the dependent clause follows the main clause. But sometimes the dependent clause comes before the main clause. (Again, see Lesson 19.) In these next examples of complex sentences, the dependent clauses are underlined: 215UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES 8. Afterheutteredhername,anawfulsilencefellontheroom. 9. Whilewehurriedtotherestaurant,theraincontinuedtopour. 10. Eventhoughshewasadi⁄cultwoman,theyhadagoodmarriage. Test yourself 48.2 For each complex sentence below, underline the dependent clause. Remember to look for the subordinatingconjunction,whichisthe¢rstwordofthedependentclause.Thedependentclause willeitherbebeforeorafterthemainclause. Sample:Ifyoucontinueonthishighway,you’llendupinthewrongplace. Gettingstarted(answersonp.232) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. WhenElizabethspoke,Benlistenedattentively. 6. Whileyouwereaway,importantchanges tookplace. 2. Beforeyoublamehim,thinkaboutyourown responsibility. 7. Asyouknow,UCLAwonthePac-10 championship. 3. Youshouldpayforautomobileinsurance evenifyourcarisold. 8. Ifyoureallywantit,Iwillloanyoumy laptop. 4. Unlessthetrainarrivessoon,we’llmissour appointment. 9. Afterhewasreleasedfromthehospital,he hadtorestforaweek. 5. Thedistrictattorneywon’tresttillhe¢nds theperpetrator. 10. Sheisgoingtosucceedwhereversheendsup. Test yourself 48.3 Foreachcomplexsentencebelow,underlinethesubjectofthedependentclause(notofthemain clause). Sample:Ihadaninterestingconversationwithhimwhilewewerewalkinghome. Gettingstarted(answersonp.232) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Eventhoughthevillagesupportedthe 6. Zacharywasbehavingasthoughheknew emperor,itstillpaidnumeroustaxes. theanswer. 2. Iliketositonthebalconywhenthe 7. Shewasnotsurewhethersheshouldtravel weatherisnice. tothatcountry. 3. Georgediditbecauseherecognizedthewoman. 8. ThebusarrivedatthestationbeforeIcould ¢nishthenewspaper. 4. OnceIhavemadeupmymind,Iusuallydo notchangeit. 9. TheystartedlearningChinesesothatthey couldunderstandtheirin-lawsbetter. 5. Someonerangthedoorbellwhilewewere havinglunch. 10. Afteryouleft,Ibeganwashingthedishes. Acomplexsentencecontainsonlyonemainclause, but itcancontainmorethanone dependentclause.Inthe followingexamples,thereisamainclauseandtwo dependent clauses.Themainclauseisagaininbold;thedependentclausesareunderlined.Notice thatwesometimeshave£exibilityintermsoftheplacementofeachoftheclauses. 216Lesson 48: Complex sentences 11a. Harrywasonly¢fteenwhenhismothersenthimawaytoschool,althoughhe lookedmucholder. 11b. Whenhismothersenthimawaytoschool,Harrywasonly¢fteen,although helookedmucholder. 11c. Although he looked much older when his mother sent him away to school, Harrywasonly¢fteen. 12a. I won’t tell you the answer unless you agree to help, because this issue is con¢dential. 12b. Unless you agree to help, I won’t tellyouthe answer, because this issue is con¢dential. 12c. Becausethisissueiscon¢dential,unlessyouagreetohelp,Iwon’ttellyouthe answer. Test yourself 48.4 For each sentence below, decide if it is a simple sentence or a complex sentence. Some complex sentenceswillhavemorethanonedependentclause. Sample:Thosetwobrothersalwaysdressalike. simple Gettingstarted(answersonp.232) 1. The two horses thrived on the ranch because they received excellent care. .................................. 2. Another little girl will be arriving at the school before noon today. .................................. 3. Theoldhousekeeperwelcomedherwarmlywhenhermotherwaspresent. ................................... 4. Thegeneralreturnedhomewithhisfamily. .................................... 5. Asweapproachedourdestination,webecameratheremotional. .................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6.Whentheactorenteredthestage,theaudienceclappedenthusiastically. .................................... 7. Ifyoupromisenottotellanyone,Iwillletyouinonasecret, eventhoughIshouldn’t. .................................... 8. Wearenotgoingtothebeachuntilitstopsraining. .................................... 9. Unlessyoustopcomplaining,weareturningrightaround. .................................... 10. Helikesforeignmoviesalot. .................................... Test yourself 48.5 For each sentence below, indicate if it is a simple sentence, a compound sentence, or a complex sentence.Besuretodeterminethekindofconjunction(coordinatingorsubordinating)inorderto helpyoudecide. Sample:Wewerealwayspolitetooneanotheralthoughwewereneverclose. complex Gettingstarted(answersonp.232) 1. Shepursuedhergoalsrelentlesslybutshedidn’talwaysachievethem. ..................................................... 2. Ihavemadenumerousmistakesovertheyears. ..................................................... 3. Iwon’ttellyouunlessyouagreetohelpbecauseIcan’ttaketherisk. ..................................................... 217UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES 4. JasonandIlenehadtorenewtheirpassportsbeforetheycould leavethecountry. ............................................................................. 5. Babyboomerswerebornbeforethiscentury. ............................................................................. Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Heinsisted,butIstilldidnotbelievehim. ............................................................................. 7. YoucanwatchTVallnightlong,oryoucanstudyforyourexam. ............................................................................. 8. WhileMr.Kaganwasatwork,theairconditioningstopped workingathishouse. ............................................................................. 9. Ihaveknownhimsincewemovedtothistown. ............................................................................. 10. AshleyandBrianwantedtoshopatthatstore. ............................................................................. Complex sentences can have di¡erent kinds of dependent clauses. The ones we’ve talkedaboutsofararecalledadverbialclausesbecause,likeadverbs,theytypicallytell usmoreaboutaverb,adjective,oranotheradverb.Forexample,inthesentence,Things improvedafterMr.Eliotarrived,theunderlineddependentclauseistellingussomething aboutthetimeoftheaction. Inothercomplexsentences,dependentclausescanbeusedasnounphrases.Takealook atthefollowingpairofsentences: 13a. Thatstatementissilly. 13b. WhatMarkjustsaidissilly. Insentence13a,thatstatementisanounphrase.Insentence13b,whatMarkjustsaidisa dependent clause which is functioning as a noun phrase of the main sentence.When a dependent clause is functioning as a noun phrase, it’s called a noun clause.Hereare somemoresentencepairsinwhichthesecondsentenceofthepairhasadependentclause (underlined)actingasanounphrase. 14a. Iknowthetruth. simplesentence 14b. Iknowthatyou’reright. complexsentence 15a. Itremainsunknown. simplesentence 15b. Whytheylefttownremainsunknown. complexsentence Noticethatnounclauseslookjustlikeotherdependentclauses:theybeginwithasubor- dinating conjunction and contain both a subject and a verb phrase. However, when a sentencehasanounclause,therestofthesentencecannotalwaysstandalone;itneeds thenounclausetobecomplete.Forexample,insentence15b, remainsunknownisnota completesentence. Test yourself 48.6 Underline the dependent clause in each of the complex sentences below. It will be either an adverbialclauseoranounclause. Sample:Whateveryoudoisacceptable. 218Lesson 48: Complex sentences Gettingstarted(answersonp.232) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. I’llstaywithJeanetteuntilPetercomes 6. Hedidnotknowwhichhighwayledtothe home. Canadianborder. 2. Thatmycandidatewillwinis 7. Theassistantmanagerknewthatshe obvious. wasnotgoingtobepromotedthis time. 3. AlthoughMrs.Craftwastired,sheinsisted onmakingusdinner. 8. Whereverwetravelweliketovisit museums. 4.Wewerequitecon¢dentthatwehadmadethe rightdecision. 9. IcanspeakItalianbetterthanyoucanspeak French. 5. Theywantto¢ndoutwhythewaitresswasso rudetothem. 10.Weweretiredofwaiting,soweleft. We’ve been telling you to look for the subordinating conjunction to help you ¢nd the dependent clause. But what about these next sentences (with the dependent clauses underlined)? 16a. Iknowthatyou’reright. 16b. Iknowyou’reright. 17a. Youbelievedthatthedefendantwasinnocent. 17b. Youbelievedthedefendantwasinnocent. As you can see, we can delete the subordinating conjunction that in a noun clause when the dependent clause follows the main clause. However, if the dependent clause comes before the main clause, the subordinating conjunction that cannot be deleted: 18a. Thatherdaughteristalentedhasbeenobviousforyears. 18b. *Herdaughteristalentedhasbeenobviousforyears. 19a. Thatthedefendantwasinnocentbecameclearduringthetrial. 19b. *Thedefendantwasinnocentbecameclearduringthetrial. Quicktip48.4 In a noun clause, the subordinating conjunction that can be deleted following a main clause. Example: I think (that) it’s going to rain. Sowhenyoudon’tseeasubordinatingconjunctioninasentence,butthesentencehas morethanonesubjectandverbphrase,askyourselfifyoucaninsertthatsomewhere.If so,thenyou’llknowyouhaveadependentclause. Test yourself 48.7 Underlinethedependentclausesineachofthesentencesbelow.Insomecases,theconjunctionthat willhavebeendeleted. Sample: Theyknewshewouldescape. 219UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES Gettingstarted(answersonp.232) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Theydon’tbelievethatherpartnerwillkeep 6. Thismandoesnotthinkyouareagood hisword. writer. 2. Mrs.Webbwassureherpiewouldwinthe 7. Jackiealwaysthoughtthatonedayshe bakingcontest. wouldbealeadingactress. 3. ThatAndyisthebestintheclassdoesn’t 8. YouknewthatIwouldbethrowinga surpriseme. surprisepartyforyou. 4. WeheardyouwereacceptedtoGeorgetown 9. Thelandlordassumedthatallhistenants LawSchool. wouldbepayingrentontime. 5. ItistruethatIamgoingtobecomeapartner 10. Thelittlegirlpretendedshewasdancing inthis¢rm. withMickeyMouse. Test yourself 48.8 Decide if each sentence is simple, compound, or complex. Keep in mind that sometimes the subordinatingconjunctionthatmayhavebeendeleted. Sample:ShetoldmeIwasn’tgivingupyet. complex Gettingstarted(answersonp.233) 1. Mymotherchangedthesubject,butitwastoolate. ....................................................... 2. Heproposedtoherwhenshegraduatedfromcollege. ....................................................... 3. Amanfromthesawmillwasoverseeingtheproject. ....................................................... 4. Iwantapieceofapplepie. ....................................................... 5. Ihadbeenhopingyoucouldcometothegame. ....................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Ifyoutakethekidstothemovies,Icangetsomerest. ....................................................... 7. Thepresidentsaidweshouldallconservefuel. ....................................................... 8. Youcandothefoodshopping¢rst,oryoucandoyourothererrands. ....................................................... 9. Justingenerallyeatshissoupwithbreadandbutter. ....................................................... 10. Iknowthewomaninthebluedress. ....................................................... There’s another verycommon type of subordinating clause, called arelativeclause. Herearesomeexamples: 20. I’lltellmyhusband,whowillbehomesoon. 21. ThepersonwhoknowsherbestisRichard. 22. MissLivingstonhadhermoneyinthebankthatfailed. Sincethere’squiteabittosayaboutrelativeclauses,we‘vegiventhemtheirownlesson, whichisnext. 220Lesson 49: Sentences with relative clauses Awell-known children’s story starts with the line,This is the house that Jack built.It continues, ThisisthemaltthatlayinthehousethatJackbuilt.Thisistheratthatatethemaltthatlayinthe housethatJackbuilt.Thestorycontinuesuntilitendswiththefollowingsentence:Thisisthe farmersowinghiscorn,thatkeptthecockthatcrowedinthemorn,thatwakedthepriestallshaven andshorn,thatmarriedthemanalltatteredandtorn,thatkissedthemaidenallforlorn,that milkedthecowwiththecrumpledhorn,thattossedthedog,thatworriedthecat,thatkilledtherat, thatatethemaltthatlayinthehousethatJackbuilt. (www.amherst.edu/rjyanco94/literature/mothergoose/rhymes/ thisisthehousethatjackbuilt.html,retrievedNovember9,2008.) Thisstorygivesusagooddemonstrationofcomplexsentenceswithrelativeclauses,which areakindofdependentclause(seeLesson48).Forexample,inthesentenceThisisthehouse thatJackbuilt,themainclauseisThisisthehouse,andthedependent,relativeclauseisthat Jackbuilt.Therelativeclauseactsasanadjective:itmodi¢esthenounphrasethehouse,tell- ingusmoreaboutit.Thisiswhyrelativeclausesarealsoreferredtoasadjectiveclauses. Quicktip49.1 A relative clause (adjective clause) is a kind of dependent clause; it provides additional informationabout anoun phrase in themain clause. Example(relative clause underlined): I brought the cookies that are on the plate. Ineachsentencebelow,therelativeclauseisunderlined,andthenounphrasewhich therelativeclauseismodifyingisinbold.Themainclausecanstandonitsownasasen- tencewithouttherelativeclause;therelativeclausejustprovidesadditionalinforma- tionaboutthenounphraseit’smodifyingandcannotstandalone.Likeotherclauses,a relativeclausehasitsownsubjectandverbphrase. 1. Shetransferredtheplatetothetraythatshejustwashed. 2. BlanchethoughtaboutthemanwhowaslivinginItalyatthetime. 3. Hecalledthecompanythatusuallysuppliesthepipes. Test yourself 49.1 Underlinetherelativeclauseineachofthesentencesbelow. Sample:Mr.SanderswaswearingasuitthatheboughtinItaly. Gettingstarted(answersonp.233) 1. Hepaidnoattentiontothenewspaperwhich 4. Hemightrecognizethewomanwhois wasnexttohim. hostingtheshow. 2. Thepolicearrestedthemanwhomtheyhad 5. Cli¡boughtapresentthatwasjustperfect beenlookingfor. forhisgirlfriend. 3. Mrs.Petersonwasreachingforthephone thatwasnearestherchair. 221UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Iamrentinganapartmentthathastwo 9. Hecametothepartywithafriendwhom bedrooms. Ihaven’tseeninages. 7. Shemetsomeonewhosedaughter 10. You should pay for your vacation hadgraduatedfromDukeUniversity. with the money that I gave you. 8. AreyougoingtoeatthedesertthatIbaked especiallyforyou? Therelativeclausedoesn’tnecessarilyfollowthemainsentence(clause);itcanalsobe within the main sentence. Inthe following sentences, the relative clause is underlined andthemainsentence(clause)isinbold.Insentences4and5,therelativeclausefollows themainclause;insentences6and7,it’sinsidethemainclause. 4. I’vebroughtthehorsewhichhasbeenspeciallytrained. 5. Wetippedthewaiterwhohadservedussowell. 6. ThemanwhowaslivinginItalyatthetimeknewallthefacts. 7. Thecompanythatusuallysuppliesthepipeshasgoneoutofbusiness. Again,iftherelativeclause(theunderlinedpart)isremoved,themainclausecanstill standonitsownasasentence. Test yourself 49.2 Underlinetherelativeclauseineachofthesentencesbelow.Therelativeclausemaybeanywhere inthesentence. Sample:Abusinessthatmanufacturesenginescanbedi⁄culttorun. Gettingstarted(answersonp.233) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Shegavehimasmilethatlitupherface. 6. Theplayerswhojustenteredthestadium arewearingbluejerseys. 2. Theprofessorwhogiveseasytestsison sabbaticalthissemester. 7. Thosestrawberriesthatyoubroughtare absolutelydelicious. 3. Theapproacheswhicharemostlikelyto succeedaretoocomplicated. 8. Iwillvoteforthecandidatewhosevalues areclosetomine. 4. Thehotelwhichisneartheshoredoesn’t openuntilApril. 9. Thegymthatshebelongstoisonlyamileaway. 5. Areyousatis¢edwiththecomputerthat 10. Heisstillmadlyinlovewiththewoman yourparentsboughtforyou? whomhemarried15yearsago. We’veseen(inLesson48)thatotherdependentclausesarelinkedtotherestofthesen- tencebysubordinatingconjunctions.Thesameistrueofrelativeclauses.Thosesubordi- nating conjunctions which link relative clauses to the rest of the sentence are called relativepronouns,andyoumayrememberthatwetalkedabouttheminLesson26.Therela- tivepronounwhichintroducestherelativeclauseisunderlinedinthesentencesbelow: 222Lesson 49: Sentences with relative clauses 8. Ijustreadabookwhichhadareallyexcitingending. 9. ThesoldierwhomI’mwritingtorecentlycamehomeonleave. 10. Shesignedadealwiththepublishingcompanythatgaveherthebesto¡er. Notethatwordsthatarerelativepronounscanalsobeusedinotherways.Forexample, whocanbeusedasarelativepronoun,butitcanalsobeusedasaquestionword,asinthe sentence,Whomarriedher? Quicktip49.2 Relativeclausesbeginwithoneoftherelativepronouns:that,which,who,whom,whose. Test yourself 49.3 Eachofthesentencesbelowcontainsarelativeclause.Underlinetherelativepronounthatbegins therelativeclause. Sample:ThestudentwhomIspoketowasconfused. Gettingstarted(answersonp.233) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. ThehotelchainthatGregfoundedhassince 6. TheDVDplayerwhichyouboughtwasway goneoutofbusiness. tooexpensive. 2. Hephonedthewomanwhowaswritingthe 7. Iwouldliketomeetthewomanwhoyou article. ravedabout. 3. Jillresentsthemanwhosefatherwonthe 8. Studentswhosenamesarenotontheclass lottery. rostershouldseemeafterclass. 4. ThehighwaywhichItaketoworkneeds 9. Wearegoingtopatronizethepharmacy repair. whichhasjustopenedup. 5. TheTVshowthatshelikesbestison 10. Idon’treadallthemagazinesthat Sundaynights. Isubscribeto. Just as a sentence can havemore thanone dependentclause, itcan have more than one relative clause.We saw this earlier, in the sentences about Jack, and see it here as well: 11. Pablomarriedthewomanwhosesisterlivedinahousewhichwasnextdoorto theonethatIboughtfromthemanwhohad¢rstbuiltit. Eventhoughthissentenceisverylongandcontainsfourrelativeclauses,itisstillper- fectlygrammatical. Test yourself 49.4 Underlinetherelativeclausesineachofthesentencesbelow.Asentencemayhavemorethanone relativeclause. Sample: The man whom he had rescued turned out to be the criminalwhomthepolicewere lookingfor. 223UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES Gettingstarted(answersonp.233) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Sheturnedonthebroadcastwhichdealtwith 6. Thecruisethatwebooked6monthsago the scandal that had recently been in the throughtheagentwhomyourecommended news. isleavingnextweek. 2. Buckstoodbehindthecounterwhich 7. Thefurnacethatheatsthehousewhichwe dominatedhissmallrestaurant. purchasedwiththecashthatwewoninthe lottery that we played 5 years ago needs to 3. Thephotographerwhotookthepicture bereplaced. which appeared in the paper that was most widelyreadwonaPulitzerPrize. 8. Didyouevercomputethenumberofdays thatyouhavespentonthenovelthatyouare 4. Ican’t¢ndthemessagethatyousentme. writing? 5. Noonewhobreaksthelawshouldget 9. Friendswhokeepstheirwordarethekinds awaywithit. offriendsthatIlike. 10. Theparkinggaragewhichisonthetop£oor of the building that is on the corner of the intersectionisalmostalwaysfull. Youmaybewonderingwhyrelativepronounsarecalledpronouns.Youknowthatpro- nounsreplacenounphrasesinasentence.AswediscussedinLesson26,alloftherelative pronounsexceptwhosedothesamething. Quicktip49.3 A relative pronoun connects the relative clause to the rest of the sentence. All of the relative pronouns (except whose) also replace a noun phrase in the relative clause. (Whose replaces a determiner.) Let’sreviewhowQuicktip49.3worksinthefollowingsentence,whoserelativeclauseis underlined: 12. BlanchethoughtaboutthemanwhowaslivinginItaly. What noun phrase is the relative pronoun who replacing? The who refers to the noun phrasetheman. Here’sanotherexample: 13. Hecalledthecompanythatusuallysuppliedthepipes. Inthiscase,whatdoestherelativepronounthatreplace?Itreplacesthenounphrasethe company. Test yourself 49.5 Foreachsentencebelow,underlinetherelativeclauseandputasquigglylineunderthemainclause. Sample: Natalie usually wears clothesthatlook£atteringonher. 224Lesson 49: Sentences with relative clauses Gettingstarted(answersonp.233) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. IammeetingMr.Arnoldatthemuseumthat 6. Shirleyisnotsatis¢edwiththeinterestthat hesupports. sheisgettinginherbankaccount. 2. Thelabelwhichcontainsthewarningisnot 7. Economistswhocanpredictthedurationof veryclear. recessionsarerare. 3. Therobberopenedthecasewhichcontained 8. Doctorswhooverchargepatientsshouldbe themostcash. prosecuted. 4. Thepolicythatthepresidentis 9. Iwasimpressedwiththeauthorwhogavea implementingshouldbesuccessful. lectureatthelibraryyesterday. 5. Icontactedtheyoungmanwhosewallet 10. Thesalesmanwhocalledwasvery Ifoundonthesubway. persuasive. Test yourself 49.6 Underlinethedependentclauseineachofthesentencesbelow.Itwilleitherbearelativeclause,a nounclause,oranadverbialclause. Sample:Thehistorianvisitedmostofthesitesthathewroteabout. Gettingstarted(answersonp.234) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thearchitect’sdesignincludesawindow 6. Hercousinsneedtoknowwhethershe’llbe thatfacesthecourtyard. goingtoBostonthisweekend. 2. Sheunderstoodwhatyouweretryingtosay. 7. Evenifyoudon’tfeelgood,youshould de¢nitelyattendtheconvention. 3. Ifyou’rehungry,thistownhasafantastic Greekrestaurant. 8. Thestrangerwhosaidhellotouswore elegantclothes. 4. Itisobviousthatwehavetoreevaluateour plan. 9. Thesalesmancan’trememberwhathe promisedhiscustomer. 5. Theo¡erthatIhavegivenyouisa fairone. 10. TheywatchedTVwhentheygothome. Let’stakealookatthefollowingsentence: 14. ThemanwhomIinterviewedwasnotveryknowledgeable. Aswediscussedabove,thesentencecontainsarelativeclause,whomIinterviewed,which beginswiththerelativepronounwhom.Willthissentencestillbegrammaticaliftherela- tivepronoun,whom,isleftout? 15. ThemanIinterviewedwasnotveryknowledgeable. Ifyouthinkthissentencesounds¢ne,you’reabsolutelyright.Herearesomemoreexamples: 16a. Thepermitthatthebuildersappliedforwasdenied. 16b. Thepermitthebuildersappliedforwasdenied. 17a. ThecelebritywhoJackphotographedleftthetheaterearly. 17b. ThecelebrityJackphotographedleftthetheaterearly. You will notice that when the relative pronoun is omitted, as in sentences 15, 16b, and17b, one noun phrase is directly followed by another noun phrase: the man + I in 225UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES sentence 15, the permit + the builders in sentence 16b, and the celebrity + Jack in sen- tence17b.Soifyouseeasentencethathastwonounphrasesnexttoeachother,check toseeifthesentencewouldstillbegrammaticalandmeanthesamethingifyouputa relative pronoun between the two noun phrases; this will help you identify relative clauses. Quicktip49.4 Arelativepronounmaybeomittedbeforeanounphrase.Example:Themovie(that)Isaw was exciting. Test yourself 49.7 Underlinetherelativeclauseineachofthesentencesbelow.Insomecases,therelativepronoun willhavebeendeleted. Sample:Thewaitersetthetablehehadplacedoutsidetherestaurant. Gettingstarted(answersonp.234) Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 1. Thelittlesquareinthetownwevisited 6. Weleftanicetipforthewaiterwhoserved containedbenches. ourdeliciousdinner. 2. Otherfamouspeoplewillbeperformingat 7. ThetennisracketIboughtforyouwasmade thetheaterthatmybrotherworksat. abroad. 3. Thepilotwho£ewtheaircraftmusthave 8. TheauthorwhosebookIamreadingwillgo beenwelltrained. onapromotionaltour. 4. Myneighborownsthehorsewhichwonthis 9. ThethingIlikebestaboutJillisherpositive race. attitude. 5. TheguestIinvitedissleepingon 10. Thewomanwhoisrunningformayorofthis thesofa. cityiswellknown. Whenwelookatrelativeclausesmoreclosely,we¢ndthatthereareactuallytwotypes: restrictiverelativeclausesandnonrestrictiverelativeclauses.Comparethefollow- ingsentences;therelativeclausesareunderlined. 18. Bridgetlikesdoughnutsthathavechocolatefrosting. 19. ShelikesPeterBolton,whoisherson’spianoteacher. Insentence18,therelativeclausethathavechocolatefrostingistellingusexactlywhich doughnutsBridget reallylikes.TheclauseistellingusthatBridgetdoesn’tnecessarily likealldoughnuts;shespeci¢callylikesthosethathavechocolatefrosting.Thiskindof relative clause, which limits or restricts the noun phrase it’s modifying, is called a restrictiverelativeclause. Incontrast,insentence19,therelativeclausewhoisherson’spianoteacheristellingus something about Peter Bolton, but if we omit this relative clause, we still know who Peteris,althoughwedon’tknowtheextrainformationthatheisherson’spianoteacher. Thistypeofrelativeclauseiscalledanonrestrictiverelativeclause.It’salwayssepara- tedfromthemainsentencebycommas.(Youcanthinkofitasbeingseparatedfromthe mainclausebycommasbecauseit’snotessential.)Whenwesayasentencewitha 226Lesson 49: Sentences with relative clauses nonrestrictiverelativeclause,weusuallypauseatthecommasseparatingitfromthe mainsentence. Here are some more examples to help clarify the di¡erence between restrictive and nonrestrictiverelativeclauses: 20. Theemployeeswhowereupsetcametothemeeting. 21. Theemployees,whowereupset,cametothemeeting. What’sthedi¡erenceinmeaningbetweenthesetwosentences?Accordingtosentence20, only those employees who were upset came to the meeting.The other employees didn’t cometothemeeting.Thatis,sentence20restrictstheemployeeswhocametothemeeting toonlythosewhowereupset.Sentence20thuscontainsarestrictiverelativeclause. Whatweknowfromsentence21isthatemployeescametothemeeting.Inaddition,we know that those employees were upset. The clause provides additional information abouttheemployeesbutdoesn’trestrict,orlimit,whichemployeescametothemeeting. Theremaybeotheremployeeswhowerealsoupsetbutwhodidn’tcometothemeeting. Thisclauseisanonrestrictiverelativeclause. Again,noticethatinsentence21therelativeclauseisseparatedfromthemainclause bycommas.Sentence21isalsosaidwithpauseswherethecommasare. Notethatonecanalwaysremovearelativeclause,ofeithertype,andstillendupwitha grammaticalsentence.However,iftherestrictiverelativeclauseisremoved,someofthe informationneededtofullyidentifythenounphrasewe’retalkingaboutismissing. Quicktip49.5 A restrictive relative clause limits the noun phrase which it is modifying; a nonrestrictive relative clause does not. A nonrestrictive relative clause is separated from the main clause bypauses, and, when written, it is separated from the main clause by commas. Examples: The dogs which were friendly were being trained as Seeing Eye dogs (restrictive). The dogs, which were friendly, were being trained as Seeing Eye dogs (nonrestrictive). Test yourself 49.8 Decideifeachrelativeclause,underlinedinthesentencesbelow,isarestrictiveornonrestrictive relativeclause. Sample:Thelaundrywhichhadjustbeenfoldedwasonthecounter. restrictive Gettingstarted(answersonp.234) 1. Mrs.Smith,whoownsthehouse,wasnotinterestedinselling. ............................................................... 2. Ahugetruck,whichsomeonehadpaintedbrightyellow, stoodinthedriveway. ............................................................... 3. Thechildrenwhohadjustcomebackfromtheclasstripwererestless. ............................................................... 4. Themaidbrokeanantiquelamp,whichwasveryvaluable. ............................................................... 5. ThepaintingIbroughthomewillbeperfectfortheden. ............................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Thebushesweplantedlastyeararegrowingnicely. ............................................................... 7. BriannaismadatJohn,whoo¡endedherfamily. ............................................................... 8. Iamreturningyourbicycle,whichyoulentmelastweek. .............................................................. 227UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES 9. Thestudentswhomadethepresentationdidagreatjob. ............................................................................ 10. Thisroad,whichwehavetraveledmanytimes,istreacherous. ............................................................................ Test yourself 49.9 Underline the relative clause in each of the sentences below.Then decide if it is restrictive or nonrestrictive. Sample:Rome,whichisalovelycity,washer¢rstdestination. nonrestrictive Gettingstarted(answersonp.234) 1. TheFrenchmanwhoisfromLyonscompletedtheproject. ................................................ 2. Thegeneral,whoknewnothingaboutthematter,nonetheless voicedhisopinion. ................................................ 3. Asmalldisturbance,whichwasgettinglouderandlouder, ¢nallyattractedourattention. ................................................ 4. Jeremy,whowasblushingprofusely,askedTatianaforsomehelp. ................................................ 5. Jimwasn’tthepersonshewantedtohire. ................................................ Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. The young lady, whose hobby was stamp collecting, was charming. ............................................. 7. Themanwhoishavingadrinkatthebarlooksfamiliar. ................................................ 8. Thetaxi Icalledtookmetotheairport. ................................................ 9. Herreport,whichshepreparedcarefully,waswellreceived. ................................................ 10. The children, who are playing with their new toys, are unusually quiet. .............................................. To enhance your understanding Proper names are not modified by restrictive relative clauses. Here is an example: 22a. George, who is an architect, is a good friend of mine. (nonrestrictive) 22b. *George who is an architect is a good friend of mine. (restrictive) Since the identity of a proper noun is already well defined, it makes sense that restrictive relative clauses do not modify proper nouns. Notice that if we want to be very specific about a proper name, to differentiate it from others with the same name, then using a restrictive relative clause is entirely appropriate: 23. The George who is an architect is a good friend of mine. (restrictive) 24. The France that I am familiar with is a very lovely country. (restrictive) To further enhance your understanding A relative clause can modify any noun phrase in a sentence, whether that noun phrase is functioning as a subject, direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition. For example, in sentence 25, the relative clause refers to the direct object of the main clause: 25. My sister likes the house which has a large swimming pool. And in sentence 26, the relative clause refers to the indirect object of the main clause: 26. My sister sold the house to a family that has three children. 228Lesson 50: Compound-complex sentences Youknow(fromLesson47)thatsentence1isacompoundsentence: 1. MarthaleftmeanotebutIcan’t¢ndit. Youalsoknow(fromLesson48)thatsentence2isacomplexsentence: 2. Sheansweredhimimpatientlywhenhequestionedhercredentials. Like all compound sentences, sentence 1 contains at least two complete sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction, in this case but. And like all complex sentences, sentence 2 contains a main clause with at least one dependent clause; the dependent clausebeginswithasubordinatingconjunction,inthiscasewhen. Butwhataboutthisnextsentence? 3. I’llleaveamessagefortheplumberbutI’mnotsurethathe’llgetit. Youwon’tbe surprisedtolearnthat sentences such as sentence 3, which areboth com- pound(twoclausesconnectedwithbut)andcomplex(twoclausesconnectedwiththat), arecalledcompound-complexsentences.Thesearesentencesthatcontainatleasttwo mainclauses,andatleastoneofthemainclauseshasatleastonedependentclause. Quicktip50.1 Acompound-complexsentenceisacombinationofacompoundandacomplexsentence:it hasatleasttwomainclausesandatleastonedependentclause.Example:Hisfriendswere always there for William, and he appreciated the help that they often gave him. Herearesomemoreexamplesofcompound-complexsentences,withthecompletesen- tencesinboldandthedependentclausesunderlined: 4. While thehouselookednicefromthe outside, the£oorswere saggingand thewallswerecrumbling. 5. ThewomanwholivesnextdoorisveryfriendlybutIforgothername. 6. Ithankedhimforhise¡ortsbutheinsistedthathehadn’tminded. 7. Ifwedon’thurry,we’llhavetoseeadi¡erentmovie,orwe’llhavetocome backlater. Test yourself 50.1 Decideifeachsentencebelowisacomplexorcompound-complexsentence. Sample:Herealizedthattheyhadbeeninvestigatinghisprivatelife. complex Gettingstarted(answersonp.234) 1. Theyarewalkingquicklydownthehallwhichconnectstheirlabtothe maino⁄ce. .............................................. 2. Thecastlelookedbeautifulinthesunlight,anditdominatedthecountryside whichwasaroundit. .............................................. 3. TheMercerfamilyhasgoneonthevacationwhichthey’vebeenplanning foryears. ................................................ 229UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES 4. Hewasangryathisfriend,buthedecidedthathewasn’tgoingtotellhim. ................................................... 5. Wedon’tknowwhetherwe’llsucceed,butit’simportantthatwetry. ................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Sinceyoumoved,alotofthingshavechanged. ................................................... 7. Mr.Burns’ssoncan’tbuyahouseuntilhe¢nishesmedicalschool,but heisalreadysavingforit. ................................................... 8. Iamnotgoingtosignthecontractuntilmylawyerlooksitover. ................................................... 9. Wewillgototheconcert,butIamwarningyouthatwewillhaveto waitonlinefortickets. ................................................... 10. Themechanicsaidthatweshouldcheckourtirepressureeveryweek. ................................................... Test yourself 50.2 Decideifeachsentencebelowisasimple,compound,complexorcompound-complexsentence. Sample:Herolderson,whosenamewasEdward,movedintothecity¢rst. complex Gettingstarted(answersonp.234) 1. IfyoutraveltoNewYork,youshouldde¢nitelyvisitTimesSquare. .......................................................... 2. Hedriedhisfacewithatowel. .......................................................... 3. Iliketheviewfrommyapartment,butitcangetverynoisyoutside. .......................................................... 4. OnceyouarriveinEurope,youshouldcallme. .......................................................... 5. Itisobvioustomethatyouhavetolimityourspending,oryou’llhaveto lookforasecondjob. ............................................................... Morepractice(answersonthewebsite) 6. Heissleepingsoundly,butheneedstogetupsoon. .......................................................... 7. Theybuyanewspaperalmosteverymorning. .......................................................... 8. ThegamestartedbeforeIgotthere. .......................................................... 9.Valeriewillbehappywhenshegetsthenews. .......................................................... 10. IinvitedCarrieoverandshejoinedmeforadinnerwhichwasdelicious. ............................................................. 230Answer keys: Test yourself, Getting started questions – Unit 16 Test yourself 46.1 presented its ideas to congress 1. Thecommittee . 2. I stayed in bed that day. 3. Nobody moved. 4. Myfavoritehotel is on Park Avenue. 5. I overslept today. Test yourself 46.2 1. Ihavenevereatencaviar. simplesentence 2. Thedepartmentstoresarehavingasalethisweekend. simplesentence 3. Expensiveantiquejewelry. phrase 4. Ourhomeontheranch. phrase 5. Fresh-cut£owersonthetable. phrase Test yourself 47.1 1. Andrepulledthecarintothestreet,andBethbeganreadingthedirections. 2. Sheenjoyedshoppingforfood,butsheespeciallyenjoyedcooking. 3. Icandothisnow,orIcandoitlater. 4. Dandoesnotfeelwell,yethewantstogointowork. 5. Wemissedour£ight,sowehavetowaitaroundtheairportforthenextavailableone. Test yourself 47.2 1. Hecan’tblameherfortheproblem. simple 2. Bethleftthelibrary,andsheheadedstraighthome. compound 3. Hewaswatchingher,butshewaspretendingnottonotice. compound 4. Welikehimalot. simple 5. Thecoachwantstowin,buthewillbehappywithatie. compound Test yourself 47.3 1. Vickiwasalwayslookingatherselfinthemirror,butMaryAnnwasextremelyself-con¢dent, andshenevergaveherselfasecondglance. 3 2. Herfatherwasdevotedtoher. 1 3. Our¢rm’sCEOwillbe£yingtoChicagonextweek,buthe’llbereturningthesameday. 2 4. Theladyintheelegantbluedressenteredthewell-litroomwithherperkylittledoginherarms. 1 5. Ourboatwashitwithstrongwinds,andwehadtoreturntoourcabins. 2 Test yourself 47.4 1. Itwasasceneofjoybutonethingspoiledthemoment. compound 2. Theboxerfelltohiskneesbuthemanagedtogetbackup. compound 231UNIT 16: COMBINING SENTENCES 3. Thedesignerandhisassistantsquicklybroughtordertothechaos. simple 4. MattwasdrivingtoNewYorkwithhiskidsandhisneighbor’sson. simple 5. Iliketodrinkco¡eeorteaafterdinner. simple Test yourself 48.1 1. HisfatherisreturningtoLondonbecausethefurnitureisarriving. 2. Selmasmiledathimalthoughshehadneverfeltlesslikesmiling. 3. Hefeltagreata¡ectionforhisguardianuntilhediscoveredthetruth. 4. Iamgoingtosolvethiscrosswordpuzzleevenifittakesmeallday. 5. Jamesacceptedthejobbeforehecheckedwithhiswife. Test yourself 48.2 1. WhenElizabethspoke,Benlistenedattentively. 2. Beforeyoublamehim,thinkaboutyourownresponsibility. 3. Youshouldpayforautomobileinsuranceevenifyourcarisold. 4. Unlessthetrainarrivessoon,we’llmissourappointment. 5. Thedistrictattorneywon’tresttillhe¢ndstheperpetrator. Test yourself 48.3 1. Eventhoughthevillagesupportedtheemperor,itstillpaidnumeroustaxes. 2. Iliketositonthebalconywhentheweatherisnice. 3. Georgediditbecauseherecognizedthewoman. 4. OnceIhavemadeupmymind,Iusuallydonotchangeit. 5. Someonerangthedoorbellwhilewewerehavinglunch. Test yourself 48.4 1. Th