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Marketing Communications

Marketing Communications 34
Marketing Communications Lecture 1 Introduction Marketing Communications theory Marketing communications industry Ethics in marketing communications Definition Marketing communications is a management process through which an organisation engages with its various audiences. By understanding an audience's communications environment, organisations seek to develop and present messages for its identified stakeholder groups, before evaluating and acting upon the responses. By conveying messages that are of significant value, audiences are encouraged to offer attitudinal and behavioural responses. Source: Fill (2006) p.17 Figure 1.1 The tools and position of the marketing communications mix Table 1.3 The developing orientation of marketing communications Figure 1.2 Aboveand belowtheline communications Table 1.4 The 4Cs Framework – a summary of the key characteristics of the tools of marketing communications Figure 1.3 The relative effectiveness of the tools of the marketing communications mix Figure 1.4 The system of marketing communications Table 1.5 Differences between consumer and businesstobusiness marketing communications Marketing Communications theory Figure 2.1 A linear model of communication Source: Based on Schramm (1955) and Shannon and Weaver (1962). Figure 2.2 A model of marketing communications in a hypermedia computer mediated environment Source: From Hoffman and Novak (1996); reprinted with permission from the Journal of Marketing, published by the American Marketing Association. Figure 2.3 Onestep model of communication. T = member of the target audience Figure 2.4 Twostep model of communication. OL = opinion leader Figure 2.5 Multistep model of communication Opinion Leaders • Members of peer group • Expertise based on their own interest in subject areas • Word of mouth communications from these individuals carries higher levels of credibility than opinion formers • Include media, subject specialist consumer interest magazines e.g. Which, pressure groups • Playing significant role in responding to customers’ thirst for knowledge • Must be included in a communications agenda • Don’t just need customers and consumers, also friends and supporters who will exert positive influence upon a company Opinion Formers • People who exert personal influence because of their authority, status, education or association with a product or service offering. • Provide information and act as expert witnesses • E.g. specialist journalists in motoring and travel • Act as vehicle for reinforcing credibility of products and services • Public relations has major part to play here • Viral marketing also important Figure 2.6 Stages in the innovation–decision process of adoption Source: Reprinted from Rogers (1983) with the permission of the Free Press. Copyright 1962, 1971, 1983 by the Free Press. Figure 2.7 Fast and slow diffusion of an innovation Source: From Hawkins et al. (1989); used with kind permission. Marketing communications industry Figure 3.1 The principal organisations in the marketing communications industry Table 3.1 Total UK advertising expenditure (including direct mail) £ million Source: Advertising Statistics Yearbook. Used with kind permission. Agency Types • Full service – Creative development, Strategic Planning, Production, Media planning and buying, Market research • Creative shops – Hotshops – provide specialist creative services • Media independents – Provide specialist media services – planning , buying and monitoring purchase of media schedule • A la carte agency – Company selects a range of services from a range of different specialized agencies – Gives choice and flexibility – Takes a lot of time, effort and commitment to manage the potential number of relationships involved • New media – Provision of internet facilities, WAP technology, interactive television Agency remuneration • Fees • Media percentage 10 15 • Print mark up 17.65+ • Performance related • Hourly rate • Project by project quotes Figure 3.3 Relationships between marketing and public relations Source: From Kotler and Mindak (1978); used with kind permission. Figure 3.4 An overview of the five agency structures Source: From Gronstedt and Thorson (1996); used with kind permission. Table 3.2 Integrated agency options Communications Industry Statutory SelfRegulatory Control • Advertising Standards Authority • Committee of Advertising Practice • Independent Television Commission • Radio Authority • Office of Fair Trading • Securities Investment Board • Note some replaced by OFCOM from January 2004 Ethics , corporate and social responsibility Attitudes to marketing communications • Immoral business activity • By the promotion of products /services beyond reach of many consumers, marketing communication held responsible for many of the underlying ills of society • Response – Cause related marketing – Increase credibility and authority of some brands in form of sponsorship Ethical Concerns • Misleading or false advertising • Shocking, tasteless or indecent material • High pressure sales techniques • Intrusion on personal privacy (telesales) • PR that confuses rather than communicates • Payment of bribes to win business Issues • Advertising to children • The depiction of women in advertising • Product labelling • Confusion pricing Ethics in Marketing Communications • Truthtelling let the • Vulnerable groups buyer beware • Privacy respect for • Puffery persons embellishment, • Taste decency incorrect statements, • Hospitality, incentives false promises inducements • Selling complex • Influence of reward products systems in selling • Truthtelling in PR Ethical Decision Making Models • Consumer capability is the target market vulnerable in ways that limit consumer decision making • Information are consumer expectations at purchase likely to be realized Do consumers have sufficient information to judge • Choice can consumers go elsewhere Would they incur substantial costs or inconvenience in transferring their loyalty (Smith, 1995) Ethical Decision Making Models • The Golden Rule act in a way that you would expect others to act towards you • The Professional Ethic take only actions which would be viewed as proper by an objective panel of your professional colleagues • Categorical Imperative act in a way that the action taken under the circumstances could be a universal law of behaviour • The TV Test would I feel comfortable explaining this action to the general public on the TV • The outcomes of the decision performance, rewards, satisfaction feedback (Laczniak Murphy, 1991) Societal marketing Social marketing concept holds that the organisation’s task is to determine the needs, wants and interests of the target markets and to then deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that maintains or improves the consumer’s and society’s well being Kotler (2000)
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