Question? Leave a message!




LAN technologies

LAN technologies 21
Computer Communication Networks (CCN) Chapter 5: Data Link Layer: Part II 1Summary of MAC protocols • What do you do with a shared media • Channel Partitioning: time, frequency or code • Time Division,Code Division, Frequency Division • Random partitioning (dynamic), • ALOHA, SALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD • carrier sensing: easy in some technoligies (wire), hard in others (wireless) • CSMA/CD used in Ethernet • Taking Turns • polling from a central cite, token passing Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 2LAN technologies Data link layer so far: • services, error detection/correction, multiple access Next: LAN technologies • addressing • Ethernet • hubs, bridges, switches • 802.11 • PPP • ATM Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 3LAN Addresses and ARP 1 32bit IP address: • networklayer address • used to get datagram to destination network (recall IP network definition) LAN (or MAC or physical) address: • used to get datagram from one interface to another physicallyconnected interface (same network) • 48 bit MAC address (for most LANs) burned in the adapter ROM Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 4LAN Addresses and ARP 2 Each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 5LAN Address (more) • MAC address allocation administered by IEEE • manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space (to assure uniqueness) • Analogy: (a) MAC address: like Social Security Number (b) IP address: like postal address • MAC flat address = portability • can move LAN card from one LAN to another • IP hierarchical address NOT portable • depends on network to which one attaches Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 6Recall earlier routing discussion A Starting at A, given IP 223.1.1.1 223.1.2.1 datagram addressed to B: 223.1.1.2 223.1.2.9 223.1.1.4 • look up net. address of B, B 223.1.2.2 E 223.1.1.3 223.1.3.27 find B on same net. as A 223.1.3.2 223.1.3.1 • link layer send datagram to B inside linklayer frame frame source, datagram source, dest address dest address A’s IP B’s IP B’s MAC A’s MAC IP payload addr addr addr addr datagram frame Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 7ARP: Address Resolution Protocol Question: how to • Each IP node (Host, Router) determine on LAN has ARP module, MAC address of B table given B’s IP address • ARP Table: IP/MAC address mappings for some LAN nodes IP address; MAC address; TTL ………………………….. • TTL (Time To Live): time after which address mapping will be forgotten (typically 20 min) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 8ARP protocol • A knows B's IP address, wants to learn physical address of B • A broadcasts ARP query pkt, containing B's IP address • all machines on LAN receive ARP query • B receives ARP packet, replies to A with its (B's) physical layer address • A caches (saves) IPtophysical address pairs until information becomes old (times out) • soft state: information that times out (goes away) unless refreshed Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 9Routing to another LAN 1 Walkthrough: routing from A to B via R Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 10Routing to another LAN 2 • A creates IP packet with source A, destination B • A uses ARP to get R’s physical layer address for 111.111.111.110 • A creates Ethernet frame with R's physical address as dest, Ethernet frame contains AtoB IP datagram • A’s data link layer sends Ethernet frame Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 11Routing to another LAN 3 • R’s data link layer receives Ethernet frame • R removes IP datagram from Ethernet frame, sees its destined to B • R uses ARP to get B’s physical layer address • R creates frame containing AtoB IP datagram sends to B Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 12Ethernet “Dominant” LAN technology: • Cheap 20 for 100Mbs • First widely used LAN technology • Simpler, cheaper than token LANs and ATM • Kept up with speed race: 10, 100, 1000 Mbps Metcalfe’s Ethernet sketch Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 13Ethernet Frame Structure 1 Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame Preamble: • 7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by one byte with pattern 10101011 • Used to synchronize receiver, sender clock rates Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 14Ethernet Frame Structure 2 • Addresses: 6 bytes, frame is received by all adapters on a LAN and dropped if address does not match • Type: indicates the higher layer protocol, mostly IP but others may be supported such as Novell IPX and AppleTalk) • CRC: checked at receiver, if error is detected, the frame is simply dropped Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 15Ethernet • Ethernet uses 1persistent CSMA/CD on coaxial cable at 10 Mbps (802.3 allows other speeds media) • The maximum cable length allowed: 500m • Longer distances covered using repeaters to connect multiple “segments” of cable • No two stations can be separated by more than 2500 meters and 4 repeaters • Including the propagation delay for 2500m and the store and forward delay in 4 repeaters, the maximum time for a bit to travel between any two stations is  =25.6se (one way) max Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 16Ethernet: uses CSMA/CD A: sense channel, if idle then transmit and monitor the channel; If detect another transmission then abort and send jam signal; update collisions; delay as required by exponential backoff algorithm; goto A else done with the frame; set collisions to zero else wait until ongoing transmission is over and goto A Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 17Ethernet’s CSMA/CD • In order to ensure that every collision i s “heard" by all stations, when a station detects a collision , it jams the channel for • Example • Two stations, A and B, are close together • A third station, C, is far away • A and B will detect each other’s transmission very quickly and shut off • This will only cause a short blip which may not be detected by C but will still cause enough errors to destroy C’s packet Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 18Ethernet’s CSMA/CD • When collisions occur, Ethernet uses a random retransmission scheme called exponential backoff: 1.If your packet is in a collision, set K=2 2.Pick a number k at random from 0, 1,..,K1 3.After  seconds, sense channel, transmit if max idle 4.If collision occurs, let K=2 x K, go to step 2 • After 10 repeats, stop doubling K • After 16, give up and tell layer above “I give up” • “Fixes” random access stability problem by passing it to the layer above Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 19Ethernet Technologies: 10Base2 • 10: 10Mbps; 2: under 200 meters max cable length • Thin coaxial cable in a bus topology • Repeaters used to connect up to multiple segments • Repeater repeats bits it hears on one interface to its other interfaces: physical layer device Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 2010BaseT and 100BaseT 1 • 10/100 Mbps rate; latter called “fast ethernet” • T stands for Twisted Pair • Hub to which nodes are connected by twisted pair, thus “star topology” • CSMA/CD implemented at hub Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 2110BaseT and 100BaseT 1 • Max distance from node to Hub is 100 meters • Hub can disconnect “jabbering adapter • Hub can gather monitoring information, statistics for display to LAN administrators Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 22Gbit Ethernet • Use standard Ethernet frame format • Allows for pointtopoint links and shared broadcast channels • In shared mode, CSMA/CD is used; short distances between nodes to be efficient • Uses hubs, called here “Buffered Distributors” • FullDuplex at 1 Gbps for pointtopoint links Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 23Token Rings (IEEE 802.5) • A ring topology is a single unidirectional loop connecting a series of stations in sequence • Each bit is stored and forwarded by each station’s network interface Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 24Token Rings: IEEE 802.5 1 • Versions that operate at 1, 4, and 16 Mbps over shielded twisted pair copper wire • Max token holding time: 10 ms, limiting frame length • SD, ED mark start, end of packet Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 25Token Ring: IEEE 802.5 2 AC: access control byte: • Token bit: value 0 means token can be seized, value 1 means data follows FC • Priority bits: priority of packet • Reservation bits: station can write these bits to prevent stations with lower priority packet from seizing token after token becomes free Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 26Token Ring: IEEE 802.5 3 • FC: frame control used for monitoring and maintenance • Source, destination address: 48 bit physical address, as in Ethernet • Data: packet from network layer • Checksum: CRC • FS: frame status: set by dest., read by sender • set to indicate destination up, frame copied OK from ring • DLClevel ACKing Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 27Token Ring: IEEE 802.5 4 • After transmitting one or more packets (depending on the rules of the protocol), the node transmits a new token to the next node in one of 3 ways: 1.Single Packet Mode: Token is transmitted after receiving the last bit of transmitted packet(s) 2.Multiple Token Mode: Token is transmitted immediately after the last bit of the packet(s) is transmitted • In small rings, the last two are the same Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 28Interconnecting LANs Q: Why not just one big LAN • Limited amount of supportable traffic: on single LAN, all stations must share bandwidth • Limited length: 802.3 specifies maximum cable length • Large “collision domain” (can collide with many stations) • Limited number of stations: 802.5 have token passing delays at each station Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 29Hubs 1 • Physical Layer devices: essentially repeaters operating at bit levels: repeat received bits on one interface to all other interfaces • Hubs can be arranged in a hierarchy (or multitier design), with backbone hub at its top Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 30Hubs 2 • Each connected LAN referred to as LAN segment • Hubs do not isolate collision domains: node may collide with any node residing at any segment in LAN • Hub Advantages: • simple, inexpensive device • Multitier provides graceful degradation: portions of the LAN continue to operate if one hub malfunctions • extends maximum distance between node pairs (100m per Hub) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 31Hub limitations • Single collision domain results in no increase in max throughput • multitier throughput same as single segment throughput • Individual LAN restrictions pose limits on number of nodes in same collision domain and on total allowed geographical coverage • Cannot connect different Ethernet types (e.g., 10BaseT and 100baseT) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 32Bridges 1 • Link Layer devices: operate on Ethernet frames, examining frame header and selectively forwarding frame based on its destination • Bridge isolates collision domains since it buffers frames • When frame is to be forwarded on segment, bridge uses CSMA/CD to access segment and transmit Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 33Bridges 2 • Bridge advantages: • Isolates collision domains resulting in higher total max throughput, and does not limit the number of nodes nor geographical coverage • Can connect different type Ethernet since it is a store and forward device • Transparent: no need for any change to hosts LAN adapters Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 34Bridges: frame filtering, forwarding • Bridges filter packets • SameLAN segment frames not forwarded onto other LAN segments • Forwarding: • How to know which LAN segment on which to forward frame • Looks like a routing problem (more shortly) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 35Backbone Bridge Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 36Interconnection Without Backbone • Not recommended for two reasons: Single point of failure at Computer Science hub All traffic between EE and SE must path over CS segment Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 37Bridge Filtering 1 • Bridges learn which hosts can be reached through which interfaces: maintain filtering tables • when frame received, bridge “learns” location of sender: incoming LAN segment • records sender location in filtering table • Filtering table entry: • (Node LAN Address, Bridge Interface, Time Stamp) • stale entries in Filtering Table dropped (TTL can be 60 minutes) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 38Bridge Filtering 2 • Filtering procedure: if destination is on LAN on which frame was received then drop the frame else lookup filtering table if entry found for destination then forward the frame on interface indicated; else flood; / forward on all but the interface on which the frame arrived/ Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 39Bridge Learning: example 1 Suppose C sends frame to D and D replies back with frame to C • C sends frame, bridge has no info about D, so floods to both LANs • bridge notes that C is on port 1 • frame ignored on upper LAN • frame received by D Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 40Bridge Learning: example 2 • D generates reply to C, sends • bridge sees frame from D • bridge notes that D is on interface 2 • bridge knows C on interface 1, so selectively forwards frame out via interface 1 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 41Bridges Spanning Tree • For increased reliability, desirable to have redundant, alternate paths from source to dest • With multiple simultaneous paths, cycles result bridges may multiply and forward frame forever • Solution: organize bridges in a spanning tree by disabling subset of interfaces Disabled Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 42WWF Bridges vs. Routers • Both storeandforward devices • routers: network layer devices (examine network layer headers) • bridges are Link Layer devices • Routers maintain routing tables, implement routing algorithms • Bridges maintain filtering tables, implement filtering, learning and spanning tree algorithms Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 43Routers vs. Bridges 1 Bridges + and + Bridge operation is simpler requiring less processing bandwidth Topologies are restricted with bridges: a spanning tree must be built to avoid cycles Bridges do not offer protection from broadcast storms (endless broadcasting by a host will be forwarded by a bridge) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 44Routers vs. Bridges 2 Routers + and + arbitrary topologies can be supported, cycling is limited by TTL counters (and good routing protocols) + provide firewall protection against broadcast storms require IP address configuration (not plug and play) require higher processing bandwidth • Bridges do well in small (few hundred hosts) while routers used in large networks (thousands of hosts) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute © Shivkumar Kalvanaraman © Biplab Sikdar 45
Website URL
Comment