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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
Chapter 5 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMManagement Information System – course outline • Data and Information • Need, function and Importance of MIS • Evolution of MIS • Organizational Structure and MIS • Computers and MIS • Classification of Information Systems • Information Support for functional areas of management • Organizing Information Systems www.ThesisScientist.comManagement Information System Management: The direction of enterprises toward the achievement of a predetermined objectives. It is carried out by managers. Information: An aggregate of facts so organized as to provide knowledge. It is an output obtained by processing data as input. System: An assembly of procedure, processes, methods or techniques united by some form of regulated interaction to form an organized whole. Management Information System (MIS) can be defined as “a system of obtaining, abstracting, storing and analyzing data (new facts) to produce information for use in planning, controlling, and decision making by yielding information for managers, at the time they can most effectively use it”. www.ThesisScientist.com1. Data and Information Data:  Un interpreted raw statement of facts.  Group of nonrandom symbols (works, valves, figures) which represent things that have happened .  Obtained by research or observation.  Eg. Payroll, bank statement etc. Information:  Aggregate of facts so organized as to provide the desired knowledge.  Data that have been interpreted and understand by the recipient of the message.  Can have different meaning to different people. www.ThesisScientist.com1. Data and Information Difference between Data Information Data Information Processing (Input) (Output) Feedback/ Control www.ThesisScientist.com1. Data and Information Qualities of Good Information 1. Accuracy 2. Timeliness 3. Completeness 4. Conciseness 5. Relevancy 6. Frequency 7. Understandable www.ThesisScientist.com2. Need, Function and Importance of MIS Needs: Production managers: production costs, labor costs, machine costs, overhead costs. Marketing managers: new product development, new product sales trend, selling costs, market research. Personnel managers: work forces turnover, absenteeism, employ skill level, labor markets, wage level. www.ThesisScientist.com2. Need, Function and Importance of MIS Functions: 1. Determination of information needs. (How much How, when and by whom What) 2. Evaluation. ( How much confidence) 3. Abstraction. ( Editing and reducing incoming information) 4. Dissemination. ( Getting the right information to the right manager at the right time) www.ThesisScientist.com2. Need, Function and Importance of MIS www.ThesisScientist.com2. Need, Function and Importance of MIS Importance: 1. Provides relevant information available in the right form at the right time. 2. Bring the new facts to the knowledge of the management. 3. Supply the desired information at a reasonable cost. 4. Keep the information up to date. 5. Store the important and confidential information properly for utilizing it for decisionmaking whenever required. 6. Focus on those decisions where benefit/cost ratio is attractive. 7. Supply reliable and logical data. 8. Provide data for carrying out the major management functions. www.ThesisScientist.com3. Evolution of MIS  Digital computers 1959,  Electronic data processing (EDP)  Focus on record keeping  Card punching machine  Computer languages  Personal computers  Direct end user involvement  Steady performance  User friendly and graphical user interface.  Design support system (DSS)  Operation research  Executive information system (EIS) www.ThesisScientist.com4. Organizational Structure and MIS The nature of organizations determines their activities, the information support they need, and the type of information systems they use  profitmaking business versus notforprofit organizations exist  manufacture goods versus services are delivered  can be located in one place or in several places, some are global or multinational organizations MIS has been described as a pyramidal structure, with four levels of information resources. The levels of information would depend upon the organizational structure. www.ThesisScientist.com4. Organizational Structure and MIS The top level supports strategic planning and policy making at the highest level of management. The second level of information resources aid tactical planning and decision making for management control. The third level supports daytoday operations and control. The bottom level consists of information for transaction processing. It then follows that since decision making is specific to hierarchical levels in an organization, the information requirements at each level vary accordingly. Thus, MIS as a support system draws upon: • concepts of organization; • organizational theories, principles, structure, behavior and processes such as communication, power and decision making; and • motivation and leadership behavior. www.ThesisScientist.com4. Organizational Structure and MIS www.ThesisScientist.com5. Computers and MIS Computers are means of management information system. With the use of computers MIS will be efficient and effective. But, the mere fact of using a computer does not itself mean that work is done more efficiently. It is also not necessary that better information is produced. Very often computers are introduced in an attempt to solve technical problem when the real problem is one concerned with management or other things. It is therefore essential that problems are clearly identified before a computer system is used. For clarity, the use of computers will be outlined in two broad categories: 1. The routine processing of daytoday transactions, known as data processing or transaction processing. 2. The use of computers by the endusers themselves. The end users include mangers, accountants, office staff, sales people, executive and others. www.ThesisScientist.com5. Computers and MIS Both data processing and enduser computing produce management information. The key difference is that data processing systems supply pre determined outputs and reports so there is less flexibility. This means that great care must be taken in analyzing and determining managements real information needs before the system is designed. On the other hand with enduser computing there is more flexibility and interaction so that the emphasis becomes one of supporting the end user rather than the production of a specified report. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems An information system is a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that are designed to generate information that supports the daytoday, shortrange, and longrange activities of users in an organization. Information systems generally are classified into four categories: • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) • Management Information Systems (MIS) • DecisionSupport Systems (DSS) • Executive Support Systems (ESS) www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems Transaction Processing Systems A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data generated during anorganization’s daytoday transactions. A transaction is a business activity such as a deposit, payment, order or reservation. • Basic business systems that serve the operational level. • A computerized system that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to the conduct of the business. • Today, most transaction processing systems use online transaction processing. Some routine processing tasks such as calculating paychecks or printing invoices, however, are performed more effectively on a batch basis. For these activities, many organizations still use batch processing techniques. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems A Symbolic Representation for a Payroll TPS www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems Management Information Systems (MIS) Management level • Inputs: High volume transaction level data • Processing: Simple models • Outputs: Summary reports • Users: Middle managers Example: Annual budgeting A management information system, or MIS (pronounced emeyeess), is an information system that generates accurate, timely and organized information so managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress. Because it generates reports on a regular basis, a management information system sometimes is called amanagementreporting system(MRS). An MIS generates three basic types of information: detailed, summary and exception. Detailed information typically confirms transaction processing activities. A Detailed Order Report is an example of a detail report. Summary information consolidates data into a format that an individual can review quickly and easily. To help synopsize information, a summary report typically contains totals, tables, or graphs. An Inventory Summary Report is an example of a summaryreport www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems DecisionSupport Systems (DSS) Management level • Inputs: Transaction level data • Processing: Interactive • Outputs: Decision analysis • Users: Professionals, staff Example: Contract cost analysis A decision support system (DSS) is an information system designed to help users reach a decision when a decisionmaking situation arises. A variety of DSSs exist to help with a range of decisions. A decision support system uses data from internal and/or external sources. Internal sources of data might include sales, manufacturing, inventory, or financial data from anorganization’s database. Data from external sources could include interest rates, population trends, and costs of new housing construction or raw material pricing. Users of a DSS, often managers, can manipulate the data used in the DSS to help with decisions. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems Voyageestimating decisionsupport system www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS (ESS) Management level • Inputs: Aggregate data • Processing: Interactive • Outputs: Projections • Users: Senior managers Example: 5 year operating plan An expert system is an information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decisionmaking processes for those who have less expertise. Expert systems are composed of two main components: a knowledge base and inference rules. A knowledge base is the combined subject knowledge and experiences of the human experts. The inference rules are a set of logical judgments applied to the knowledge base each time a user describes a situation to the expert system. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems Model of a Typical Executive Support System www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems Integrated Information Systems Withtoday’s sophisticated hardware, software and communications technologies, it often is difficult to classify a system as belonging uniquely to one of the five information system types discussed. Much of today’s application software supports transaction processing and generates management information. Other applications provide transaction processing, management information, and decision support. Although expert systems still operate primarily as separate systems, organizations increasingly are consolidating their information needs into a single, integrated information system. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Classification of Information Systems Interrelationships among systems www.ThesisScientist.com7. Information Support for functional areas of management www.ThesisScientist.com8. Organizing Information Systems www.ThesisScientist.com8. Organizing Information Systems www.ThesisScientist.comwww.ThesisScientist.com