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Scalable and Emerging Information System Techniques

Scalable and Emerging Information System Techniques
Scalable and Emerging Information System Techniques www.ThesisScientist.com 1Big Data • Big Data applies to information that can’t be processed or analyzed using traditional processes or tools. www.ThesisScientist.com 2Techniques for Voluminous Data • Cloud Computing is an efficient method to balance between dealing with voluminous data and keeping costs competitive, is designed to deliver IT services consumable on demand, is scalable as per user need and uses a payperuse model. • Business houses are progressively turn towards retaining core competencies, and shedding the noncore competencies for ondemand technology, business innovation and savings. www.ThesisScientist.com 3Cloud Computing • Cloud computing consists of hardware and software resources made available on the internet as managed thirdparty services. • These services typically provide access to advanced software applications and highend networks of server computers. • Cloud computing is comparable to grid computing, a type of computing where unused processing cycles of all computers in a network are connect to solve problems too intensive for any standalone machine. www.ThesisScientist.com 4Cloud Computing Layers www.ThesisScientist.com 5Types of Cloud Computing SaaS (Software as a Service): This is the idea of providing a given application to multiple tenants, typically using the browser which supports business applications of host and delivery type as a service. End Customers for instance Google Doc, Myspace.com Common features of SaaS: a) User applications run on cloud infrastructure b) Accessible by users through web browser c) Suitable for CRM (Customer Resource Management) applications www.ThesisScientist.com 6 d) Supports multitenant environment Types of Cloud Computing PaaS (Platform as a Service): This is a variant of SaaS. You run your own applications but you do it on the cloud provider’s infrastructure. Provides a comprehensive stack for developers to create Cloudready business applications. Developers for instance Force.com, Google App Engine, Azure and Salesforce.com etc Features of PaaS are: a) Supports webservice standards b) Dynamically scalable as per demand c) Supports multitenant environment www.ThesisScientist.com 7Types of Cloud Computing IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service): These are virtual storage and server options that organizations can access on demand, even allowing the creation of a virtual data center. Delivers computing hardware like Servers, Network, Storage, etc. For instance Rackspace.com, GoGrid.com etc. Typical features are: a)Users use resources but have no control of underlying cloud infrastructure b)Users pay for what they use c)Flexible scalable infrastructure without extensive preplanning www.ThesisScientist.com 8Benefit of Cloud Computing • Reduced Cost : Cloud technology is paid incrementally, saving organizations money. • Increased Storage: Organizations can store more data than on private computer systems. • Highly Automated: No longer do IT personnel need to worry about keeping software up to date. • Flexibility: Cloud computing offers much more flexibility than past computing methods. • More Mobility: Employees can access information wherever they are, rather than having to remain at their desks. • Allows IT to Shift Focus: No longer having to worry about constant server updates and other computing issues, government organizations will be free to concentrate on innovation. www.ThesisScientist.com 9MapReduce • MapReduce is a software framework that allows developers to write programs that process massive amounts of unstructured data in parallel across a distributed cluster of processors or standalone computers. • It was developed at Google for indexing Web pages and replaced their original indexing algorithms and heuristics in 2004. www.ThesisScientist.com 10MapReduce and Hadoop Systems • MapReduce is the heart of Hadoop. • MapReduce allows data to be distributed across a large cluster, and can distribute out tasks across the data set to work on pieces of it independently, and in parallel. • This allows big data to be processed in relatively little time. • Apache has produced an open source MapReduce platform called Hadoop. www.ThesisScientist.com 11Framework is divided into two parts • Map, a function that parcels out work to different nodes in the distributed cluster. • Reduce, another function that collates the work and resolves the results into a single value. • The MapReduce framework is fault tolerant because each node in the cluster is expected to report back periodically with completed work and status updates. If a node remains silent for longer than the expected interval, a master node makes note and re assigns the work to other nodes. www.ThesisScientist.com 12MapReduce Interaction Map functions create a userdefined “index” from source data • Reduce functions compute grouped aggregates based on index • Flexible framework •users can cast raw original data in any model that they need •wide range of tasks can be expressed in this simple www.ThesisScientist.com 13 frameworkHadoop System • Developed by Apache as an open source distributed MapReduce platform, based off of Google's MapReduce. • Runs on a Java architecture framework that supports the processing of large data sets in a distributed computing environment. • Hadoop allows businesses to process large amounts of data quickly by distributing the work across several nodes. • Good for Big data sets and on large cluster. www.ThesisScientist.com 14Hadoop A Key Business Tool Hadoop System is used by Large ContentDistribution Companies, such as... Yahoo • Hadoop is used for many of their tasks, and over 25,000 computers are running Hadoop. Amazon • Hadoop is good for Amazon, they have lots of product data, as well as usergenerated content to index, and make searchable. New York Times • Hadoop is used to perform largescale image conversions of public domain articles. www.ThesisScientist.com 15Hadoop A Key Business Tool Used by NonContentDistribution Companies, such as • Facebook • eHarmony Other early adopters include anyone with big data: • medical records • tax records • network traffic • large quantities of data Wherever there is a lot of data, a Hadoop cluster can generally process it relatively quickly. www.ThesisScientist.com 16Data Management in the Cloud • Data management applications are potential candidates for deployment in the cloud – Industry: enterprise database system have significant up front cost that includes both hardware and software costs – Academia: manage, process and share massproduced data in the cloud • Many “Cloud Killer Apps” are in fact dataintensive – Batch Processing as with MapReduce – Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) as in automated business applications – Offline Analytical Processing (OLAP) as in data mining or machine learning www.ThesisScientist.com 17Data Management in the cloud • A database system must implement for it to run well in the cloud, in potential database applications to consider for cloud deployment. • Data management applications are best suited for deployment on top of cloud computing infrastructure. • Data management is the proper management of a data resource for an organization. Data management consists of a set of theories, concepts, principles, and techniques for properly managing data. • The primary objective is to support the business information as needs of the organization. www.ThesisScientist.com 18Data Management in Cloud There are three characteristics of a cloud computing environment. • Compute power is elastic, but only if workload is parallelizable. • Data is stored at untrusted host. • Data is replicated, often across large geographic distances www.ThesisScientist.com 19Information Retrieval • Information retrieval is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. • Searches can be based on metadata or on full text indexing. • Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called “information overload”. www.ThesisScientist.com 20Information Retrieval in the Cloud • IR user seeks actively information, pulling at it, by means of querying or browsing. • In tag querying, user enters one or more tags in the search box to obtain an ordered list of resources which were in relation with these tags. • When a user is scanning this list, the system also provide a list of related tags (i.e. tags with a high degree of cooccurrence with the original tag), allowing hypertext Browsing. www.ThesisScientist.com 21Information Retrieval System • Typically it refers to the automatic (rather than manual) retrieval of documents • Information Retrieval System (IRS) • Information Retrieval is a researchdriven theoretical and experimental discipline – The focus is on different aspects of the information–seeking process, depending on the researcher’s background or interest: • Computer scientist – fast and accurate search engine • Librarian – organization and indexing of information • Cognitive scientist – the process in the searcher’s mind • Philosopher – Is this really relevant www.ThesisScientist.com 22The stages of IR Information Creation Indexing, organizing Indexed Retrieval and structured • Searching information • Browsing www.ThesisScientist.com 23The formalized IR process Real world Anomalous state of knowledge Information need Collection of documents Query Document representations Matching Results www.ThesisScientist.com 24Stopwords / Stoplist • Function words do not bear useful information for IR of, in, about, with, I, although, … • Stoplist: contain Stopwords, not to be used as index – Prepositions – Articles – Pronouns – Some adverbs and adjectives – Some frequent words (e.g. document) • The removal of stopwords usually improves IR effectiveness • A few “standard” stoplists are commonly used. www.ThesisScientist.com 25Stemming • Reason: – Different word forms may bear similar meaning (e.g. search, searching): create a “standard” representation for them • Stemming: – Removing some endings of word computer compute computes computing comput computed computation www.ThesisScientist.com 26Link Analysis in Cloud Setup • The web is not just a collection of documents – its hyperlinks are important • A link from page A to page B may indicate: – A is related to B, or – A is recommending, citing, voting for or endorsing B • Links are either – referential – click here and get back home, or – Informational – click here to get more detail • Links effect the ranking of web pages and thus have commercial value. www.ThesisScientist.com 27• See More on Chapter 7 for Link Analysis Thank you www.ThesisScientist.com 28
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