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The Evolution of Mobile Technologies:

The Evolution of Mobile Technologies: 22
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Nataliebarry,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:13-07-2017
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June 2014 The Evolution of Mobile Technologies: 1G  2G  3G  4G LTE 1 The mobile experience is expanding everywhere Billions of Mobile Connections Billions of Mobile Experiences “ ” 25 Billion Interconnected devices 2 forecast in 2020 7 Billion Mobile connections, almost as many as 100 Billion 270 Billion 1 people on Earth App downloads App downloads 3 3 completed in 2013 expected in 2017 2 1 2 3 Source: GSMA Intelligence, Apr. ‘14; Source: Machina Research, ‘13; Source: Gartner, Sep. ‘13 Mobile is an amazing technical achievement Mind-blowing Performance Reliable Connectivity with processing power greater overcoming signal loss resulting in than the most advanced super computers receiving signal 100 trillion times weaker All in a device 1 3 of the early 1990s than when it originated that fits in Jaw-dropping Graphics Broadband Speeds your pocket with capability to process several with blazing fast data rates capable 2 4 thousand megapixels per second of 300+ Mbps 2 High Quality Multimedia Long Battery Life 4K UltraHD video player/recorder with ability to power all these amazing HD gaming console experiences with less energy than it takes 5 5.1/7.1 surround sound system to power a light bulb for 15 minutes High resolution digital camera 1 2 TM 3 Source: Charlie White, Sep. '13 &, Sep’13; Based on latest Qualcomm® Snapdragon 800 series processors; Based on 140 dB path loss typical in mobile; 3 4 5 Based on peak data rates for LTE Advanced; Based on 2,000 mAh smartphone battery and 60W light-bulb Connectivity is the foundation of a great mobile experience Connect Reliably Talk and browse without interruption Connect On-the-Go with more bars in more places Connect Real-Time Talk and browse with seamless Get instant access to content with mobility anywhere you get a signal less delay for “always-on” experience Connect Fast Connect Longer Stream, surf, upload, and download Go longer without plugging in with fast, predictable data rates with improved battery efficiency Delivering rich mobile broadband experiences 4 Powered by evolving mobile technologies for better experiences Mobile 1G Mobile 2G Mobile 3G Mobile 4G LTE AMPS, NMT, TACS D-AMPS, GSM/GPRS, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE, LTE Advanced cdmaOne WCDMA/HSPA+, TD-SCDMA 1 2 3 N/A 0.5 Mbps 63+ Mbps 300+ Mbps Analog Voice Digital Voice + Simple Data Mobile Broadband Faster and Better More Richer Content Connections (Video) 1 2 Peak data rate for GSM/GPRS, latest Evolved EDGE has peak DL data rates capable of up to 1.2 Mbps; Peak data rate for HSPA+ DL 3-carrier CA; HSPA+ specification includes additional potential CA + use of multiple antennas, but no announcements to 5 3 date; Peak data rate for LTE Advanced Cat 6 with 20 + 20 MHz DL CA; LTE specification includes additional potential CA + additional use of multiple antennas, but no announcements to date Evolving mobile technologies deliver great mobile experiences Appreciating the magic of mobile requires understanding the evolution from 1G to 4G LTE 3G optimized mobile for data 1G established seamless mobile enabling mobile broadband connectivity introducing mobile 1 3 services, and is evolving for faster voice services and better connectivity 4G LTE delivers more capacity for 2G digital wireless technologies faster and better mobile increased voice capacity delivering 2 4 broadband experiences, and is also mobile to the masses expanding in to new frontiers Qualcomm has been at the forefront of this evolution, pushing wireless boundaries to 5 enable the best mobile experiences 6 Mobile 1G established the foundation of mobile 1 2 3 Licensed Spectrum Frequency Reuse Mobile Network Cleared spectrum for exclusive use Reusing frequencies without interference Coordinated network for seamless by mobile technologies through geographical separation access and seamless mobility PSTN (landline) Operator-deployed base stations Neighboring cells operate on different Integrated, transparent backhaul provide access for subscribers frequencies to avoid interference network provides seamless access 7 Mobile 1G was amazing, but limited Support for only 1 user per channel Requires large gap of spectrum between users to avoid interference Frequency Spectrum is a finite resource like land; mobile spectrum is extremely valuable land (e.g., beach-front property) Radio channels are like roads Analog voice consumed built on this land to deliver voice channel – 1 call per channel services to users 8 1G analog voice was amazing, but limited Limited Capacity Limited Scalability Analog transmissions are inefficient at Analog devices are large/heavy, power using limited spectrum inefficient, and high cost A B Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Large frequency gap required between users to avoid interference B A 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz Support for only 1 user (analog phone call) per channel 9 Example shown based on AMPS 1G technology Mobile 2G digital technologies increased voice capacity Delivering mobile voice services to the masses – more people, in more places Mobile 2G D-AMPS, GSM/GPRS, cdmaOne Mobile 1G Mobile for the Masses AMPS, NMT, TACS More Voice Capacity Foundation of Mobile Seamless Mobility 1010110100111000 1980s 1990s 10 Early Mobile 2G technologies enabled more users per channel STILL required large gap of spectrum between users to avoid interference Supported 1 user per channel Frequency Rigid delivery schedule whether or Digital voice compressed not the user is actively talking into smaller “packages” 11 Mobile 2G digital wireless technologies enabled more users Initial 2G technologies (D-AMPS, GSM) based on TDMA More Voice Capacity Scalable Technology Digital transmissions enable compressed voice and Digital components cost/weight far less plus deliver multiplexing multiple users per channel more secure signal Voice Encoder (Vocoder) Compressed Voice Signal 8 kb per second Uncompressed Voice Signal 64 kb per second (pocket-sized) 1 user per radio channel A B C Time 30 kHz Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Allows multiple users per radio channel with each user talking one at a time 12 Different Mobile 2G TDMA techniques were standardized Only one user per radio channel Mobile 1G (Analog) User A AMPS, NMT, TACS Time 30 kHz Mobile 2G (Digital) Three users per radio channel D-AMPS A B C A B C Standardized as IS-54 by TIA in 1992 Time Mainly in North America 30 kHz No longer utilized Mobile 2G (Digital) Eight users per radio channel GSM A B C D E F G H A B C D E F G H Standardized by ETSI in 1990 (phase 1) 200 Time Initiated in Europe kHz 1 Still widely used today (4B connections WW ) Simple data services with GPRS 13 1 Source: GSMA Intelligence, May ‘14 TDMA still required large frequency gaps to reduce interference E Also required potentially B A unreliable “hard” handoffs F Switch channels between adjacent C D cells – potential for dropped calls Channel 5 Channel 8 Channel 1 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 6 Channel 7 Channel 2 Frequency Gap 14 (not used in green cell) CDMA utilizes all the available spectrum to support more users Ability to support many Utilize all available more users (10x 1G) CDMA spectrum with same spectrum Frequency No rigid delivery schedule – delivery truck can take Each users advantage of when user is not information talking to support more callers coded with unique code 15 Qualcomm solved the seemingly impossible wireless challenge CDMA enables users to share the same frequency and communicate at the same time At the Receiver At the Transmitter Other signals Reconstruct using Spread using Code A look like noise User A Code A User A Reconstruct using Spread using Code B + User B Code B User B + Reconstruct using Spread using Code C User C Code C User C Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Voice Voice Voice Multiple users can talk at same time using Voice Voice Voice different languages (“codes”) Voice 16 1.25 MHz Qualcomm solved complex challenges to commercialize CDMA 1 2 3 Near-Far Power Challenge Cell-Edge Challenge Multipath Fading Challenge Users close to the tower overpower Interference caused by users in close Interference caused by the reception of the uplink signal minimizing capacity proximity, on the same frequency, and the same signal over multiple paths on the shared channel communicating with different towers resulting in poor signal-to-noise ratio Solution: Solution: Solution: Continuous control of transmit Users simultaneously communicate Advanced (“rake”) receivers combine power based on signal strength with multiple towers at cell edge energy of multiple signal paths Path A A B Path B + User A Path C Up to 1,000,000 X User A + Soft (vs. Hard) Handoffs User B User B Signal Strength Noise Additional benefit of simultaneous Without Power Control With Power Control at Receiver Signal Power at Tower Signal Power at Tower connections – more reliable handoffs 17 CDMA delivered unprecedented voice capacity and much more Qualcomm efforts lead to new CDMA standard (IS-95) referred to as cdmaOne 2 CDMA Timeline CDMA Benefits February 1990 14x Increased voice capacity by several times First CDMA field trial completed by Provided more efficient use of spectrum resources Qualcomm and NYNEX March 1992 Increased battery life in mobile devices Standards committee formed in Better security with CDMA encoding Telecommunications Industry Association May 1995 IS-95 revision A (cdmaOne) released December 1995 3x Reference First commercial deployment (1x) December 1999 cdmaOne subscribers pass 50 million worldwide (80 operators in 30 countries) Analog GSM cdmaOne 1980s 1990s 1990s 1 CDMA is the foundation for Potential Voice Capacity Improvements Mobile 3G technologies 18 1 2 Approximate total number of subscribers serviced within same spectrum based on AMPS (1G), GSM and cdmaOne technology commercial deployed in 1990s; Source: CDG, CDMA established the foundation for 3G technologies Mobile 3G evolved into two competing standards both based on CDMA IS-95 (cdmaOne) CDMA2000 EV-DO (Evolution-Data Optimized) Initial CDMA standard Uses 1.25 MHz carrier; Optimized data channel for CDMA2000 from Qualcomm easy migration from cdmaONE providing mobile broadband services May 1995 July 2000 (Revision A) October 2000 (Release 0) WCDMA (UMTS) HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) Uses 5 MHz carrier; Optimized data channel for WCDMA Evolution leverages GSM core network providing mobile broadband services June 2001 (Release 99) June 2004 (Release 5) Influenced 19 Note: ITU IMT-2000 compliant 3G standards included EDGE, TD-SCDMA, and WiMAX; CDMA2000 and WCDMA were the most commercially successful Mobile 3G evolved mobile for data Introducing high-speed internet access for the first time Mobile 3G CDMA2000/EV-DO, WCDMA/HSPA+, TD-SCDMA Mobile 2G D-AMPS, GSM/GPRS, Mobile Broadband cdmaOne Data Optimized Mobile 1G Mobile for the Masses AMPS, NMT, TACS More Voice Capacity Foundation of Mobile Seamless Mobility 1010110100111000 1980s 1990s 2000s 20