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The Evolution of Mobile Technologies:

The Evolution of Mobile Technologies: 22
June 2014 The Evolution of Mobile Technologies: 1G  2G  3G  4G LTE 1 The mobile experience is expanding everywhere Billions of Mobile Connections Billions of Mobile Experiences “ ” 25 Billion Interconnected devices 2 forecast in 2020 7 Billion Mobile connections, almost as many as 100 Billion 270 Billion 1 people on Earth App downloads App downloads 3 3 completed in 2013 expected in 2017 2 1 2 3 Source: GSMA Intelligence, Apr. ‘14; Source: Machina Research, ‘13; Source: Gartner, Sep. ‘13 Mobile is an amazing technical achievement Mindblowing Performance Reliable Connectivity with processing power greater overcoming signal loss resulting in than the most advanced super computers receiving signal 100 trillion times weaker All in a device 1 3 of the early 1990s than when it originated that fits in Jawdropping Graphics Broadband Speeds your pocket with capability to process several with blazing fast data rates capable 2 4 thousand megapixels per second of 300+ Mbps 2 High Quality Multimedia Long Battery Life 4K UltraHD video player/recorder with ability to power all these amazing HD gaming console experiences with less energy than it takes 5 5.1/7.1 surround sound system to power a light bulb for 15 minutes High resolution digital camera 1 2 TM 3 Source: Charlie White, Sep. '13 giffgaff.com, Sep’13; Based on latest Qualcomm® Snapdragon 800 series processors; Based on 140 dB path loss typical in mobile; 3 4 5 Based on peak data rates for LTE Advanced; Based on 2,000 mAh smartphone battery and 60W lightbulb Connectivity is the foundation of a great mobile experience Connect Reliably Talk and browse without interruption Connect OntheGo with more bars in more places Connect RealTime Talk and browse with seamless Get instant access to content with mobility anywhere you get a signal less delay for “alwayson” experience Connect Fast Connect Longer Stream, surf, upload, and download Go longer without plugging in with fast, predictable data rates with improved battery efficiency Delivering rich mobile broadband experiences 4 Powered by evolving mobile technologies for better experiences Mobile 1G Mobile 2G Mobile 3G Mobile 4G LTE AMPS, NMT, TACS DAMPS, GSM/GPRS, CDMA2000/EVDO, LTE, LTE Advanced cdmaOne WCDMA/HSPA+, TDSCDMA 1 2 3 N/A 0.5 Mbps 63+ Mbps 300+ Mbps Analog Voice Digital Voice + Simple Data Mobile Broadband Faster and Better More Richer Content Connections (Video) 1 2 Peak data rate for GSM/GPRS, latest Evolved EDGE has peak DL data rates capable of up to 1.2 Mbps; Peak data rate for HSPA+ DL 3carrier CA; HSPA+ specification includes additional potential CA + use of multiple antennas, but no announcements to 5 3 date; Peak data rate for LTE Advanced Cat 6 with 20 + 20 MHz DL CA; LTE specification includes additional potential CA + additional use of multiple antennas, but no announcements to date Evolving mobile technologies deliver great mobile experiences Appreciating the magic of mobile requires understanding the evolution from 1G to 4G LTE 3G optimized mobile for data 1G established seamless mobile enabling mobile broadband connectivity introducing mobile 1 3 services, and is evolving for faster voice services and better connectivity 4G LTE delivers more capacity for 2G digital wireless technologies faster and better mobile increased voice capacity delivering 2 4 broadband experiences, and is also mobile to the masses expanding in to new frontiers Qualcomm has been at the forefront of this evolution, pushing wireless boundaries to 5 enable the best mobile experiences 6 Mobile 1G established the foundation of mobile 1 2 3 Licensed Spectrum Frequency Reuse Mobile Network Cleared spectrum for exclusive use Reusing frequencies without interference Coordinated network for seamless by mobile technologies through geographical separation access and seamless mobility PSTN (landline) Operatordeployed base stations Neighboring cells operate on different Integrated, transparent backhaul provide access for subscribers frequencies to avoid interference network provides seamless access 7 Mobile 1G was amazing, but limited Support for only 1 user per channel Requires large gap of spectrum between users to avoid interference Frequency Spectrum is a finite resource like land; mobile spectrum is extremely valuable land (e.g., beachfront property) Radio channels are like roads Analog voice consumed built on this land to deliver voice channel – 1 call per channel services to users 8 1G analog voice was amazing, but limited Limited Capacity Limited Scalability Analog transmissions are inefficient at Analog devices are large/heavy, power using limited spectrum inefficient, and high cost A B Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Large frequency gap required between users to avoid interference B A 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz Support for only 1 user (analog phone call) per channel 9 Example shown based on AMPS 1G technology Mobile 2G digital technologies increased voice capacity Delivering mobile voice services to the masses – more people, in more places Mobile 2G DAMPS, GSM/GPRS, cdmaOne Mobile 1G Mobile for the Masses AMPS, NMT, TACS More Voice Capacity Foundation of Mobile Seamless Mobility 1010110100111000 1980s 1990s 10 Early Mobile 2G technologies enabled more users per channel STILL required large gap of spectrum between users to avoid interference Supported 1 user per channel Frequency Rigid delivery schedule whether or Digital voice compressed not the user is actively talking into smaller “packages” 11 Mobile 2G digital wireless technologies enabled more users Initial 2G technologies (DAMPS, GSM) based on TDMA More Voice Capacity Scalable Technology Digital transmissions enable compressed voice and Digital components cost/weight far less plus deliver multiplexing multiple users per channel more secure signal Voice Encoder (Vocoder) Compressed Voice Signal 8 kb per second Uncompressed Voice Signal 64 kb per second (pocketsized) 1 user per radio channel A B C Time 30 kHz Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Allows multiple users per radio channel with each user talking one at a time 12 Different Mobile 2G TDMA techniques were standardized Only one user per radio channel Mobile 1G (Analog) User A AMPS, NMT, TACS Time 30 kHz Mobile 2G (Digital) Three users per radio channel DAMPS A B C A B C Standardized as IS54 by TIA in 1992 Time Mainly in North America 30 kHz No longer utilized Mobile 2G (Digital) Eight users per radio channel GSM A B C D E F G H A B C D E F G H Standardized by ETSI in 1990 (phase 1) 200 Time Initiated in Europe kHz 1 Still widely used today (4B connections WW ) Simple data services with GPRS 13 1 Source: GSMA Intelligence, May ‘14 TDMA still required large frequency gaps to reduce interference E Also required potentially B A unreliable “hard” handoffs F Switch channels between adjacent C D cells – potential for dropped calls Channel 5 Channel 8 Channel 1 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 6 Channel 7 Channel 2 Frequency Gap 14 (not used in green cell) CDMA utilizes all the available spectrum to support more users Ability to support many Utilize all available more users (10x 1G) CDMA spectrum with same spectrum Frequency No rigid delivery schedule – delivery truck can take Each users advantage of when user is not information talking to support more callers coded with unique code 15 Qualcomm solved the seemingly impossible wireless challenge CDMA enables users to share the same frequency and communicate at the same time At the Receiver At the Transmitter Other signals Reconstruct using Spread using Code A look like noise User A Code A User A Reconstruct using Spread using Code B + User B Code B User B + Reconstruct using Spread using Code C User C Code C User C Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Voice Voice Voice Multiple users can talk at same time using Voice Voice Voice different languages (“codes”) Voice 16 1.25 MHz Qualcomm solved complex challenges to commercialize CDMA 1 2 3 NearFar Power Challenge CellEdge Challenge Multipath Fading Challenge Users close to the tower overpower Interference caused by users in close Interference caused by the reception of the uplink signal minimizing capacity proximity, on the same frequency, and the same signal over multiple paths on the shared channel communicating with different towers resulting in poor signaltonoise ratio Solution: Solution: Solution: Continuous control of transmit Users simultaneously communicate Advanced (“rake”) receivers combine power based on signal strength with multiple towers at cell edge energy of multiple signal paths Path A A B Path B + User A Path C Up to 1,000,000 X User A + Soft (vs. Hard) Handoffs User B User B Signal Strength Noise Additional benefit of simultaneous Without Power Control With Power Control at Receiver Signal Power at Tower Signal Power at Tower connections – more reliable handoffs 17 CDMA delivered unprecedented voice capacity and much more Qualcomm efforts lead to new CDMA standard (IS95) referred to as cdmaOne 2 CDMA Timeline CDMA Benefits February 1990 14x Increased voice capacity by several times First CDMA field trial completed by Provided more efficient use of spectrum resources Qualcomm and NYNEX March 1992 Increased battery life in mobile devices Standards committee formed in Better security with CDMA encoding Telecommunications Industry Association May 1995 IS95 revision A (cdmaOne) released December 1995 3x Reference First commercial deployment (1x) December 1999 cdmaOne subscribers pass 50 million worldwide (80 operators in 30 countries) Analog GSM cdmaOne 1980s 1990s 1990s 1 CDMA is the foundation for Potential Voice Capacity Improvements Mobile 3G technologies 18 1 2 Approximate total number of subscribers serviced within same spectrum based on AMPS (1G), GSM and cdmaOne technology commercial deployed in 1990s; Source: CDG, www.cdg.org CDMA established the foundation for 3G technologies Mobile 3G evolved into two competing standards both based on CDMA IS95 (cdmaOne) CDMA2000 EVDO (EvolutionData Optimized) Initial CDMA standard Uses 1.25 MHz carrier; Optimized data channel for CDMA2000 from Qualcomm easy migration from cdmaONE providing mobile broadband services May 1995 July 2000 (Revision A) October 2000 (Release 0) WCDMA (UMTS) HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) Uses 5 MHz carrier; Optimized data channel for WCDMA Evolution leverages GSM core network providing mobile broadband services June 2001 (Release 99) June 2004 (Release 5) Influenced 19 Note: ITU IMT2000 compliant 3G standards included EDGE, TDSCDMA, and WiMAX; CDMA2000 and WCDMA were the most commercially successful Mobile 3G evolved mobile for data Introducing highspeed internet access for the first time Mobile 3G CDMA2000/EVDO, WCDMA/HSPA+, TDSCDMA Mobile 2G DAMPS, GSM/GPRS, Mobile Broadband cdmaOne Data Optimized Mobile 1G Mobile for the Masses AMPS, NMT, TACS More Voice Capacity Foundation of Mobile Seamless Mobility 1010110100111000 1980s 1990s 2000s 20 Mobile voice was amazing, but consumers wanted more A new, insatiable demand for internet access and data services emerges Broadband Internet The Smartphone Mobile Everywhere 2  39  92 2010 2000 1990 Average mobile subscriptions 1 per 100 people Thanks to 2G technologies, more and more Consumers introduced to broadband internet Amazing innovations in device technology people had a mobile subscription access in the home/office resulted in the era of the smartphone 21 1 Source: Worldbank.org for United States EVDO optimized 3G for data enabling mobile broadband Data Enabled Data Optimized Simple Data Services Mobile Broadband Mobile 2G CDMA2000/EVDO 1 2 0.5 Mbps 14.7 Mbps Email Text + Capable of efficiently EVDO supporting small CDMA2000 Data optimized channel with data files Voice Services support for larger package sizes 1 Based on peak data rate – GSM/GPRS 2 22 Based on peak data rate for downlink EVDO Rev. B Qualcomm pioneered EVDO introducing mobile broadband Mobile 2G CDMA2000/EVMobil DO e 3G Data Enabled Data Optimized WCDMA/HSPA Data Optimized 1.25 MHz 1.25 MHz 1.25 MHz 5 MHz Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Introduction of a Voice EVDO blazed VoiceD ata Voice Voice Data shared with Voice dataonly, data Voice Voice Voice Voice the trail for Voice Voice Give all resources to Voice Voice voiceoptimized optimized channel HSPA Data Voice Voice Voice one user at a time Voice radio channel Data Voice Data Voice (data optimized) Voice Data Voice Data Voice Data After voice users served, Voice remaining resources used Voice CDMA2000 EVDO for data based on same principles as EVDO Voice Voice Text Multimedia WWW Headlines Navigation Browser Email Apps Mobile Broadband Services Simple Data Services 23 EVDO inventions are the foundation to mobile broadband 1 2 3 Data Optimized Channel Adaptive Modulation Opportunistic Scheduling Splits channel into time intervals Uses higher order modulation to Optimizes channel by scheduling enabling a single user to get all the get more bps per Hz for users with users at the time instances when resources at once good signal quality users have good radio signal conditions (with fairness) Enables richer content Increases peak data rates Increases overall capacity Lower Data Rates Higher Data Rates Data Optimized Time Cell Edge User A User B 24 Power Resources CDMA2000/EVDO blazed the trail for WCDMA/HSPA CDMA2000/EVDO WCDMA/HSPA 1.25 MHz 1.25 MHz 5 MHz Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Data Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Give all resources to Voice Voice Voice one user at a time Voice Voice Data Voice (data optimized) Voice Voice Voice After voice users served, Voice remaining resources used Voice CDMA2000 EVDO for data based on same principles as EVDO Voice Voice 25 Mobile 3G evolved to HSPA+ and EVDO Rev. B Delivering higher data rates, more capacity, and enhanced mobile broadband experiences Higher Order Modulation (HOM) Carrier Aggregation Introduces 64QAM enabling 50 more Aggregating spectrum enabling increased bits per second per Hz (bps/Hz) user and peak data rates 111 011 101 Carrier 1 110 010 000 Aggregated Carrier 2 Data Pipe Carrier 3 Enabling packing 50 more data into packages Aggregate channels for higher data rates 26 3G technologies optimized mobile for data 1 Mobile Broadband Timeline 1999 EVDO and HSPA Benefits 14.4 Mbps  Qualcomm introduces EVDO Delivered achievable throughput 2 Mbps 63+ Mbps Series 1 January 2002 Reduced operator cost for data services First EVDO commercial launch Q4 2004 Continuous evolution for enhanced services 3GPP release 6 with HSPA is published based HSPA+ on WCDMA technology Q1 2007 3.1 Mbps  EVDO passes 50 million connections 14.7 Mbps Q108 HSPA passes 50 million connections 0.5 Mbps Rev. B HSPA June 2008 0.5 Mbps First HSPA+ (21 Mbps) commercial launch Rev. A September 2010 Mobile 3G Mobile 3G Mobile 2G CDMA2000 / EVDO WCDMA / HSPA First DCHSPA+ (42 Mbps) commercial launch GSM / GPRS 3G technologies continue to evolve Peak Data Rate 2 Surpassed 2B connections in 2013 (Mbps) 27 1 2 Source: CDG (www.cdg.org) and 3GPP (www.3gpp.org); Source: GSMA Intelligence, May ‘14 Mobile 4G LTE is evolving to provide more data capacity Delivering faster and better mobile broadband experiences Mobile 4G LTE LTE, LTE Advanced Mobile 3G CDMA2000/EVDO, Faster and Better Mobile Broadband WCDMA/HSPA+, TDSCDMA Mobile 2G More Data Capacity DAMPS, GSM/GPRS, Mobile Broadband cdmaOne Data Optimized Mobile 1G Mobile for the Masses AMPS, NMT, TACS More Voice Capacity Foundation of Mobile Seamless Mobility 1010110100111000 1980s 2010s 1990s 2000s 28 Mobile 4G LTE complements 3G to boost data capacity Multimode 3G/LTE is the foundation for successful 4G LTE 4G LTE Multimode Providing more data capacity for richer content and more connections LTE FDD/TDD WCDMA/HSPA+ CDMA2000/EVDO TDSCDMA 3G GSM/GPRS Enabling a consistent broadband experience outside 4G LTE coverage Delivering ubiquitous voice services and global roaming 29 Mobile 4G LTE delivers more data capacity Flexible support for wider channels supporting more users Create spatially separated paths with more antennas Aggregate channels for higher data rates 30 Mobile 4G LTE delivers more data capacity Download, browse, stream, and game faster than ever with faster and better connectivity Carrier 3 Carrier 1 Aggregated Carrier 4 Data Pipe Carrier 2 Up to 100 MHz Carrier 5 Connect More Antennas Carrier Aggregation Wider Channels Faster Advanced MIMO techniques to Flexible support for Aggregate up to 100 MHz for channels up to 20 MHz create spatially separated paths; higher data rates – 2 carrier (2C) enabled with OFDMA 1 2x2 MIMO mainstream commercial; 3C announced Connect Realtime Simplified Core Network Low Latencies All IP network with flattened Optimized response times for architecture resulting in less both user and control plane equipment per transmission improves user experience 31 1 As of May 2014 Mobile 4G LTE is the first global standard for mobile broadband LTE FDD LTE TDD Two modes, common standard, same ecosystem Global LTE network launches Uplink (UL) Spectrum 1 101 279 Countries Launches Spectrum 2 Downlink (DL) Time Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) Paired spectrum enables Large device ecosystem better coverage 1,563 100 Spectrum UL DL UL DL Devices Vendors Time Time Division Duplex (TDD) Unpaired spectrum enables asymmetrical DL/UL for more DL capacity 32 Source: GSA, Mar. ‘14 Mobile 3G and 4G technologies continue to evolve to deliver faster and better mobile broadband experiences 33 Mobile 3G and 4G LTE continue to evolve Delivering a faster and better mobile broadband experiences 4G LTE has evolved to LTE Advanced Providing more data capacity and expanding into new frontiers Rel8/9 Rel10 Rel11 Rel12 Beyond LTE Advanced LTE 3G networks have continued to evolve and improve—so much so some call it 4G Providing a consistent broadband experience outside LTE coverage Rel7/8 Rel9 Rel10 Rel11 Rel12 Beyond HSPA HSPA+ HSPA+ Advanced HSPA+ Rel12 WCDMA+ WCDMA Phase II Rev A Multicarrier Phase I EVDO EVDO Rev. B DO Advanced Voice Efficiency M2M Efficiency CDMA2000 1X 1X Advanced 34 Commercial Shared Resources Mobile 3G/4G technologies are evolving for more data capacity HSPA+ Shannon’s Law Evolution HSPA+ 𝐶 ≈ 𝑊 ∙ 𝑛 ∙ log (1 + 𝑆𝑁𝑅 ) 2 HSPA Capacity Spectrum Antennas Signal Quality More More Interference Spectrum Mitigation Antennas 3.5 GHz ASA Making the best use of all spectrum Advanced multiple antenna Advanced receivers and antenna types with more licensed spectrum techniques to create spatially techniques, e.g., LTE FeICIC/IC, as the top priority, e.g., ASA, 3.5 separated data paths, e.g., 4 way HSPA+ advanced device receiver GHz, unlicensed spectrum receive diversity, 4x4 MIMO 35 LTE Advanced is evolving and expanding into new frontiers 3.5 GHz ASA Extending LTE Advanced LTE Direct for continuous Higher spectrum bands Dynamic LTE broadcast. Going to unlicensed spectrum device to device proximity new licensing models— beyond mobile for terrestrial TV awareness Authorized Shared Access 36 Qualcomm is the leader in Mobile 3G/4G technologies First World Mode LTE Each modem generation enhances user experience and provides more capacity Advanced Modem with 60 MHz CA and CAT6 DL: 300 Mbps 60 MHz Carrier Aggregation First LTE Advanced DL: 150 Mbps 20 MHz Carrier Aggregation First LTE First Integrated LTE Multimode First Integrated World DL: 100 Mbps LTE Mode Higher efficiency (LTE) Smartphone 2 x 2 MIMO Support for 3G and 4G technologies First 3CHSPA+ DL: 63 Mbps First DCHSPA+ UL: 11 Mbps DL: 42 Mbps 3 Carrier Aggregation UL: 11 Mbps First HSPA+ 2 Carrier Aggregation DL: 28 Mbps UL: 5.76 Mbps Higher Order Modulation First HSUPA 2 x 2 MIMO DL: 7.2 Mbps UL: 5.76 Mbps Enhanced Uplink Channel First HSDPA DL: 1.8 Mbps UL: 384 kbps Higher Order Modulation Time 37 TM Qualcomm® Gobi is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. Increasing User Experience Qualcomm is the leader in Mobile 3G/4G technologies Hiding the complexity underneath the most seamless mobile connectivity The Unique Qualcomm Advantage LTE LTE GSM/ HSPA+/ CDMA TD EVDO 700/ 1500/ 2300/ WiFi Position BT WCDMA FDD TDD GPRS 1X SCDMA 850/900 1700/1900 2600 All major Cellular Standards 40 RF Bands WiFi, Positioning, +Standards Evolution 17 LTE Voice Modes BT(Bluetooth) Supports all technologies, bands, modes, … 38 TM Qualcomm® Gobi is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. Evolving mobile technologies deliver great mobile experiences 3G optimized mobile for data 1G established seamless mobile enabling mobile broadband connectivity introducing mobile 1 3 services, and is evolving for faster voice services and better connectivity 4G LTE delivers more capacity for 2G digital wireless technologies faster and better mobile increased voice capacity delivering 2 4 broadband experiences, and is also mobile to the masses expanding in to new frontiers Qualcomm has been at the forefront of this evolution, pushing wireless boundaries to 5 enable the best mobile experiences to learn more, go to: www.qualcomm.com/wireless 39 Q Que uest stiions ons C Con onne nect ct w wiith th Us Us www.qualcomm.com/technology http://www.qualcomm.com/blog/contributors/prakashsangam BLOG Qualcommtech http://www.youtube.com/playlistlist=PL8AD95E4F585237C1feature=plcp http://www.slideshare.net/qualcommwirelessevolution http://storify.com/qualcommtech 40 Thank you Follow us on: For more information on Qualcomm, visit us at: www.qualcomm.com www.qualcomm.com/blog © 2014 QUALCOMM Incorporated and/or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved. Qualcomm is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsi diaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Gobi is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Te chnologies, Inc., a whollyowned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s enginee ring, research and development functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QC T. 41